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  • 1. Abstract This project was set to improve the current social and economic situation and help alleviate the current conditions in the town of Whitby in areas such as; coastal erosion, flood risk, traffic congestion, parking facilities and the state of the swing Bridge. The notion of feasibility report was explored both as a practice utilized in civil and structural engineering projects and as a component of future proposed structural developments in the area of Whitby. The method utilized was a guided research according to the brief given by the local authority and the Whitby Traffic Management Partnership. The findings identified the lack of current facilities to accommodate major changes/improvements to the social and economic status of Whitby. The primary research was conducted in the actual area of Whitby and the secondary through publications and desk study. Overall, this report suggested improvements to the broader area of Whitby especially regarding the traffic alleviation issue. The proposal recommended the following:  Construction of a new bridge at the same location.  Development of a Park and Ride scheme within the limits of Whitby.  Further development options such as the construction a museum and the conversion of the current bridge to a museum as part the U.K. Civil engineering heritage.  And finally the flood barriers protection combined with the new bridge or the brake water piers or temporary solution which is and the most favorable at the current situation. Finally, detailed construction schemes to be utilized in the proposed developments where presented with detailed designs. The composed plans where accompanied by health and safety procedures and environmental considerations. 2
  • 2. Contents INTRODUCTION . .................................................................................................................................... 8 Scope . ................................................................................................................................................................. 9 SITE INVESTIGATION. ....................................................................................................................... 10 Desk Study . ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 Reconnaissance .............................................................................................................................................. 13 Proposed Ideas - Brainstorming ................................................................................................................... 17 Criteria for selection: ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Severe Hazards: . ............................................................................................................................................. 22 ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS ................................................................................................................... 24 Option 1 . ........................................................................................................................................................... 24 Option 2 . ........................................................................................................................................................... 26 Opening Bridge . .............................................................................................................................................. 27 ALTERNATIVE CHOSEN - FINAL PROPOSAL .............................................................................. 28 Method used . ................................................................................................................................................... 28 Final proposal . ................................................................................................................................................ 28 CONSIDERATIONS . ............................................................................................................................. 29 Whitby Traffic observations and traffic Alleviation . .................................................................................. 29 Car park location selection ............................................................................................................................ 29 Materials used on the car park ...................................................................................................................... 30 UK Policy on Sustainable Transport ............................................................................................................ 30 ELEMENTS OF FINAL PROPOSAL ................................................................................................... 34 Park & Ride Scheme in Whitby ..................................................................................................................... 34 Availability of town centre parking ............................................................................................................... 35 Comparative cost............................................................................................................................................. 36 The quality of bus service .............................................................................................................................. 36 3
  • 3. The quality of car park facility ........................................................................................................................ 36 Bus service ........................................................................................................................................................ 36 Construction of a car park .............................................................................................................................. 37 BRIDGE FINAL PROPOSAL ................................................................................................................ 38 Deconstruction of the current bridge ........................................................................................................... 38 Proposed material for the construction of the new bridge ....................................................................... 38 Bridge Deck and Road Surface ...................................................................................................................... 40 Bridge prefabrication and transportation .................................................................................................... 41 Location for pre-fabricating bridge parts ..................................................................................................... 41 Prefabricating the bridge parts ...................................................................................................................... 42 Bridge leaves transportation .......................................................................................................................... 44 Road modification for the new bridge .......................................................................................................... 45 Soil condition .................................................................................................................................................... 45 Choice of sheet piling sections for piling .................................................................................................... 45 Choice of driving system ................................................................................................................................ 46 Sheet piling presses ........................................................................................................................................ 46 Procedure of pile installation ......................................................................................................................... 47 Design of East pier foundation ...................................................................................................................... 48 Construction ...................................................................................................................................................... 51 FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................................ 52 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 52 Temporary flood protection for Whitby ........................................................................................................ 53 Types of defences that can be used ............................................................................................................. 54 Long term expensive protection .................................................................................................................... 57 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... 58 METHOD STATEMENT ....................................................................................................................... 58 The project management team task includes: ............................................................................................ 59 4
  • 4. Construction Work Schedules ....................................................................................................................... 60 Community and Interagency Cooperation ................................................................................................... 60 Existing Bridge Demolition and Staging ...................................................................................................... 60 TEMPORARY WORKS IN SITE ....................................................................................................................... 61 TRAFFIC DETOUR ............................................................................................................................................ 62 MATERIALS STORAGE ................................................................................................................................... 63 Site fencing ........................................................................................................................................................ 64 LOCAL BUSINESS PREPARATION ............................................................................................................... 65 To minimise noise nuisance:.......................................................................................................................... 66 Dust and Air Pollution: .................................................................................................................................... 66 Access and work place for labour ................................................................................................................. 67 Lighting .............................................................................................................................................................. 68 Develop environmental protection measures ............................................................................................. 69 Handling to shop: ............................................................................................................................................. 69 Erection .............................................................................................................................................................. 70 MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ............................................................................. 71 DRESS WITH SAFETY IN MIND ...................................................................................................................... 71 ROOF and LADDERS: ...................................................................................................................................... 72 SCAFFOLDING: ................................................................................................................................................. 72 Load Security .................................................................................................................................................... 73 Bridge structural work safety manner: ......................................................................................................... 74 Bridge structure safety aim: ........................................................................................................................... 74 Clean up ............................................................................................................................................................. 75 Performing Welding and Cutting: .................................................................................................................. 75 Bridge beam erection ....................................................................................................................................... 80 SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK ..................................................................................................... 81 Value of Sustainability Framework ................................................................................................................ 82 5
  • 5. Sustainability Framework Strategy ............................................................................................................... 82 WASTE MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................... 84 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 84 Major Assumptions .......................................................................................................................................... 84 Waste Generation ............................................................................................................................................. 85 Expected Waste Generation ........................................................................................................................... 86 Waste Management Options........................................................................................................................... 87 Contaminated Excavated Material ................................................................................................................. 89 Potential Waste Management Facilities ........................................................................................................ 90 Conclusions....................................................................................................................................................... 90 STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION STRATEGY.............................................................................. 91 Consultees ......................................................................................................................................................... 91 Integrated Approach ........................................................................................................................................ 93 Types of Activities ............................................................................................................................................ 93 ECONOMIC APPRAISAL ...................................................................................................................... 94 Cost Estimates .................................................................................................................................................. 94 Developing the base estimate ........................................................................................................................ 94 Assessing the Project Risk ............................................................................................................................. 95 Risk Analysis ..................................................................................................................................................... 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY: ................................................................................................................................... 97 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E 6
  • 6. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: SSSI SITE ..................................................................................................................................11 FIGURE 2: THE STRATA ............................................................................................................................13 FIGURE 3: ROOF SHAPE AND PROPERTY HEIGHT ...............................................................................15 FIGURE 4:NARROW STREET ....................................................................................................................15 FIGURE 5: SUBSIDENCE IN WAREHOUSE ..............................................................................................16 FIGURE 6 .....................................................................................................................................................32 FIGURE 7 .....................................................................................................................................................37 FIGURE 8 .....................................................................................................................................................37 FIGURE 9 .....................................................................................................................................................42 FIGURE 10 ...................................................................................................................................................42 FIGURE 11 ...................................................................................................................................................44 FIGURE 12 ...................................................................................................................................................44 FIGURE 13 ............................................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. FIGURE 14 ...................................................................................................................................................47 FIGURE 15 ...................................................................................................................................................49 FIGURE 16 ............................................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. FIGURE 17 ...................................................................................................................................................51 FIGURE 18 ............................................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. FIGURE 19 ...................................................................................................................................................53 FIGURE 20 ...................................................................................................................................................54 FIGURE 21 ...................................................................................................................................................56 FIGURE 22 ............................................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. FIGURE 23 ...................................................................................................................................................61 FIGURE 24 ...................................................................................................................................................64 FIGURE 25 ...................................................................................................................................................69 FIGURE 26 ...................................................................................................................................................71 FIGURE 27 ...................................................................................................................................................71 FIGURE 28 ...................................................................................................................................................72 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 .......................................................................................................................................................35 TABLE 2 .......................................................................................................................................................59 TABLE 3: UNCONTAMINATED EXCAVATED MATERIAL .........................................................................88 TABLE 4: CONTAMINATED EXCAVATED MATERIAL ..............................................................................89 TABLE 5:EXAMPLE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND THE PARTICIPATION PROCESS. ................................. ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. 7
  • 7. INTRODUCTION Whitby, formerly Whiteby, originating from the Norse „the white settlement‟, is a town built around a port, in the north of England on the East coast. The port has developed from the original whaling port of the 18th century. At around 1759 to around 1766 the port was used for the purpose of transportation of goods after which the trade reverted back to whale fishing. The modern port has been successful because of its proximity to Europe, especially the Scandinavian countries. It now has a modern port which is capable of handling a wide range of cargo of both weather critical and all weather types. The town has a huge tourism industry with many attractions and places to stay. Many visitors come in search of the fossils (well preserved ammonite fossils) and jet (also known as black amber, used since the Bronze Age to make beads and jewellery made famous in the 19th century by Queen Victoria) found in the cliffs. Being very historic as it was the place where Captain Cook sailed from as the ship endeavour was constructed there. There are many novels featuring Whitby including Caedmon‟s song by Peter Robinson, Possession by A.S.Byatt, The hundred and ninety nine steps by Michel Faber and possibly the most famous Bram Stoker‟s Dracula. More recently the town has featured in the Yorkshire television drama „Heartbeat‟, it hosted the annual world music festival musicport, Whitby also enjoyed the bi annual gothic festival and the three day regatta, an annual event. In 2006 it was voted the best seaside resort by WHICH? Magazine. This study is focused on alleviating traffic congestion in the harbour zone without taking anything away from the towns very varied tourism trade. The types of traffic and the different areas of the harbour have all been examined so that the many different proposals could be drawn up and examined and a final solution decided upon. The harbour zone is the land up to and including (to the west) the western edge of the west pier and it‟s breakwater; pier road; marine parade; St. Anne‟s Staith; New Quay road up 8
  • 8. to the railway station and the fence on the eastern side of the railway lines as far as the high level bridge (also known as new bridge), (to the south) the high level bridge and its junction with Helredale Road (and the entrance to the larpool industrial estate), (to the east) the eastern side of the road leading towards the from the town centre from the junction named above onto the eastern side of the east pier and its breakwater, (to the north) the north sea beyond the ends of the breakwaters of the east and west piers. Scope The scope of the study is to consider improving or replacing the existing swing bridge, introducing one or more new river crossings, the provision of improved car parking facilities and identification of sites for new development while embracing the principles of sustainable development and taking into account the changes in climate in the future. Whitby‟s local authority is Scarborough Borough Council. This local authority has joined together with North Yorkshire County Council, Yorkshire Forward, English Partnership, and a number of private developers to form the Whitby Traffic Management Partnership (WTMP). This partnership is commissioning and managing a series of studies to identify the best solution for the development of the harbour zone. 9
  • 9. SITE INVESTIGATION Desk Study As detailed in the introduction the zone in consideration is both the upper and lower harbour areas of Whitby on the East coast of England. The area has a low laying area close to the water which is surrounded by cliffs to the East and West. The water is the River Esk with drains the North Yorkshire Moors and runs to the North Sea. There are many listed buildings in Whitby, none of which fall within the area of consideration. There have been reports of Ancient Burial grounds found near to the area we are looking at therefore the risk of delays due to archaeological excavations could be high. There does not seem to be any contaminated land in the area under consideration therefore the risk of contaminated land being a problem seems to be low. There are areas of Sites of Special Scientific Interest close to the areas we are considering therefore considerations must be made during the work to take into account these area so not to damage anything that exists in this area. The areas are shown below. 10
  • 10. Figure 1: SSSI site Looking at the topography of the area there could be problems with approaching the site by road especially for any heavy good vehicles. There seem to exist good rail links to Whitby and the station at Whitby is close to the shore. Previous work that has been pursued in Whitby has used the water as the route of assess as there is the facility for the movement of large cargo vessels. The area has suffered flooding and this has caused problems for a few residents but it is not extreme. The East cliff has had problems with erosion and this seems to be a big problem but there has been a management plan put in place to monitor the problem and in the future it is thought that there will be improvements made to the quality of the soil to reduce the erosion of the cliff. There have been landslides to the west of Whitby but in Whitby itself the probability of such occurring is low. Subsidence has been a problem and is still a problem it seems to be cause by the water from rain on the top of the cliff causing the lower layers in the cliff to become unstable. The problem has been relieved on the East cliff by the installation of drains at the surface of the cliff face. 11
  • 11. Whitby has had seismic activity in the past as there is a fault line that runs on the contour of the existing path of the River Esk. The fault has become dormant but the signs that it was active can be seen in the cliffs to the west of the town. 12
  • 12. Reconnaissance The ground stratum in Whitby is very interesting. Due to the fault that runs along the line of the River Esk the ground on the east side of the town was found to have a difference in the continuation strata of approximately 12m, the east side of the river being higher than the west. There is also a slope from north to south of approximately 3°. This unusual geology has given us the chance to look at the strata more closely as it is clearly on show further to the east and west of the harbour zone. The photographs below show the strata and are labeled so that it can be clearly addressed within which layers we intend to work and the problems that will face us with any recommendations specified. Glacial Till Eller Beck Bed Sandstone Dogger Sandstone Alum Shale Figure 2: The strata 13
  • 13. The Alum shale is a mud type rock that is stable when not weathered but when weathering occurs it is a soft flaky substance, easy to excavate but not stable for building on. The Dogger Sandstone is the hardest of the sandstone layers that is low in the makeup of the cliff, it is stable and strong but is very difficult to excavate due to the high concentration of iron in the makeup. The Eller Beck Bed Sandstone is obviously a strong stone as it is sandstone but it is not as strong as the Dogger layer. The glacial till layer is made up of sand, pebbles and boulders, it can be hard to excavate due to the boulders in the layers but is easier than the Dogger sandstone. Looking at the existing bridge it has been shown that the pier to the west cliff side is currently in good condition. The construction of concrete and timber has lasted well but any steel has corroded to the point where it is not useful. The bridge is currently painted to reduce the corrosion of the structure but this is causing a problem, as the paint ages it starts to peel from the surface and land in the river to be carried out to sea but this causes pollution in the area. The bridge must be painted when this happens so this means that the painting must take place every ten to fifteen years at a high cost. Visiting the town it is obvious that there are not many, if any properties that are higher than four storeys. The properties all seem to have pitched roofs. Much of the town was built in the 19th century and the style of building has stayed the same in the town to be in keeping with the existing structures. In the 19th century the style of roads was to have the properties close together therefore the properties in the town are close together and the streets are very narrow (figures 3 & 4). 14
  • 14. Figure 3: Roof shape and property height Figure 4:Narrow Street The subsidence in the town is very obvious as the picture below shows the floor of the warehouse has sunk around the columns supporting the roof. This could have severe consequences for any new structures to be built in this area. 15
  • 15. Figure 5: Subsidence in warehouse Ground Investigation There is a possibility that the existing columns that support the bridge may be in bad condition so that may be unsuitable for reuse, a full structural analysis must be carried out to establish the condition of the supports if they are to be reused. A log of the boreholes in the area around Whitby show the layers of the ground to be what was expected from the reconnaissance but there are no boreholes carried out close to where we would want to construct any new structure so no exact conclusions can be drawn. 16
  • 16. Proposed Ideas - Brainstorming The first proposals the group found were founded from a brainstorm of the brief. The brief was split up into sections of requirements to be fulfilled. Each section of the solution was then brainstormed. The ideas that arose and the sections which they appear under are listed below. Part A – Improve or replace existing bridge Improve – mechanism Whole bridge- pedestrians Widen and make paths wider Vehicle only Replace- Totally different style Similar style- Reuse parts New parts Position/ Location Part B – Consider provision of a new river crossing Ski Lift – pedestrian only Bridge - pedestrian only Movable Fixed Vehicle Boat - pedestrian only Car park Tunnel - pedestrian only Vehicle Cable Car- pedestrian only Monorail - pedestrian only Part C – Improve car parking in the town Temporary car park – Endeavour wharf Park and Ride - Tram 17
  • 17. Bus Pedestrians only town centre Traffic restrictions/ priority passes/ bollards Part D – Areas for new development Improve breakwaters to calm harbour waters New marina Develop on endeavour wharf Different types of development – Museum Shopping centre Conference facilities Horse racecourse Music arena Sports centre Entertainment centre Aquarium As we are looking to the future of the earth than we needed to consider sustainable ways of working so four criteria were used to think about the different aspects of sustainability and what aspects came under each criteria. The four criteria were economic, social, environmental and natural resources. Below are listed the initial thoughts under each criteria. 18
  • 18. Criteria for selection: Social Public engagement – Getting the community more involved in the area, public opinion on the plans for the area Creating Employment Young People - Reduce number leaving the town Health and safety Disabled access - Make the town a disables friendly town Reduced crime rates - Making the town light reducing dark shadowed areas where people could hide would make people feel a lot safer. Making areas where the young can meet would reduce graffiti and criminal damage. Happiness - Bringing the community together. Harmony - Uniting people from the town Identity - Stay in keeping with the towns traditional aesthetics to make people feel at home in their community. Fulfilment - Making them feel like staying safe and obeying the rules will make them better people and therefore make the town better. Self Respect - Making the community feel like they are contributing to the town. Self Realisation - Showing the community what they can achieve. Community - Giving the people a chance to come together and meet to form the bonds of a community. Enlightenment - Making people better by bringing them together. Health - Increasing the relationships in a community can increase the ability for people to care for each other. Wealth - Increasing the income or reducing the outgoings of a person will make them feel more wealthy therefore making them happier and in turn healthier. Leisure - Increasing the leisure time of people increases there health and happiness. Knowledge - The more knowledge a person has the more they feel empowered and therefore happier. Labour - Use of local skills will make the community feel like they are more involved with the project and therefore make and development more likely to succeed. Tools - The use of locally made tools and traditional ways of working in the area will make the project more in keeping with the area and local people will be happier with the overall end product. Gender Equality - The use of equal numbers of male and female persons in the design, construction and run of the scheme will encourage more of the community to get involved. 19
  • 19. Economic Life Cost - Although the costs from the design to the termination will be covered by the WTMP they will still expect that the new development will at least make them enough money to cover its own construction and running costs. Generation of income - Any development has to generate some income to break even. Financial Risk - Time is money and therefore any time lost due to material supply or delivery and mechanical plant supply or use will cost the project money and therefore all the risks must be known before any work will start. Existing businesses - Any affect the new development has on existing businesses must be positive or the project will be rejected from the start. Tools - The use of local tool will decrease the cost of the job as delivery, transportation costs will be low. Skills - Use of local skills could reduce costs as the work force would live locally which means they would not needed rented accommodation or help with transport costs. Environmental Planning Constraints Sites of special scientific interest, conservation areas and listed buildings at or close to the site will need to be considered as the work in the area could affect these types of sites. Energy - The use of renewable energy to power any electrical, mechanical systems would only benefit the environment. Noise - The affect of noise during any construction and running could disturb the existing environment. Vibration - The affect of vibrations during any construction and running could disturb the existing environment. Visual - The area is very picturesque and any construction must fit into the surrounding area. Carbon - All the construction, running and termination carbon footprint must be considered. Rubbish - All the construction material must be carefully considered and as little as possible should be wasted to landfill or otherwise. Any work should consider the air pollution that will be caused by this and consideration of any ground/river emissions is important. The site must also look at any special waste that may be generated such as contaminated land the disposal of this may need to be considered. Land use - if possible the percentage of land used for the built environment and the natural environment should stay as close to the existing ratio as is possible. 20
  • 20. Natural Resources Recycled Material - Where possible recycled material either from the existing site or otherwise should be considered for use. Recyclable Material - Any material used in the project should have the ability to be recycled in the future. Local material - The use of local material is more favourable than importing material environmentally. Ease of Termination - The more easy the project is to terminate. Renewable Sources- All the material we use should be from renewable sources so that the material is not being depleted. Energy - Energy from the process of obtaining the material and manufacturing the material should be considered. Once the ideas were discussed to get to the initial proposals and dismiss the eccentric ideas we all looked closely at the ideas and made a number of final proposals which we then marked against a criteria table to gain marks and help us decide the best solution. A copy of the criteria table is in Appendix E-02. 21
  • 21. Severe Hazards: Hazard Description Measures to reduce risk  Safety lines should be used to secure any person up a ladder and the ladder should also be secured. Persons may fall from a Fall From Height height above the ground  Scaffold should have the correct handrails at the correct height and safety nets should be installed in high risk areas. Persons may be caught  Care should be taken when moving close to water. unaware of the rising Drowning  Consideration of the tidal levels should be made and work should only be carried water level in the tidal out at an acceptably safe tidal level. zone  The correct procedure for the lifting and moving of material should be used and Material Above Material falling from a only persons trained in this should be allowed to secure material for this task. Ground Level height  No person should be below a piece of material as it is moved above ground level  Care should be taken that only persons qualified to use the equipment are in the Welding and cutting area. Hot Surfaces causes hot surfaces  All safety equipment should be worn when entering the site boundary.  No smoking within site boundary.  Clean as you go so that stray material can not cause a fire hazard. Fire may have many  The areas where hot work or work causing sparks e.g. welding should be clear of Fire causes excess materials.  Explosive/flammable material should be stored as per the instructions in a safe manner and place.  Existing supplies should be located so that damage when excavating is not caused. Electrocution Damaged electric supplies  New supplies should be only laid by qualified persons. 22
  • 22.  Existing supplies should be located so that damage when excavating is not caused. Gas Damage to Gas Supply  New supplies should be only laid by qualified persons.  Pathways for pedestrians should be made.  Pavements for vehicles should be made. Vehicle/Vehicle Collisions  Pavements and pathways should be kept clear. Vehicle Accidents Vehicle/Pedestrian Collisions  Vehicles and pedestrians should stay in their own areas unless it is essential that they must cross.  Care must be taken by pedestrians when crossing vehicle pavements.  All fine aggregate must be covered to avoid it causing damage to eyes. Vision Impaired Caused by fine debris  Welding mask/visors must be worn by any person undertaking these types of Caused by welding task.  Only trained persons must handle the tools they are trained for. Injuries such as cuts from Injury from tools working with tools on site  Safety equipment suitable for that job must be used. 23
  • 23. After close consideration of the above mentioned criteria and hazards the two prevailing alternatives are as follows: ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS Option 1 One of the alternative options was to carry full maintenance and repair of the existing swing bridge to extend its life. In addition, traffic restriction was introduced on current bridge. Improving current Park and Ride facilities and providing bus route with designated drop off points in the town centre was proposed for every alternative solution. Park and Ride facilities is relatively cheap solution which alleviate traffic congestion in the town centre and also solves current issue with lack of car parking spaces in Whitby during a tourist peak time. This option was evaluated and compared against design check-list where all options were compared. Current bridge abutments and foundations are found in good condition except revealed series of voids in the stone masonry abutments (see Foundation Chapter). Therefore no actions are required for existing foundations. The east pier‟s piles are carrying fairly critical load, but introduced traffic restriction will reduce imposed loading on foundations. According to the survey of 2000 and visual inspection during field course, the timber fender system cannot be relied upon to provide protection against collision. Timber is in bad condition and could not be repaired. New fender system should be designed and constructed as a part of this option. Fender system is also used as an access platform during maintenance of the swing bridge. This aspect should be taken into account during design of new fender system. All heavily corroded steel members of the superstructure were replaced during a major refurbishment in 1985 by bolting on additional steel plates. Sea salt caused a corrosion of the steel pedestrian parapets. It requires repairing or replacement with providing efficient corrosion protection. Bridge structure requires repainting. Some of paint surface layers already de-bonded from the bridge superstructure. Repainting of 24
  • 24. the bridge and improvement of protection against corrosion increases maintenance cost of the swing bridge. Fatigue cracks occur in the superstructure steelwork due to repeated motion of traffic over the bridge leaves. Such cracks could lead to a sudden failure, particularly in low temperature conditions. Traffic restriction will reduce applied loadings on the bridge structure and should alleviate propagation of fatigue cracks. Despite of swing mechanism, electrics and hydraulics of the bridge were overhauled during last major maintenance work, bridge still experience high operational cost and technical problems and failures in opening mechanism. Due to this, swing mechanism should be upgraded and some components totally replaced using advanced technologies and innovations to reduce operational and further maintenance cost. Different options for the traffic restriction were offered by team members. One of them was pedestrianising existing swing bridge and allowing only emergency services to use current bridge. It will force drivers to use High Level Bridge, reduces traffic congestion in the town centre and significantly reduces imposed loading on the bridge structure. It also provides solution for pedestrian safety crossing the bridge in favour of this option. Another option could be to introduce pass system only for locals, surrounding services and business. One-way traffic across bridge could be introduced as an option too. The cars will not be forced to stop on the traffic light approaching the bridge. It will create continuous and smooth traffic flow across the river and prevent possible congestion and traffic queuing. The swing bridge is a historic landmark of the Whitby town, which attracts tourists. Proposed solution maintains character of the town and does not destroy it the architectural and the historical value. This solution is probably the cheapest option comparing only construction cost of possible solutions, but its maintenance and operation cost is higher than team‟s selected final proposal. It also is not capable of extending life of the bridge for another 100 years. After relatively short time it will need repainting and high cost maintenance again. Future development of the Harbour area will attract more traffic in the town centre, so introduced traffic 25
  • 25. restriction might cause problems with an access to the proposed development and make it redundant due to poor infrastructure. Option 2 The second option considers additional crossing over river Esk. Proposed location for the new crossing was connection from New Quay Road to the Car park on the Church street. Other possible locations for the crossing were discarded due to problems with providing an access to the crossing and required modification of the existing infrastructure. The opening type steel bridge and tunnel under river Esk where compared. Tunnel will not cause any alteration to the river traffic, but this option was scraped due to following reasons. First of all, it is very expensive and time consuming construction. The access ramps for the tunnel have quite steep slope and are within the flood risk area of a required by client level of 4.80m. The pilling and excavating works will cause major distractions in the harbour area, has a negative environmental impact and therefore is an unsustainable solution. The bridge design composes of tree span deck supported on two piers with opening mechanism in the mid-span as shown in App C-01. The main disadvantages of this project are high cost, problems with navigation and alteration of visual character and an architectural feature of the site. As a part of this solution, the existing swing bridge is used for pedestrians only, so it requires maintenance work as described in previous chapter for alternative Option 1. This multiplies the cost of the project. The second opening bridge doubles operational cost. Two opening bridges allocated close to each other in the marine area with high rate of river traffic will cause navigation problem. Also bridges should be opened almost in the same time for boat to pass bridges. This will stop traffic across the river over both bridges and could cause congestion. The construction of the bridge requires additional space in the tight marina. Amount of the berthing spaces in the harbour will be reduced to accommodate new crossing. It could not be accepted due to existing shortage of berthing spaces in the harbour. The port facilities of the Endeavour Wharf will be affected by the new crossing 26
  • 26. adjacent to it. Construction works have negative impact on surrounding environment such as disturbing species habitat. Visual character of Whitby will be affected by proposal of the new bridge. The crossing will be slightly higher than surrounding area and the access ramps will be erected in front of the existing buildings facades. It will create shadow areas in very lively areas, which will not be attractive to the pedestrians and act as a physical barrier. Local business will suffer from such negative impact. Vehicles passing through on relatively high speed increase noise level in the town. Opening Bridge The preference initially was given to the swing bridge as the main idea was to keep a new bridge design as close to the existing bridge. The three major types of movable bridges, swing, bascule and vertical lift, were compared to each other for the final solution. The bascule bridge is the most common type of opening bridges. The bascule bridge requires counterweight that balances the span and could be positioned either below the deck or elevated above. The counterweight below the deck requires space provided, that makes abutment design more complicated and does not give any chance to use current abutment. Overhead counterweight will disturb view of the marina. In open position bridge leaves will stick approximately 15m in the air. It will be much higher than surrounding buildings. Due to these reasons, bascule bridge type was not selected for the final design, regardless it was spanning river Esk at the same location before 1909. The vertical lift bridge is not a feasible solution due to its height requirement. A 25m clearance above water level is currently required by the Harbour Authority to allow passage of the vessels. This is the main disadvantage for this type of bridge. The disadvantage of swing bridge type is reduced river channel width. Piers supporting bridge superstructure is a hazard to navigation. This risk can be alleviated by providing effective fender system. Bridge leaves will be anchored to the abutment, so it does not require provision of any counterweight. Total weight of the bridge will be reduced comparing to other moveable bridges. 27
  • 27. ALTERNATIVE CHOSEN - FINAL PROPOSAL Method used In order to conclude to our single viable solution our team followed the well specified method of designing and constructing a scoring matrix table. The scoring matrix table is located at Appendix E 1 . It is composed of about 70 different criteria which were designed and specified on such a manner so the scoring method is thorough and detailed in the examination of the different available options to be undertaken. The process of filling and evaluating the scoring matrix yielded the following final proposal. Final proposal Our group final proposal is composed from the following four parts: 1. Construction of a new bridge at the same location 2. Development of a Park and Ride scheme within the limits o Whitby 3. Further development options such as the construction a museum and the conversion of the current bridge to a museum as part the U.K. Civil engineering heritage. 4. And finally the flood barriers protection combined with the new bridge or the brake water piers or temporary solution which is and the most favorable at the current situation. The reader may refer to the following Appendices A,B in order to have a detailed view of our proposals. 28
  • 28. CONSIDERATIONS Whitby Traffic observations and traffic Alleviation Prior of choosing a location that is suitable for the Park and ride facilities at Whitby and in order to alleviate traffic from the town centre traffic assessment was carried out. The results of the traffic assessment concluded that the major volume of traffic is coming firstly from the South link of the town (ie Scarbourough), secondly from the west link to the town (M1)and the third part of the traffic volume is oriented from the north (Middlesbrough). Additionally, due to its unique nature and geomorphology of Whitby, the town has also two major road arteries that lead to the centre one on the west side and one on the east side of the town. The approach to the town from the west side is through two narrow roundabouts and narrow streets in combination with a steep inclination. In the contrary the approach to the town from the east side is through a wider road and a less steep inclination. The fact that the east approach is less steep and wider makes it suitable for vehicles of higher volume such as busses or any other form of public transport. Car park location selection Once our design team conducted the above mentioned study it become apparent that the most suitable location for a Park and ride facility in terms of topography and not only should be as close as possible to the eastbound approach of the town centre. Further consideration of the unique nature of Whitby and its surroundings was given particularly in relation to the town of Whitby and its boundaries which are in close proximity with the national park. Therefore a Park and ride facility shouldn‟t violate, contradict or implicate the process of the planning permission in a significant way. When conducting a brief examination to the Scarborough local plan map in regards with Whitby town become clear that the most suitable location is the one opposite to the existing Whitby Abbey car park. The Plot of land that our team has identified and proposing is the one of triangular shape and is within the limits the heritage coast named as wind hill mill on the local plan and its neighboring limits are: 29
  • 29. to the east the existing caravan park, to the north with Green lane top and to the southwest with Abbey lane. Based on the same observations the location of the drop of point is selected at the Church Street (Appendix B -Drawing 2). Materials used on the car park The list of materials that can be used for Landscaping maybe found at Appendix 12. A close look to this table makes clear that the best performers are the concrete paving specifications (except for high volumes of in situ concrete) and the U.K. produced Portland stone paving slabs. The brick and granite perform intermediately due to the nature of the material (its thickness).Asphalt performs worst due to more intensive industrial processing and the need to replace the material more often. A significant embodied impact can be attributed to the hardcore base used beneath landscaping materials. This impact may be reduced if recycled aggregates are used, by using recycled aggregate for both the hardcore and concrete mix design will improve the environmental profile of the material and the project overall. Consequently additional quality controls and performance factors will need to be taken into account in order to ensure adequate strength and stability of materials. Based on the previously mentioned facts, the decision was to propose proprietary grassed concrete paving in combination with concrete paving slabs for the biggest percentage of the area of the proposed car park, (opposite the existing car park). The only exception was made to the parking lots dedicated to people with special needs and to the parking lots dedicated to families with children where wheelchair and baby trolleys access is needed those areas. These areas will be made layered with either concrete or asphalt. In regards with the fencing materials that can be used for the car park, fencing such as pretreated timber or galvanized wired chain-link fence with steel posts, both options perform equally well in terms of sustainability ratings. Therefore the choice of the fencing arrangement is left for the future always keeping in mind the visual impact of such arrangement in combination with cost since the area of Whitby is one of particular architectural interest. Environmental considerations: UK Policy on Sustainable Transport 30
  • 30. A full bus or train clearly consumes less carbon than 50 - 500 separate cars; this in itself means that using public transport will help to reduce fuel emissions. In the late year‟s record amounts of investment are being poured into public transport to make it a safer and a more appealing option for the commuter in general. This is part of wider government plans to reduce harmful fuel emissions by 20% of their 1990 levels by the year 2010. It is also worth bearing in mind that electric trains, trams and tube trains will become considerably more sustainable as a means of transport once more electricity is supplied from sustainable energy sources. The government is investing in initiatives to help achieve this. Steps are also being taken to actually reduce the carbon output of current public transport systems. The U.K. government has already implemented plans to run Hydrogen buses on certain bus routes, with 6 hybrid electric buses being on a trial run between 2005/6 in the city of London. The EU have proposed measures which will oblige private funded public transport operatives to invest 25% of their income for new fleet vehicles over 3.5 tonnes into systems of sustainable transport. Effectively this would entail 25% of all new buses running on sustainable forms of energy. The EU is planning a major transport awareness initiative in 2008-09. With government and EU initiatives in place, there is reason to be positive about public transports role in helping to reduce fuel emissions further. However, much of this will be dependent on the behaviour of the individual until all public transport runs on fully sustainable fuel. Types of sustainable fueled vehicles:  CNG vehicle: The use of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) as an alternative fuel reduces vehicle emissions substantially. CNG vehicles generate fewer exhaust and greenhouse gas emissions than their gasoline- or diesel-powered counterparts. The relative cleanliness of the fuel also means that maintenance can be extended from 3,500 miles to over 6,000 miles. It generally costs less than petrol.  Hydrogen powered Vehicle: 31
  • 31. A hydrogen powered vehicle in general is using the Ballard fuel cell engine which assists in the generation of electricity by using the hydrogen stored on the hydrogen cylinders. The hydrogen fueled vehicles are using advanced technology that may be the foundation of a future energy solution. We don‟t need to actually write about the pros that go along with the use of such hybrid vehicle especially for use on a large scale a public transport. Undoubtedly, Hydrogen is a key element in the future strategy for road transport. To conclude Hybrid buses are quieter, cleaner and use less fuel. They use a combination of a conventional engine and an electric motor.  Hybrid Vehicle: A Hybrid vehicle may be any combination of conventional technology coupled with any type hybrid technology. For example the buses, manufactured by the Wright Group, have a 336 volt battery pack which provides power to the wheels via a 120Kw electric motor. The battery pack is kept at optimum power by a 1.9litre diesel Euro IV engine. In other words, an engine which would normally be found in a family car keeps the batteries charged. Figure 6 When the vehicle brakes, energy which would normally be wasted is recycled and used to charge the batteries. With continuous charging of the batteries, the vehicle 32
  • 32. can achieve a larger operational range than a conventional diesel bus because it gets more miles to the gallon. Environmental benefits When compared with the conventional diesel buses the hybrids deliver considerable environmental improvements:  89 per cent reduction in oxides of nitrogen  83 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide  40 per cent reduction in fuel use  38 per cent reduction in carbon dioxide  30 per cent reduction in perceived sound levels (noise reduced from 78dB to74dB) The results show that these buses produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions and harmful local pollutants, as well as having lower noise levels.  Biogas and Biofuel - Biogas, may be produced by decomposing organic material, and emits far less carbon dioxide than traditional fossil fuels. - Bio-fuel may be produced by crops for dedicated for Bio-fuels, but even if all unused fields in Europe were used for the production of Bio-fuel this amount of production will only count for 10% of the fuel needs of the European vehicle stock.” Automotive expert Professor Garel Rhys said: “Because the basic diesel engine is so adaptable, it works very well on vegetable oil. It probably is in the bus industry that one will see a lot of these alternative fuels,” said Prof Rhys, emeritus professor of Cardiff University‟s Centre for Automotive Industry Research. Proposal for the Whitby Park and Ride Scheme Taking into account all the above stated we came to the conclusion that the most suitable option for the Whitby Park and Ride Scheme is the one of a hybrid vehicle (Bus). The process of recharging the batteries by the use of a small size diesel engine will maybe assisted also by solar panel arrays operating at the non visible band of light and maybe some small wind generators located at the peripheral area of the proposed parking location minimizing the CO2 even more. 33
  • 33. ELEMENTS OF FINAL PROPOSAL Park & Ride Scheme in Whitby The small coastal town of Whitby is dealing with lot of problems that should be addressed in order for it to function properly. As a part of the Harbour Zone Traffic Alleviation Study it is proposed to introduce Park & Ride scheme in the town. Park and Ride is well established in many towns and cities and number of sites continues to grow. Scarborough and York is two nearby examples where there is substantial investment in Park & Ride services. In order for Park and Ride to work in Whitby a research must be carried out. Before Park & Ride can be introduced in Whitby there should be extra parking facilities available. To make sure that Park & Ride scheme works successfully the research was carried out to see how other cities have dealt with it. It was looked at City of Oxford that is a very popular attraction for tourists due to it historical background. Currently, Oxford has 2000 parking spaces available, whereas Whitby has approximately 1535 parking spaces (Table 1), so it is suggested to build a car park at Abbey Headland for another 590 spaces. 34
  • 34. Table 1 Users will make choice between parking in the town centre or using Park and Ride service. For many people parking in the town parking in the town will be preferred option. They will be persuaded to use Park & Ride facilities by one or more number of factors:  Lack of parking in the town centre  Comparative cost  Quality of Park and Ride facilities  Priority measures which enable the bus to get into the town centre faster than cars due to traffic  The quality of bus services Availability of town centre parking In Whitby there is a difficulty to find parking space available in the town centre, especially during busy summer months, bank holidays and weekends. Many people are persuaded to park further away from the town centre and then walk to it. Lack of parking spaces makes people to park in inappropriate places like side of narrow streets or pedestrian paths which cause more traffic. 35
  • 35. Comparative cost Unlike bus travel, the parking is paid per vehicle rather than per passenger. The overall cost of using Park and Ride should not exceed car park charges in the town centre. Indeed, it will generally be lower to reflect the fact that the service is less convenient. The quality of bus service Whitby will be investing in the quality in the bus service provided and specify the provision of new buses to the latest standards including disable access. Also bus service should run frequently, so people could get back to their cars without any inconvenience. The quality of car park facility In order to provide higher quality of car park facilities it is proposed to invest in to building some terminal facilities like baggage lockers, toilets and waiting room. After looking at all the possible locations for Park & Ride car park we have decided that the best location would be at Abbey Headland. Appendix B-01 shows all the car parks in town centre as well as a proposed location for Park & Ride car park. It is a very convenient location because it will avoid all the traffic coming in the town centre. There is a car park already, so it will be very convenient to arrange a pick up/ drop off point nearby. Bus service There will be a bus service provided for people to get from the Abbey Headland car parks to the town centre. It is suggested to make bus ride free, but charge for parking. This way it will attract people to use Park & Ride facilities, especially 36
  • 36. families. Also it is advised to make frequent bus service about every 10 minutes. The pick up/ drop off point will be situated where the current car park on Church street. Construction of a car park A construction of a car park should commence before any bridge work can be carried out. This will avoid any traffic in the town before any innovation will be done. Each parking space will be about 3 m width and 6 m long in cause it need to accommodate a mini bus. Also 5% of all parking spaces will be for disabled parking that is about 30 spaces. Figure 7 show that for disabled parking we will be providing extra space about 1.2 m to allow easy access to a car. Figure 7 A vast range of materials in different finishes and colours is available for paving purposes. The cheapest and sustainable material for car park surface is gravel, but it is unsuitable for wheelchairs and buggies. So, it is proposed to use textured ready- mixed concrete (Fig. 8) that has a low cost and good visual appearance if detailed correctly. The main disadvantage of ready-mixed concrete is that it has to be detailed carefully otherwise it will have a bad visual appearance. Figure 8 37
  • 37. In future if more parking spaces are required there is enough space available to expand proposed car park up to 1000 spaces. The detailed AutoCAD drawing of the proposed car park is allocated at Appendix B. Bridge Final proposal Deconstruction of the current bridge First of the leaves of the current bridge have to be removed. To do that, the floating crane will be used to lift each leave and to mount it on a barge(see APP-A-06) . After that the barge will either take it to the proposed location, where it will be put as a museum bridge or take the leaves to the Middlesbrough, where they can be easily unloaded and recycled, as there is a variety of facilities capable of doing that. As only the location of East pier is going to be changed, pier is going to be deconstructed and all the construction blocks will be stored. Later, a new pier is going to be put together in a different location(see APP-A-05), using the same material. All the deconstruction and future construction of the new pier is preferred to be done in dry environment. To make it possible, the cofferdam is going to be constructed around the area where the current East pier is located right now and where it is going to be located after. There will be no need to remove the old pile- foundation as the new piled foundation is going to be put in a slightly new location. (see APP-A-05) Proposed material for the construction of the new bridge Steel as a material for the Bridge Steel structure was selected for the swing bridge design. The main advantage of steel is its high specific strength. High strength to weight ration comparing to the concrete reduces weight of the structure significantly. It is necessary requirement for movable bridges to keep structures weight to a minimum. High Strength Polymers 38
  • 38. were taken into consideration, but due to high cost of the material and lower ductility such option was not applied to Whitby project. Low weight of structure also reduces cost of foundation design. Timbers piles on east pier should be replaced during construction of the new swing bridge. Fewer piles and smaller size could be selected for the foundation using steel superstructure. Typical reduction in 30-50% could be achieved over concrete decks (Corus Construction Centre 2002). Mechanical part of the swing mechanism and bearing will experience lower loads during opening/closing the bridge. It reduces design cost of components and its maintenance. Steel leaves of the bridge could be fabricated in the factory with better quality control and reducing fabrication errors. Delivery and erection of prefabricated steel units for the bridge saves time of construction and also eliminates risks during erection of the steel work. Steel does not require formwork for erection and falsework also eliminated comparing with concrete pouring. The labour needed to construct a steel bridge can be significantly decreased. Steel bridges are generally easier to repair than their concrete counterparts. Sections of steel beams can be replaced. Concrete bridges, however, can require extensive and time-consuming repairs when impacts of damages, cracking or erosion occur. Maintenance cost could be predicted more accurately for steel structure. Steel protection is also cheaper compared to the concrete protection against chloride attack. Main key feature of the final solution is to keep existing bridge character and appearance to maintain aesthetic view of historic town Whitby. Steel provides opportunity to recreate completely same elevation of the bridge. Steel is recyclable and reusable material. Parts of bridge are easily demountable and could be recycled or used for another project after life cycle of the bridge. A steel bridge that is designed with a deck or wearing surface and replaceable components can remain in service for ages with proper maintenance (Transportation Alert Issue 13). 39
  • 39. Corrosion Protection Hot-dip galvanising is used as a corrosion protection for steel components. Bridge structure will be painted red to remain its existing character. A „duplex‟ coating provides extra durability and fulfils decorative requirements. Galvanizing is cheaper comparing to other commonly specified protective coatings. It requires less maintenance therefore reduces long-term costs of the structure. The life expectancy of galvanized coating on typical structural members is far in excess of 20-25 years in severe costal exposure that is higher than current repainting cycle of 10 to 15 years. Galvanizing is carried out according British Standards; minimum-coating thicknesses are applied. Coating life and performance are reliable and predictable. A galvanized coating has a unique metallurgical structure which gives outstanding resistance to mechanical damage in transport, erection and service. Every part of a galvanized component is protected, even sharp corners and inaccessible areas. Galvanizing will be carried out on a factory under quality control. As galvanized steel members are received on site they are ready for erection. Paint layers will be applied in the factory as well to reduce risk of people working on height and also eliminate environmental impact during construction. Before applying paint to galvanized steel, special surface preparation treatments will be used to ensure good adhesion. Light blast cleaning will be applied to roughen the surface and provide a mechanical adhesion. Bridge Deck and Road Surface The orthotropic deck system was selected for the new swing bridge. It is economical alternative which provides ductility, lower structure weight, shallower sections and rapid bridge installation. Lower superstructure weight is the primary reason for the use of orthotropic decks; it has the lowest weight for movable bridges App A-04. The bridge surfacing has two components, a running surface and a waterproof layer. The waterproof membrane will be placed between the road surfacing and the bridge deck to protect the steel below from de-icing salts. The wearing surface provides a durable and skid resistant surface for vehicular traffic. Design of the surface for the 40
  • 40. orthotropic bridge deck is more complicated than that for the concrete deck. It is caused by the greater deflection of the steel member under the wheels load compared to the concrete deck. The bridge is not used for heavy vehicle traffic, therefore a thin surfacing could be provided for the bridge deck. Composed surfacing of asphalt binders and aggregate will be laid on the bridge deck. Polymer resins, as a waterproof layer, also provide attraction between the road surface and the bridge deck. The interior of the closed ribs will be hermetically sealed against the ingress of moisture and air. Galvanized steel is chosen for the deck ribs; and painting coat is applied as for all the steelwork for the superstructure. Bridge prefabrication and transportation There is a variety of advantages offered by prefabrication of the bridge, first of all it offers opportunities for bridge to significantly reduce construction time. Additionally, it improves worker safety, lessen environmental impact, and cut costs. Through prefabrication, most of the work on a bridge can be performed in a controlled environment unlike to on-site construction, with much lower disruption of traffic. Weather becomes less of a factor and quality improves. Workers spend less time on- site, thereby minimizing their risk to traffic and power lines, as well as reducing their time at elevations and over water. Prefabrication also lessens the time that heavy equipment must spend on site, reducing adverse effects on the environment. The erection process from factory to means of transport to final location on site minimises opportunity for damage and for inferior work to he built in. Location for pre-fabricating bridge parts When choosing where the bridge leaves will be pre-fabricated, several factors were considered:  Availability of facilities in the region that are capable of fabricating a bridge  Proximity to the construction site  The distance to the nearest port facilities, as it was concluded that the easiest way of transporting the bridge parts to the construction site is by water transport, like barge with mounted crane. 41
  • 41. A research was made about the steel fabrication shops in the region, and the Middlesbrough appeared to be the most suitable place. Middlesbrough was once known as a centre of iron and steel making, and still has many links with that industry as well. The advantages of Middlesbrough are that it is situated relatively close to Whitby (approximately 25 miles distance) and that there is a good choice of steel prefabrication shops, situated right near the port facilities, what makes Middlesbrough the perfect place for erecting and transporting bridge parts by water relatively quick and easy. (see Fig.9 and Fig.10 below) Figure 9 Figure 10 42
  • 42. Prefabricating the bridge parts Orthotropic decks are often associated with complex design and analysis and are rarely used, even though they are very cost effective. Specifications permitting the use of standardized orthotropic decks not requiring making complicated analytical investigations would encourage their use. The Eurocode provisions for orthotropic decks, for example, exempt some common bridge types from numerical fatigue investigations, provided that the decks satisfy certain geometric requirements and fabrication rules. The Japanese bridge code contains similar provisions. The erection of the bridge will be completed according to the mentioned standards, what will significantly reduce all the issues related to the fabrication. Designing the Standard Panel (see App A-04) shows a proposed design for a standard orthotropic steel deck panel. Cold pressing of ribs in the fabricator‟s shop is an expensive process, requiring specialized heavy equipment. Generally, the length handled by fabrication presses cannot exceed about 12 m. Other disadvantages of cold pressing are the high residual stresses and strain hardening at the corners of the ribs, reducing their fatigue resistance. Cold pressing also increases the difficulty of attaining the prescribed straightness tolerances, essential for correct welding of the ribs to the deck plate. However, the cold-pressed ribs would have to be used because the steel mills could produce hot-rolled profiles only if assured of sufficient tonnage. The cost of fabrication and erection of orthotropic decks depends primarily on specialized labour, not the cost of the steel plate. The rib intersections with the cross beams are labour-intensive. To further reduce the labour cost, it is suggested that the detail at the rib intersections with the cross beams may be simplified by omitting the free cut-outs at the rib bottoms, which require laborious “wrapping around” of the welds and costly grinding smooth the weld ends and around the cut-out. Or another cost reducing solution is that the ribs with rounded bottoms are fitted tightly in the web cut-outs and welded continuously all around the rib periphery.(see Figure 11 below for example) This alternative is possible where the depth of the cross beam is at least twice the rib depth, and it suits our design. For good fatigue resistance, fabricators must strictly adhere to required tight dimensional tolerances. They should also choose welding 43
  • 43. methods and sequences to minimize residual stresses. The panels will act as top flanges of longitudinal girders. Erectors will weld the edges of the panels to the tops of the girders. These welds will resist the interaction shears between the steel roadway deck and the girder. (see App A-04) Figure 11 Bridge leaves transportation The prefabricated structure will eventually have to be transported and lifted into place by heavy-duty equipment. After the bridge girders are pre-fabricated, they are going to be transported to the construction site by water and mounted on the columns. A barge crane (see App. A-06) will be used to transport and mount bridge leaves on columns. We recommend to use barge cranes of a following type and characteristics:  'TITAN' FLAT TOP PONTOON/CRANE BARGE - 64.600 X 17.700 Capacity 150Te  Newt Marine has a fleet of over 40 deck barges ranging in size from 40‟ x 14‟ x 3‟ (12.2 x 4.3 x 0.9m) to 150‟ x 50‟ x 8‟ (45.7 x 15.2 x 2.4m), 250-ton crane. Figure 12 44
  • 44. After the bridge leaves are transported to the construction site, they are going to be mounted on columns (see App. A-06) Road modification for the new bridge A steel sheet pilling system is proposed in order to widen the West access to the bridge as shown in drawing App-A-01. This chapter provides a brief introduction to the methods of installing sheet piling, based upon the Technical European sheet piling Association (TESPA) manual on the installation of the steel sheet piling. Soil condition The successful driving of sheet pilings is dependent on a good knowledge of the site conditions in order to ensure an accurate assessment of the topographical and geological conditions. On the West side of the Swing bridge lot of local businesses are located for example shops and banks. This means that there will be some working restrictions on the construction site such as noise and vibration. This site is subjected to its own unique set of restrictions, which vary according to the proximity and nature of neighbouring buildings and narrow streets. It is recommended to carry out a site investigation of the soils at that location, coupled with a various field and laboratory tests, which greatly will aid to achieve the required penetration of the sheet pilings. Choice of sheet piling sections for piling With all civil engineering projects, there is a primary need to minimize the cost of the work. It is therefore important that the most effective pile must be selected for the task. It is suggested to use wide, deep pilings which tend to be more cost-effective since they provide the same bending strength (at a lower weight per square foot) comparing with narrow sections. Their increased width means that fewer pilings are required to cover a given length of wall, so installation costs can therefore be reduced. The greater the surface area of the piling profile, the greater the driving force required. It is proposed to use a minimum cross section available on the market. To avoid unnecessary deformation of the pile head, proper care is needed to ensure that the pile section chosen be compatible with the prevailing soil conditions. 45
  • 45. The geometry of the pile section may cause plugging of the pilings in most cohesive soil strata and also in certain dense, granular strata. Choice of driving system The choice of a suitable driving system is of fundamental importance in order to ensure a safe and successful pile installation. To insert piles in place it is suggested to use single-acting drop hammer. This hammer is easily adapted to drive any of the piling sections for all ground conditions (above and below the water table). Sheet piling presses It is advised to use sheet piling presses to eliminate of the noise of sheet pile driving, which had for years been accepted as a nuisance to be tolerated. Originally developed to install pilings silently, the machines are also widely recognized for their vibration-free operation. 46
  • 46. Procedure of pile installation Figure 13: shows steps how sheet piles are placed in the ground Sheet pilings are installed in a panel, and the machine is set on the panel by means of a crane (Type 1). The hydraulic cylinders are connected to the pilings and, by pressurizing two drives while the others are locked, enable the pilings to be pushed into the ground, two at a time, to the full extent of the drives. When all the drives have been extended, they are retracted simultaneously, causing the crosshead and power pack to be lowered. The cycle is then repeated to completion. These presses can develop forces of up to 330t/300mt. A movable frame to hold the installed panel and to move from panel to panel, giving complete independence from a crane. In this system, pre-drilling loosens the soil during the press operation (Type 2). A chain pull connected to a fixed point, or to pilings that have already been driven, can provide supplementary press force. 47
  • 47. Jack one pile after another to the complete depth while walking on the previously set pilings. These machines work completely independently from a crane, and they also use the reaction force of the pilings already set to operate. If required, these machines can accommodate limited circular construction (Type 3). Figure 13 shows steps how sheet piles are placed in the ground. Once the piles are driven in place the back filling procedure will commence. It is suggested to use recycled materials for backfilling to make it more sustainable. Finally, the road surface is placed. Design of East pier foundation Introduction to Foundations The current bridge west pier is supported on a caisson founded 5.8m below low water level on rock. The caisson appeared to be heavy pitching stones had been laid around pier. According to the Whitby Bridge Survey & Assessment 1970 the masonry of east pier is founded on a solid mat of timbers supported on 13.7-15.2m timber piles driven into the river bed. Further investigation should be undertaken on west pier‟s and caisson foundation‟s condition and bearing capacity. At this stage is assumed what foundation is suitable to carry imposed loads and there are no improvements or modification required for the new swing bridge. Despite of all timbers of east pier are found in good condition, the pile stresses are fairly critical. New bridge deck designed to carry two-lane traffic, so imposed load on foundation would exceed piles capacity. Therefore decision to replace foundation of east pier was accepted. The second reason to modify east pier is geometry on new proposal. Due to wider bridge deck, structure is constrained with control house (listed building) and plans to use existing west pier. To accommodate these requirements, bridge is offset by an angle in plan around west pier i.e. east pier is moved slightly towards North. See Drw. No. 003. 48
  • 48. Construction of East pier foundation Very important aspect in the bridge design involves determining the appropriate type of foundation. As the West column will be reused for the new swing bridge, we will consider only foundation for the East column. The cost of construction is usually higher if pile foundations are used instead of shallow foundations. Based on the data given us in the design brief and example of the foundation of the current East column, the soil is not sufficiently strong for shallow foundation, so the pile foundation will be used instead. According to the geology of our interest area and analysis of boreholes, a strong incompressible layer is positioned below the location of the current bridge. Hence, the load of the bridge can be transferred to the hard stratum and most suitable type of piles for that are “end bearing piles”. (see App. A-03) Figure 14 Material required for piles to efficiently resist loads and marine environment. The most important parameter when selecting the material is cost. Hence our design team made a research to select comparatively low cost material, having all the other parameters necessary for building piled foundation in this specific case. The research stated that timber is the cheapest and fully acceptable material. 49
  • 49. List of factors, affecting the choice of material Ability to carry design load According to our team approximations, each of foundations will have to carry maximum of 50 tons of dead load in worst case. According to www.piledrivers.org website information, and “Pile Foundations in Engineering Practice” book, timber piles are capable to safely support up to 75 tons with a safety factor at least of two. But loads of more than 30 tons are rarely used on timber piles as a protection against damage due to high driving. Ease of use Very big advantage of timber piling is that it is generally readily available and usually does not require long lead times for shipment. Timber is also easier to handle and install comparing to other materials used for piles, it is also easy to drive and cut to elevation. Durability in specific marine environment Timber used for piled foundation in our design, will be fully protected from the decay as it is fully submerged but fungi need moisture, air, and favourable temperature to grow. As Whitby is a coastal city, there is also an effect of the marine environment: timber structures in a marine environment are subject to attack by a variety of destructive organisms , such as marine borers. The piles are going to be treated with appropriate preservatives and it will prevent or significantly retard this type of deterioration. Based on this information and on the fact that timber piles of the current bridge lasted for 100 years, timber piles will obviously last till the end of the design life of new bridge. Sustainability Timber is a very environmentally friendly, naturally renewable resource that can be replanted after harvesting and it easy to safely dispose all the cut-offs. It makes timber more sustainable than all the other materials used for piled foundations. 50
  • 50. Conclusion Based on the current information and considering the foundation experience of the current bridge it is clearly seen that relatively cheap and efficient timber piled foundation can be created for East column, satisfying all the design needs. Construction Parameters of piles (length, quantity, ultimate load) For timber piles, a series of tests ( static analysis, etc.) will be preformed to determine minimum required pile section to provide necessary capacity. Analysis will help to optimize the cost by defining the perfect number of piles required and showing ultimate load for each pile. After that, the ultimate load will be multiplied by Geotechnical Safety Factors. Construction method For structures that are located over water and especially for timber piles, driving piles is the most suitable method, as it is the cheapest solution for moderate loadings , and installation of piles do not cause significant ground heave or vibrations to existing structures nearby. Figure 15 First of all, cofferdam will be constructed around the location of the old column and proposed new column location (see App-A-05 for details). After that, the same crane that is mounted near the east column on the Bridge Street, that is used to deconstruct the old column, will be used to drive piles in combination with pile-driving mechanism. (see Figure 17 above) 51
  • 51. East foundation construction sequence 1. Construction of the cofferdam 2. Driving the test pile and performing a set of pile analyses. 3. While analysis is performed deconstruction of the bridge will be started 4. Driving piles at the proposed location of the new column 5. Concrete slab will be put on piles, this will finish the construction of foundation, allowing the construction of column to begin. Flood risk assessment Introduction Whitby is a coastal town, with a flood risk that is mainly caused by sea level rise .The impacts of flooding can result in costly repairs, loss of business and in some cases loss of life. The potential prospects for climate change could further increase the risk of flooding in future years. In the design brief it is stated that the highest recorded tide at Whitby was 3.0m and based on the history of flooding in Whitby combined with statistical estimates of extreme sea levels, the water may rise to the level of 3.85m once in 50 years and the level of 4.10m once in 200 years. In the design brief it is recommended to provide protection for the flood level of 4.80 meters. The given ground levels of Whitby were analysed and approximate flooding map was produced by our team. (see Appendix D-01 for details) 52
  • 52. Figure 16 According to the www.environment-agency.gov.uk information based on the past floods events data and computer modelling of flooding, right now only 24 properties are at risk of flooding. (see current flood risk area Figure 19 above ) Considering that information, our design team concluded that at the moment, as the cases of flooding are not so frequent and the chances of high levels are not so big, the cheaper temporary solution is more feasible at the moment. Team also proposed more expensive solution that could be implemented only when there will be first significant signs of climate change especially, growing frequency of floodings, rising of flood levels etc. Temporary flood protection for Whitby First of all, a temporary solution for the flood risk will be discussed. As not that much properties are currently under risk, this part is mostly focused on providing flood defence for private properties that are in the risk zone right now and the ones that will be under risk in nearest future. 53
  • 53. Types of defences that can be used In considering temporary or demountable protection, a number of factors need to be taken into account, including: 1. Cost and manpower requirements for deployment, and time taken for deployment, taking into account that deployment is likely to be in adverse weather conditions, during winter months and possibly in the dark. 2. Effectiveness and suitability taking into account the type of property, the type of flood, the site conditions, and resistance to theft, vandalism, or damage. 3. Storage of systems when not in use. For convenience the various systems are divided into just two categories: self supporting systems and systems which are attached to the building being protected as these cover almost all systems. Self standing systems While expensive, these systems can be very effective for detached properties where deep, high velocity, or long duration flooding is expected. Combined with pumps and generators, the water can be kept well away from the property, so reducing the risk of foundation damage, water penetration, or structural failure of the walls. (see Figure 20 below) Figure 17 54
  • 54. The main problems with self-standing systems are: 1. Bulky and heavy, usually requiring at least two fit people and over an hour for deployment and longer for removal. Deployment can be difficult in the dark, or in adverse weather, especially windy conditions. This may inhibit people from deploying the system until it is too late. 2. Space required around the property, so the barrier can be located far enough away from the walls to allow pumps to be used. If the barrier is close to the property, preparatory work will be needed to protect the foundations, and prevent water coming up through the floor. 3. Not usually suitable for semi detached or terraced properties unless shared by all the residents. 4. Failure or overtopping could be disastrous, with a sudden rush of water hitting the property. 5. Large storage space needed for some systems while not in use. 6. It may be difficult to access the property while the system is deployed. A high stepladder may be needed. Even if a self standing solution is used. it makes sense to also fit an attached system not only as a backup, but to provide immediate protection while tile self standing system is being deployed. Attached systems These are much cheaper systems, costing as little as £300 per door, which should be adequate for short duration shallow floods. Attached systems are quick to deploy by a single person with little or no training. Panels are lightweight and may be able to be carried by a child depending on the size and type. “Floodgates” do not require any preparatory work, but others will require permanent frames to be fitted to the 55
  • 55. property. The use of well-sealed, permanent frames should reduce leakage around the panels. (see Figure 21 below) Figure 18 An alarm can be provided, which can detect rising water in good time for deployment and automatically telephone up to four numbers until the call is answered to give a message that deployment is necessary. If the occupiers are on holiday, there is no reason why they cannot deploy the system before they go, as the door panels cannot be removed without opening the door. The systems are based on the traditional concept of flood boards, which are simple floorboards or planks fastened over door and wall openings before a flood, and covered with some waterproofing material. The English Environment Agency have published useful information on how to make flood boards, and also other tips for limiting flood damage, such as wrapping a property in plastic sheeting or laying sandbags. The main problems with attached systems are: 1. water seepage through floors if the property is built on porous soil and the water table is high. It should be noted that rising groundwater is excluded from insurance policies in the UK. 2. Water seepage through walls, especially on brick cavity walls. In some cases brickwork will need repainting and cracks repaired. A good quality chemical waterproofing solution or even a fibreglass coating may help to reduce water 56
  • 56. penetration if applied to the outside masonry or brickwork. but this may not be acceptable on listed buildings. (On the other hand. for many older houses in flood hazard areas it is traditional to have black bitumen applied to the lower walls.) Traditional solid stone walls with lime mortar are much more resistant to flood water penetration and are stronger. Foundations may be at risk of scour if the soil is porous and in some cases it may be necessary to excavate around the foundations to strengthen and waterproof them. 3. They are dependent on the structural strength of the walls. Cavity wall or timber framed construction does not have sufficient strength to withstand high velocity or deep water floods unless the water is allowed in to equalise the pressure. This means that the height of the panels should usually be limited to if above floor level for such walls so as to allow overtopping if the flood becomes deep in order to prevent structural damage from the flood depth differential. 4. Not suitable for all properties. With most systems the panels are attached to a frame. which is permanently fixed to the walls, to ensure a waterproof seal. For some types of property there may be problems to be overcome if the property is a listed heritage building or if there is not enough room for the frame. For example a doorway in an inside corner of the building, or an airbrick which is in an inaccessible place. Long term expensive protection When there will be signs of significant increase of frequency of floodings and rise of water level, this solution is going to be implemented. As the main risk of flooding in Whitby is coming from the sea, we propose to build a flood gate at the entrance of the harbour, as it is the complex solution that will fully eliminate the danger coming from the sea. Harbour area should remain access for water transport and that is the reason why it is a gate and not just the static barrier. It will be positioned at the narrowest point at the entrance of the harbour (see App. C- 02 for details) in order to avoid unnecessary expense for material. There is also a 57
  • 57. small area near the East pier, where the level is lower than safe limit and it will be raised to avoid water leaking through this spot. (see App. C-02 for details) As soon as there will be a flooding alert, the gate will close down, and protect the harbour from the danger of high tide coming from the sea. To make it more sustainable we may combine the gate with tidal turbine generators. It will produce energy from the tide movement and will be very profitable in long- terms. Considering a huge scale for this solution and extremely high cost, we advise to consider it only when the risk and potential damage from the flooding is really high. Conclusion Applying the solutions that are proposed by our design team should provide necessary protection for all possible flooding scenarios. And it also allows to avoid high-cost solutions that would be rarely used and thus, would be very uneconomical. Method statement Method statements are used to communicate the method up and down the contractual chain, for a variety of purposes throughout the procurement and construction phases. In steel bridge building today, the Bridge Contractor‟s method statement has three essential functions to fulfil in setting out explicitly the plan for carrying out the work. The Erection Method Statement has to communicate: 1. Clear instructions for site management and responsibilities 2. Engineering instructions to site management for the work necessary to achieve the technical performance 3. The safe systems of work to undertake the essentially hazardous tasks inherent in steel erection. 58
  • 58. As it shown on method statement chart below the company management planned to start with constructing a park and ride system to reduce the traffic flow in centre of Whitby. During car park construction project the company will provide information about farther steps and introduce the replacement bridge project to the local public also information about restriction on traffic around bridge site to avoid any inconvenience to the tourism travel and business. Method Statement Table 2 The project management team task includes:  there should be formal arrangements for coordination with all on site  Providing the information about who is in charge of the works.  Providing the information about who is in charge of each crane lift.  A Handover or permit-to-work procedure has to be defined.  Engineering back-up must be provided to deal with unforeseen problems.  the construction logic made clear and sufficient There are two major objectives during the design stage for rapid bridge replacement. One objective is to make sure that reconstruction of the bridge can be conducted quickly based on the design drawings and specifications. Another is to expedite the design process itself. The company aim to provide a new bridge which can be assembled off-site (away from the bridge site) and which will be placed in position with reduce the risk to the public safety. Also a rapid system for the transporting and replacement of bridges, thereby permitting the optimal use of labour and equipment as well as to minimize the risk of delays due to material shortages, strikes, etc. 59
  • 59. Construction Work Schedules The bridge replacing project will start by off tourism seasons in winter to minimise public involving and reduce tourism and business disturbing. The use of various construction work schedules can have a significant impact in the rapid reconstruction of bridges. Beyond the standard 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m work schedule, there are three schedules that warrant discussion; 24-h construction, 12-h construction and night time only construction. The choice of the appropriate work schedule can be written into the contract or left to the discretion of the contractor as company develops the cost estimate and work plan to execute the project within the restraints of the contract _time, cost, and incentives/disincentives. Issues that company considered when selecting the appropriate construction work schedule include: 1. Increases in construction costs typically associated with accelerated construction schedules; 2. Decreases in user costs and public inconveniences associated with shorter out-of- service periods or with limited-peak traffic demand closures; 3. Availability of materials and material deliveries during nonstandard hours; and Loss of worker productivity, loss of quality control, and increased worker safety issues typically associated with accelerated or night time construction or extended work shifts. Community and Interagency Cooperation Support from communities has proved to be a critical factor that makes a bridge replacement project successful. Existing Bridge Demolition and Staging There are no significant existing structures that need to be demolished during the site clearing. The existing bridge is proposed to remain open during construction of the 60
  • 60. park and ride. Once all restriction placed and park and ride start servicing and traffic has been switched over to the High Level Bridge, transporting of the existing bridge can begin. The contractor could begin by removing the west lift span portion of the bridge than the east side. Once the trusses are stripped of non-essential weight, barges could be moved in and the trusses picked off the piers and shipped to an appropriate site to begin the process of recycling. TEMPORARY WORKS IN SITE Figure 19 All designers, for permanent works, for temporary works and for construction engineering, are required to cooperate with regard to health and safety and : Ensuring contract include conditions requiring the contractor with all relevant statutory health and safety legislation  Providing training for the contractor, his employer and sub contractors in the precaution to be taken.  Providing copies of their local safety rules.  Identifying the area where the work is to be carried out and over which the contractor will have control.  Considering public liability or third party insurance  providing safe access for the vehicles and employer site agreement i.e. hours of work, services( water ,etc), welfare facilities(toilets, canters, first aid), fire prevention arrangement , emergency procedure, etc  Informing contractor of procedure for obtaining clearance to excavate and route of any access changed.  Providing temporary parking  Setup Speed limited 61
  • 61.  Communication and points of contract hand over procedure at the end of the contract. In addition apply following HSE publication available in HSE books.  HSG 33health and safety in roof work  HSG 144 safe use of vehicles in construction sites  HSG 149 backs for the future, safe manual handling in construction  HSG 150 health and safety in construction  HSG 168 fire safety in construction work  HSG 185 health and safety in excavation TRAFFIC DETOUR The company will published a manual entitled “Traffic Accommodation in Work Zone Manual” to provide information and guidance to handle accommodation of traffic in a consistent, safe and effective manner. The Traffic Accommodation Strategy shall consist of drawings detailing the configuration of temporary construction signs and other traffic control devices in the work zone(s) and, written confirmation of the methods or procedures being used by the Contractor to address specific traffic safety related issues or situations at the work zone. Establishing temporary traffic detour routes for the travelling public is one of the most urgent tasks that company must perform before starting replacement of bridge project. These detour routes need to be available during the entire period of bridge replacement. There are three common ways to establish detour routes: The first Method is to use High Level Bridge as detour routes for vehicles. As it shown in Appendix sheet (APP-03, Figure1vehicles detour) which is attach to the map documents, the detour start from point and to get to other side swing bridge point the traveller would travel over High Level Bridge(1.6 mi – about 6 mins). 62
  • 62. The second method is to redirect traffic to Existing roads in surrounding areas and the third method is to install prefabricated temporary bridges for pedestrians. The more drivers that observe and support the diversions, the more successful they will prove. For a number of journeys, using the bypass can actually save public journey time and ease city centre congestion. All diversions will be clearly signed and leaflets include plans and commentary to help drivers understand the diversions will be reviewed regularly and published. The County Council must also publish information in local papers. It is important that these routes, including any intended changes, are carefully planned, as they should comply with the same basic safety standards as permanent routes. In addition to cope with traffic in safety manner: Procedure and sequence of operation including a detailed schedule that shall comply with the working hour limitations;  Use one-way systems if it is possible in nearby bridge site construction, they are much safer and easy to signpost and enforce, as it is shown on Appendix (APP- 03, Figure2 one way, speed limit) the northeast on New Quay Road point toward Baxter gate point become a one way road already after bridge road restriction and will Be clearly signposted and marked to show right of way, also needs to Set sensible speed limits and clearly signpost them.  A signaller (banksman) may be needed to supervise vehicle movements nearby construction site during tourism visiting or business loading and unloading.  Restrict access to vehicles where dangerous substances (like petrol or hazardous chemicals) are stored, and where vehicles are refuelled.  Provide screens or other protection for people who are at risk from exhaust fumes, or to protect people from anything that might fall from a vehicle. MATERIALS STORAGE A suitable housekeeping programme will be established and continuously implemented on each construction site which should include provisions for:  The proper storage of materials and equipment; 63
  • 63.  The removal of scrap, waste and debris at appropriate intervals. Endeavour Wharf proposed for material storage for following reasons:  Safe and suitable open place so the vehicles can be manoeuvred easily,  Allow for the largest possible number of vehicles to be loaded or unloaded at one time. Also by consider a refuge or bolthole, to prevent people from being struck by vehicles and a material storage the existing shed is a safe and secure place.  Away from the site boundary for all materials that create dust, including soil. Site fencing Figure 20 Figure 24: Constriction Site Fencing Short term :( crane work and any other heavy machinery work) When pedestrians are likely to be moving past the work area, plastic mesh fencing is required to prevent them straying into the work area. Company will completely surround the work area with plastic high visibility mesh fencing. If works include fuel generated machinery or high voltage tools, then steel mesh and concrete footing is preferred. Once works are complete and made safe, all temporary works shall be removed. Longer term: as it shown on Appendix sheet (APP-04, figure3 Construction Site Boundaries) the fencing to secure construction site is About 158 ft on west side and 64
  • 64. start from northwest on New Quay Rd toward Baxter gate to Continue on St Ann's Staithe head road also on east side Bridge St About 164 ft start from northeast on Bridge St toward Grape Ln and Sand gate Road head for pedestrian fencing will be provided. Steel mesh fencing of height 2.1m and concrete block footings and high visibility plastic mesh fencing is required to prevent pedestrians from straying into the work area. Fencing shall completely surround the work area with plastic high visibility mesh fencing. If visibility or ambient light is poor, then illumination shall be required to highlight diversion. Also except in an emergency, workers, unless duly authorised, should not interfere with, remove, alter or displace any safety device or other appliance furnished for their protection or the protection of others, or interfere with any method or process adopted with a view to avoiding accidents and injury to health, Seventy-two hours prior to making any penetrations (such as cutting through a fence or bridge foundation) in a restricted area, contact the site Security Office to make arrangements for a security guard or other measures required to meet all security requirements, Signage indicating safety requirement will be displayed at the site entrance. And site supervisor will monitor compliance during site visits. LOCAL BUSINESS PREPARATION We expect that in the interests of superior public relations we should inform and consult local residents, businesses and others in the community regarding works and to give them the name of an appointed person on site that will be able to deal with queries. The main contractor from company is responsible for the activities of all sub contractors on site. For any loading and unloading needs to be done from local business nearby site the company will provide planning schedule and time tables to make sure the safety of public are provided and time tables shown the safe time to do so. 65
  • 65. To minimise noise nuisance: All operations on site must be carried out to conform to BS 5228 Parts 1, 2 and 4, Noise Control on Construction and Open Sites. On all sites at all times the Best Practicable Means to reduce noise to a minimum should be employed. Also : 1) Wherever possible all sites should be totally surrounded by fencing or hoarding to the required height and density appropriate to the noise sensitivity of the location to reduce noise breakout from the site. All site gates should be controlled to give the minimum amount of time open for passage of vehicles in order to minimise stray noise to external surrounding areas. 2) Wherever possible fixed items of construction plant should be electrically powered rather than diesel or petrol driven. Where this is not practicable suitable attenuation measures should be provided, such as acoustic enclosures. 3) Vehicles and mechanical plant used for the purpose of works should be fitted with effective exhaust silencers. 4) Machines in intermittent use should be shut down when not in use or throttled down to a minimum. Noise-emitting equipment which is required to run continuously may have to be housed in a suitable acoustic enclosure. 5) Where practicable rotary drills and busters which are hydraulic or electrically powered should be used for excavating hard materials. 6) Care should be taken when loading and unloading vehicles, dismantling scaffolding or moving materials etc. to reduce noise impact. 7) All deliveries of materials, plant and machinery to the site, and any removals of waste or other material, must take place within the permitted hours. 8) There must be adequate planning to ensure that lengthy operation e.g. bridge cutting and transportation, can be completed within the permitted hours. 9) No employees, sub-contractors and persons employed on the site must cause unnecessary noise from their activities, e.g. excessive „revving‟ of vehicle engines, music from radios, shouting etc. And general behaviour; Dust and Air Pollution: 66
  • 66. Contractors on site, have a duty to adopt Best Practicable Means to minimise dust nuisance arising from the site activity. The following task is a guide to Best Practicable Means to minimise dust nuisance: a) In order to prevent dust nuisance to adjoining occupiers, there should be adequate screening and damping down during all demolition activities, sandblasting, clearance work, breaking up of existing ground surfaces, bridge foundation and other site preparation activities. b) The developer should provide suitable wheel washing equipment at site entrances and exits. Washing and spraying should be carried out in an area with adequate drainage to avoid creating large amounts of mud. c) Delivering soil material as much as possible from river by boot to reduce air pollution in nearby public pass. d) Paved roads near to exits should be kept clean, and vehicles transporting dusty materials onto and off the site should be suitably covered. e) Rubble chutes and skips should be used where appropriate. There must be an effective close fitting cover at the point of discharge to the skip to contain all dust and other debris. In addition, the chutes should be continuous to the point of discharge, with no gaps, and maintained in good condition. f) Rubbish and waste materials must not be allowed to accumulate on site. A good standard of „house keeping‟ must be maintained. i) Lorries and plant with diesel or petrol engines on or off site, should be should be well maintained in order to reduce emissions of visible smoke. Engines should not be left running unnecessarily, and plant and vehicle must not be parked in a position which could give rise to nuisance from exhaust fumes. Access and work place for labour as it shown on Appendix sheet (App-04, Figure4 West Side Access )the northeast on New Quay Rd point toward Baxter gate to New Quay Rd roundabout point become a one way road and during heavy transportation and busy traffic can be use as construction machinery road. , also East Side Access on east side bridge from northeast on Bridge St toward Grape Lane will be vehicle restriction because there will be no access to bridge street then it can be use only for construction access while considering the safe manner, sign and hazard light postage. Also on 67
  • 67. Appendix sheet (APP-04, Figure3 construction Site Boundaries) shows West and East Construction Sits area accessible just for construction labour and permitted visitor. Company will provide appropriate first aid, training and welfare facilities to workers and, whenever collective measures are not feasible or are insufficient, provide and maintain personal protective equipment and clothing. Adequate and safe means of access to and egress from all workplaces will be provided, indicated where appropriate and maintained in a safe condition. In addition company aim to:  Provide separate routes or pavements for labour, to keep them away from vehicles during construction and using heavy machines in site.  Provide suitable barriers or guard rails around river edge.  There should be separate entrance for vehicles and labour, with vision panels on all doors.  Safeguards should be fitted to vehicles  Parking areas should be placed in safe and suitable locations.  It is important for employers to make sure that all drivers and pedestrians know which routes they should use.  Present Roles and signs to do not allowed vehicles to pass close to anything that is likely to collapse or are left in a dangerous state if it is hit, unless it is well protected.  Provide safe areas for loading and unloading and general welfare facilities:  Toilet (adequate number of toilets, Men and women may use the same toilets provided that the room is lockable, available adequate supply of toilet paper)  Washing (particular washing or shower facilities should be provided for particularly dirty work or work exposing workers to hazardous substances)  Changing, personal storage (seating, hook or peg, ensure the privacy)  Drinking water  Smoke room Lighting 68
  • 68. The law requires that a workplace must have enough and suitable lighting also for transport safety, all roads, manoeuvring areas and yards should be sufficiently lit. Develop environmental protection measures A special effort has to make to prevent any pollution or contamination of water. The existing bridge is most likely painted with lead-base paint. As such, care will have to be exercised in its removal to prevent paint debris from entering the river. Plastic draping will place around and under pile caps to contain any spillage or leakage. Figure 21Cofferdam An alternative to the water line foundation scheme is the construction of a sheet pile cofferdam. In this scheme, the sheet piling is placed in a perimeter around the excavation); steel pipe piles or drilled shafts placed; a tremie seal placed; and the cofferdam dewatered to allow for footing rebar and concrete placement in the dry. This scheme will need verification by geotechnical analysis to confirm sheet piles for the cofferdam are feasible. Driven cofferdams are also assumed for the removal of the existing bridge east side piles. Handling to shop: Load, support, and unload primary members in a manner that will not damage, excessively stress, or permanently deform the steel and not cause repeated stress reversals and Care should be exercised to avoid coatings damage from slings, chokers, clamps, etc. Also, limiting the length of members overhanging the rear 69
  • 69. wheels of a trailer may reduce the range of stress reversals and potential damage from ground strikes. Store fabricated material on blocking above the ground. Properly drain the ground and keep Material clean and Store primary members upright and shored or braced for stability. Support all members to prevent permanent distortion or damage. The bridge structure would be fabricated off-site, and will be transported by barge to the project area, and bolted into continuous spans. Erection Before starting erection, the Inspector should read and study thoroughly all Specifications, Contract Plans, Shop Drawings and Special Provisions pertaining to the work. Check matches markings before erection is started, Match markings, lengths, sizes, and weights of the members should be compared with those shown on the shop detail drawings. As the erection progresses, the inspector should compare the diagram of assembled members‟ match markings to verify that the members have been placed in their correct position. The Inspector should make a study to determine which surfaces should be painted before erection. Surfaces which will be difficult to access after erection should be spot coated and painted with the required field coats before erection. All painting and sandblasting of contact surfaces should be done in the shop. Painting should be done according to the Contract requirements. 70
  • 70. Managing Health And Safety At Work Figure 22 Labour and employer task works DRESS WITH SAFETY IN MIND: All employees and visitors should:  Figure 23  Wear protective helmets while on site projects unless otherwise indicated in the site-specific safety plan. 71
  • 71.  When handling electrical storage batteries containing acid, face shields and protective clothing such as rubber gloves and aprons must be worn. Eyewashes (plumbed or portable) with a 15-minute supply of water should be available to immediately flush any acid coming into contact with the eyes.  Wear face masks and protective eyewear when sanding drywall or working with insulation and using a powder-actuated tool. ROOF and LADDERS: All employees and visitors should:  Use a partner to steady a ladder, Place ladder on a stable surface and take the time to move a ladder rather than leaning out too far.  Never put anything down on a pitched roof, Be careful with tools and other objects so that they do not fall off and injure others.  Be aware of people working above, around and below because Falling objects are a major cause of injury on the work site.  Not tie or fasten ladders together to provide longer sections unless they are specifically designed for such use.  Maintain ladders free from oil, grease, and other slipping hazards.  Never stand on the top step of a stepladder. Figure 24 SCAFFOLDING: 72
  • 72. Prevention from Scaffolding accidents include tools or materials being kicked or dropped on people below, Also team worker has to make sure the planking is safely attached and that no tools are laid on the planking. Load Security It‟s important to make sure that a load is secure on board a lorry or boat and that it doesn‟t pose any health and safety risks to either the driver, other workers or members of the public. Assessing how a load might move inside the vehicle or boat during transit and how to prevent that occurring, how strapping and chains should be used to secure a load and how to ensure that drivers have safe areas in which to load and unload within a depot and present Girder launcher or trolley details and capacity (if intended for use). A competent person who is knowledgeable in crane inspection techniques must perform an annual inspection of the hoisting machinery and provide a copy of the dates and results of inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment to the site superintendent. The edges of loading bays will need to be clearly marked. Employers should have a well-planned safety programme to ensure that all the lifting appliances and lifting gear are selected, installed, examined, tested, maintained and operated. Every lifting appliance including its constituent elements, attachments, anchorages and supports should be of good design and construction, sound material and adequate strength for the purpose for which it is used. Every lifting appliance having a variable safe working load should be fitted with a load indicator or other effective means to indicate clearly to the driver each maximum safe working load and the conditions under which it is applicable. 73
  • 73. All lifting appliances should be adequately and securely supported; the weight- bearing characteristics of the ground on which the lifting appliance is to operate should be surveyed in advance of use. Bridge structural work safety manner: The underwater demolition and assembly work environment is hazardous due to poor visibility; therefore contractor should provide and assemble Cofferdams in bridge site to produce a dry area as temporary work place. Bridge structure safety aim: Cofferdams located close to navigable shipping channels shall be protected from vessels in transit, where possible. If overtopping of the cofferdam by high waters is possible, means shall be provided for controlled flooding of the work area. Cofferdam walkways, bridges, or ramps with at least two means of rapid exit shall be provided with guardrails. Appropriate rescue measures must be prepared. Safety banks may be needed on some routes to prevent vehicles running over open edges, or to indicate a safe route. They should be high and wide enough to stop a vehicle, and to absorb its impact should it run into the barrier. Barricades for warning workers of hazards must be at least 6 ft (1.8 m) back from the edge of the hazard and 42 in (106.7 cm) high. The guardrails may be removed at the working side of the platform, provided workers are protected by alternate measures of fall protection. Where transport by water is required, arrangement must be made for safe landing stages and life jackets. A skiff or boat for emergency rescue operations, equipped with paddle or oars, a ring buoy or other life preserver, and a reach extension device. Where water current exists, the skiff or boat must be motorized or occupied at all times. A safety line may be connected between the boat and a structural member capable of maintaining the position of the boat. Under all conditions, the skiff or boat must be located such that 74
  • 74. it is available for immediate use if an emergency arises. It must not be kept locked or otherwise unavailable. When boats are used they should be suitable construction under the control of competent person. Specific training for boat operatives, resource teams and supervisors. Warning signals for evacuation of employees in case of emergency shall be developed and posted. Workers on floating platforms must wear lifejackets. A lifejacket provides enough buoyancy to keep the wearer's head above water, face up, without effort by the wearer. Where there is a danger of people falling, loading bays need to be fenced, for example by secure guardrails (designed so that goods can be passed safely over or under them). If fencing is not practical, alternative safeguards may be needed. Safety nets may be necessary when structural design, loading access, worker mobility, or other factors make guardrails and fall-arrest systems impractical (Safety nets) In addition, the positioning and securing of vessels used as work platforms should be Supervised and undertaken by experienced personnel. Care should be taken in the assessment of wind loads both during operations and out of service. Account should also be taken of the effects of high structures on wind forces in the vicinity of the crane. The ground on which the tower crane stands should have adequate bearing capacity. Account should be taken of seasonal variations in ground conditions. Clean up Once works are complete and made safe, all temporary works shall be removed. Restore all traffic/parking/security signs and markings, including space numbers, designations, and lines, to their original form if such signs/markings are defaced or deleted during construction/repair. Performing Welding and Cutting: Only qualified welders should be authorized to do welding, heating, or cutting. Inspect work areas for fire hazards and proper ventilation before welding or cutting. 75
  • 75. Avoid welding or cutting sparks and hot slag. Be alert to hot surfaces and avoid touching metal surfaces until they have cooled. Place compressed gas cylinders in an upright position and secure in place to prevent dropping or falling. Handle with extreme care and do not store near any sources of heat. Remove any combustibles when welding or cutting must be done. When working in the vicinity of welding operations, wear approved eyewear and avoid looking directly at the flash as serious flash burns could result. When transporting, moving, and storing compressed gas cylinders, always ensure that the valve protection caps are in place and secured. Secure compressed gas cylinders in an upright position (vertical) except when cylinders are actually being hoisted or carried. Use only manual electrode holders that are specifically designed for arc welding and cutting All arc welding and cutting cables must be completely insulated, flexible type, and capable of handling the maximum current requirements of the work in progress. Never use matches or cigarette lighters to light torches. Use only friction lighters to light torches. Aspects of your proposals to ensure the health and safety of the public and construction personnel (during construction and when undertaking any routine maintenance or repair) – see risk assessment and method statement, above. In addition to the temporary work and labour health and safety preparation Red- Amber-Green lists can help designers identify and eliminate hazards, and control risks which can affect the safety of public and personnel. RED:  Serious concerns, Hazardous products, processes and procedures to be eliminated from the project:  Avoid the need to scrabble concrete.  Design piles to enable cropping by a method other than manual breaker.  Avoid processes that create dust.  Avoid spraying harmful substances on site 76
  • 76.  The specification of heavy lintels (the use of slim metal or concrete lintels being preferred  The specification of shallow step (i.e. risers) in external paved area  The specification of bridge assemblers.  The specification of sharp-edged steel, block tie, etc  The specification of large and heavy steel beam and columns panels  The specification of solve-based paint and thinners, particularly for use in confined areas  Powder-actuated tools must never be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere.  Report to management immediately any fault, damage, defect or malfunction of any machinery, plant, equipment, tools or guards.  One fire extinguisher should be provided for each 3,000 sq ft (279 m2) of the protected work area. Travel distance from any point of the protected area to the nearest fire extinguisher must not exceed 100 ft.  Extinguishers must be selected based on the anticipated fire hazards. To aid in the proper selection of fire extinguishers, the classes of fires are as follows:  Class A (wood, paper, trash) - use water, dry chemical, or foam extinguisher.  Class B (flammable liquids, gas, oil, paints, grease) - use foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguisher.  Class C (electrical) - use carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguisher.  Class D (combustible metals) - use dry powder extinguisher only.  The use of bagged product weighting>25 kg  Avoid the processes giving rise to large quantities of dust (dray cutting, blasting, etc)  Use of tools grating high noise levels  Use of Nail guns  Avoid Smoking near incendiary material, prohibited the smoking within and outside of all site on installations except in designated smoking areas. (The Contracting Officer will identify designated smoking areas).  Where work must be done near live lines, the movement of all equipment such as cranes, hoists, derricks, elevators, and other equipment must be guided by an observer who can observe the clearance of the equipment from energized lines and give timely warning to equipment operators. 77
  • 77.  Avoid using Electric tools in damp or wet locations.  Use of bored piles that do not accommodate mechanical breaking down at the cut off level  Specification of bridge assembly risk of falls (prefabricated to accommodate safety nets)  Never use a metal ladder when working on electrical equipment or near electrical equipment where contact is possible.  Workers should not sleep or rest in dangerous places such as scaffolds,  Platforms and walkways must have anti-skid surfaces.  Workplaces and passageways that are slippery owing to ice, snow, oil or other causes should be cleaned up or strewn with sand, sawdust, ash or the like.  Accessible areas within the swing radius of cranes, backhoes, and other rotating machinery need to be barricaded to prevent employees and public from being struck or crushed by the rotating parts of the machinery or their loads.  Shield all arc welding and cutting operations, whenever feasible, by non combustible or flameproof screens to protect employees working and public near the vicinity from the direct rays of the arc. AMBER:  Products, further work is needed, processes and procedures to be eliminated or reduced as far as possible and only specified if there is no other option. The designer will provide information about these risks, and the reason for their selection:  Avoid specifying heavy building blocks (e.g. weighing >20 kg).  Specifying large/heavy steel section, glass panel (car park), unless they can be installed using mechanical handling methods.  Specifying heavy lintels unless it is possible to transport and install the components using a mechanical handling solution (car park)  Specifying solvent-based paints and thinners, or isocyanates particularly inside buildings and basements (car park).  Allowance for the tying of scaffolds to caution bridge or panel system  Stack and block structural steel, poles, pipe, bar stock, and other cylindrical materials, unless racked, so as to prevent spreading or tilting.  Provision of adequate hard room in paint rooms  Provision of adequate access for maintenance in plant rooms 78
  • 78.  The areas around the top and base of ladders must be free of tripping hazards such as loose materials, trash, and electrical cords. The same holds true for the bottom of stairways and on stairway platforms.  Location of operation valves, etc, away from hot surface  Provision of safe access on to roof areas (car park), bridge edge  Secure and safe Crane placement  Appointment of a temporary works coordinator  Avoid overhead power lines.  Extension cords or any power tools or equipment must not be used when the cords are frayed, worn out, or the wires are bare. Defective equipment should be reported to the supervisor and turned in for repair.  Electric installations that exceed 600 volts and that are open to unqualified persons must be made with metal-enclosed equipment or enclosed in a vault or area controlled by a lock. In addition, equipment must be marked with appropriate caution signs.  Unless identified for use in the operating environment, no conductors or equipment can be located:  In damp or wet locations.  Where exposed to gases, fumes, vapours, liquids, or other agents having a deteriorating effect on the conductors or equipment.  Where exposed to excessive temperatures.  Estimate Major hazard potential, i.e. potential for collapse of temporary structure, bridge cutting  Entrance to rooms and other guarded locations containing exposed live parts must be marked with conspicuous warning signs forbidding unqualified persons from entering.  Loose materials which are not required for use should not be placed or allowed to accumulate on the site so as to obstruct means of access to and egress from workplaces and passageways.  Out of Order Tags are used to designate equipment that requires repair or maintenance. Equipment with such a tag may not be used until the tag is removed.  Rated load limits and recommended operating speeds, special hazard warnings, or instructions must be posted on all equipment. 79
  • 79.  workers exposed to a risk of falling into the water from a height of 6 ft (1.8 m) or more, and not protected by railings or netting, must be protected by approved fall arrest system (lanyard and harness or belt attached to a life-line or other suitable tie-off point).  Combustible materials such as packing materials, sawdust, greasy/oily waste and scrap wood or plastics should not be allowed to accumulate in workplaces but should be kept in closed metal containers in a safe place.  It is also necessary to provide protection against bad weather (for example strong winds can be very dangerous during loading). GREEN:  Products, processes and procedures to be positively encouraged:  Design the layout of bridge so that mechanical lifting aids can be used when carrying out maintenance and replacing components.  Specify precast concrete products that incorporate integral fixings to avoid drilling.  Treat timber off site if hazardous preservatives need to be used (boron or copper salts can be used for cut ends on site).  Prefabrication of steelwork, service riser, cladding, assemblies, etc.  Prevision of scaffold ladder stairs  Early instillation of permanent means of access  Access to all available fire fighting equipment must be maintained at all times  Use of partnering agreement  Unload materials close to the point of final use to avoid unnecessary lifting.  Specification of signification hazard on construction drawings.  Move objects to be welded, cut, or heated to a designated safe location. If the objects cannot be readily moved, then all movable fire hazards in the vicinity must be taken to a safe place or otherwise protected.  Only persons designated by the site superintendent are authorized to remove inspection tape. Unauthorized removal or defacing of inspection tape should be cause for disciplinary action. Bridge beam erection 80
  • 80. The lifting of bridge beams is a very high risk activity and every step of the Construction and erection process requires careful safety control. Recent incidents have highlighted the need to comply with the Construction and Erection of Bridge Beams Industry Standard and to ensure that lifting equipment is fit for the intended purpose. 1. Before erection commences the principal contractor and erector must consult &demonstrate how compliance with the Construction and Erection of Bridge Beams Industry Standard is being achieved. 2. Ensure that lifting inserts are the type and capacity specified and certified in the Beam Manufacture‟s Certificate of Compliance. 3. Ensure that tested lifting clutches compatible with lifting inserts are available and used. 4. Certificates of testing and identification of components used for the sling and clutch arrangements are to be available on-site as part of the Risk Assessment and Safe Work Method Statement Documentation. 5. Fittings provided must be rated for the loads produced by the slinging arrangements, including the lifting clutches. One crane lifts may produce greater lateral loading compared to two crane lifts and this must be taken into account. 6. Prior to the beginning of the lift all lifting components must be inspected. Lifting equipment which shows signs of wear or overloading must not be used. 8. The lifting inserts must be cast into the beam as per the manufacturer‟s Specifications and permit the clutch to move freely without pressure applied onto the bridge beam. 9. Before erection commences a documented Risk Assessment and Safe Work Method Statement must be available and agreed by the Principal Contractor, Erector. 10. The Principal Contractor and Erector need to ensure that all personnel are keep well clear of suspended beams at ALL times. Falling lifting equipment may also present a hazard. SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK 81
  • 81. Sustainability is a key UK and international issue. The application of sustainability to development projects involves integrating and balancing economic, environmental and social criteria. The UK Government describes sustainable construction as balancing four main elements: • Effective protection of the environment • Prudent use of natural resources • Social progress which recognizes the needs of everyone • Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment. In order to manage the diverse range of issues relating to the replacement of the existing bridge and enhance the outcome of the proposed project it is recommended that a sustainability framework is established. Value of Sustainability Framework Establishing a sustainability framework would: •Influence the outcome and add value to the project, ensuring it will be more sustainable; • Explore the wider benefits of the new bridge and the new proposed developments; • Bring together initiatives to ensure they are considered in a holistic manner; • Establish a management framework for the project to ensure that all aspects of planning and policy are addressed. Sustainability Framework Strategy A Sustainability Framework will establish a live process that aims to continually improve the sustainability of planning, design, construction and operation throughout the life of the Project. The exact strategy should be developed following further consultation with key stakeholders but is likely to include the following stages:  Initial workshop(s): to identify the key sustainability issues and drivers for the project. This may incorporate key stakeholders and will aim to prioritize issues for further consideration and develop a vision for the project. 82
  • 82.  Baseline/context review: to review existing information on the current social, environmental and economic situation in and around the area of the canal including local, regional and national planning and policy implications. This should be undertaken in conjunction with other work and review existing work to avoid duplication wherever possible.  Overarching sustainability themes: using information from the initial workshop and baseline review this stage aims to identify a number of key themes and sub-themes for the project, which will guide the sustainability framework. Objectives may also be developed.  Strategies and targets: for each theme or sub-theme a strategy and target should be developed to identify how the theme will be implemented on the project and what standard should be achieved. An example is provided below for the theme of materials.  Theme  Strategy  Target  Materials  Reuse existing structures wherever possible  Procure materials from local and regional sources  Use high recycled content materials, renewable materials or environmentally preferable materials where feasible.  Minimize the use of toxic materials where feasible  Source 20% of the building materials locally (within 250 miles of site)  Ensure the project has 10% recycled content by value  Use materials with low or no volatile organic compounds (VOC) Monitoring process: sustainability appraisals should be undertaken at key stages throughout the process. A tool, such as SPeAR could be used to quantify the performance of the project and monitor progress against key themes or objectives. This will help ensure that good communication between design team members and stakeholders is maintained. Design team support: provide ongoing support to the design team to help identify solutions to meet the strategies/specifications and targets. 83
  • 83. The design team should monitor how commitments made in the specification/strategies and targets are being delivered and implemented. The framework should guide and be integrated with the design process rather than being separate to it. It should aim to assimilate the impact of all aspects of the project including structures, the channel and landscaping. WASTE MANAGEMENT Introduction The scope of this part of the feasibility study report is to: • identify the likely nature of waste produced during the project; and • identify the potential waste management options for this project. Major Assumptions Due to the lack of information at this stage a number of major assumptions have been made in order to identify the waste management options that may be available for the project. These assumptions and the proposed waste management options should be reviewed as more data becomes available. The major assumptions are listed below: • The site meets the requirements mentioned in Sections 43A and 43B of the “The Landfill Tax (Contaminated Land) Order 1996”. • The site meets the requirements mentioned in paragraph 21 Chipping, Cutting, Pulverizing of Plant material of the waste licenses and exemptions regulations (simple exemptions). • The site meets the requirements mentioned in paragraph 12 Composting of Biodegradable Waste of the waste licenses and exemptions regulations (simple exemptions). • If excavated material is suitable for re-use – in terms of engineering properties, health and environmental considerations – it may be possible to reuse it within the development. 84
  • 84. • If the excavated material is not suitable for use, it will need to be removed from site. • In accordance with the new Landfill Regulations (October 2007) any material will have to be pre-treated prior to landfilling. • Areas of land will be available in order to treat contaminated material and plant material on site (If decided to treat any contaminated material on site). • If the excavated soil and dredged spoil are characterised as hazardous after they have been treated. The developer will have to dispose of the waste in accordance with the The Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)Regulations 2005 (Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 894) Waste Generation Dredging, Excavation and Construction Waste Generation Construction of the reinstated canal will consist of three major activities: • Dredging • Excavation; and • Construction Wastes from these activities will be discussed separately below, owing to the differing requirements for their management. It is considered that the waste streams will vary significantly in nature and not all waste streams will qualify for landfill tax exemption for regeneration of contaminated land. Dredging Spoil . Extensive dredging will be required to maintain the stretch of the port where the bridge is to be replaced to navigable standard. A significant volume of silt will arise from dredging operations. Where there is significant plant material it may need to be separated from dredged silt particularly if it to be spread on land. Excavated Material It is considered that the most significant volume of waste will be generated by the excavation stage. Due to the lack of information at this stage of the project it is not possible to quantify the amount of excavated waste that is going to be produced. It may be prudent to locate waste management compounds in close proximity to those sites to minimize the distance material is transported The nature of excavated 85
  • 85. material will be highly dependent on the ground conditions at the site of excavation. However it is likely to compose natural soils, stone and made ground. Construction Waste Waste generated during the construction stage will arise mostly from the raw materials used for the construction of the Canal and restoration of existing structures. It will be necessary to use raw materials as efficiently as possible to minimise the waste arising from this stage and to maximize the re-use and recycling of these materials. The amount of construction waste generated when handling and using materials brought onto the site should be kept to a minimum as outlined in Construction Industry Research and Information Association („CIRIA‟) Guidance. CIRIA also has a guide to Environmental Good Practice on-site C650 (2005). Expected Waste Generation Phasing It is assumed that the project will be delivered in one operational phase, however, it unlikely that all parts of the site will be accessible from one compound. Therefore it may be necessary to identify a number of potential sites for waste handling and storage for the route. It may be necessary to identify and secure these sites early in the project to prevent occupation by a third party. Waste Management It is important that waste is managed effectively at the site to ensure that as little waste as possible is sent to landfill. Options to implement more sustainable waste management for the project are discussed in detail below. Waste Management Compound It is considered that a waste management area will need to be set up for all options for the segregation and storage of waste prior to re-use, treatment or disposal. A significant amount of material may simply require segregation to enable 86
  • 86. its reuse. However, it is possible that contaminated material will need to be treated prior to re-use. It is likely that at least two waste management areas will be required, on either side of the river. The optimum locations and number of sites is highly dependent on the access to the site and the requirement to move from and to the site with as few as possible lorry movements through the existing residential areas It is important that this land is secured early in the project to ensure that sufficient space is available for effective waste management. In accordance with the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 (as amended, schedule 3 paragraph 21) (WML Regulations), this area can be exempt from the WML Regulations as long as the waste does not exceed 1,000 tonnes over a period of seven days and the waste is treated on site for the purposes of recycling or reuse. Waste Management Options Waste management options for the major waste streams generated at the site are discussed below. Waste management should aim to follow the waste management hierarchy. Ideally waste production should be avoided. Where this is not possible it should be re-used on-site. Where there is no use on-site use off-site should be explored. If it is not possible to reuse waste in its current form it should be recycled for use on-site or off-site. If recycling is not possible landfill with energy recovery should be explored and landfill without energy used as a last resort. Table 3: Uncontaminated Excavated Material The waste management options described below support this waste hierarchy. Minimise Waste Production The options for management of uncontaminated excavated material are listed in Table 4 below with the preferred option at the top and the less favoured at the bottom of the table. 87
  • 87. Type of waste Treatment Dispose/Reuse Legislation Uncontaminated No Re-use on site Not classed as excavated waste material No Re-use off site Paragraph 9A or 19A (complex exemptions) Waste Management Licensing (WML) Regulations 2005 (as amended) No Take it to a The recycling Environmental centre. (Kiveton Protection Park Steel And (Duty of Care) Wire Works) (England) (Amendment) Regulations 2003 No Take it to inert The Landfill Landfill site (England and Wales) Regulations 2002 Table 3: Uncontaminated Excavated Material 88
  • 88. Contaminated Excavated Material If excavated material is found to be contaminated the options for its management are listed in Table 5 below: Type of waste Treatment Dispose/Reuse Legislation Hazardous Pre-treatment Landfill to The Landfill excavated hazardous (England and material landfill Wales) Regulations Treat to remove Landfill to inert 2002 hazardousness Landfill ,Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005 Contaminated Pre-treatment Landfill to inert/ The Landfill excavated Non Hazardous (England and material Landfill Wales) Regulations 2002 Treat to remove Use on Paragraph 9A contaminants restoration or 19A (complex exemptions) WML Regulations 2005 (as amended) Table 4: Contaminated Excavated Material 89
  • 89. Potential Waste Management Facilities A review of local waste management facilities will have to be undertaken during the next phase of the project to identify operators and facilities that may be used to assist with waste management of the project. Conclusions It is likely that a significant volume of waste will be generated from the project to replace the existing bridge and construct the new car park and museum developments . In order to reduce the impact of waste management on the environment and the surrounding community measures should be put in place to manage waste in a more sustainable manner. This part of the report has reviewed available information and concluded that: • Waste will be produced from the excavation and construction phases of the project. It is assumed that substantial amount of waste will be produced from the excavation stage. It is important that this material is managed in a sustainable manner to minimize the impacts associated with its transportation and disposal. • Further investigations will be required in order to determine the quantity of waste that is going to be produced during each phase and the level of contamination present. • At least two waste management areas will be required to segregate and store waste streams. It is important that land is secured early in the project. • Access to the waste management areas is a very important issue and it should be resolved in the early stages of the project. • Movements of vehicles from and to the site should be minimised as much a possible as a lot of residential properties and local bussines exist in close proximity to the proposed project locations. • The cut & fill balance should be reviewed at the design stage to reduce the amount of excavation and minimize waste production. • Waste should be re-used on site wherever possible to reduce movement of the material off site. • Where it can‟t be reused on-site material should be re-used off-site to reduce disposal to landfill. 90
  • 90. • Where material cannot be used in current form it should be treated on-site or off-site and recycled. • Only if re-use or recycling are not possible should waste be disposed of to an appropriately licensed landfill. STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION STRATEGY Consultees There is a wide diversity of stakeholders involved in this project, and it is recommended that this is reflected in the identification and participation process – in particular the range of existing initiatives and services, and the geographic and social scale and diversity of the area. It is likely that stakeholders will fall within four main categories. • Statutory stakeholders • Organizational/Special Interest Stakeholders • Businesses • Community (local and wider community which comprises diverse groups) Key issues and guiding principles To help encourage meaningful participation and overcome barriers the strategy should develop and adopt the following guiding principles: Develop clear objectives: the strategy should be clear about whom and why we are consulting, and about, what stakeholders can influence when. It will be important to include stakeholders in developing the consultation process. An integrated and coordinated approach: participation should be integrated throughout the regeneration process, scheduled at an appropriate time to optimize involvement and ensure that the programme allows time for feedback to be incorporated. Build on existing consultation and information: the strategy should avoid duplication which can lead to consultation fatigue and disillusionment. 91
  • 91. Create partnership: a process should be established which is transparent and is committed to two way dialogue and builds trust and partnership working. Work with local partners: the team should work with local partners and build on existing initiatives and community infrastructure to devise and implement participation processes. This will be more efficient and effective and will provide essential ongoing continuity. Ensure accessibility: a process should be developed which provides the opportunity for all stakeholders to be involved and takes account of the geographic scale and the social diversity of the route, using appropriate targeted methods, forms of information (technically appropriate, plain English and opportunity for translation), and timing of activities (including accounting for cross cultural issues such as religious festivals). Implement a representative and inclusive approach: the approach to participation should be inclusive and steps should be taken to ensure all communities and groups are represented, working with a range of organisations, members of the public and community groups to ensure all views are captured. Enable informed decision making: fair information should be provided to develop the capacity of stakeholders in order to ensure informed decision making. Manage expectations: At all stages expectations should be managed, particularly in relation to distinguishing between ideas and recommendations, and the timescales they are likely to be realised within. Innovation and creativity: methods should be developed which are appropriate while being innovative and creative, and encourage and welcome appropriate participation. Value participation: the team should ensure that we express our thanks to all stakeholders for their time and valuable contribution. 92
  • 92. Integrated Approach It is important that the stakeholder participation process is integrated into the design process. Stakeholder consultation should therefore take place at each stage of the design process in some form. It should be noted that where possible we will try to fit in with existing meetings and as a result some aspects of consultation may overlap stages. Design development and planning Awareness raising & focussed consultation Involvement & Detailed design discussion in a range of ways Final Design Launch Implementation Working with specific stakeholders/group s Ongoing Aftercare participation led by Client and other Local Partners Figure 25:Example of the relationship between project development process and the participation process. Types of Activities Engagement with stakeholders will comprise a diverse range of activities that should be appropriate to the stage of the project, the stakeholder group and the reasons for the consultation. It will be important to integrate initiatives such as the engagement of community artists. Examples of the types of activities that ay be involved are presented below; 93
  • 93. • Set up a stakeholder steering/management group to assist with the identificationn of the most appropriate methodology at each stage • Events on site, including, tours of the proposed route; • Exhibitions and workshops; • Focus groups; • Art activities/educational events; • School activities; • Events specifically targeting hard to reach groups eg. Young people, ethnic groups; • Information dissemination and presentation. ECONOMIC APPRAISAL Cost Estimates No budget cost estimates are presented in the Feasibility Study . Although no budge t preparation was done, when building up a cost estimate for a scheme such as this there are two key aspects to consider when. These are the: o Base Estimate, and the, o Risk allowance Developing the base estimate This is done by estimating the quantities and the construction operations required to construct the new bridge and its associated works as well as. Several databases and tools may be used in preparing the base estimate including the Green Guide to Specification and Spoon (Costing in construction). These types of calculations include the work costs, preliminaries and site overheads and the contractors‟ overheads and profits. Allowances also should be made for design fees, site supervision and accommodation works. In order to allow a transparent appraisal of the final cost estimate costs allocated to each of the key components that make up the project such as the bridge the car park the museum Retaining walls etc may be allocated. 94
  • 94. Assessing the Project Risk In addition to the base estimate, project risk needs to be identified. In any project there are a number of factors which may influence the final cost of the project. These factors are commonly referred to as risks or uncertainty associated with the project, it is important that this is carefully addressed in the scheme estimates. There are different ways of dealing with project risk or uncertainty - in days gone by a contingency of up to 15% was simply added to the base estimate of a scheme. While this approach provides an allowance to deal with uncertainties which may develop it is nothing more than guess work. Another approach advocated by HM Treasury for the assessment of publicly-funded projects is to include an optimism bias allowance, which reflects the fact that initial costs are often underestimated in order to increase benefit cost ratios and sponsor interest. For schemes at the feasibility/outline design stage of a scheme a contingency of up to 60% is recommended. The preferred technique for assessing and quantifying the level of risk within a project is by carrying out a strategic risk assessment. This requires a high level of understanding of the risks associated with a project which ultimately results in a much more thorough assessment of the uncertainties which may occur on the scheme. An initial appraisal of the project risks has been carried out by our design group, however ultimately a risk based workshop is recommended with not just the design team but also the appointed Project Steering Group. The output from the initial risk appraisal has been a risk register, for the Whitby project these have been split into Generic and Project Specific. Once the risks have been established an assessment has to be made with regard to the probability of them occurring and the financial consequence to the scheme out turn cost should they occur - with this information available the risk analysis can be carried out. Risk Analysis 95
  • 95. The proposed method of carrying a successful Risk analysis at this stage is to use an established software package such as „@Risk‟ and to undertake a Monte Carol risk simulation which provides confidence limits to the amount of risk within the Project. The analysis is performed using a statistical random selection technique and summing the resulting values. The number of iterations required for stable results is dependent on the complexity of the model, but generally 2000 iterations is sufficient. From the results of this analysis it is possible to determine: o Levels of confidence, between the 5% and 95% thresholds; o Sensitivity rankings to show which items have the most impact on the results. The risk calculation should be undertaken using the following methodology: o The base cost plan represents the static scenario for the canal, this figure does not vary and the identified risks are considered to have a static impact, but vary in the frequency of their occurrence (dependant upon the agreed probability). Our group design team is undertaking a feasibility study in order to investigate the feasibility of several options within the limits of Whitby harbour. The project falls within administrative boundary of Scarborough Borough Council, at North east Yorkshire. This note examines the regional and local planning policy objectives in relation to replacement of the existing bridge and the potential for opportunities to add value through bridge related development, services and facilities. Policy support for the replacement of the bridge is important to secure commitment and leaver funding at European, national and regional level. However, economic and planning policy is in a process of change in England. The Town and Country Planning Act 2004, sought to abolish county structure plans and replace local plans and unitary development plans with Local Development Frameworks. In addition it gave Regional Spatial Strategies (currently prepared by Regional Assemblies as the Regional Planning Body) statutory weight as part of the „development plan‟ against which planning applications must be determined. 96
  • 96. Recently, as part of the Sub-national Review of Economic Development and Regeneration the government proposed that policy and strategic role of Regional Development Agencies (e.g. Yorkshire Forward and EMDA) will be enhanced, and Regional Assemblies in their current form will be abolished. RDAs will be responsible for a new single regional strategy, which will combine the Regional Economic Strategy with the Regional Spatial Strategy. RDAs will be designated as the Regional Planning Body, with their strategic roles "different and distinct" to their delivery roles. It is proposed that there will be a stronger sub-regional dimension to the strategy and evidence base. It is important therefore that in this context of change the interests of the Whitby development to continue being promoted. Bibliography: Sustainability drives steel market share, New Steel Construction Apr 2008 Vol 16 No 4. Approaching Urban Design: The Design Process, Roberts Marion, Clara Green (2001). J. Infrastruct. Syst. Volume 4, Issue 3, pp. 111-117 (September 1998). Corrosion Protection of Steel Bridges, Corus Construction & Industrial (2005). Composite steel highway bridges, Corus Construction Centre (2002). Transportation Alert Issue 13. Pile design and construction practise, M.J. Tomlinson, 4th ed. Design of Marine Facilities for the Berthing, Mooring, and Repair of Vessels, John Gaythwaite. The Design and Performance of Road Pavements, David Croney, Paul Croney, 2 nd ed (1996). Bridge Engineering Handbook, Wai-Fah Chen, Lian Duan (2007). Steel Bridge Erection Practices, Fred R. Beckmann, Dennis R. Mertz Steel Bridge Designing, Melville Baker Wells Orthotropic Bridges Theory and Design: Theory and Design, M. S. Troitsky, James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation Future Flooding and Coastal Erosion Risks, C. Thorne, Edward P. Evans, Edmund C. Penning-Rowsell Tidal Waves and Flooding, Jane Walker, Mike Saunders - Juvenile Nonfiction - 2004 Flood Warning, Forecasting and Emergency Response, Kevin Sene – Building Construction Handbook , Roy Chudley, Roger Greeno 97
  • 97. Geology and Engineering , Robert Ferguson Legget, Allen W. Hatheway* 98