Knowing the Unknown God by Andrew McCaskill

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© 2011 by Andrew McCaskill. All rights reserved. The author grants the free distribution of this PDF online version by any means (photocopy, electronic, or otherwise) as long as the distribution is always in whole (not in part) and that no alterations or manipulations are made to the original manuscript. All quotations taken from this book should be cited under normal copy rights guidelines.

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Knowing the Unknown God by Andrew McCaskill

  1. 1. ~0~
  2. 2. by Andrew McCaskill ~1~
  3. 3. Knowing the Unknown GodEnglish (1st Printing) PDF (online version)Creation Education Ministries of Thailand1256/3 Sukhumvit 101/1 Rd.Bangjak, Prakanong, BKK 10260www.creationthai.org© 2011 by Andrew McCaskill. All rights reserved. The author grants the free distribution of thisPDF online version by any means (photocopy, electronic, or otherwise) as long as thedistribution is always in whole (not in part) and that no alterations or manipulations are made tothe original manuscript. All quotations taken from this book should be cited under normal copyrights guidelines.Cover illustration by Raffaello Sanzio (1483–1520), St Paul Preaching in Athens (RoyalCollection of the United Kingdom) Public Domain Image: This is a faithful photographicreproduction of an original two-dimensional work of art. Accessed fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:V%26A_-_Raphael,_St_Paul_Preaching_in_Athens_(1515).jpg#filePrinted in ThailandISBN: Free Online VersionAll scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV®. Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984 by Biblica, Inc.™ Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved worldwide. www.zondervan.com ~2~
  4. 4. Dedication I dedicate this book to the students at International CommunitySchool in Bangkok and to the many other students in high schools and universities throughout Thailand in which I have had theprivilege of presenting these topics in person. I also dedicate thisbook to the many Thais who have helped me in translation efforts. Mostly, I dedicate this book to my wife and family who have shared with me the adventure of Knowing the Unknown God. ~3~
  5. 5. We hope you will enjoy this FREE ebook, Knowing the Unknown God by Andrew McCaskill. It is our pleasure to share it with you. If you would like to purchase a souvenir copy of the paperback book or would like to send one as a gift,please visit www.creationthai.org for more information. ~4~
  6. 6. Table of ContentsIntroduction……………………………………..7Chapter 1 - The God of the Bible……………………12Chapter 2 -The God of Logic………………………26Chapter 3-The God of Creation……………………..52Chapter 4 -The God of Man………………………89Chapter 5 -The God of the Nations………………….103Chapter 6 -The God of Salvation……………………128Chapter 7 -Knowing the Unknown God……………...150 ~5~
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  8. 8. Introduction“TO AN UNKNOWN GOD” read the altar. Around two-thousandyears ago a man named Paul stared at an unusual idol in the city ofAthens. This idol was amidst other idols and was not terriblydifferent except for its strange inscription. Why was there an altarto an unknown god? Athens was a very religious city in Paul‟s day.The people of that city were held captive to the many gods theyfeared. In fact, they were afraid that they had forgotten to worshipa certain god. Knowing that any god who was left out of theirworship would likely be jealous, mad, bitter, and vengeful, theydecided to make one altar “TO AN UNKNOWN GOD” in order toappease any forgotten god.You might, like the people of Athens, be unsure whether God (ormany gods) exists, and so, just like the Athenians, you attempt toappease whatever god might exist.Or, you might be very religious like the Athenians and worshipyour god to the exclusion of all other gods.Even so, some of you might insist that no god exists and thereforeyou feel free to live like you are your own god.To those who are confident that god (or multiple gods) does exist,this book will challenge your concept of God and in the end youwill have a greater understanding of who God is and how you canknow Him to a greater degree. ~7~
  9. 9. To those who are not sure if God exists or are convinced that thereis no God, this book will challenge your belief at its very core.After reading this book, I believe that you will no longer be able toclaim the non-existence of God. I also believe that you willconclude that any alternate view of reality (i.e. the Theory ofEvolution) is inadequate to account for the existence of theuniverse and life.It is the purpose of this book to present a compelling case for theexistence of God. I KNOW beyond any doubt that God exists andI am confident that I know WHO God is. Just as Paul did in Athensso many years ago, I will attempt to introduce you to the“Unknown God” (and therefore make the “Unknown God” the“Known God”).I invite you to read the entirety of this book and consider everypoint that is made. If you are a thinking person - one who seekswisdom - then this book is a must read. If you are curious andscientifically minded, you will not be able to ignore the claimsmade in this book. The Athenians questioned every new theory andI invite you to also question my findings as well.I have divided this book into seven chapters. These chapters arebriefly outlined below.Chapter 1 will identify the “Unknown God”, “for surely there isno sense in talking about the existence of God, without knowingwhat kind of God it is who may or may not exist.”1 ~8~
  10. 10. Chapter 2 will present the God of Logic. Only with a concept ofGod can anyone think logically. Those who claim that there is noGod are thinking illogically.Chapter 3 will present the God of Creation. Only God as theGrand Cause can explain the presence of our universe. A universewithout God is impossible.Chapter 4 will present the God of Man. Humans are reflections ofGod and we can know a lot about God from our own character.Unfortunately, humans are also separated from God because of oursin.Chapter 5 will present the God of the Nations. God is the God ofevery nation, people, and language.Chapter 6 will present the God of Salvation. God‟s purpose hasalways been to restore a lost relationship with humans. God hasprovided a way to restore a relationship with Him and havesalvation.Chapter 7 will present the “Unknown God” as the “Known God”.God is not far from us and is evident to us in the most obviousways.I encourage you to read this book in the order of the chapters. Ifyou begin at a later chapter, or if you skip from chapter to chapter,you will miss key points that were made in earlier chapters.Let‟s begin our journey to discover the “Unknown God”! ~9~
  11. 11. Reference:1 Van Til, Cornelius. Christian Apologetics. Phillipsburg: P & R PublishingCompany, 2003. ~ 10 ~
  12. 12. “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.” Revelation 1:8 ~ 11 ~
  13. 13. Chapter 1 The God of the BibleThe Bible might be called “Gods Book” because it makes someincredible statements about who God is, what He is like, and howwe can relate to Him. The Bible also makes some incrediblestatements about who we are as well. Anyone searching for truthabout their own existence, or about the purpose of life, should notdare ignore the words contained within the pages of the Bible.These words reveal to us the identity of God, who is beyond ourown comprehension (Isaiah 40:28).Upon reading the Bible one quickly realizes that the words areboth biographical and autobiographical at the same time. That is,the words of the Bible reveal Gods own description of Himself,channeled through people who were compelled to write about Hismajesty, power, and love. Many people believe that the Bible is abook of rules and regulations only, “but in fact the Bible is first ofall a book about God. It tells us all we need to know, and all we ~ 12 ~
  14. 14. shall ever need to know, about God: who He is, what He is like,what He does and, of course, how we can know Him.”1 We cancorrectly summarize that the Bible is a unique presentation ofGods own story played out in the hearts and minds of humanity.The Bible, however, is much more than a collection of wonderfulstories. Every story throughout the sixty-six individual books ofthe Bible tells a larger story. The whole Bible paints a picture of aloving Creator who is determined to win back the people Hecreated from the tragic error of their own rebellious decision. Inorder to win them back He chooses to enter His own creation(Jesus) and do for them what they could not do for themselves.The Bible is above all a love story and we are the objects of Godsaffection. So, in this sense, our biographies are written into theBiblical story also.The Bible is no fairy-tell with a fictitious plot, rather, the Biblepresents itself as absolute truth. In Psalm 119 alone, 171 of the 176verses speak of the Bible and its power, might, and accuracy. Ofkey interest in this discussion is verse 160 that says, All your wordsare true; all your righteous laws are eternal. Several verses earlierit states in similar fashion, Your righteousness is everlasting andyour law is true (142). Verse 151 of the same chapter repeats theclaim, Yet you are near, LORD, and all your commands are true.We see three references here (words, law, commands) but eachsignifies the same thing; the Bible (or Word of God) is true. Psalm119 is a critical chapter because it validates itself as a source ofTruth. Some may call this circular reasoning but God must revealHimself to us or we would know nothing of His character. God,therefore, chose to reveal His words as truth (autobiographical) ~ 13 ~
  15. 15. through the written word of human authors (biographical). There isno one higher or more powerful who can speak on Gods behalf, soHe must reveal His own character to us. Couple the verses abovewith Proverbs 30:5, which states, Every word of God is flawless;he is a shield to those who take refuge in him. Do not add to hiswords, or he will rebuke you and prove you a liar. In this verse weare commanded to never alter the Bible. This must mean, ofcourse, that Gods words are true and sacred, never to be changedfrom their original meaning by either adding or subtracting fromthem. They are flawless. When God speaks, His words are trueand without any error. Therefore, the internal evidence of theBible itself proves that the Bible is absolutely true in every way.If, hypothetically, any words in the Bible were false, then,according to this verse, God would be forced to rebuke Himself asa liar. But this is impossible, which leaves us with only oneconclusion; God is Truth and His words are Truth.If this were not enough, we also have the words of Jesus Himself.In the book of John we are presented with a remarkable passage, Inthe beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and theWord was God (1:1). Here, Jesus is the very expression of God inhuman form, the Word of God. Further in the book of John (14:6)we read, I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes tothe Father except through me. Jesus is here claiming that He isabsolute Truth and the only way to God. So, these two versesconfirm yet again that Gods Word is accurate and one-hundredpercent true. The Bible is connecting the Truth (Jesus), the Word(the Bible, expressed through Jesus), and God as one entity. TheBible is therefore, Gods Truthful Words expressed by and throughJesus Christ. There are other internal evidences also. The Bibles ~ 14 ~
  16. 16. unity2, fulfilled prophesies, and power to change individual livespoints to its Truth and accuracy.As seen above, the internal evidence of the Bible is sufficientenough to prove that the Bible is absolutely true, but there is alsoexternal evidence that suggests the same. The Bible is historicallyand archaeologically accurate. The Bible is also confirmed in itshuman authors, who were even martyred for their conviction of itstruthfulness. The Bible speaks of changed lives, which can be justas strong evidence as scores of other evidences. Lastly, the Biblesendurance and indestructibility is also evidence for its truthfulness.Many have tried to destroy the Bible and to free the world of itsteaching, but it has withstood every attack placed upon it, and inthe end, those who have tried to destroy it have only proven that itis what they were hoping it was not; absolute Truth. Concerningthe Bibles indestructibility, Jesus states the matter this way,Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never passaway (Mark 13:31).The Bible leaves no doubt that its author is God Himself. As wehave already read in Proverbs 30, Every word of God is flawless(5-6). We also read in the book of 2 Timothy, All Scripture isGod-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting andtraining in righteousness... (3:16). God is certainly the author ofthe Bible even though it was written by human hands2.Since the Bible presents itself as absolute Truth and the author ofthose words is God Himself, then simple logic tells us that Godmust be absolute Truth as well. This stems from the fact that if theBible communicates Truth, then the author of the Bible could be no ~ 15 ~
  17. 17. less than its product. The scientific principle of causality (cause-and-effect) proves this to be the case (see chapter 2, The God ofLogic). Any effect (the Bible in this case) is never greater than itscause (God). God must be Truth if the Bible is Truth, since theBible is the product of God Himself. Therefore, the words of theBible are Gods true words, both revealing who God is and who weare. God doesnt lie, so His words can be trusted. In the book ofSamuel this simple logic is confirmed, He who is the Glory ofIsrael does not lie or change his mind; for he is not a human being,that he should change his mind (1 Samuel 15:29).In the end, how can we know who God is? The Bible reveals Himto us and we can trust that the Bible accurately speaks of Hischaracter. Since the Bible is Gods words about Himself, He wouldnever misrepresent Himself. We can know for certain who God isand what He is like by reading the Bible. If you have everwondered if there is a God and what God is like, the answer isfound in the Bible alone, because He chose the Bible to be Hisstory.The Characteristics below describe Gods character. 1. God is the Creator of all material, biological, and spiritual things. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth (Genesis 1:1). There was nothing prior to God. God created matter, space, and time ex nihilo (out of nothing). God, however, is separate from His creation and is not contained within the dimensions of His own creation nor limited by them. (See chapter 3 for more explanation of God as the Creator.) ~ 16 ~
  18. 18. 2. God is Eternal. Before the mountains were born or you brought forth the whole world, from everlasting to everlasting you are God (Psalm 90:2). This means that God had no beginning, nor will he have an end. God has always been in existence and will forever be. No one created God. He is an eternal being, separate from time itself, which He created. God will never cease to exist, nor be annihilated, nor is He contained within a cycle of events.3. God is Unchanging. God is not human, that he should lie, not a human being, that he should change his mind. Does he speak and then not act? Does he promise and not fulfill? (Numbers 23:19) God is not like man. He does not lie, nor does He change his mind. God does not become other forms3 or change in nature. Man cannot become God. Of Jesus it is said, He is the same today, yesterday, and forever (Hebrews 13:8).4. God is Incomparable. How great you are, Sovereign LORD! There is no one like you, and there is no God but you, as we have heard with our own ears (2 Samuel 7:22); Among the gods there is none like you, Lord; no deeds can compare with yours (Psalm 86:8). There is but one God. No other god (man-made or imagined) is equal to the God of the Bible. The God of the Bible is the only true God.5. God is Indescribable. Do you not know? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He will not grow tired or weary, and his ~ 17 ~
  19. 19. understanding no one can fathom (Isaiah 40:28). We will never be able to fully understand God. He is beyond our own comprehension. This does not mean that He is unknowable. We can know Gods character by reading the Bible.6. God is Fair. As for God, his way is perfect: The LORD‟s word is flawless; he shields all who take refuge in him (Psalm 18:30). God is a just ruler. He treats everyone fairly. Unfortunately, we are all sinners and have rejected God (Romans 3:23) and so our rejection of Him justifies our condemnation. Amazingly, God provides us grace through Jesus Christ, which we do not deserve. (See God is Gracious below.)7. God is All-Powerful (Omnipotent). Ah, Sovereign LORD, you have made the heavens and the earth by your great power and outstretched arm. Nothing is too hard for you (Jeremiah 32:17). There is absolutely nothing that God cannot do. No other spiritual force can alter Gods plan. All material, biological, and spiritual entities are under His control. Gods power is always used in a way that is consistent with His character.8. God is everywhere (Omnipresent). Where can I go from your Spirit? Where can I flee from your presence? If I go up to the heavens, you are there; if I make my bed in the depths, you are there. If I rise on the wings of the dawn, if I settle on the far side of the sea, even there your hand will guide me, your right hand will hold me fast. If I say, “Surely the darkness will hide ~ 18 ~
  20. 20. me and the light become night around me,” even the darkness will not be dark to you; the night will shine like the day, for darkness is as light to you. For you created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother‟s womb (Psalm 139: 7-13). You cannot hide from God. He is everywhere at once. God is not limited by time, physical location, or material body. You cannot keep God in a box, in a house, or in a temple. God is Spirit and is free to come and go as He chooses. However, this does not mean that God is in everything or occupies everything. Nor does it mean that everything is God. The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by human hands. And he is not served by human hands, as if he needed anything. Rather, he himself gives everyone life and breath and everything else. From one man he made all the nations, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he marked out their appointed times in history and the boundaries of their lands. God did this so that they would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from any one of us (Acts 17:24-27).9. God is All-Knowing (Omniscient). You have searched me, LORD, and you know me. You know when I sit and when I rise; you perceive my thoughts from afar. You discern my going out and my lying down; you are familiar with all my ways. Before a word is on my tongue you, LORD, know it completely. You hem me in behind and before, and you lay your hand upon me (Psalm 139: 1-5). Only God knows everything. He knows the past, the present, and the future. ~ 19 ~
  21. 21. Because God is All-Knowing, He is completely fair (as we have already discussed).10. God is Righteous. But now apart from the law the righteousness of God has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. This righteousness is given through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference between Jew and Gentile, for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. God presented Christ as a sacrifice of atonement, through the shedding of his blood—to be received by faith. He did this to demonstrate his righteousness, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished— he did it to demonstrate his righteousness at the present time, so as to be just and the one who justifies those who have faith in Jesus (Romans 3:21-26). Righteousness in simple terms means that God always does what is right and true according to His own nature. For example, it was right to punish humanity for sinning against Himself since our sin is a rejection of Gods righteousness. If God ignored sin and didnt punish those who sin, He would no longer be righteous.11. God is Sovereign. The LORD reigns, he is robed in majesty; the LORD is robed in majesty and armed with strength; indeed, the world is established, firm and secure (Psalm 93:1). God has complete reign and rule. No power (of man or of spiritual beings) is higher than Gods power. His decisions ~ 20 ~
  22. 22. and actions cannot be altered nor changed by man. Yours, LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the majesty and the splendor, for everything in heaven and earth is yours. Yours, LORD, is the kingdom; you are exalted as head over all (1 Chronicles 29:11).12. God is Spirit. God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in the Spirit and in truth (John 4:24). God is invisible. He cannot completely be understood or perceived by man. This is why God must reveal Himself through the Bible (Truth). Otherwise, we would never be able to know God at all. The Spirit is one member of the Trinity.313. God is Truth. He who is the Glory of Israel does not lie or change his mind; for he is not a human being, that he should change his mind (1 Samuel 15:29). As has previously been determined, God is Truth. He cannot lie, ever! His Son, Jesus Christ, is the only way to know God and receive Salvation. This is because Jesus ...is the Way, the Truth, and the Life (John 14:6).14. God is Holy. Holy, holy, holy is the LORD Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory (Isaiah 6:3); Your eyes are too pure to look on evil; you cannot tolerate wrongdoing.... (Habakkuk 1:13). God is separated from humanity. He is different. God cannot tolerate sin and evil because it is contrary to His holiness and righteousness. Gods holiness and our sinfulness have created a chasm between God and man, but Gods graciousness through Jesus has united God and man ~ 21 ~
  23. 23. once again. 15. God is Gracious. And he passed in front of Moses, proclaiming, “The LORD, the LORD, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness (Exodus 34:6). God gives us grace, which is undeserved favor. We deserve death because of our sinfulness, but God gives us life through Jesus Christ alone. 16. God is Love .God is love... (1 John 4:16); neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord (Romans 8:39); But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions—it is by grace you have been saved (Ephesians 2:4-5). God loves each one of us. His greatest love act was to send His Son, Christ Jesus, to save us from our sinful rebellion. Gods love through Jesus is a gift that is given to all, but each individual must receive it through personal acknowledgement of Jesus Christ as Lord of their lives. God is love and He is grace, but He is also fair, which means that those who reject Gods love and grace will be eternally separated from Him (Hell) after they die.Although, we will never completely understand God (rememberHe is indescribable) we gain a greater understanding of who He isby reading the Bible. God will continually reveal Himself toanyone who seeks to know Him with a pure heart. We are ~ 22 ~
  24. 24. promised this in the book of Jeremiah; You will seek me and findme when you seek me with all your heart (Jeremiah 29:13). “Aswe read through Scripture and see Gods character, we begin tounderstand His absolute authority and the authority of His Word...He is the starting point of biblical authority because He is the onlylimitless One and the only One who has always been, with fullcontrol of past, present, and future.”4References and Notes:1 Edwards, Brian H. Nothing But The Truth. Webster: Evangelical Press, 2007.2 “One of the first internal evidences that the Bible is truly God‟s Word is seen in itsunity. Even though it is really sixty-six individual books, written on threecontinents, in three different languages, over a period of approximately 1500 years,by more than 40 authors who came from many walks of life, the Bible remains oneunified book from beginning to end without contradiction. This unity is unique fromall other books and is evidence of the divine origin of the words which God movedmen to record.”(Got Answers Ministries. “Attributes of God.” February, 6th 2011:http://www.gotquestions.org/attributes-God.html)3 “The most difficult thing about the Christian concept of the Trinity is that there isno way to perfectly and completely understand it. The Trinity is a concept that isimpossible for any human being to fully understand, let alone explain. God isinfinitely greater than we are; therefore, we should not expect to be able to fullyunderstand Him. The Bible teaches that the Father is God, that Jesus is God, andthat the Holy Spirit is God. The Bible also teaches that there is only one God.Though we can understand some facts about the relationship of the differentPersons of the Trinity to one another, ultimately, it is incomprehensible to thehuman mind. However, this does not mean the Trinity is not true or that it is notbased on the teachings of the Bible.....The Trinity is one God existing in three ~ 23 ~
  25. 25. Persons. Understand that this is not in any way suggesting three Gods.” (GotAnswers Ministries. “What does the Bible teach about the Trinity.” February, 20th2011:http://www.gotquestions.org/Trinity-Bible.html)4 Ham, Steve. “It All Starts With Gods Character.” Answers Magazine Jan.-Mar.2011 pg. 81. ~ 24 ~
  26. 26. It is undeniable that there is neither truth, meaning, nor purpose without an intelligent Creator who, for His ownreasons, made the universe and each of us in His Image. Yet the world of academia largely rejects this inescapable fact. Professors and students claim to be on a quest for truth while denying that it exists or that anyone could identify it if it did. Such is the nihilistic atmosphere in major universities around the world. It is considered to be too dogmatic for anyone to claim that truth can be known. Then what is the point ofresearch and study, if all we can achieve is a listing of differing opinions, none of which can be declared to be either right or wrong.” Dave Hunt, Seeking & Finding God, pp.47-48. . ~ 25 ~
  27. 27. Chapter 2 The God of LogicIs Logic Absolute?Do you believe in logic? You might think this is a strange questionto ask in a book about the identity of God, but I believe that this isan important place to begin our attempt to know who God is andwhat He is like. We have already identified many attributes ofGods character in the first chapter. There is, however, anothercharacteristic of God identified in the Bible that has not beenmentioned yet. God is the God of logic. In simple terms, thismeans that God is the mind behind all things and that He createdthese things to function in predictable ways that can be understoodby man.If logic is from God it must reflect the character and mind of God.God is infinite and omniscient, so therefore, we would expect logicto be absolute; the same for any human, anywhere, and at any time.Otherwise, logic would change as the wind blows or as the tides ~ 26 ~
  28. 28. fluctuate, and we would never have the ability to trust our ownknowledge. If this were the case, what was true one moment mightnot be true the next moment. But since Gods character isconsistent and unchanging, so are the fixed laws that areexpressions of His mind. His laws are absolute and therefore, logicis possible. This is why we can understand the world around us.Later in this chapter we will discuss some of these absolute laws(Law of Non-Contradiction and the Law of Causality) that areexpressions of Gods character.Do you believe that this world operates by fixed laws? Scientificinvestigations and mathematical processes require fixed laws thatare predictable and can be applied anywhere in the world, withidentical results. In fact, every day we use simple logic to answerbasic questions such as, “Why did this happen?” or “What causedthis?” The truth is, we all believe in, and know intuitively, thatlogic exists, whether we want to admit it or not. The use of logic isthe most fundamental and basic level of human knowledge.Notice again that the opening question is phrased do you believe inlogic?, not, do you think logic exists? There is a critical differencebetween believing and thinking. Thinking is a mechanical process(electrical impulses bouncing around the neurons of the brain)which requires logical deductions to determine its own validity.There would be little true thought (arguably none) without the lawsof logic firmly in place. Therefore, thought is dependent uponlogic. Anyone trying to prove that logic exists quickly realizes thatlogic is automatically proven the moment the attempt is made toprove its validity. So, in the end, we believe in logic becausethought is impossible without it. This may seem to be circular ~ 27 ~
  29. 29. reasoning (which in itself is only understood in the light of logic)but logic turns out to be its own best witness.Logic Needs a Belief SystemIn order to be logical at all, one must have a framework of belief.Logic is a matter of belief not just methodological thoughtprocesses. Let us return to the questions posed in the thirdparagraph, “Why did this happen?” and “What caused this?” It isimpossible to answer these questions without belief in establishedlaws. For example, when I ask the question, Why did thishappen?, I automatically use laws of causality to trace the effectback to an original cause. I believe that all effects are a result of acause and that I can come to a true understanding of what thatcause might be. Most causes can neither be seen nor observed,and therefore, cannot be scientifically verified, but we believe inthem anyway, and thus, we believe in the very laws of logicthemselves.Worldviews and PresuppositionsIn the day to day affairs of life we use logic to determine whethersomething is true or false, valid or invalid, right or wrong, and wecan do this effectively because of our personal beliefs which makelogic possible. In order to help us interpret events, all of us haveaccepted a framework of belief, and this is what allows our logic tomake sense of unknowable events. Because our knowledge islimited we must have a starting point (framework of belief) that allinformation is interpreted upon. ~ 28 ~
  30. 30. Figure 2:1 Each of us knows a very small portion of the total available knowledge that could be known. Only God is All-Knowing. Therefore, in our attempt to make sense of unknown information we must begin with a bias or presupposition. (See Figure 2:1 in the notes and references section.)This framework of belief is often called a worldview. A worldviewcan be described as a belief that governs the way we interpretevidence and which also allows us to make sense of the worldaround us. Worldviews are composed of individual presuppositionsor personal biases. These presuppositions are established early inour lives and are often difficult to change. Our presuppositionsdetermine the way we interpret evidence, not the reverse.Evidence never speaks for itself, it is neutral, and we must interpretit according to a framework of belief.1 ~ 29 ~
  31. 31. Figure 2:2 Notice that both an evolutionist and a Creationist have the sameevidence and use the same laws of logic, the difference is their starting points(presuppositions) and their ending points (interpretations). Our biases, along with the laws of logic, allow us to interpret data and make sense of it.Although the laws of logic are the same for everyone, personal biases are not.This is why two people can look at the same evidence and come to two entirely different interpretations of the evidence. None of us are neutral and we use our biases as a framework of interpretation for all unknown information. So, not only must we believe that logic exists; we must also believe that our own biases are true. However, if personal biases are incorrect then the resulting interpretations will be incorrect. Therefore, it is important to have a correct bias in order to have a correct interpretation. ~ 30 ~
  32. 32. Figure 2:3 For any one piece of evidence many different interpretations exist, therefore, we filter other peoples interpretations before we accept them. Notice that if the interpretation agrees with our worldview, it is accepted, however, if the interpretation disagrees with our worldview it is rejected. This is the manner in which each of us filters interpretations before we accept or deny them.What Mean Ye These Stones (Fossils)?Lets consider some evidence to show how presuppositions governthe way evidence is interpreted. At many locations around theworld we find “fossil graveyards”. These are areas with hundredsor even thousands of individual organisms that have all beenfossilized together in one location. Often these fossils represent ~ 31 ~
  33. 33. organisms that did not live together in the same ecologicallocation. Because an evolutionists presupposition denies theexistence of God and the truthfulness of the Bible, he must accountfor these unusual fossil formations by natural processes alone.Therefore, the typical story of fossil formation according to anevolutionist begins with an organisms death. The organism is thencovered by water-laden sediment and through a slow process andthe right amount of pressure; the cells of the organism are replacedby sediment and become rock. This rock is a cast of the originalorganism with the same physical features as the once livingorganism. Evolutionists would consider fossilization a uniqueevent, which is rarely observed, if ever, in the present. “Fossilgraveyards” then, pose a significant challenge to the evolutionaryexplanation as evolutionists are hard-pressed to account for amethod that would fossilize thousands of organisms in the samephysical location under normal conditions. There are no known“natural” conditions today that are fossilizing thousands oforganisms at once, especially organisms from different ecologicalzones. Since these conditions are not observed today, evolutionistsare forced to explain “fossil graveyards” as a long duration(millions of years) event. The problem with a “millions of years”explanation is that the bones of many of these fossilized organismsare interlocked together. Bones cannot become interlockedtogether if the organisms from which they came died millions ofyears apart. Secondly, as has been stated above, many of thesefossils are from organisms that do not normally live together in thesame ecological zone. This suggests that these organisms did notdie in the same location but died in other ecological zones andwere transported (most likely by moving water) to the locationwhere they were buried and fossilized. ~ 32 ~
  34. 34. When it comes to “fossil graveyards”, evolutionists face anexplanatory problem because their own theory of slow fossilformation over millions of years isnt adequate to explain thethousands of fossils buried together. There must be a betterexplanation. There is!The Bible speaks of a global flood (Genesis 8-10) that covered theentire earth with water. This global flood killed most organisms onthe planet at that time. The organisms that died in the flood wouldhave been carried great distances by the water and covered rapidlyby the advancing waters and swirling oceans. This global floodexplains perfectly how organisms from different ecological zoneswere carried to the same location and buried together. The floodalso explains how the quantities (thousands) of organisms wereburied together. Lastly, the flood provides the most ideal water-laden sediment and pressure that were required for the organismsto be fossilized. The Biblical flood sufficiently answers all of thequestions regarding the formation of fossil graveyards but anevolutionary worldview is insufficient to do the same.So, why doesnt an evolutionist accept the Biblical explanation? Itcertainly seems far superior to their own explanation.Evolutionists reject this explanation, not because it is invalid, lesssuperior, or less scientific to their own, but because it comes fromthe Bible. Therefore, they do not reject the explanation, but theBible. Evolutionists might even agree that the Biblical explanationis a better explanation, but they will not accept it simply because itis from the Bible. Evolutionists are letting their ownpresuppositions (that there is no God and the Bible is not true) ~ 33 ~
  35. 35. force them to accept an explanation that is less than sufficient. It ismost tragic that an evolutionist, who supposedly prides himself onbeing scientific, will reject the most scientific explanation simplybecause it supports an alternate viewpoint than his own. The oftenquoted evolutionary scientist Richard Lewontin exemplifies thistragic viewpoint when he said, “We take the side of science in spiteof the patent absurdity of some of its constructs, in spite of itsfailure to fulfill many of its extravagant promises of health and life,in spite of the tolerance of the scientific community forunsubstantiated just-so stories, because we have a priorcommitment, a commitment to materialism. It is not that themethods and institutions of science somehow compel us to accept amaterial explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary,that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes tocreate an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts thatproduce material explanations, no matter how counter-intuitive, nomatter how mystifying to the uninitiated. Moreover, thatmaterialism is an absolute, for we cannot allow a Divine Foot inthe door.” 2Logic and ContradictionThe law of non-contradiction states that contradictory statementscannot both be true at the same time. For example, if it is said thatA is greater than B and that A is not greater than B, then onestatement is false because both statements cannot possibly be trueat the same time. The law of non-contradiction is a law that isimpossible to deny. The very moment one declares that the law ofnon-contradiction is untrue, it is proven. Denying the law sets up ~ 34 ~
  36. 36. two contradictory statements from which one is expected to betrue, and so, its denial verifies its validity. An identical situationexists when some religions claim that two contradictory statementscan both be true at the same time, thus attempting to deny the lawof non-contradiction to avoid apparent contradictions in their ownreligion. In communicating this, however, they must set theirstatement (that contradictory statements can both be true) againstthe law of non-contradiction itself, which forces a contradictionbetween the two. In the end, instead of disproving the law of non-contradiction, they verify it. The denial of an absolute reality andthe denial of an absolute truth are also common claims amongcertain religions, but, once again the absolute belief that noabsolute reality or absolute truth exists places the two beliefs incontradiction with the former (that they do exist), and thus, the lawof non-contradiction is proven yet again.3This is why the Law ofContradiction is truly a universal law? Two contradictorystatements cannot both be true because God never contradictsHimself. God is absolute Truth and He never lies. God created theuniverse to reflect His character so that we may know Him anddevelop knowledge through understanding His creation. Science ispossible because God is Truth and His creation reflects Hischaracter. If there was no God, we would have no possible way tounderstand the physical world around us. In the example of “fossil graveyards” described above, the law ofnon-contradiction proves that one of these interpretations isincorrect. Either fossil graveyards were produced by slowevolutionary processes or by quick catastrophic methods (BiblicalFlood Model). There is no such thing as a slow catastrophicprocess. Since these views are competing and contradictory they ~ 35 ~
  37. 37. cannot possibly be both true at the same time. Becauseinterpretations of past events often contradict each other, a choiceis made to believe an interpretation that is in support of theindividuals personal worldview (review figure 2:3). Someonewho rejects theories based on their own worldview, rather thanscientific experimentation, is engaging in religion, not science.There are many extremely religious evolutionary scientists who donot follow the science, but only accept explanations that supporttheir own philosophical worldview. To be fair, Biblical creationistshave their own philosophical worldview to uphold, but this is themain point of the argument; both evolutionists and Biblicalcreationists are religiously motivated, and thus, defend a religiousviewpoint. “Evolution is a religion. This was true of evolution inthe beginning, and it is true of evolution still today.” 4Science and CausalityThe Law of Cause-and-Effect (Causality) is the most establishedlaw in science. One cannot even conduct science withoutacknowledgement of this law5. The Law itself states that there is arelationship between two events; the second (the effect) isdependent upon the first (the cause). A further extension of this lawstates that the cause must always exceed (be larger in extent) thanits effect. Figure 2:4 Notice that each effect is dependent upon the preceding cause and that each effect is quantitatively and qualitatively smaller than the preceding cause. ~ 36 ~
  38. 38. Again, using the “fossil graveyard” scenario as an example, we candetermine that there must have been an extremely great cause (verylarge in extent) that brought about the effect of thousands of fossilsbeing buried together. Therefore, this law seems to rule out aslow-and-steady, one-fossil-at-a-time event, as evolution suggests,because the effect is far too great for such an individually smallcause. The Biblical explanation of a global flood, however, wouldhave been a sufficiently large cause to produce the effect of a“fossil graveyard”.We can also extend the Law of Causality to life itself and all otherrealms of science. In fact, the causal relationship is the backboneof all scientific pursuits. Since living organisms are composed ofcomplex components with inter-related parts, the cause must have ~ 37 ~
  39. 39. been more complex (intelligent) than the effect. This might becalled the teleological argument. Other cause-and-effect argumentsare outlined below.Extension of the Law Argumentof Cause-and-Effect6 ...uses order and design in nature to prove the existence of a Designer. Therefore, if the cell looks designed, then Teleology... there must be a designer that created the cell. …focuses on the motion of the cosmos as evidence of a prime mover. Therefore, if the cosmos has motion, then Cosmology... there must have been a Creator that set it in motion. ...is the study of existence. Therefore, if the concept of Ontology... God exists, then God must really exist. ...is the study of beauty. Therefore, if something can be considered beautiful or expressive in quality, then there Aesthetics... must be an ultimate expression of beauty. ...is the study of desire and will. Therefore, if individual humans have a will, then there must be an ultimate will. Volition... ...is the study of a “right” and a “wrong”. Therefore, since all people know intuitively that there is “good” Morality... and “bad”, “right and wrong”, then there must be an absolute standard of morality.Although the cause-and-effect deductions above are not absoluteproof of Gods existence, they certainly lead to a strong concludingargument for the existence of a “Grand Cause”. This possibility ~ 38 ~
  40. 40. increases further when one considers that evolution runs in directopposition to causality. For example, if evolution were true, thenall complex organisms on this planet evolved from an infinitenumber of less complex organisms in the past. Evolution mustmove in the wrong direction.Evolutionists are forced to admit that many of the processes thatmust have occurred, in order for evolution to be true, are counter tothe basic laws that run the universe. The laws of logic are notfriendly toward evolution either. “The faith of the evolutionist andhumanist is of another order altogether. His is a splendid faithindeed, a faith not dependent on anything so mundane as evidenceor logic, but rather a faith strong in childlike trust, relying whollyon omniscient Chance and omnipotent Matter to produce thecomplex systems and mighty energies of the universe. Theevolutionists faith is not dependent on evidence, but is pure faith –absolute credulity.”7 However, the Law of Cause-and-Effect takento the furthest degree argues perfectly for the existence of God,since a Grand Cause is a necessary conclusion. Figure 2:5 Notice that complexity is maintained or lost (because of mutational events) but not gained. This supports the conclusion that all causes are greater (or at least equal to) their effects. However, in each case, evolution must defy the law of causality and build complex structures from more simple structures. This is the reverse of the cause-and-effect relationship and is not scientifically possible. ~ 39 ~
  41. 41. ~ 40 ~
  42. 42. Because evolutionists claim to function only in the realm of ourphysical senses, it is often claimed that God does not exist (or atleast is undetectable) since He is not seen, felt, or tasted. Thisclaim makes two fatal errors. The first error demands that Godmust present Himself in visible form before we can accept Hisexistence. The person who claims this has the audacity to tell Godthat He must play by their rules. We have no right to limit God tohis own creative products. The second error assumes that wecannot see God, but Gods effects are “clearly seen” (Romans 1),and so, we can detect Gods existence by our physical senses whenwe see His effects. Therefore, to argue against the existence of Godbecause He is unseen is to argue against all unseen causes.Intuitively, we know that even if the cause is unseen, it still exists.It is no different with the existence of God. The effects of God areenough to conclude His existence.The Effects of GodSince the world is a collection of individual effects, each effectmust have been produced by a greater cause than itself. Obviously,these individual effects could not have extended indefinitely in thepast or their present effects would be too small to detect and nolonger even measurable. Likewise, the causes that produced theeffects could neither extend indefinitely in the past or they wouldbecome too large to be measured. The infinite existence of thecause-and-effect relationship cannot be defended scientifically.Once again, the most logical conclusion is that there must havebeen an initial cause, or First Cause, to the effects that we observetoday. ~ 41 ~
  43. 43. Furthermore, we can conclude from the cause-and-effectrelationship that “the First Cause....….of limitless space must be infinite in extent.….of endless time must be eternal in duration.….of perpetual motion must be omnipotent in power.….of unbounded variety must be omnipresent in phenomena.….of infinite complexity must be omnipotent in intelligence.….of consciousness must be personal.….of feeling must be emotional.….of will must be volitional.….of ethical values must be moral.….of religious values must be spiritual.….of beauty must be aesthetic.….of righteousness must be holy.….of justice must be just.….of love must be loving.….of life must be living.”8If the list of “must be” requirements above sounds familiar; theyare! Added together, these “must be” requirements for the “FirstCause” perfectly describe the God of the Bible as was discussed inthe first chapter. Could evolution produce complex thought andfeelings such as love, joy, pain, and jealousy? “It makes no sensethat unfeeling, unthinking, dead matter could produce feeling,thinking, living beings, and yet that is what people are expected tobelieve”9 from the theory of evolution. Indeed, there is no possibleway that personality could come from an impersonal universe. ~ 42 ~
  44. 44. Creation Is the Only Logical Belief SystemSince logic is a non-material (or non-physical) thing, it must existoutside of our own brains. Furthermore, since all humansrecognize and use the same logical rules, it is neither a product ofthe individual mind. An evolutionist must account naturally for anon-material law that governs the way the material (and all ofscience for that matter) works. This of course means that laws musthave come before the material and biological world; since they areboth regulated and upheld by these laws. Laws cannot evolve.Since logic exists outside of the material and because it isuniversally applied, it must be an expression of a greater mind thanour own. God is that greater mind! Logic exists because Godexists. Without God, there is no logic and there is no science. Godcreated the laws that allow us to be logical. Because the laws thatallow us to be logical are not physical things, we must believe inthem. Therefore the laws of logic are presuppositions that we holdto be true. Every scientist (and all people) believes these laws aretrue (holds to this presupposition), otherwise they would not beable conduct science at all. Whether you believe in God or not,every day you confirm Gods existence by using logical reasoningskills. Therefore, an evolutionist proves the existence of Goddaily, even while trying to deny Him. Jason Lisle, in his book TheUltimate Proof of Creation, summarizes it this way, “If evolutionwere true, science and reasoning would not be possible; therewould be no basis for logic, nor would there be any basis foruniformity in nature. So if evolutionists were consistent with theirworldview, they would not be able to reason or do science. Yetevolutionists are able to reason and to do science. Thus it follows ~ 43 ~
  45. 45. that evolutionists do not consistently rely upon their ownworldview. They rely upon creationist presuppositions.”10We are all biased!Logic is the most basic level of true knowledge that God gave eachof us at birth. We intuitively use logic daily, but as we havedetermined already, a belief system is needed in order to use logiceffectively. As a Christian, I believe that God is who He said Heis. I believe the Bible is true and accurate in its history. I believethe Bible describes the character of God perfectly; without anyerror. I also believe that the Bible, although not a sciencetextbook, is completely accurate when it speaks about scientificmatters. This is my presupposition, and everything written in thisbook is written with this presupposition in mind. Therefore, thisbook is completely biased and I admit this with all honesty andwithout any hesitation. Of course, anyone reading this book alsohas personal biases. Your bias might agree with my bias, or it maynot. None of us are neutral on any topic. It is important that we arehonest and open about our biases. It may be that our biases areincorrect and that a different bias provides a better interpretationand explanation. I have evaluated my bias many times and in theend I agree with Cornelius Van Til when he expressed hissentiment this way, “Now, in fact, I feel that the whole of historyand civilization would be unintelligible to me if it were not for mybelief in God. So true is this, that I propose to argue that unlessGod is back of everything, you cannot find meaning in anything.”11 ~ 44 ~
  46. 46. Ask yourself these questions as they relate to the origin of life andanswer them honestly.(1) What are your biases about the origin of life?(2) Are your biases sufficient to explain the space-mass-timecosmos of this universe?(3) If your bias is not sufficient to explain the space-mass-timecosmos, are you willing to accept another bias that is moresufficient?These are great questions for anyone to ask themselves. I canhonestly say that I believe that my bias (the God of the Bible is theCreator) is the only legitimate bias to have. I know that thisstatement might challenge and offend those who have a differentbias, but is it not true that someones bias must be the correct bias.Therefore, each of us should be asking ourselves how we can knowwhich bias is the correct bias to have.The reason that I can be so bold about my bias is not because I feelsuperior about myself but because I feel my God is superior. Ibelieve that all other biases are not capable of logicalinterpretation. The biblical presupposition allows me to havereason to trust my own logical conclusions. This is because mylogic has a true foundational basis in the God who created the lawsthat govern logic. My logic is in perfect agreement with Godslaws. An atheistic evolutionist believes neither God nor the Bibleare true, and because of this, has no explanation for the existence ~ 45 ~
  47. 47. of logic. Remember, logic cannot evolve. Why would anevolutionist trust his own evolved brain to come to a logicalconclusion about anything? When an evolutionist says that theworld evolved, why should he even trust his own thoughts? Thereis no logical way for an evolutionist to defend his own belief. Anevolutionist must borrow from the biblical framework of belief(that there are absolutes) in order to use logic affectively. This iswhy evolutionists can never truly be logical. We, as humans, canonly be logical because God is the God of logic and He created usin His image.12 Denying the God of logic makes one completelyillogical. This is why I can be so bold in my statement.Suppressing the TruthIn the book of Romans we find a perfect portrayal of this entirechapter. Romans 1 (verses18-20) states, The wrath of God is beingrevealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickednessof people, who suppress the truth by their wickedness, since whatmay be known about God is plain to them, because God has madeit plain to them. For since the creation of the world God‟s invisiblequalities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearlyseen, being understood from what has been made, so that peopleare without excuse.This passage makes it absolutely clear that everyone knows thatGod exists because God is plain to them. You might question whatis so plain to everyone. The next verse explains what is plain toeveryone; God‟s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divinenature—have been clearly seen. How can you see invisible ~ 46 ~
  48. 48. qualities? Gods invisible qualities are the very laws that governthe way that all living things work and function. So, you can seethe invisible qualities of God when you see the effects of the lawsthat God created. It is Gods eternal power and divine nature thatkeeps everything functioning as it does. Nothing in this universe,galaxy, planet, body, cell, molecule, or even atom, would functionwithout Gods laws in place. He upholds everything by His power.Gods eternal power is so forcefully evident that all people arewithout excuse. This means that God has given us enough evidenceof His own existence from His creation alone. God created us withbrains that could perceive Him through his laws, that govern boththe created world and thought itself, and He expects us to come tothis logical conclusion; that He exists. Those who state that there isno God are doing so out of their own presupposition, not becauseof lack of evidence. The next verse (21) states this clearly, Foralthough they knew God, they neither glorified him as God norgave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and theirfoolish hearts were darkened. Although they claimed to be wise,they became fools and exchanged the glory of the immortal Godfor images made to look like a mortal human being and birds andanimals and reptiles. Everyone knows God exists, some however,choose to deny His existence anyway! “Men cannot long besatisfied with chaos, however. Each person is so conditioned by allhis observations and experiences to think in terms of causation andpurpose that he must, even despite himself, look for some kind ofultimate order and meaning in the universe. If he has lost faith inthe true God, and His Word, then he must sooner or later findanother god.”13 An atheist, by denying Gods existence, hasconvinced himself there is no God, but in actuality he has deifiedhimself as god, and thus has exchanged the glory of the immortal ~ 47 ~
  49. 49. God for images made to look like a mortal human being. As theverse states, their thinking became futile and their foolish heartswere darkened. Although they claimed to be wise, they becamefools... The Bible explains that those who do not believe in Godare fools because they exchange Gods logic for foolish arguments(evolution), all the while trying to deny the existence of God byusing the very logic that God created them to use to know Him.This is the pinnacle of foolish thinking.The progression of foolishness from Romans 1 is outlinedbelow.God is known by all→He is denied because of personalpresuppositions→Ability to make logical sense of the world islost→ Becomes a fool→Heart is darkened→Gods glory isexchanged and given to a false god or self→Gods wrath isreleased on foolish man.The progression of wisdom is outlined below.God is known by all→He is accepted as the only God→Has theability to make logical sense of the world→Becomes wise→Givesglory only to God→Gods approval and happiness is felt andknown completely.Which progression above would you place yourself in?If you acknowledge God as Creator, you are seeking true wisdom;however, if you deny God as Creator your thinking is based on ~ 48 ~
  50. 50. foolishness. If the latter is the case, it is not too late to accept Jesusand seek Gods wisdom.ConclusionAt the conclusion of this chapter there are three important points tore-state. (1) The battle between evolution and creation is really a battlebetween religious beliefs and worldviews, not scientific evidences. (2) “True reason and true science will lead to God, but mandoes not want to submit to God and, therefore, denies the evidenceof his own reason.”14 (3) Logic only has a basis in the Biblical Worldview.It is a peculiar thing that some people, who neither believe in God,nor creation, still claim that logic could exist. The fact of thematter is that logic has no basis outside of a Creator God. In thenext chapter we will learn more about the Creator of all things.Notes and references:1 Although evidence is neutral, we are never neutral. All of us have presuppositionsthat determine the way we interpret evidence. Jesus Himself confirms this when hesaid, Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with mescatters. (Luke 11:23) Personal neutrality is an impossible position. ~ 49 ~
  51. 51. 2 Richard Lewontin, “Billions and billions of Demons,” The New York Review,January 9, 1997, p. 31.3 It should also be noted that anyone who believes that absolute truth and absolutereality do not exist is inconsistent in their belief. For example, anyone who tries todeny the absolute reality of gravity will meet the absolute truth of death when theyjump from a 20 story building. Everyone must live and behave daily in ways thatassume the existence of both absolute truth and absolute reality, and therefore, thosewho deny it are living in direct contradiction to their denial of it.4 Michael Ruse,”Saving Darwinism from the Darwinians,” National Post, May 13,2000, B-3.5 Using the scientific method, scientists set up experiments to determine causality inthe physical world. Imbedded within the scientific method and experiments is ahypothesis or several hypotheses about causal relationships. The scientific methodis used to test these hypotheses.6 This chart has been compiled from information appearing in Morris(3), pg. 109.7 Morris (5), pg. 22.8 Morris (3), pg. 112.9 Morris (3), pg. 123.10 Lisle, Jason. The Ultimate Proof of Creation, Green Forest: Master Books, 2009.11 Van Til, Cornelius. Christian Apologetics, Phillipsburg: P&R PublishingCompany, 2003.12 Genesis 1:26; The “image of God” is not a physical image, as if we look likeGod‟s physical body. Rather, the “image of God” represents a “mental, moral, andsocial likeness“. (see Made in the image of God by Russell M. Grigg,http://creation.com/made-in-the-image-of-god. Creation Ministries International.)13 Morris (3), pg. 124.14 Morris (3), pg. 124.Figure 2:1 – Illustration recreated from... Chittick, Donald E. Ph.D. The Puzzle ofAncient Man. Newberg: Creation Compass, 2006. ~ 50 ~
  52. 52. Do you not know? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He will not grow tired or weary,and his understanding no one can fathom. Isaiah 40:28 ~ 51 ~
  53. 53. Chapter 3 The God of CreationThe Necessity of a CreatorLogic has proven the necessity of a Creator! The theory ofevolution has no logical basis to defend itself, therefore,evolutionists are forced to adopt one of two positions; (1) admittheir own worldview cannot possibly make sense of the universeand adopt the Christian worldview which can make sense of theuniverse, or (2) admit their own worldview is illogical and ceasefrom using logical thought processes to explain their theory.Evolutionists, of course, will not easily adopt either position forobvious reasons. Evolutionists have placed themselves then in animpossible position from which there is no escape; either use Godslaws of logic to deny Gods existence (which actually proves Hisexistence) or deny their own rational minds and abandon logicaltogether (which would prove evolution a baseless opinion in asea of nothingness). God makes it plain that those who deny His ~ 52 ~
  54. 54. existence are fools; The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.”(Psalm 14:1) Denying God makes evolutionists (and evolutionarybased religions)1 hopelessly illogical and completely dependentupon the Christian worldview to make sense of the world.The universe demands a Creator and our reasoning is dependentupon His existence. The cosmos and its space-mass-time tri-unitywas not always in existence, as some evolutionists and most otherreligions suspect2, but had to be created by an ultimate GrandCause, which, as we discussed in the last chapter, can be noneother than the God of the Bible. Who else has the ability and powerto bring everything into existence but the God of the Bible? In fact,the space-mass-time continuum is mentioned in the very first verseof the Bible (Genesis 1:1); In the beginning (time)...God (theGrand Cause)...created (brought about for the first time)...theheavens (space)...and the earth (matter or mass). Evolution iscompletely dependent upon the pre-existence of the cosmos whichmust have been in place before evolution could function. Only theBible explains the origin of the cosmos adequately. So, yet oncemore, evolution (and other religions) must acknowledge the Truthof the Bible in order to make sense of their own beliefs. There isno escaping this simple conclusion. (This would be a good time toreview the characteristics of God discussed in the first chapter.) Figure 3:1 The Cosmos (Space-Mass-Time) must have been created at the same time. We observe that energy acts on matter as it occupies space over a given time. The functioning of the universe is set precisely on the interactions of these three components. Evolution must assume that the cosmos spontaneously began or that space, mass, and time evolved independently from each other. Since the cosmos is non-living, evolutionary mechanisms cannot be used in its formation. Evolution cannot explain the existence of the Space-Mass-Time continuum. ~ 53 ~
  55. 55. Ex NihiloIt is clear from the text above (Genesis 1:1) that God created thecosmos. The biblical verb used in this verse (Bara; ‫ )בָּרא‬means to ָּcreate out of nothing (Latin ex nihilo) or to bring about somethingthat is completely new in quality. We, of course, have nevercreated anything new that hasnt already existed previously. Wecan only form or manufacture something from pre-existingmaterials, but these materials were ultimately created by God. Inthe Bible, the verb used “to form” (yatsar; ‫ יָּצַר‬and sometimes asah;‫ )עשָּה‬is a different verb than is the verb used “to create” (Bara), ָּalthough they are sometimes used of God interchangeably. Theclear teaching of Genesis 1:1 is that God did not form the cosmosfrom materials that were already in existence but He createdeverything ex nihilo.3 ~ 54 ~
  56. 56. Obviously, mere processes have no abilities to create either.Processes can only shape and reform, but not create. Take forexample the process of natural selection. Natural selection canonly preserve traits (characteristics) that are beneficial to theorganism, but it can never create new traits. As has been notedmany times, natural selection might be able to explain the“survival of the fittest” but not the “arrival of the fittest”. Actually,natural selection is a process that supports the biblical conservationof “Kinds” better than evolutions use of natural selection toproduce new and novel types of organisms. God evidentiallyinstituted natural selection as a conservation process to maintainand sustain his created order. (See the section Thermodynamicsand Evolution and Biblical Kinds in this chapter.)Creation Is No Longer HappeningThe first verse of the Bible also proves that the creation wascompleted in the past and is not a continuous event. In thebeginning God created... and therefore, is not still creating. This“creating process” ended at the end of the creation week (See thesection Formative Works of God in this chapter.) when Godpronounced, Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in alltheir vast array. By the seventh day God had finished the work hehad been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work.Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on ithe rested from all the work of creating that he had done (Genesis2:1). The combination of completed-finished-rested could signalno other logical conclusion than, creation is no longer happening. ~ 55 ~
  57. 57. This fact rules out any possible merger of the creation eventdescribed in the Bible and the theory of evolution4. Evolutionsuggests a continual progression of small incremental creations,whereas, the Bible presents the creation event as alreadycompleted, therefore, the law of non-contradiction proves theimpossibility that both of these conflicting views are correct.Although the “creating” came to a conclusion after the sixth day,God put into place two sustaining laws that would govern Hiscreation. These sustaining laws are the laws of 1st and 2ndthermodynamics. (See the section Thermodynamics and Evolutionin this chapter.)God Created InstantlyTwo verses later (Genesis 1:3) we notice another remarkable fact;God created instantaneously. And God said, “Let there be light,”and there was light. God simply spoke light into existence. Thepower of His Word brought about everything. So, once again,evolution is denied explicitly in these verses. Because the creationwas completed instantaneously in the past, evolutions slow-and-steady change could not possibly be a mechanism that God used tobring about the cosmos. God does not contradict Himself.God Is Not The CosmosIt should also be noted that the subject of this first verse is God (Inthe beginning God) and that He created the heavens and the earth.This eliminates the possibility that God was a part of the cosmositself. God did not create Himself or bring about an essence of ~ 56 ~
  58. 58. Himself. He created something entirely new; something that neverexisted before and something that was separate in quality fromHimself. In short, God is not the cosmos and the cosmos is notGod, nor did the cosmos pre-exist God but it was God who pre-existed the cosmos.As you see, the first verse of the Bible is the most conclusive andprecise statement that has ever been uttered. In this one verse wecan conclude the following:  God is the Grand Cause.  God is not the same as the cosmos (space-mass-time) or contained within it.  God pre-existed before the cosmos.  God is the only one who can “create” anything and He did so ex nihilo.  Gods creation was completed in the past.  God created instantaneously by His powerful Word.Creation Has Documented HistoryBecause God is the Creator and speaks nothing but Truth, we cantrust what He says about His own creation. After all, He was theonly eye-witness to the creation event and so, historically, we haveall the reason to believe in Gods own description as first handevidence. It must be pointed out that the theory of evolution is notable to provide such a witness. Its history is not from an eye-witness account like the biblical explanation, but pieced together ~ 57 ~
  59. 59. using hypothetical words such as “what if”, “perhaps”, and“maybe”. These are hardly scientific words and they leave noconfidence in the end of the matter. The Bible, on the other hand isdefinite. There is no hesitation in describing the precise order andmanner in which God created the world. The Bible does not leaveus with cloudy, half-descriptive words like evolution does; on thecontrary, we are presented with a confident self-assertion of God asthe Grand Cause and designer of all things. The first threechapters of the Bible are a play-by-play of Gods actions to createthe material, biological and spiritual dimensions of our world andalthough they do not describe every single detail of the creation,they do present a more than satisfying account for the existence ofthe universe. G.K. Chesterton could not have said it better whenhe remarked, “The riddles of God proved more satisfying than theanswers proposed without God.”5The Bible never tries to prove that God is the Creator, rather it isassumed from the beginning. Since God is the author of the Biblethis makes perfect sense. God does not need to provide anapologetic of His own existence, rather, the creation itself providesa more than adequate witness to His own power, order, andwisdom. Those who do not accept Gods silent witness of Himself(General Revelation) will never accept His verbal witness ofHimself (Special Revelation).The General RevelationGods creation might be called a “general revelation” becauseeveryone has received the same evidence. We all wake to the same ~ 58 ~
  60. 60. sun and conclude our day with the same moon. We all observe thechange of seasons, the cycles in nature, the complexities of life,and perceive the world from our special senses. God makes itclear that the creation alone is enough evidence to know He exists.As was discussed in chapter 2, Romans 1:20 declares, For sincethe creation of the world God‟s invisible qualities—his eternalpower and divine nature—have been clearly seen, beingunderstood from what has been made, so that people are withoutexcuse. Psalm 19 (verses 1-4) portrays this sentiment perfectly aswell, The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim thework of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; nightafter night they reveal knowledge. They have no speech, they useno words; no sound is heard from them. Yet their voice goes outinto all the earth, their words to the ends of the world. No one onthis planet can say, “God has not given me enough evidence tobelieve that He exists.” Clearly, His universe is shouting to all whowill listen that He is the mind behind the matter.From the creation alone we can determine a few attributes of God‟scharacter. We can determine that God is orderly and uniform andvery creative. The question that all of us face is, from where didthe order and uniformity of the physical universe come from? Anillogical position would be to accept that a random, purposeless,and unguided process like evolution could account for the orderand design of the universe. To not believe in a Creator is to denycause-and-effect relationships and reality itself. Evolutionistsmust deny this obvious reality each day as they are forced tofabricate fantastic stories to account for the order and uniformity ofthe universe through natural processes alone. Evolutionists,however, know in their hearts that God is real and this is ~ 59 ~
  61. 61. represented by their incessant deification and personification ofevolution in order to attribute the order and design of the universeto something greater than themselves. The next time you read anarticle written from an evolutionary perspective look fordescriptions like assembled themselves, constructed, built,manufactured, emerged, arose, burst onto the scene, modifieditself, was lucky, and created. These descriptive terms are used toexplain how sheer molecules can manipulate natural processes tobecome more complex in structure and function. Not only is thiscontrary to established laws of science (See Thermodynamics andEvolution in this chapter.), but it is dishonest. These are subtleattempts to circumvent God by giving evolution abilities that onlyGod can possess. It is at moments like this that evolutionists revealtheir own inner battle with the evidence. They must either deny theapparent design of nature or attribute it to evolution in God-likefashion. It is impossible to deny the apparent design of theuniverse; therefore, evolutionists attribute the evidence of design toevolution (their god) or try in vain to deny the undeniable; asleading Darwinist Richard Dawkins does in his book ClimbingMount Improbable when he states that evolution “...has only theappearance of being intelligently designed.”6 Or in similar scope,as Francis Crick puts it “Biologists must constantly keep in mindwhat they see was not designed, but evolved.”7 Obviously (thoughthese statements are supposedly in favor of evolutionary theory)statement such as these provide first-hand evidence of the crisisthat evolutionists face. These sorts of comments reek of montra-like pronouncements hoping in vain to wish-away the obvious factthat things exhibit order and uniformity, which are features ofdesign and henceforth, demand a Designer. ~ 60 ~
  62. 62. In the end, an evolutionists own words prove that he knows andperceives the God of the Bible through His creation but, asRomans 1:20 declares, he is …suppressing the Truth. “God has somade man that he intuitively recognizes Gods existence, at leastuntil his training or religious traditions have educated it out ofhim.”8In summary, there are two obvious qualities of the generalrevelation that are understood by all; (1) its apparent order and (2)uniformity in design. It is from these two that the first steps towardknowing and understanding God must be met. Evolution cannotexplain the existence of either. “It is no accident that at every levelof the cosmos–sub-atomic, atomic, organic, inorganic, sub-human,human, earth, moon, sun, stars, galaxies–all things manifestamazing order and rationality that can be reasonably explainedonly as the result of a deliberate, creative act of God.” 9The Special RevelationIn the Christian worldview, general revelation is enough tocondemn, but not enough to save. In other words, to admit thatthere is a Creator does not mean that one has been pardoned fromtheir sin nor does it mean that they have received Gods Salvation.The Bible declares ...You believe that there is one God. Good!Even the demons believe that—and shudder (James 2:19).Obviously, demons have not been pardoned from their sin, norreceived Gods Salvation. It takes more than a concept of a Creatorto receive Salvation. ~ 61 ~
  63. 63. Since, the general revelation is only enough to prove Godsexistence, He provided a greater revelation that speaks of Hischaracter and divine nature. This greater revelation is often calledthe “special revelation” and is none other than the Bible. “In theBible, the reader meets Gods most direct form of specialrevelation: the person of Jesus Christ.” 10 God then, wants ...allpeople to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth. Forthere is one God and one mediator between God and mankind, theman Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all people (1Timothy 2:4-6).Unfortunately, evolution has deceived many into believing thatthere is no God, and therefore, the special revelation is ignoredbecause the general revelation is denied. If the general revelationis denied then the hope of salvation is lost, because it is in thespecial revelation that Jesus Christ is revealed. (See Chapter 6, TheGod of Salvation).The Triumph of Gods Special Revelation“It is better theology and philosophy to begin with the God of theBible to explain the universe than to begin with the universe toexplain God.”11 This is true because the general revelation can bemisinterpreted. As we discussed in the last chapter, manspresuppositions may lead him to an interpretation of the evidencethat denies Gods existence. This is why an evolutionist can lookat evidence that clearly supports a Creator and yet, deny that Heexists. Secondly, as will be discussed in the next chapter (The Godof Man), the entire creation is subject to decay. This is a result of ~ 62 ~
  64. 64. the “Fall of Man” which not only affected mans relationship withGod but also introduced pain, suffering, and decay into thephysical world. Anyone who denies the special revelation willmiss these explanations and thus, will likely misinterpret theevidence. Only with the Bible as the primary interpretation toolcan we successfully comprehend the world around us. In a sense,our minds are corrupted and need to be purified. Only the Biblecan purify them. Evolutionists begin with the wrongpresupposition (no God), restrict themselves to the generalrevelation only, and use their corrupted minds to interpretevidence. No wonder their conclusion is incorrect. (You mightwant to review the Progression of Foolishness at the end ofChapter 2.)Not only can man never arrive at a correct interpretation of thephysical world without the Bible, he can never answer the “big”questions without it either. The general revelation might help usanswer the “temporal” questions of life; it does little to help usanswer the “eternal” questions of life. For instance, only Godsspecial revelation can answer the following questions.  Why are we here?  Does God Exist?  Why do men have physical emotions like sadness, happiness, and joy?  How can I be saved?  How can I know God?  Why do I feel guilty when I do bad things? ~ 63 ~
  65. 65. It will do little good in the end of it all if you can recite the steps amitochondria takes to convert sugar to energy, however, if youknow the living Savior Jesus Christ, your soul will be saved foreternity.The general revelation is to be acknowledged, and even studied,but if it remains the only source of knowledge for an individual; itand the persons soul will be lost for eternity. The Bible makes itclear that the special revelation triumphs the general revelation.Two verses in the Bible that specifically pinpoints the relationshipbetween Gods general and special revelations are Isaiah 40:8 andJohn 1:1-4. The passage in Isaiah reads, The grass withers and theflowers fall, but the word of our God endures forever. The grass(general revelation) is temporal, but the Word of God (specialrevelation) is eternal. Only investments in Gods economy (Bible)will pay dividends. This world will pass away but as Jesus says,my words will never pass away (Matthew 13:31). Gods Word iseternal because the Word (Jesus) is God, and of course, God iseternal. The passage in John mentioned above explains therelationship thus, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word waswith God, and the Word was God. He was with God in thebeginning. Through him all things were made; without himnothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and thatlife was the light of all mankind.It is necessary that we breakdown this verse.(1) In the beginning... This represents the origin of the cosmos.Refer to the discussion of Genesis 1:1 at the beginning of thischapter. ~ 64 ~
  66. 66. (2) was the Word... The Word is Jesus. In Greek, Logos (λόγος)can mean mind, reason, thought, wisdom, intelligence, idea, law,order, purpose, and design.12 All of these attributes converge inJesus. Maybe the best translation for Logos is the “Mind of God”.Therefore, Jesus is the Mind of God expressed in a physical body.Logos is also the root for the English word Logic. So in essence,when we use logic to reason we are confirming Jesus as the Oneand only true expression of God.(3) and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. Jesus iseternal and not separate from God; He is God. (See theexplanation for the Trinity at the end of chapter 1.)(4) Through him all things were made; without him nothing wasmade that has been made. Jesus is the Creator and He holds allthings together by His power. It is through Jesus that all thingsabide. (See also Colossians 1:15-17.)(5) In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind. Truelife can only be found in Jesus Christ alone. He came to this worldto shed light in darkness. Unfortunately, many still live indarkness because they are deceived by philosophies that lead themaway from Jesus Christ, the “Light of the World” (John 3:19 andJohn 8:12).“The flow of this passage sets forth the parameters of Christianphilosophy: mind before matter; God before man; plan and designbefore creation; life from life; and enlightenment from the Light.The orderly universe was conceived in the orderly and rational ~ 65 ~
  67. 67. mind of God before it was created. Without the Logos there wouldbe no cosmos.” 13As you see, the special revelation of God is Jesus Christ Himselfwho is revealed in the Word of God, and is the Word of God. Whyis the special revelation necessary for Salvation? It is because,Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name underheaven given to mankind by which we must be saved (Acts 4:12).The Works of GodSince God Created the world we can now turn to the specificmanner to which the Creation took place. We can divide thecreation process into two separate events; (1) creative (Bara) and(2) formative (Asah and Yatsar).Creative Works of God 14  Creation of the physical elements of the universe-space, mass, energy, time (Genesis 1:1).  Creation of conscious life (Hebrew Nephesh), including both soul and spirit (in the sense of “breath”). Animals possess components of both the created physical elements and conscious life (Genesis 1:21).  Creation of human beings in the image of God. Men and women are tri-unities of body, soul, and spirit (in the sense of the divine image). The human body is much more complex than that of the highest animal, as is the human soul/breath complex. Only men and women possess, in addition, the ~ 66 ~
  68. 68. image of God (Genesis 1:27). Figure 3:2 The illustration below shows the formative days of Creation. This illustration is the logo for Creation Education Ministries of Thailand (CEMT).Formative Works of God 14  Day One: Energizing the cosmos, as centered in the light energy (Genesis 1:2-5)  Day Two: Formation of the atmosphere (“firmament”) and hydrosphere, both of which are necessary for life and are unique to earth among the planets (Genesis 1:6-8).  Day Three: Formation of the lithosphere (the solid earth) and biosphere (earths cover of vegetation), a necessity for animal ~ 67 ~
  69. 69. life (Genesis 1:9-13).  Day Four: Formation of astrosphere in a different “firmament” (Hebrew raqia, referring to an “expanse” of stretched-out place), including all the stars, galaxies and planets (Genesis 1:14-19).  Day Five: Formation of different kinds of animals for the atmosphere (birds) and hydrosphere (fishes), each to reproduce only “after its kind” (Genesis 1:20-23).  Day Six: Formation of different kinds of land animals for the lithosphere and biosphere, as well as one male body and one female body (Adam and Eve) to serve as progenitors of all later human beings (Genesis 1:24-31).  Day Seven: Completion and sanctification of “all the work which God created and made” (Genesis 1:31-2:3).The order described above accords perfectly with the observablebiological world. There are no contradictions present neither in theorder nor in the descriptions of organisms created. In fact, the orderpresented above is far superior to any hypothesized evolutionarydevelopment of the species through millions of years of randommutations. It must be noted, however, that the order of the creationevents described in the Bible does not agree with modernevolutionary theory. It is absolute absurdity to suggest that theprocess of evolution and the Creation event in the Bible couldsomehow be harmonized. We must remember that the law of non-contradiction strictly forbids the possibility that contradictorytheories could both be true. We must conclude then, that eitherCreation or evolution is logically impossible. ~ 68 ~
  70. 70. Evolution Creation Sun before earth Earth before sun Dry land before sea Sea before dry land Sea creatures before land Land plants before sea plants creatures Stars before earth Earth before stars Death before man Man before death Reptiles before birds Birds before reptiles Figure 3:3 This is a sampling of contradictions in the order of appearance on earth. There are hundreds of contradictions between these two beliefs.There is one more very persuasive point to be made in relation tothe days of creation described in the Bible. Most (if not all)cultures around the world function on a six day work week withone day rest. Although the day of rest may be different for differentcultures, the scenario remains consistent. Henry Morris speaks ofthis fact when he notes, “The most fascinating aspect ofchronology is the history of the “week,” which has no astronomicalbasis. The “day” is measured by the regular appearance of the sunas the earth rotates; the “year” is measured by the annual rotationof the heavens as the earth orbits the sun; the “month” is measuredapproximately by the moons lunations, or intervals between newmoons, caused by the revolution of the moon around the earth. Theweek, however, has no astronomical basis at all, yet peopleeverywhere have always observed a weekly cycle: six days ofwork and a day of rest.”15 There seems to be no other reasonable ~ 69 ~
  71. 71. explanation except that in all cultures of the world there remains aremnant of the true creation week, passed down through the agesand modified in different cultures, but nevertheless still present inbasic form. In the observation of the week itself there is a silent butpowerful witness that confirms, ...in six days the LORD made theheavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he restedon the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath dayand made it holy (Exodus 20:11).Thermodynamics and EvolutionBesides the Law of Causality, mentioned extensively in theprevious chapter, there are two other laws that are intriquatlyrelated to the created world. These laws are the 1st and 2nd Laws ofThermodynamics, or more commonly the law of conservation ofenergy and the law of increased entropy. After God created thespace-mass-time cosmos it is evident that He set in place theselaws to sustain His created world. “In its simplest form, the FirstLaw of Thermodynamics states that neither matter nor energy canbe created or destroyed. The amount of energy in the universe isconstant – energy can be changed, moved, controlled, stored, ordissipated. However, this energy cannot be created from nothing orreduced to nothing. Every natural process transforms energy andmoves energy, but cannot create or eliminate it. This principleforms a foundation for many of the physical sciences.”16 Thesecond law likewise states that, “Entropy is defined as a measureof unusable energy within a closed or isolated system (the universefor example). As usable energy decreases and unusable energyincreases, "entropy" increases. Entropy is also a gauge of ~ 70 ~
  72. 72. randomness or chaos within a closed system. As usable energy isirretrievably lost, disorganization, randomness and chaosincrease.”17 Both of these laws are extensions of the Law ofCausality. We find that energy can change forms but not becompletely destroyed. At the same time, energy is becoming lessavailable to biological systems and is therefore contributing toincreased disorder in living organisms. These two laws are easilyobserved in nature, especially the Second Law. For example, aswe age our bodies become less able to function at the level it oncedid. This natural deterioration of our bodies shows that the SecondLaw affects all aspects of the cosmos as disorder increases overtime. Once again, the evolutionary worldview is at a loss to explainthe existence of these laws. But it is worse still for an evolutionistbecause these laws are contradictory to the mechanisms ofevolution. So, not only can an evolutionist not explain theirexistence, their existence disproves evolution.To exemplify just how the Second Law is contrary to evolutionconsider the origin of life. An evolutionist believes that life beganas a single-celled organism. This single-celled organism must havebeen very basic with few anatomical structures, information (in theform of DNA), or chemical pathways, etc. Therefore, according toan evolutionist this very basic organism must have continually,over millions of years, become more and more complex, until itproduced the extremely complex organisms we see today. Thisrequired building process for evolution though, is not in agreementwith the Second Law. The Second Law explains how organismsare in a state of decline and how they are continually becomingmore disordered and disorganized. Evolution demands an upwardmovement from basic to complex while the Second Law demands ~ 71 ~
  73. 73. a downward movement from complex to basic. Obviously, both ofthese processes cannot be functioning at the same time or theywould negate each other and according to the Law of Non-Contradiction, one of these explanations must be invalid. TheSecond Law is one of the most understood and observed laws in allof science and its consistency in all known realms of science makeit a trustworthy law. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said aboutevolution. The Second Law states conclusively that complexitymust have existed from the beginning, not built gradually.Complexity from the beginning not only supports the biblicalexplanation of creation but also is confirmed by science itself, inthe Law of Biogenesis (see the next section). ~ 72 ~
  74. 74. Figure 3:4 Compare the two graphs above. Notice that the evolutionary model and the Creation model are directly opposite of each other. The Second Law of Thermodynamics clearly supports the Creation model and opposes the evolutionary model. .Life Comes From Life (Omne Vivum Ex Vivo)There is one last law that demands some mention as it relates to theorigin of life. As has been discussed previously, evolutionistsbelieve that life came from non-living matter. This is a directviolation of the Law of Biogenesis, which states that life arisesfrom pre-existing life, not from nonliving material. The Law ofBiogenesis is an extension of the Law of Cause-and-Effect, in this ~ 73 ~

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