DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS AND INTERNATIONAL RETAILING
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction to the motion picture industry (understanding the industry main mechanism). </li></ul><ul><li>...
The motion picture industry <ul><li>The 3 key stages in the Value chain for theatrical motion pictures that precedes their...
Two different realities The motion picture can be used in many ways by different people or groups with a message to get ac...
German Cinema <ul><li>We give a brief description of 5 distinct periods of the German cinema with some representative film...
German Cinema PERIOD DESCRIPTION The Formative years <ul><li>Max and Emil Skladanowsky invented the Bioscope (a double pro...
German Cinema PERIOD DESCRIPTION Third Reich Films <ul><li>Hitler's rise to power on January 30, 1933, would have a profou...
Italian Cinema PERIOD DESCRIPTION Born of the Industry and first films <ul><li>The Italian film industry took shape betwee...
Italian Cinema PERIOD DESCRIPTION Author cinema <ul><li>In this period neoralism (a cultural movement)  started to develop...
Choice of the target and structure of the questionnaire <ul><ul><li>We decided to ask a global rate of satisfaction (quest...
German questionnaire Information about your last movie experience  Information about your general habits regarding going t...
German questionnaire Informations about your general habits regarding going to the cinema  Social- Demographic information...
German target THE LAST MOVIE SEEN
In the last experience about 63% paid between 5€ and 7€ for the cinema ticket In Germany is predominant the drama genre am...
Near 60% of our target goes to the cinema between 5 and 10 times in a year Near of 53% of our target prefers to watch a mo...
42% wish to pay more than 5€ for a cinema ticket because more than 40% of our target is working (plus a rough 20% of Both)...
74% of our target buys something to eat or to drink  during the cinema experience. Nobody in our target buys something els...
In Germany there’s the opposite trend that we have found among Italians!  Germans prefer to use Itunes! German target
<ul><li>I look forward to watching my favourite film and I cannot wait for it to be issued in video form or on the Net   <...
German target An insight into our German Target
THE LAST MOVIE SEEN Italian target
In the last experience about 74% paid between 7€ and 10€ for the cinema ticket In Italy is predominant the comedy genre am...
About half of interviewees go to the cinema between 5 and 10 times in a year. 83% of interviewees like go to see a movie w...
About half of interviewees goes to the cinema during the holidays, in particular: Italian target
65% wish to pay less than 5€ for a cinema ticket because more than 50% of our target are students, so they haven’t much mo...
83% of our target buys something to eat or to drink  during the cinema experience. Nobody in our target buys something els...
Italian target ITALIANS prefer using decoder!
<ul><li>I look forward to watching my favourite film and I cannot wait for it to be issued in video form or on the Net   <...
Italian target An insight into our German Target
German bivariate statistics (Target) <ul><li>Here we analyzed, through Pearson correlation index, the linkage intensity be...
German bivariate statistics Report How much do you agree on this?   ANOVA Table     Measures of Association This  compare ...
Italian bivariate statistics (Target) <ul><li>Here we analysed, through Pearson correlation index, the linkage intensity b...
Italian bivariate statistics (Whole sample) In this instance we analise whole italian sample, and we can see that the leve...
Italian bivariate statistics (Target)   Report How much do you agree on this?   ANOVA Table     Measures of Association Th...
German quadrant analysis  AUDIO CONFORT GENRE COMMUNICATIO N LOCATION SCHEDULE
<ul><li>FINDINGS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mean of the importances’ means is 6,51, while the mean of the satisfactions’ m...
Italian quadrant analysis AUDIO LOCATION CONFORT GENRE
<ul><li>FINDINGS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mean of the importances’ means is 5,79 while the mean of the satisfactions’ me...
About the paper… <ul><li>We focused on two particular agreements that the authors have made upon the motion picture distri...
YOUR  [email_address]  HOME Product descrption Product Standard Platform of distribution Decoder with a read only function...
Final considerations Path of development Limits Extension of analysis’ scope Narrow sample Increase of the sample Circumsc...
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italian & german Cinema, 2 different way to supply a movie

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Transcript of "italian & german Cinema, 2 different way to supply a movie"

  1. 1. DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS AND INTERNATIONAL RETAILING
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction to the motion picture industry (understanding the industry main mechanism). </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative analysis (application of the methodological tools + interpretation of the results). </li></ul><ul><li>Retailing plans (managerial coherence with the results of part 2 + details of the plan). </li></ul>
  3. 3. The motion picture industry <ul><li>The 3 key stages in the Value chain for theatrical motion pictures that precedes their consumption by movie-goers are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production: when, starting from a story concept and through a studio contract, the movie is planned and made. The actors involved are: producers, screenplay writers, directors, cast and crew. Before a movie can be released in a particular country it needs to be rated (MPAA) in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution: this stage combine both the phsycal distribution of the prints to the theaters and the marketing activities in each market the movie is released. Important marketing decisions in this stage are: # release timing # number of screens opened # kind of media used in the advertising campaign. The key players in these stage are: - Major – Indipendent studios/distributors – “Mini Majors”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibition : This stage refers to activities performed by theater chains and individual theater sites. </li></ul></ul>Production Theatrical distribution Ancillary distribution Exhibition Ancillary channels Consumers
  4. 4. Two different realities The motion picture can be used in many ways by different people or groups with a message to get across. Films can be government propaganda, entertainment, or art, but no matter which category a film is placed, one thing is certain of all films made: films, because they cost money to produce, are all made within a structure of politics and economics and ,therefore, carry a definite message. In our team-work we try to find key characteristics in order to develop a specific distribution chain for each country; our countries under examination are:
  5. 5. German Cinema <ul><li>We give a brief description of 5 distinct periods of the German cinema with some representative films from each period. Our aim is to put present this industry as a vehicle of messages which can be read only by considering the contexts to which they belong. </li></ul><ul><li>We have divided the development of German movie industry into 5 sections; The Formative years, Films of the Weimar Republic, Third Reich Propaganda Films, Post WWII Films, and The New German Cinema. Each period is defined by its own unique political agendas and methods of utilizing the power of the motion picture. </li></ul>
  6. 6. German Cinema PERIOD DESCRIPTION The Formative years <ul><li>Max and Emil Skladanowsky invented the Bioscope (a double projector system) and presented their pictures publicly at the Berlin Wintergarten on November 1, 1895, predating the first public performance by the Lumières by over a month (their previous showings were all to private audiences). </li></ul><ul><li>The German Kaiser was much interested in motion pictures. This was an indication that a German head of state had realized the potential of film as a tool to publicize and propogandize. </li></ul><ul><li>The first German film was Der Andere in 1913. </li></ul>The Golden Age <ul><li>During the WWI and with the entry of the U.S. into the war in 1917, the General of the Army, concluded that more drastic measures should be taken to meet the general wave of anti-Germany propaganda coming from the well-equipped studio of its new enemy. So in 1917 German High Command formed the UFA: the official mission of UFA was to advertise Germany according to German directives. These asked not only for direct screen propaganda, but also for films characteristic of German culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Assembly proposed the nationalization of the film industry which was rejected in favor of a National Censorship Law, adopted in May, 1920. Under this law children under twelve were prohibited from seeing films and children between twelve and eighteen could only be admitted with a certificate. </li></ul>
  7. 7. German Cinema PERIOD DESCRIPTION Third Reich Films <ul><li>Hitler's rise to power on January 30, 1933, would have a profound effect on the course of the German Film. Dr. Joseph Goebbels was named Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda by Hitler in March of 1933. This was the beginning of the most famous propaganda machine ever. To centralize his authority, Goebbels established the State Chambers of Culture for art, music, theater, authorship, press, radio, and film. </li></ul><ul><li>Goebbels encouraged producers to make films that were within the moral and political parameters set by the regime </li></ul>Post World War II Films <ul><li>Soviet authorities quickly reopened the movie industry in the Soviet zone of Berlin. The British and American zones were comparatively slow at getting the film industry going again. </li></ul><ul><li>In the name of democracy, both British and American authorities forbade combines and s eparated the functions of production, distribution, and exhibition . This fragmentation of the German film industry actually served to prevent the development of a serious competitor. </li></ul>The New German Cinema <ul><li>The German film industry was in dire need of a jumpstart. With the Oberhausen Manifesto which boldly declared the old German cinema dead: &quot; Papas Kino ist tod (Papa's movies are dead).&quot; The signers of the manifesto emphasized the importance of short films as a tool to educate rather than entertain. Films should serve as a forum for the dissemination of ideas and philosophies which challenged the established order. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Italian Cinema PERIOD DESCRIPTION Born of the Industry and first films <ul><li>The Italian film industry took shape between 1903 and 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>First Italian movie genders were historical and religious movies. </li></ul>The Golden age: avant-gard and first stars <ul><li>Italy was the first country to carry on avant-gard movement throught the so called artistic stream Futurismo. For the members of this cultural movement movies are art. </li></ul><ul><li>Emilio Ghione ,Mario Bonnard, Lyda Borelli , Francesca Bertini and above all Eleonora Duse were the first movie stars in this initial period. </li></ul>The Crisis: Fascism, Cinecittà and Min.Cul.Pop <ul><li>After WWI italian movie industry had to face a period of deep crisis because the productors were private and too little to support and develop the whole distribution chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism formed the Minister of popular culture also known as Min.cul.pop . Its aim was to develop and control all the communication strategies to propagandize the main pillars of this political movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini opened in 1937 Cinecittà movies studios declaring : “cinema is the strongest weapon” </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1939 fascism approved a law that forbad abroad movies importation in order to support the growth of national cinema. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Italian Cinema PERIOD DESCRIPTION Author cinema <ul><li>In this period neoralism (a cultural movement) started to develop widespreadly in each branch of art but above all in the movie industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Neoralism cinema had the goal to show out the real conditions and situation of the Italian towns after WWII. We can remind some of the most important dorectors of this period such as Luchino Visconti, Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, Federico Fellini; movies like Sciuscià, Ladri di biciclette, Miracolo a Milano, 8 & ½ and Amarcord and actors like : Alberto Sordi, Marcello Mastroianni, Vittorio Gassman and Sofia Loren. </li></ul>From Spaghetti Western to 80’s crisis <ul><li>We called Spaghetti western a gender of italian movies with a western setting (often settled in Spain). The cast of this kind of movies is formed by a worldwide actors but above all by Italians and Americans ( ex:Clint Eastwood). </li></ul><ul><li>From the late 70’s till the end of 80’s there was a deep crisis related to development of national commercial television. </li></ul><ul><li>This crisis lasts until nowadays but we can’t forget to remember some successes like La vita è bella , Nuovo cinema Paradiso and Mediterraneo . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Choice of the target and structure of the questionnaire <ul><ul><li>We decided to ask a global rate of satisfaction (question 3) before the evaluation on the 15 items. In this way the evaluation should be more spontaneous as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-demographic information, for enterwiee’s convenience, are put on the bottom of the questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The questions on the “Agreements about your movie experiences” are put separately in order to skim off our database, and to focus on our reasearch target. </li></ul></ul>As target of our analysis we have chosen a segment of population between 18 and 35 years old. The choice of the target is due to the characteristics of this segment: young and changes-sensitive, and at the same time mature and competent to value this kind of changes. The target, because of the reason we have mentioned before, seems to be ideal for a customer satisfaction analysis and it is also easy to reach.
  11. 11. German questionnaire Information about your last movie experience Information about your general habits regarding going to the cinema
  12. 12. German questionnaire Informations about your general habits regarding going to the cinema Social- Demographic information Agreements about your movie experiences
  13. 13. German target THE LAST MOVIE SEEN
  14. 14. In the last experience about 63% paid between 5€ and 7€ for the cinema ticket In Germany is predominant the drama genre among our target German target
  15. 15. Near 60% of our target goes to the cinema between 5 and 10 times in a year Near of 53% of our target prefers to watch a movie with friends GENERAL HABITS REGARDING GOING TO THE CINEMA German target Nobody in our target goes to the cinema during the holidays!!!
  16. 16. 42% wish to pay more than 5€ for a cinema ticket because more than 40% of our target is working (plus a rough 20% of Both), so they have more money to spend (than the Italian target) German target
  17. 17. 74% of our target buys something to eat or to drink during the cinema experience. Nobody in our target buys something else in that experience (no books, no gadgets, …) German target
  18. 18. In Germany there’s the opposite trend that we have found among Italians! Germans prefer to use Itunes! German target
  19. 19. <ul><li>I look forward to watching my favourite film and I cannot wait for it to be issued in video form or on the Net </li></ul><ul><li>In order to pay much less for it, I am ready to wait to watch a film </li></ul><ul><li>I prefer watching a film at home rather than going to the cinema </li></ul><ul><li>I prefer to have a DVD/VHS version of the film to be able to watch it whenever I like rather than going to the cinema or watch it on TV </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to pay for throught mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to pay for throught credit card </li></ul>HOW MUCH DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS? MEAN (1-9) 2,74 5,79 5,16 4,68 5,89 6,58 German target
  20. 20. German target An insight into our German Target
  21. 21. THE LAST MOVIE SEEN Italian target
  22. 22. In the last experience about 74% paid between 7€ and 10€ for the cinema ticket In Italy is predominant the comedy genre among our target Italian target
  23. 23. About half of interviewees go to the cinema between 5 and 10 times in a year. 83% of interviewees like go to see a movie with their friends GENERAL HABITS REGARDING GOING TO THE CINEMA Italian target
  24. 24. About half of interviewees goes to the cinema during the holidays, in particular: Italian target
  25. 25. 65% wish to pay less than 5€ for a cinema ticket because more than 50% of our target are students, so they haven’t much money to spend Italian target
  26. 26. 83% of our target buys something to eat or to drink during the cinema experience. Nobody in our target buys something else in that experience (no books, no gadgets, …) Italian target Do you buy something to eat/drink when you go to the cinema? 19 82,6 82,6 82,6 4 17,4 17,4 100,0 23 100,0 100,0 yes no Total Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
  27. 27. Italian target ITALIANS prefer using decoder!
  28. 28. <ul><li>I look forward to watching my favourite film and I cannot wait for it to be issued in video form or on the Net </li></ul><ul><li>In order to pay much less for it, I am ready to wait to watch a film </li></ul><ul><li>I prefer watching a film at home rather than going to the cinema </li></ul><ul><li>I prefer to have a DVD/VHS version of the film to be able to watch it whenever I like rather than going to the cinema or </li></ul><ul><li>watch it on TV </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to pay for through mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to pay for through credit card </li></ul>HOW MUCH DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS? MEAN (1-9) 3,43 5,65 5,65 6,26 5,91 4,48 Italian target
  29. 29. Italian target An insight into our German Target
  30. 30. German bivariate statistics (Target) <ul><li>Here we analyzed, through Pearson correlation index, the linkage intensity between these 2 variables on our German target : </li></ul><ul><li>the degree of agreement on “ I prefer watching a film at home rather than going to the cinema ”; </li></ul><ul><li>the degree of “ willingness to pay – by mobile – by credit card” . </li></ul>We can observe that german people prefer pay by credit card rather than pay by mobile. This data is confirmed also by descriptive statitistics. We tried also to analyze Pearson correlation index between these 2 variables on whole our sample but all the data get worse. In this case we accept this degree of significance (sig=0.147); this data is due to our narrow sample.
  31. 31. German bivariate statistics Report How much do you agree on this? ANOVA Table Measures of Association This compare means analysis is based on a quantitative variable (the degree of agreement on “ I prefer watching a film at home rather than going to the cinema”) and on a qualitative variable (“ do you use I tunes? ”). This value shows that this analysis is significant (with a level of significance α =0.05); and Eta squared index is quite good and shows how much are linked these 2 variables. A second analysis on the other qualitative variable (“ do you have a decoder? ”) shows a level of significance of 0.036 (and an ε² =0.233) that results lower than previous case. We reject this second data. Do you use Itunes? Mean N Std. Deviation yes 5,92 13 ,954 no 3,50 6 2,258 Total 5,16 19 1,834 Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. How much do you agree on this? * Do you use Itunes? Between Groups (Combined) 24,103 1 24,103 11,250 ,004 Within Groups 36,423 17 2,143 Total 60,526 18 Eta Eta Squared How much do you agree on this? * Do you use Itunes? ,631 ,398
  32. 32. Italian bivariate statistics (Target) <ul><li>Here we analysed, through Pearson correlation index, the linkage intensity between these 2 variables on our Italian target : </li></ul><ul><li>the degree of agreement on “ I prefer watching a film at home rather than going to the cinema ”; </li></ul><ul><li>the degree of “ willingness to pay – by mobile – by credit card” . </li></ul>We see that Pearson correlation index is not significant in these 2 cases. So we tried to analyse the whole sample of italian people in order to confirm our descriptive statistics, in which they perfer to pay by mobile
  33. 33. Italian bivariate statistics (Whole sample) In this instance we analise whole italian sample, and we can see that the level of significance get better and this result confirms what descriptive statistics showed (Italian people prefer pay by mobile rather than credit card) A level of significance of 10% is basically due to a narrow sample of data.
  34. 34. Italian bivariate statistics (Target) Report How much do you agree on this? ANOVA Table Measures of Association This compare means analysis is based on a quantitative variable (the degree of agreement on “ I prefer watching a film at home rather than going to the cinema”) and on a qualitative variable (“ do you use decoder? ”). This value shows that this analysis near to be significant (with a level of significance α =0.05); and Eta squared index is quite good and shows how much are linked these 2 variables. It is due to the lack of data. A second analysis on the other qualitative variable (“ do you have a I tunes? ”) shows a level of significance of 0.578 (and an ε² =0.015) that is lower than previous case. So we reject this second data. Do you have a decoder? Mean N Std. Deviation yes 5,28 18 1,674 no 7,00 5 2,000 Total 5,65 23 1,849 Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. How much do you agree on this? * Do you have a decoder? Between Groups (Combined) 11,606 1 11,606 3,832 ,064 Within Groups 63,611 21 3,029 Total 75,217 22 Eta Eta Squared How much do you agree on this? * Do you have a decoder? ,393 ,154
  35. 35. German quadrant analysis AUDIO CONFORT GENRE COMMUNICATIO N LOCATION SCHEDULE
  36. 36. <ul><li>FINDINGS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mean of the importances’ means is 6,51, while the mean of the satisfactions’ means is 6,23. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We prefer using this axis’ intersection than a classical “static mean” intersection, where the x axis and the y axis should cross themselves in (4,5; 4,5). In this way we give the right weighted importance to each target . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The items which are perceived as very important and that have satisfy our target are: Genre, Confort, Location, Audio, Communication and Schedule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We think that these items are typically about a movie experience, not connected directly to a cinema experience! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our retailing plan should, at least, guarantee the maximum level of satisfaction of these items! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Media IMP=6,51 </li></ul><ul><li>Media SAT=6,23 </li></ul>German quadrant analysis
  37. 37. Italian quadrant analysis AUDIO LOCATION CONFORT GENRE
  38. 38. <ul><li>FINDINGS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mean of the importances’ means is 5,79 while the mean of the satisfactions’ means is 5,5 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We find out that Italians give lower marks although they appreciate an item in the same way another person does. This happens due to a cultural difference, which affect Italy’s behaviour, especially in dealing with advertising and communication issues. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The items which are perceived as very important and that have satisfy our target are: Genre, Confort, Location, Audio . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like the German case, we think that these items are typically about a movie experience, not connected directly to a cinema experience! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our retailing plan should, at least, guarantee the maximum level of satisfaction of these items! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Media IMP=6,51 </li></ul><ul><li>Media SAT=6,23 </li></ul>Italian quadrant analysis
  39. 39. About the paper… <ul><li>We focused on two particular agreements that the authors have made upon the motion picture distribution. We think that they will be a theoretical and empirical base of our retailing plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Distributors Will Benefit from Shortening the Time between Theatrical and Nontheatrical Windows </li></ul><ul><li>The Benefits of Digital Technology Will Continue to Outweigh the Costs for Distributors </li></ul>
  40. 40. YOUR [email_address] HOME Product descrption Product Standard Platform of distribution Decoder with a read only function of the movie, and also an expiry date. Payment By mobile phone (e.g. by SMS), with a price fixed around 5 euros (cfr. willingness to pay) Communication More media than W.O.M. (word of mouth) Product descrption Product Two versions:  no HD, own memory stick, priced at less than 5 euros  HD, furnished memory stick, priced between 5 and 7 euros Platform of distribution I-tunes music and video platform, with a read only function of the movie, and also an expiry date. In alternative ATM with usb memory-stick drivers Payment By credit card Communication More W.O.M. than media.
  41. 41. Final considerations Path of development Limits Extension of analysis’ scope Narrow sample Increase of the sample Circumscribed surveys More structured questionnaire Lacking use of data Different tendency of evaluation

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