Abstract



This project was set to improve the current social and economic situation and help
alleviate the current condi...
Contents

INTRODUCTION . ....................................................................................................
The quality of car park facility ............................................................................................
Construction Work Schedules .................................................................................................
Sustainability Framework Strategy ...........................................................................................
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1: SSSI SITE ........................................................................................
INTRODUCTION

Whitby, formerly Whiteby, originating from the Norse „the white settlement‟, is a town
built around a port, ...
to the railway station and the fence on the eastern side of the railway lines as far as the
high level bridge (also known ...
SITE INVESTIGATION
Desk Study

As detailed in the introduction the zone in consideration is both the upper and lower
harbo...
Figure 1: SSSI site



Looking at the topography of the area there could be problems with approaching the site
by road esp...
Whitby has had seismic activity in the past as there is a fault line that runs on the
contour of the existing path of the ...
Reconnaissance

The ground stratum in Whitby is very interesting. Due to the fault that runs along the line
of the River E...
The Alum shale is a mud type rock that is stable when not weathered but when
weathering occurs it is a soft flaky substanc...
Figure 3: Roof shape and property height




Figure 4:Narrow Street



The subsidence in the town is very obvious as the p...
Figure 5: Subsidence in warehouse



Ground Investigation


There is a possibility that the existing columns that support ...
Proposed Ideas - Brainstorming
The first proposals the group found were founded from a brainstorm of the brief. The
brief ...
Bus
Pedestrians only town centre
Traffic restrictions/ priority passes/ bollards



Part D – Areas for new development
Imp...
Criteria for selection:
Social
Public engagement –       Getting the community more involved in the area, public opinion o...
Economic
Life Cost -           Although the costs from the design to the termination will be covered by the
              ...
Natural Resources


Recycled Material - Where possible recycled material either from the existing site or otherwise
      ...
Severe Hazards:

Hazard             Description                     Measures to reduce risk
                              ...
 Existing supplies should be located so that damage when excavating is not
                                              ...
After close consideration of the above mentioned criteria and hazards the two
prevailing alternatives are as follows:



A...
the bridge and improvement of protection against corrosion increases maintenance
cost of the swing bridge.


Fatigue crack...
restriction might cause problems with an access to the proposed development and
make it redundant due to poor infrastructu...
adjacent to it. Construction works have negative impact on surrounding environment
such as disturbing species habitat.


V...
ALTERNATIVE CHOSEN - FINAL PROPOSAL


Method used

In order to conclude to our single viable solution our team followed th...
CONSIDERATIONS


Whitby Traffic observations and traffic Alleviation

Prior of choosing a location that is suitable for th...
to the east the existing caravan park, to the north with Green lane top and to the
southwest with Abbey lane. Based on the...
A full bus or train clearly consumes less carbon than 50 - 500 separate cars; this in
itself means that using public trans...
A hydrogen powered vehicle in general is using the Ballard fuel cell engine which
assists in the generation of electricity...
can achieve a larger operational range than a conventional diesel bus because it
gets more miles to the gallon.
Environmen...
ELEMENTS OF FINAL PROPOSAL


Park & Ride Scheme in Whitby

      The small coastal town of Whitby is dealing with lot of p...
Table 1



Users will make choice between parking in the town centre or using Park and Ride
service. For many people parki...
Comparative cost

Unlike bus travel, the parking is paid per vehicle rather than per passenger. The
overall cost of using ...
families. Also it is advised to make frequent bus service about every 10 minutes. The
pick up/ drop off point will be situ...
In future if more parking spaces are required there is enough space available to
expand proposed car park up to 1000 space...
were taken into consideration, but due to high cost of the material and lower ductility
such option was not applied to Whi...
Corrosion Protection

Hot-dip galvanising is used as a corrosion protection for steel components. Bridge
structure will be...
orthotropic bridge deck is more complicated than that for the concrete deck. It is
caused by the greater deflection of the...
A research was made about the steel fabrication shops in the region, and the
Middlesbrough appeared to be the most suitabl...
Prefabricating the bridge parts

Orthotropic decks are often associated with complex design and analysis and are
rarely us...
methods and sequences to minimize residual stresses. The panels will act as top
flanges of longitudinal girders.


Erector...
After the bridge leaves are transported to the construction site, they are going to be
mounted on columns (see App. A-06)
...
The geometry of the pile section may cause plugging of the pilings in most cohesive
soil strata and also in certain dense,...
Procedure of pile installation




Figure 13: shows steps how sheet piles are placed in the ground

Sheet pilings are inst...
Jack one pile after another to the complete depth while walking on the previously set
pilings.
These machines work complet...
Construction of East pier foundation

Very important aspect in the bridge design involves determining the appropriate type...
List of factors, affecting the choice of material

Ability to carry design load
According to our team approximations, each...
Conclusion
Based on the current information and considering the foundation experience of the
current bridge it is clearly ...
East foundation construction sequence

   1. Construction of the cofferdam
   2. Driving the test pile and performing a se...
My "Feasibility" Project
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Transcript of "My "Feasibility" Project"

  1. 1. Abstract This project was set to improve the current social and economic situation and help alleviate the current conditions in the town of Whitby in areas such as; coastal erosion, flood risk, traffic congestion, parking facilities and the state of the swing Bridge. The notion of feasibility report was explored both as a practice utilized in civil and structural engineering projects and as a component of future proposed structural developments in the area of Whitby. The method utilized was a guided research according to the brief given by the local authority and the Whitby Traffic Management Partnership. The findings identified the lack of current facilities to accommodate major changes/improvements to the social and economic status of Whitby. The primary research was conducted in the actual area of Whitby and the secondary through publications and desk study. Overall, this report suggested improvements to the broader area of Whitby especially regarding the traffic alleviation issue. The proposal recommended the following:  Construction of a new bridge at the same location.  Development of a Park and Ride scheme within the limits of Whitby.  Further development options such as the construction a museum and the conversion of the current bridge to a museum as part the U.K. Civil engineering heritage.  And finally the flood barriers protection combined with the new bridge or the brake water piers or temporary solution which is and the most favorable at the current situation. Finally, detailed construction schemes to be utilized in the proposed developments where presented with detailed designs. The composed plans where accompanied by health and safety procedures and environmental considerations. 2
  2. 2. Contents INTRODUCTION . .................................................................................................................................... 8 Scope . ................................................................................................................................................................. 9 SITE INVESTIGATION. ....................................................................................................................... 10 Desk Study . ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 Reconnaissance .............................................................................................................................................. 13 Proposed Ideas - Brainstorming ................................................................................................................... 17 Criteria for selection: ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Severe Hazards: . ............................................................................................................................................. 22 ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS ................................................................................................................... 24 Option 1 . ........................................................................................................................................................... 24 Option 2 . ........................................................................................................................................................... 26 Opening Bridge . .............................................................................................................................................. 27 ALTERNATIVE CHOSEN - FINAL PROPOSAL .............................................................................. 28 Method used . ................................................................................................................................................... 28 Final proposal . ................................................................................................................................................ 28 CONSIDERATIONS . ............................................................................................................................. 29 Whitby Traffic observations and traffic Alleviation . .................................................................................. 29 Car park location selection ............................................................................................................................ 29 Materials used on the car park ...................................................................................................................... 30 UK Policy on Sustainable Transport ............................................................................................................ 30 ELEMENTS OF FINAL PROPOSAL ................................................................................................... 34 Park & Ride Scheme in Whitby ..................................................................................................................... 34 Availability of town centre parking ............................................................................................................... 35 Comparative cost............................................................................................................................................. 36 The quality of bus service .............................................................................................................................. 36 3
  3. 3. The quality of car park facility ........................................................................................................................ 36 Bus service ........................................................................................................................................................ 36 Construction of a car park .............................................................................................................................. 37 BRIDGE FINAL PROPOSAL ................................................................................................................ 38 Deconstruction of the current bridge ........................................................................................................... 38 Proposed material for the construction of the new bridge ....................................................................... 38 Bridge Deck and Road Surface ...................................................................................................................... 40 Bridge prefabrication and transportation .................................................................................................... 41 Location for pre-fabricating bridge parts ..................................................................................................... 41 Prefabricating the bridge parts ...................................................................................................................... 42 Bridge leaves transportation .......................................................................................................................... 44 Road modification for the new bridge .......................................................................................................... 45 Soil condition .................................................................................................................................................... 45 Choice of sheet piling sections for piling .................................................................................................... 45 Choice of driving system ................................................................................................................................ 46 Sheet piling presses ........................................................................................................................................ 46 Procedure of pile installation ......................................................................................................................... 47 Design of East pier foundation ...................................................................................................................... 48 Construction ...................................................................................................................................................... 51 FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................................ 52 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 52 Temporary flood protection for Whitby ........................................................................................................ 53 Types of defences that can be used ............................................................................................................. 54 Long term expensive protection .................................................................................................................... 57 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... 58 METHOD STATEMENT ....................................................................................................................... 58 The project management team task includes: ............................................................................................ 59 4
  4. 4. Construction Work Schedules ....................................................................................................................... 60 Community and Interagency Cooperation ................................................................................................... 60 Existing Bridge Demolition and Staging ...................................................................................................... 60 TEMPORARY WORKS IN SITE ....................................................................................................................... 61 TRAFFIC DETOUR ............................................................................................................................................ 62 MATERIALS STORAGE ................................................................................................................................... 63 Site fencing ........................................................................................................................................................ 64 LOCAL BUSINESS PREPARATION ............................................................................................................... 65 To minimise noise nuisance:.......................................................................................................................... 66 Dust and Air Pollution: .................................................................................................................................... 66 Access and work place for labour ................................................................................................................. 67 Lighting .............................................................................................................................................................. 68 Develop environmental protection measures ............................................................................................. 69 Handling to shop: ............................................................................................................................................. 69 Erection .............................................................................................................................................................. 70 MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ............................................................................. 71 DRESS WITH SAFETY IN MIND ...................................................................................................................... 71 ROOF and LADDERS: ...................................................................................................................................... 72 SCAFFOLDING: ................................................................................................................................................. 72 Load Security .................................................................................................................................................... 73 Bridge structural work safety manner: ......................................................................................................... 74 Bridge structure safety aim: ........................................................................................................................... 74 Clean up ............................................................................................................................................................. 75 Performing Welding and Cutting: .................................................................................................................. 75 Bridge beam erection ....................................................................................................................................... 80 SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK ..................................................................................................... 81 Value of Sustainability Framework ................................................................................................................ 82 5
  5. 5. Sustainability Framework Strategy ............................................................................................................... 82 WASTE MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................... 84 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 84 Major Assumptions .......................................................................................................................................... 84 Waste Generation ............................................................................................................................................. 85 Expected Waste Generation ........................................................................................................................... 86 Waste Management Options........................................................................................................................... 87 Contaminated Excavated Material ................................................................................................................. 89 Potential Waste Management Facilities ........................................................................................................ 90 Conclusions....................................................................................................................................................... 90 STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION STRATEGY.............................................................................. 91 Consultees ......................................................................................................................................................... 91 Integrated Approach ........................................................................................................................................ 93 Types of Activities ............................................................................................................................................ 93 ECONOMIC APPRAISAL ...................................................................................................................... 94 Cost Estimates .................................................................................................................................................. 94 Developing the base estimate ........................................................................................................................ 94 Assessing the Project Risk ............................................................................................................................. 95 Risk Analysis ..................................................................................................................................................... 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY: ................................................................................................................................... 97 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E 6
  6. 6. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: SSSI SITE ..................................................................................................................................11 FIGURE 2: THE STRATA ............................................................................................................................13 FIGURE 3: ROOF SHAPE AND PROPERTY HEIGHT ...............................................................................15 FIGURE 4:NARROW STREET ....................................................................................................................15 FIGURE 5: SUBSIDENCE IN WAREHOUSE ..............................................................................................16 FIGURE 6 .....................................................................................................................................................32 FIGURE 7 .....................................................................................................................................................37 FIGURE 8 .....................................................................................................................................................37 FIGURE 9 .....................................................................................................................................................42 FIGURE 10 ...................................................................................................................................................42 FIGURE 11 ...................................................................................................................................................44 FIGURE 12 ...................................................................................................................................................44 FIGURE 13 ............................................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. FIGURE 14 ...................................................................................................................................................47 FIGURE 15 ...................................................................................................................................................49 FIGURE 16 ............................................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. FIGURE 17 ...................................................................................................................................................51 FIGURE 18 ............................................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. FIGURE 19 ...................................................................................................................................................53 FIGURE 20 ...................................................................................................................................................54 FIGURE 21 ...................................................................................................................................................56 FIGURE 22 ............................................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. FIGURE 23 ...................................................................................................................................................61 FIGURE 24 ...................................................................................................................................................64 FIGURE 25 ...................................................................................................................................................69 FIGURE 26 ...................................................................................................................................................71 FIGURE 27 ...................................................................................................................................................71 FIGURE 28 ...................................................................................................................................................72 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 .......................................................................................................................................................35 TABLE 2 .......................................................................................................................................................59 TABLE 3: UNCONTAMINATED EXCAVATED MATERIAL .........................................................................88 TABLE 4: CONTAMINATED EXCAVATED MATERIAL ..............................................................................89 TABLE 5:EXAMPLE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND THE PARTICIPATION PROCESS. ................................. ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. 7
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION Whitby, formerly Whiteby, originating from the Norse „the white settlement‟, is a town built around a port, in the north of England on the East coast. The port has developed from the original whaling port of the 18th century. At around 1759 to around 1766 the port was used for the purpose of transportation of goods after which the trade reverted back to whale fishing. The modern port has been successful because of its proximity to Europe, especially the Scandinavian countries. It now has a modern port which is capable of handling a wide range of cargo of both weather critical and all weather types. The town has a huge tourism industry with many attractions and places to stay. Many visitors come in search of the fossils (well preserved ammonite fossils) and jet (also known as black amber, used since the Bronze Age to make beads and jewellery made famous in the 19th century by Queen Victoria) found in the cliffs. Being very historic as it was the place where Captain Cook sailed from as the ship endeavour was constructed there. There are many novels featuring Whitby including Caedmon‟s song by Peter Robinson, Possession by A.S.Byatt, The hundred and ninety nine steps by Michel Faber and possibly the most famous Bram Stoker‟s Dracula. More recently the town has featured in the Yorkshire television drama „Heartbeat‟, it hosted the annual world music festival musicport, Whitby also enjoyed the bi annual gothic festival and the three day regatta, an annual event. In 2006 it was voted the best seaside resort by WHICH? Magazine. This study is focused on alleviating traffic congestion in the harbour zone without taking anything away from the towns very varied tourism trade. The types of traffic and the different areas of the harbour have all been examined so that the many different proposals could be drawn up and examined and a final solution decided upon. The harbour zone is the land up to and including (to the west) the western edge of the west pier and it‟s breakwater; pier road; marine parade; St. Anne‟s Staith; New Quay road up 8
  8. 8. to the railway station and the fence on the eastern side of the railway lines as far as the high level bridge (also known as new bridge), (to the south) the high level bridge and its junction with Helredale Road (and the entrance to the larpool industrial estate), (to the east) the eastern side of the road leading towards the from the town centre from the junction named above onto the eastern side of the east pier and its breakwater, (to the north) the north sea beyond the ends of the breakwaters of the east and west piers. Scope The scope of the study is to consider improving or replacing the existing swing bridge, introducing one or more new river crossings, the provision of improved car parking facilities and identification of sites for new development while embracing the principles of sustainable development and taking into account the changes in climate in the future. Whitby‟s local authority is Scarborough Borough Council. This local authority has joined together with North Yorkshire County Council, Yorkshire Forward, English Partnership, and a number of private developers to form the Whitby Traffic Management Partnership (WTMP). This partnership is commissioning and managing a series of studies to identify the best solution for the development of the harbour zone. 9
  9. 9. SITE INVESTIGATION Desk Study As detailed in the introduction the zone in consideration is both the upper and lower harbour areas of Whitby on the East coast of England. The area has a low laying area close to the water which is surrounded by cliffs to the East and West. The water is the River Esk with drains the North Yorkshire Moors and runs to the North Sea. There are many listed buildings in Whitby, none of which fall within the area of consideration. There have been reports of Ancient Burial grounds found near to the area we are looking at therefore the risk of delays due to archaeological excavations could be high. There does not seem to be any contaminated land in the area under consideration therefore the risk of contaminated land being a problem seems to be low. There are areas of Sites of Special Scientific Interest close to the areas we are considering therefore considerations must be made during the work to take into account these area so not to damage anything that exists in this area. The areas are shown below. 10
  10. 10. Figure 1: SSSI site Looking at the topography of the area there could be problems with approaching the site by road especially for any heavy good vehicles. There seem to exist good rail links to Whitby and the station at Whitby is close to the shore. Previous work that has been pursued in Whitby has used the water as the route of assess as there is the facility for the movement of large cargo vessels. The area has suffered flooding and this has caused problems for a few residents but it is not extreme. The East cliff has had problems with erosion and this seems to be a big problem but there has been a management plan put in place to monitor the problem and in the future it is thought that there will be improvements made to the quality of the soil to reduce the erosion of the cliff. There have been landslides to the west of Whitby but in Whitby itself the probability of such occurring is low. Subsidence has been a problem and is still a problem it seems to be cause by the water from rain on the top of the cliff causing the lower layers in the cliff to become unstable. The problem has been relieved on the East cliff by the installation of drains at the surface of the cliff face. 11
  11. 11. Whitby has had seismic activity in the past as there is a fault line that runs on the contour of the existing path of the River Esk. The fault has become dormant but the signs that it was active can be seen in the cliffs to the west of the town. 12
  12. 12. Reconnaissance The ground stratum in Whitby is very interesting. Due to the fault that runs along the line of the River Esk the ground on the east side of the town was found to have a difference in the continuation strata of approximately 12m, the east side of the river being higher than the west. There is also a slope from north to south of approximately 3°. This unusual geology has given us the chance to look at the strata more closely as it is clearly on show further to the east and west of the harbour zone. The photographs below show the strata and are labeled so that it can be clearly addressed within which layers we intend to work and the problems that will face us with any recommendations specified. Glacial Till Eller Beck Bed Sandstone Dogger Sandstone Alum Shale Figure 2: The strata 13
  13. 13. The Alum shale is a mud type rock that is stable when not weathered but when weathering occurs it is a soft flaky substance, easy to excavate but not stable for building on. The Dogger Sandstone is the hardest of the sandstone layers that is low in the makeup of the cliff, it is stable and strong but is very difficult to excavate due to the high concentration of iron in the makeup. The Eller Beck Bed Sandstone is obviously a strong stone as it is sandstone but it is not as strong as the Dogger layer. The glacial till layer is made up of sand, pebbles and boulders, it can be hard to excavate due to the boulders in the layers but is easier than the Dogger sandstone. Looking at the existing bridge it has been shown that the pier to the west cliff side is currently in good condition. The construction of concrete and timber has lasted well but any steel has corroded to the point where it is not useful. The bridge is currently painted to reduce the corrosion of the structure but this is causing a problem, as the paint ages it starts to peel from the surface and land in the river to be carried out to sea but this causes pollution in the area. The bridge must be painted when this happens so this means that the painting must take place every ten to fifteen years at a high cost. Visiting the town it is obvious that there are not many, if any properties that are higher than four storeys. The properties all seem to have pitched roofs. Much of the town was built in the 19th century and the style of building has stayed the same in the town to be in keeping with the existing structures. In the 19th century the style of roads was to have the properties close together therefore the properties in the town are close together and the streets are very narrow (figures 3 & 4). 14
  14. 14. Figure 3: Roof shape and property height Figure 4:Narrow Street The subsidence in the town is very obvious as the picture below shows the floor of the warehouse has sunk around the columns supporting the roof. This could have severe consequences for any new structures to be built in this area. 15
  15. 15. Figure 5: Subsidence in warehouse Ground Investigation There is a possibility that the existing columns that support the bridge may be in bad condition so that may be unsuitable for reuse, a full structural analysis must be carried out to establish the condition of the supports if they are to be reused. A log of the boreholes in the area around Whitby show the layers of the ground to be what was expected from the reconnaissance but there are no boreholes carried out close to where we would want to construct any new structure so no exact conclusions can be drawn. 16
  16. 16. Proposed Ideas - Brainstorming The first proposals the group found were founded from a brainstorm of the brief. The brief was split up into sections of requirements to be fulfilled. Each section of the solution was then brainstormed. The ideas that arose and the sections which they appear under are listed below. Part A – Improve or replace existing bridge Improve – mechanism Whole bridge- pedestrians Widen and make paths wider Vehicle only Replace- Totally different style Similar style- Reuse parts New parts Position/ Location Part B – Consider provision of a new river crossing Ski Lift – pedestrian only Bridge - pedestrian only Movable Fixed Vehicle Boat - pedestrian only Car park Tunnel - pedestrian only Vehicle Cable Car- pedestrian only Monorail - pedestrian only Part C – Improve car parking in the town Temporary car park – Endeavour wharf Park and Ride - Tram 17
  17. 17. Bus Pedestrians only town centre Traffic restrictions/ priority passes/ bollards Part D – Areas for new development Improve breakwaters to calm harbour waters New marina Develop on endeavour wharf Different types of development – Museum Shopping centre Conference facilities Horse racecourse Music arena Sports centre Entertainment centre Aquarium As we are looking to the future of the earth than we needed to consider sustainable ways of working so four criteria were used to think about the different aspects of sustainability and what aspects came under each criteria. The four criteria were economic, social, environmental and natural resources. Below are listed the initial thoughts under each criteria. 18
  18. 18. Criteria for selection: Social Public engagement – Getting the community more involved in the area, public opinion on the plans for the area Creating Employment Young People - Reduce number leaving the town Health and safety Disabled access - Make the town a disables friendly town Reduced crime rates - Making the town light reducing dark shadowed areas where people could hide would make people feel a lot safer. Making areas where the young can meet would reduce graffiti and criminal damage. Happiness - Bringing the community together. Harmony - Uniting people from the town Identity - Stay in keeping with the towns traditional aesthetics to make people feel at home in their community. Fulfilment - Making them feel like staying safe and obeying the rules will make them better people and therefore make the town better. Self Respect - Making the community feel like they are contributing to the town. Self Realisation - Showing the community what they can achieve. Community - Giving the people a chance to come together and meet to form the bonds of a community. Enlightenment - Making people better by bringing them together. Health - Increasing the relationships in a community can increase the ability for people to care for each other. Wealth - Increasing the income or reducing the outgoings of a person will make them feel more wealthy therefore making them happier and in turn healthier. Leisure - Increasing the leisure time of people increases there health and happiness. Knowledge - The more knowledge a person has the more they feel empowered and therefore happier. Labour - Use of local skills will make the community feel like they are more involved with the project and therefore make and development more likely to succeed. Tools - The use of locally made tools and traditional ways of working in the area will make the project more in keeping with the area and local people will be happier with the overall end product. Gender Equality - The use of equal numbers of male and female persons in the design, construction and run of the scheme will encourage more of the community to get involved. 19
  19. 19. Economic Life Cost - Although the costs from the design to the termination will be covered by the WTMP they will still expect that the new development will at least make them enough money to cover its own construction and running costs. Generation of income - Any development has to generate some income to break even. Financial Risk - Time is money and therefore any time lost due to material supply or delivery and mechanical plant supply or use will cost the project money and therefore all the risks must be known before any work will start. Existing businesses - Any affect the new development has on existing businesses must be positive or the project will be rejected from the start. Tools - The use of local tool will decrease the cost of the job as delivery, transportation costs will be low. Skills - Use of local skills could reduce costs as the work force would live locally which means they would not needed rented accommodation or help with transport costs. Environmental Planning Constraints Sites of special scientific interest, conservation areas and listed buildings at or close to the site will need to be considered as the work in the area could affect these types of sites. Energy - The use of renewable energy to power any electrical, mechanical systems would only benefit the environment. Noise - The affect of noise during any construction and running could disturb the existing environment. Vibration - The affect of vibrations during any construction and running could disturb the existing environment. Visual - The area is very picturesque and any construction must fit into the surrounding area. Carbon - All the construction, running and termination carbon footprint must be considered. Rubbish - All the construction material must be carefully considered and as little as possible should be wasted to landfill or otherwise. Any work should consider the air pollution that will be caused by this and consideration of any ground/river emissions is important. The site must also look at any special waste that may be generated such as contaminated land the disposal of this may need to be considered. Land use - if possible the percentage of land used for the built environment and the natural environment should stay as close to the existing ratio as is possible. 20
  20. 20. Natural Resources Recycled Material - Where possible recycled material either from the existing site or otherwise should be considered for use. Recyclable Material - Any material used in the project should have the ability to be recycled in the future. Local material - The use of local material is more favourable than importing material environmentally. Ease of Termination - The more easy the project is to terminate. Renewable Sources- All the material we use should be from renewable sources so that the material is not being depleted. Energy - Energy from the process of obtaining the material and manufacturing the material should be considered. Once the ideas were discussed to get to the initial proposals and dismiss the eccentric ideas we all looked closely at the ideas and made a number of final proposals which we then marked against a criteria table to gain marks and help us decide the best solution. A copy of the criteria table is in Appendix E-02. 21
  21. 21. Severe Hazards: Hazard Description Measures to reduce risk  Safety lines should be used to secure any person up a ladder and the ladder should also be secured. Persons may fall from a Fall From Height height above the ground  Scaffold should have the correct handrails at the correct height and safety nets should be installed in high risk areas. Persons may be caught  Care should be taken when moving close to water. unaware of the rising Drowning  Consideration of the tidal levels should be made and work should only be carried water level in the tidal out at an acceptably safe tidal level. zone  The correct procedure for the lifting and moving of material should be used and Material Above Material falling from a only persons trained in this should be allowed to secure material for this task. Ground Level height  No person should be below a piece of material as it is moved above ground level  Care should be taken that only persons qualified to use the equipment are in the Welding and cutting area. Hot Surfaces causes hot surfaces  All safety equipment should be worn when entering the site boundary.  No smoking within site boundary.  Clean as you go so that stray material can not cause a fire hazard. Fire may have many  The areas where hot work or work causing sparks e.g. welding should be clear of Fire causes excess materials.  Explosive/flammable material should be stored as per the instructions in a safe manner and place.  Existing supplies should be located so that damage when excavating is not caused. Electrocution Damaged electric supplies  New supplies should be only laid by qualified persons. 22
  22. 22.  Existing supplies should be located so that damage when excavating is not caused. Gas Damage to Gas Supply  New supplies should be only laid by qualified persons.  Pathways for pedestrians should be made.  Pavements for vehicles should be made. Vehicle/Vehicle Collisions  Pavements and pathways should be kept clear. Vehicle Accidents Vehicle/Pedestrian Collisions  Vehicles and pedestrians should stay in their own areas unless it is essential that they must cross.  Care must be taken by pedestrians when crossing vehicle pavements.  All fine aggregate must be covered to avoid it causing damage to eyes. Vision Impaired Caused by fine debris  Welding mask/visors must be worn by any person undertaking these types of Caused by welding task.  Only trained persons must handle the tools they are trained for. Injuries such as cuts from Injury from tools working with tools on site  Safety equipment suitable for that job must be used. 23
  23. 23. After close consideration of the above mentioned criteria and hazards the two prevailing alternatives are as follows: ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS Option 1 One of the alternative options was to carry full maintenance and repair of the existing swing bridge to extend its life. In addition, traffic restriction was introduced on current bridge. Improving current Park and Ride facilities and providing bus route with designated drop off points in the town centre was proposed for every alternative solution. Park and Ride facilities is relatively cheap solution which alleviate traffic congestion in the town centre and also solves current issue with lack of car parking spaces in Whitby during a tourist peak time. This option was evaluated and compared against design check-list where all options were compared. Current bridge abutments and foundations are found in good condition except revealed series of voids in the stone masonry abutments (see Foundation Chapter). Therefore no actions are required for existing foundations. The east pier‟s piles are carrying fairly critical load, but introduced traffic restriction will reduce imposed loading on foundations. According to the survey of 2000 and visual inspection during field course, the timber fender system cannot be relied upon to provide protection against collision. Timber is in bad condition and could not be repaired. New fender system should be designed and constructed as a part of this option. Fender system is also used as an access platform during maintenance of the swing bridge. This aspect should be taken into account during design of new fender system. All heavily corroded steel members of the superstructure were replaced during a major refurbishment in 1985 by bolting on additional steel plates. Sea salt caused a corrosion of the steel pedestrian parapets. It requires repairing or replacement with providing efficient corrosion protection. Bridge structure requires repainting. Some of paint surface layers already de-bonded from the bridge superstructure. Repainting of 24
  24. 24. the bridge and improvement of protection against corrosion increases maintenance cost of the swing bridge. Fatigue cracks occur in the superstructure steelwork due to repeated motion of traffic over the bridge leaves. Such cracks could lead to a sudden failure, particularly in low temperature conditions. Traffic restriction will reduce applied loadings on the bridge structure and should alleviate propagation of fatigue cracks. Despite of swing mechanism, electrics and hydraulics of the bridge were overhauled during last major maintenance work, bridge still experience high operational cost and technical problems and failures in opening mechanism. Due to this, swing mechanism should be upgraded and some components totally replaced using advanced technologies and innovations to reduce operational and further maintenance cost. Different options for the traffic restriction were offered by team members. One of them was pedestrianising existing swing bridge and allowing only emergency services to use current bridge. It will force drivers to use High Level Bridge, reduces traffic congestion in the town centre and significantly reduces imposed loading on the bridge structure. It also provides solution for pedestrian safety crossing the bridge in favour of this option. Another option could be to introduce pass system only for locals, surrounding services and business. One-way traffic across bridge could be introduced as an option too. The cars will not be forced to stop on the traffic light approaching the bridge. It will create continuous and smooth traffic flow across the river and prevent possible congestion and traffic queuing. The swing bridge is a historic landmark of the Whitby town, which attracts tourists. Proposed solution maintains character of the town and does not destroy it the architectural and the historical value. This solution is probably the cheapest option comparing only construction cost of possible solutions, but its maintenance and operation cost is higher than team‟s selected final proposal. It also is not capable of extending life of the bridge for another 100 years. After relatively short time it will need repainting and high cost maintenance again. Future development of the Harbour area will attract more traffic in the town centre, so introduced traffic 25
  25. 25. restriction might cause problems with an access to the proposed development and make it redundant due to poor infrastructure. Option 2 The second option considers additional crossing over river Esk. Proposed location for the new crossing was connection from New Quay Road to the Car park on the Church street. Other possible locations for the crossing were discarded due to problems with providing an access to the crossing and required modification of the existing infrastructure. The opening type steel bridge and tunnel under river Esk where compared. Tunnel will not cause any alteration to the river traffic, but this option was scraped due to following reasons. First of all, it is very expensive and time consuming construction. The access ramps for the tunnel have quite steep slope and are within the flood risk area of a required by client level of 4.80m. The pilling and excavating works will cause major distractions in the harbour area, has a negative environmental impact and therefore is an unsustainable solution. The bridge design composes of tree span deck supported on two piers with opening mechanism in the mid-span as shown in App C-01. The main disadvantages of this project are high cost, problems with navigation and alteration of visual character and an architectural feature of the site. As a part of this solution, the existing swing bridge is used for pedestrians only, so it requires maintenance work as described in previous chapter for alternative Option 1. This multiplies the cost of the project. The second opening bridge doubles operational cost. Two opening bridges allocated close to each other in the marine area with high rate of river traffic will cause navigation problem. Also bridges should be opened almost in the same time for boat to pass bridges. This will stop traffic across the river over both bridges and could cause congestion. The construction of the bridge requires additional space in the tight marina. Amount of the berthing spaces in the harbour will be reduced to accommodate new crossing. It could not be accepted due to existing shortage of berthing spaces in the harbour. The port facilities of the Endeavour Wharf will be affected by the new crossing 26
  26. 26. adjacent to it. Construction works have negative impact on surrounding environment such as disturbing species habitat. Visual character of Whitby will be affected by proposal of the new bridge. The crossing will be slightly higher than surrounding area and the access ramps will be erected in front of the existing buildings facades. It will create shadow areas in very lively areas, which will not be attractive to the pedestrians and act as a physical barrier. Local business will suffer from such negative impact. Vehicles passing through on relatively high speed increase noise level in the town. Opening Bridge The preference initially was given to the swing bridge as the main idea was to keep a new bridge design as close to the existing bridge. The three major types of movable bridges, swing, bascule and vertical lift, were compared to each other for the final solution. The bascule bridge is the most common type of opening bridges. The bascule bridge requires counterweight that balances the span and could be positioned either below the deck or elevated above. The counterweight below the deck requires space provided, that makes abutment design more complicated and does not give any chance to use current abutment. Overhead counterweight will disturb view of the marina. In open position bridge leaves will stick approximately 15m in the air. It will be much higher than surrounding buildings. Due to these reasons, bascule bridge type was not selected for the final design, regardless it was spanning river Esk at the same location before 1909. The vertical lift bridge is not a feasible solution due to its height requirement. A 25m clearance above water level is currently required by the Harbour Authority to allow passage of the vessels. This is the main disadvantage for this type of bridge. The disadvantage of swing bridge type is reduced river channel width. Piers supporting bridge superstructure is a hazard to navigation. This risk can be alleviated by providing effective fender system. Bridge leaves will be anchored to the abutment, so it does not require provision of any counterweight. Total weight of the bridge will be reduced comparing to other moveable bridges. 27
  27. 27. ALTERNATIVE CHOSEN - FINAL PROPOSAL Method used In order to conclude to our single viable solution our team followed the well specified method of designing and constructing a scoring matrix table. The scoring matrix table is located at Appendix E 1 . It is composed of about 70 different criteria which were designed and specified on such a manner so the scoring method is thorough and detailed in the examination of the different available options to be undertaken. The process of filling and evaluating the scoring matrix yielded the following final proposal. Final proposal Our group final proposal is composed from the following four parts: 1. Construction of a new bridge at the same location 2. Development of a Park and Ride scheme within the limits o Whitby 3. Further development options such as the construction a museum and the conversion of the current bridge to a museum as part the U.K. Civil engineering heritage. 4. And finally the flood barriers protection combined with the new bridge or the brake water piers or temporary solution which is and the most favorable at the current situation. The reader may refer to the following Appendices A,B in order to have a detailed view of our proposals. 28
  28. 28. CONSIDERATIONS Whitby Traffic observations and traffic Alleviation Prior of choosing a location that is suitable for the Park and ride facilities at Whitby and in order to alleviate traffic from the town centre traffic assessment was carried out. The results of the traffic assessment concluded that the major volume of traffic is coming firstly from the South link of the town (ie Scarbourough), secondly from the west link to the town (M1)and the third part of the traffic volume is oriented from the north (Middlesbrough). Additionally, due to its unique nature and geomorphology of Whitby, the town has also two major road arteries that lead to the centre one on the west side and one on the east side of the town. The approach to the town from the west side is through two narrow roundabouts and narrow streets in combination with a steep inclination. In the contrary the approach to the town from the east side is through a wider road and a less steep inclination. The fact that the east approach is less steep and wider makes it suitable for vehicles of higher volume such as busses or any other form of public transport. Car park location selection Once our design team conducted the above mentioned study it become apparent that the most suitable location for a Park and ride facility in terms of topography and not only should be as close as possible to the eastbound approach of the town centre. Further consideration of the unique nature of Whitby and its surroundings was given particularly in relation to the town of Whitby and its boundaries which are in close proximity with the national park. Therefore a Park and ride facility shouldn‟t violate, contradict or implicate the process of the planning permission in a significant way. When conducting a brief examination to the Scarborough local plan map in regards with Whitby town become clear that the most suitable location is the one opposite to the existing Whitby Abbey car park. The Plot of land that our team has identified and proposing is the one of triangular shape and is within the limits the heritage coast named as wind hill mill on the local plan and its neighboring limits are: 29
  29. 29. to the east the existing caravan park, to the north with Green lane top and to the southwest with Abbey lane. Based on the same observations the location of the drop of point is selected at the Church Street (Appendix B -Drawing 2). Materials used on the car park The list of materials that can be used for Landscaping maybe found at Appendix 12. A close look to this table makes clear that the best performers are the concrete paving specifications (except for high volumes of in situ concrete) and the U.K. produced Portland stone paving slabs. The brick and granite perform intermediately due to the nature of the material (its thickness).Asphalt performs worst due to more intensive industrial processing and the need to replace the material more often. A significant embodied impact can be attributed to the hardcore base used beneath landscaping materials. This impact may be reduced if recycled aggregates are used, by using recycled aggregate for both the hardcore and concrete mix design will improve the environmental profile of the material and the project overall. Consequently additional quality controls and performance factors will need to be taken into account in order to ensure adequate strength and stability of materials. Based on the previously mentioned facts, the decision was to propose proprietary grassed concrete paving in combination with concrete paving slabs for the biggest percentage of the area of the proposed car park, (opposite the existing car park). The only exception was made to the parking lots dedicated to people with special needs and to the parking lots dedicated to families with children where wheelchair and baby trolleys access is needed those areas. These areas will be made layered with either concrete or asphalt. In regards with the fencing materials that can be used for the car park, fencing such as pretreated timber or galvanized wired chain-link fence with steel posts, both options perform equally well in terms of sustainability ratings. Therefore the choice of the fencing arrangement is left for the future always keeping in mind the visual impact of such arrangement in combination with cost since the area of Whitby is one of particular architectural interest. Environmental considerations: UK Policy on Sustainable Transport 30
  30. 30. A full bus or train clearly consumes less carbon than 50 - 500 separate cars; this in itself means that using public transport will help to reduce fuel emissions. In the late year‟s record amounts of investment are being poured into public transport to make it a safer and a more appealing option for the commuter in general. This is part of wider government plans to reduce harmful fuel emissions by 20% of their 1990 levels by the year 2010. It is also worth bearing in mind that electric trains, trams and tube trains will become considerably more sustainable as a means of transport once more electricity is supplied from sustainable energy sources. The government is investing in initiatives to help achieve this. Steps are also being taken to actually reduce the carbon output of current public transport systems. The U.K. government has already implemented plans to run Hydrogen buses on certain bus routes, with 6 hybrid electric buses being on a trial run between 2005/6 in the city of London. The EU have proposed measures which will oblige private funded public transport operatives to invest 25% of their income for new fleet vehicles over 3.5 tonnes into systems of sustainable transport. Effectively this would entail 25% of all new buses running on sustainable forms of energy. The EU is planning a major transport awareness initiative in 2008-09. With government and EU initiatives in place, there is reason to be positive about public transports role in helping to reduce fuel emissions further. However, much of this will be dependent on the behaviour of the individual until all public transport runs on fully sustainable fuel. Types of sustainable fueled vehicles:  CNG vehicle: The use of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) as an alternative fuel reduces vehicle emissions substantially. CNG vehicles generate fewer exhaust and greenhouse gas emissions than their gasoline- or diesel-powered counterparts. The relative cleanliness of the fuel also means that maintenance can be extended from 3,500 miles to over 6,000 miles. It generally costs less than petrol.  Hydrogen powered Vehicle: 31
  31. 31. A hydrogen powered vehicle in general is using the Ballard fuel cell engine which assists in the generation of electricity by using the hydrogen stored on the hydrogen cylinders. The hydrogen fueled vehicles are using advanced technology that may be the foundation of a future energy solution. We don‟t need to actually write about the pros that go along with the use of such hybrid vehicle especially for use on a large scale a public transport. Undoubtedly, Hydrogen is a key element in the future strategy for road transport. To conclude Hybrid buses are quieter, cleaner and use less fuel. They use a combination of a conventional engine and an electric motor.  Hybrid Vehicle: A Hybrid vehicle may be any combination of conventional technology coupled with any type hybrid technology. For example the buses, manufactured by the Wright Group, have a 336 volt battery pack which provides power to the wheels via a 120Kw electric motor. The battery pack is kept at optimum power by a 1.9litre diesel Euro IV engine. In other words, an engine which would normally be found in a family car keeps the batteries charged. Figure 6 When the vehicle brakes, energy which would normally be wasted is recycled and used to charge the batteries. With continuous charging of the batteries, the vehicle 32
  32. 32. can achieve a larger operational range than a conventional diesel bus because it gets more miles to the gallon. Environmental benefits When compared with the conventional diesel buses the hybrids deliver considerable environmental improvements:  89 per cent reduction in oxides of nitrogen  83 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide  40 per cent reduction in fuel use  38 per cent reduction in carbon dioxide  30 per cent reduction in perceived sound levels (noise reduced from 78dB to74dB) The results show that these buses produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions and harmful local pollutants, as well as having lower noise levels.  Biogas and Biofuel - Biogas, may be produced by decomposing organic material, and emits far less carbon dioxide than traditional fossil fuels. - Bio-fuel may be produced by crops for dedicated for Bio-fuels, but even if all unused fields in Europe were used for the production of Bio-fuel this amount of production will only count for 10% of the fuel needs of the European vehicle stock.” Automotive expert Professor Garel Rhys said: “Because the basic diesel engine is so adaptable, it works very well on vegetable oil. It probably is in the bus industry that one will see a lot of these alternative fuels,” said Prof Rhys, emeritus professor of Cardiff University‟s Centre for Automotive Industry Research. Proposal for the Whitby Park and Ride Scheme Taking into account all the above stated we came to the conclusion that the most suitable option for the Whitby Park and Ride Scheme is the one of a hybrid vehicle (Bus). The process of recharging the batteries by the use of a small size diesel engine will maybe assisted also by solar panel arrays operating at the non visible band of light and maybe some small wind generators located at the peripheral area of the proposed parking location minimizing the CO2 even more. 33
  33. 33. ELEMENTS OF FINAL PROPOSAL Park & Ride Scheme in Whitby The small coastal town of Whitby is dealing with lot of problems that should be addressed in order for it to function properly. As a part of the Harbour Zone Traffic Alleviation Study it is proposed to introduce Park & Ride scheme in the town. Park and Ride is well established in many towns and cities and number of sites continues to grow. Scarborough and York is two nearby examples where there is substantial investment in Park & Ride services. In order for Park and Ride to work in Whitby a research must be carried out. Before Park & Ride can be introduced in Whitby there should be extra parking facilities available. To make sure that Park & Ride scheme works successfully the research was carried out to see how other cities have dealt with it. It was looked at City of Oxford that is a very popular attraction for tourists due to it historical background. Currently, Oxford has 2000 parking spaces available, whereas Whitby has approximately 1535 parking spaces (Table 1), so it is suggested to build a car park at Abbey Headland for another 590 spaces. 34
  34. 34. Table 1 Users will make choice between parking in the town centre or using Park and Ride service. For many people parking in the town parking in the town will be preferred option. They will be persuaded to use Park & Ride facilities by one or more number of factors:  Lack of parking in the town centre  Comparative cost  Quality of Park and Ride facilities  Priority measures which enable the bus to get into the town centre faster than cars due to traffic  The quality of bus services Availability of town centre parking In Whitby there is a difficulty to find parking space available in the town centre, especially during busy summer months, bank holidays and weekends. Many people are persuaded to park further away from the town centre and then walk to it. Lack of parking spaces makes people to park in inappropriate places like side of narrow streets or pedestrian paths which cause more traffic. 35
  35. 35. Comparative cost Unlike bus travel, the parking is paid per vehicle rather than per passenger. The overall cost of using Park and Ride should not exceed car park charges in the town centre. Indeed, it will generally be lower to reflect the fact that the service is less convenient. The quality of bus service Whitby will be investing in the quality in the bus service provided and specify the provision of new buses to the latest standards including disable access. Also bus service should run frequently, so people could get back to their cars without any inconvenience. The quality of car park facility In order to provide higher quality of car park facilities it is proposed to invest in to building some terminal facilities like baggage lockers, toilets and waiting room. After looking at all the possible locations for Park & Ride car park we have decided that the best location would be at Abbey Headland. Appendix B-01 shows all the car parks in town centre as well as a proposed location for Park & Ride car park. It is a very convenient location because it will avoid all the traffic coming in the town centre. There is a car park already, so it will be very convenient to arrange a pick up/ drop off point nearby. Bus service There will be a bus service provided for people to get from the Abbey Headland car parks to the town centre. It is suggested to make bus ride free, but charge for parking. This way it will attract people to use Park & Ride facilities, especially 36
  36. 36. families. Also it is advised to make frequent bus service about every 10 minutes. The pick up/ drop off point will be situated where the current car park on Church street. Construction of a car park A construction of a car park should commence before any bridge work can be carried out. This will avoid any traffic in the town before any innovation will be done. Each parking space will be about 3 m width and 6 m long in cause it need to accommodate a mini bus. Also 5% of all parking spaces will be for disabled parking that is about 30 spaces. Figure 7 show that for disabled parking we will be providing extra space about 1.2 m to allow easy access to a car. Figure 7 A vast range of materials in different finishes and colours is available for paving purposes. The cheapest and sustainable material for car park surface is gravel, but it is unsuitable for wheelchairs and buggies. So, it is proposed to use textured ready- mixed concrete (Fig. 8) that has a low cost and good visual appearance if detailed correctly. The main disadvantage of ready-mixed concrete is that it has to be detailed carefully otherwise it will have a bad visual appearance. Figure 8 37
  37. 37. In future if more parking spaces are required there is enough space available to expand proposed car park up to 1000 spaces. The detailed AutoCAD drawing of the proposed car park is allocated at Appendix B. Bridge Final proposal Deconstruction of the current bridge First of the leaves of the current bridge have to be removed. To do that, the floating crane will be used to lift each leave and to mount it on a barge(see APP-A-06) . After that the barge will either take it to the proposed location, where it will be put as a museum bridge or take the leaves to the Middlesbrough, where they can be easily unloaded and recycled, as there is a variety of facilities capable of doing that. As only the location of East pier is going to be changed, pier is going to be deconstructed and all the construction blocks will be stored. Later, a new pier is going to be put together in a different location(see APP-A-05), using the same material. All the deconstruction and future construction of the new pier is preferred to be done in dry environment. To make it possible, the cofferdam is going to be constructed around the area where the current East pier is located right now and where it is going to be located after. There will be no need to remove the old pile- foundation as the new piled foundation is going to be put in a slightly new location. (see APP-A-05) Proposed material for the construction of the new bridge Steel as a material for the Bridge Steel structure was selected for the swing bridge design. The main advantage of steel is its high specific strength. High strength to weight ration comparing to the concrete reduces weight of the structure significantly. It is necessary requirement for movable bridges to keep structures weight to a minimum. High Strength Polymers 38
  38. 38. were taken into consideration, but due to high cost of the material and lower ductility such option was not applied to Whitby project. Low weight of structure also reduces cost of foundation design. Timbers piles on east pier should be replaced during construction of the new swing bridge. Fewer piles and smaller size could be selected for the foundation using steel superstructure. Typical reduction in 30-50% could be achieved over concrete decks (Corus Construction Centre 2002). Mechanical part of the swing mechanism and bearing will experience lower loads during opening/closing the bridge. It reduces design cost of components and its maintenance. Steel leaves of the bridge could be fabricated in the factory with better quality control and reducing fabrication errors. Delivery and erection of prefabricated steel units for the bridge saves time of construction and also eliminates risks during erection of the steel work. Steel does not require formwork for erection and falsework also eliminated comparing with concrete pouring. The labour needed to construct a steel bridge can be significantly decreased. Steel bridges are generally easier to repair than their concrete counterparts. Sections of steel beams can be replaced. Concrete bridges, however, can require extensive and time-consuming repairs when impacts of damages, cracking or erosion occur. Maintenance cost could be predicted more accurately for steel structure. Steel protection is also cheaper compared to the concrete protection against chloride attack. Main key feature of the final solution is to keep existing bridge character and appearance to maintain aesthetic view of historic town Whitby. Steel provides opportunity to recreate completely same elevation of the bridge. Steel is recyclable and reusable material. Parts of bridge are easily demountable and could be recycled or used for another project after life cycle of the bridge. A steel bridge that is designed with a deck or wearing surface and replaceable components can remain in service for ages with proper maintenance (Transportation Alert Issue 13). 39
  39. 39. Corrosion Protection Hot-dip galvanising is used as a corrosion protection for steel components. Bridge structure will be painted red to remain its existing character. A „duplex‟ coating provides extra durability and fulfils decorative requirements. Galvanizing is cheaper comparing to other commonly specified protective coatings. It requires less maintenance therefore reduces long-term costs of the structure. The life expectancy of galvanized coating on typical structural members is far in excess of 20-25 years in severe costal exposure that is higher than current repainting cycle of 10 to 15 years. Galvanizing is carried out according British Standards; minimum-coating thicknesses are applied. Coating life and performance are reliable and predictable. A galvanized coating has a unique metallurgical structure which gives outstanding resistance to mechanical damage in transport, erection and service. Every part of a galvanized component is protected, even sharp corners and inaccessible areas. Galvanizing will be carried out on a factory under quality control. As galvanized steel members are received on site they are ready for erection. Paint layers will be applied in the factory as well to reduce risk of people working on height and also eliminate environmental impact during construction. Before applying paint to galvanized steel, special surface preparation treatments will be used to ensure good adhesion. Light blast cleaning will be applied to roughen the surface and provide a mechanical adhesion. Bridge Deck and Road Surface The orthotropic deck system was selected for the new swing bridge. It is economical alternative which provides ductility, lower structure weight, shallower sections and rapid bridge installation. Lower superstructure weight is the primary reason for the use of orthotropic decks; it has the lowest weight for movable bridges App A-04. The bridge surfacing has two components, a running surface and a waterproof layer. The waterproof membrane will be placed between the road surfacing and the bridge deck to protect the steel below from de-icing salts. The wearing surface provides a durable and skid resistant surface for vehicular traffic. Design of the surface for the 40
  40. 40. orthotropic bridge deck is more complicated than that for the concrete deck. It is caused by the greater deflection of the steel member under the wheels load compared to the concrete deck. The bridge is not used for heavy vehicle traffic, therefore a thin surfacing could be provided for the bridge deck. Composed surfacing of asphalt binders and aggregate will be laid on the bridge deck. Polymer resins, as a waterproof layer, also provide attraction between the road surface and the bridge deck. The interior of the closed ribs will be hermetically sealed against the ingress of moisture and air. Galvanized steel is chosen for the deck ribs; and painting coat is applied as for all the steelwork for the superstructure. Bridge prefabrication and transportation There is a variety of advantages offered by prefabrication of the bridge, first of all it offers opportunities for bridge to significantly reduce construction time. Additionally, it improves worker safety, lessen environmental impact, and cut costs. Through prefabrication, most of the work on a bridge can be performed in a controlled environment unlike to on-site construction, with much lower disruption of traffic. Weather becomes less of a factor and quality improves. Workers spend less time on- site, thereby minimizing their risk to traffic and power lines, as well as reducing their time at elevations and over water. Prefabrication also lessens the time that heavy equipment must spend on site, reducing adverse effects on the environment. The erection process from factory to means of transport to final location on site minimises opportunity for damage and for inferior work to he built in. Location for pre-fabricating bridge parts When choosing where the bridge leaves will be pre-fabricated, several factors were considered:  Availability of facilities in the region that are capable of fabricating a bridge  Proximity to the construction site  The distance to the nearest port facilities, as it was concluded that the easiest way of transporting the bridge parts to the construction site is by water transport, like barge with mounted crane. 41
  41. 41. A research was made about the steel fabrication shops in the region, and the Middlesbrough appeared to be the most suitable place. Middlesbrough was once known as a centre of iron and steel making, and still has many links with that industry as well. The advantages of Middlesbrough are that it is situated relatively close to Whitby (approximately 25 miles distance) and that there is a good choice of steel prefabrication shops, situated right near the port facilities, what makes Middlesbrough the perfect place for erecting and transporting bridge parts by water relatively quick and easy. (see Fig.9 and Fig.10 below) Figure 9 Figure 10 42
  42. 42. Prefabricating the bridge parts Orthotropic decks are often associated with complex design and analysis and are rarely used, even though they are very cost effective. Specifications permitting the use of standardized orthotropic decks not requiring making complicated analytical investigations would encourage their use. The Eurocode provisions for orthotropic decks, for example, exempt some common bridge types from numerical fatigue investigations, provided that the decks satisfy certain geometric requirements and fabrication rules. The Japanese bridge code contains similar provisions. The erection of the bridge will be completed according to the mentioned standards, what will significantly reduce all the issues related to the fabrication. Designing the Standard Panel (see App A-04) shows a proposed design for a standard orthotropic steel deck panel. Cold pressing of ribs in the fabricator‟s shop is an expensive process, requiring specialized heavy equipment. Generally, the length handled by fabrication presses cannot exceed about 12 m. Other disadvantages of cold pressing are the high residual stresses and strain hardening at the corners of the ribs, reducing their fatigue resistance. Cold pressing also increases the difficulty of attaining the prescribed straightness tolerances, essential for correct welding of the ribs to the deck plate. However, the cold-pressed ribs would have to be used because the steel mills could produce hot-rolled profiles only if assured of sufficient tonnage. The cost of fabrication and erection of orthotropic decks depends primarily on specialized labour, not the cost of the steel plate. The rib intersections with the cross beams are labour-intensive. To further reduce the labour cost, it is suggested that the detail at the rib intersections with the cross beams may be simplified by omitting the free cut-outs at the rib bottoms, which require laborious “wrapping around” of the welds and costly grinding smooth the weld ends and around the cut-out. Or another cost reducing solution is that the ribs with rounded bottoms are fitted tightly in the web cut-outs and welded continuously all around the rib periphery.(see Figure 11 below for example) This alternative is possible where the depth of the cross beam is at least twice the rib depth, and it suits our design. For good fatigue resistance, fabricators must strictly adhere to required tight dimensional tolerances. They should also choose welding 43
  43. 43. methods and sequences to minimize residual stresses. The panels will act as top flanges of longitudinal girders. Erectors will weld the edges of the panels to the tops of the girders. These welds will resist the interaction shears between the steel roadway deck and the girder. (see App A-04) Figure 11 Bridge leaves transportation The prefabricated structure will eventually have to be transported and lifted into place by heavy-duty equipment. After the bridge girders are pre-fabricated, they are going to be transported to the construction site by water and mounted on the columns. A barge crane (see App. A-06) will be used to transport and mount bridge leaves on columns. We recommend to use barge cranes of a following type and characteristics:  'TITAN' FLAT TOP PONTOON/CRANE BARGE - 64.600 X 17.700 Capacity 150Te  Newt Marine has a fleet of over 40 deck barges ranging in size from 40‟ x 14‟ x 3‟ (12.2 x 4.3 x 0.9m) to 150‟ x 50‟ x 8‟ (45.7 x 15.2 x 2.4m), 250-ton crane. Figure 12 44
  44. 44. After the bridge leaves are transported to the construction site, they are going to be mounted on columns (see App. A-06) Road modification for the new bridge A steel sheet pilling system is proposed in order to widen the West access to the bridge as shown in drawing App-A-01. This chapter provides a brief introduction to the methods of installing sheet piling, based upon the Technical European sheet piling Association (TESPA) manual on the installation of the steel sheet piling. Soil condition The successful driving of sheet pilings is dependent on a good knowledge of the site conditions in order to ensure an accurate assessment of the topographical and geological conditions. On the West side of the Swing bridge lot of local businesses are located for example shops and banks. This means that there will be some working restrictions on the construction site such as noise and vibration. This site is subjected to its own unique set of restrictions, which vary according to the proximity and nature of neighbouring buildings and narrow streets. It is recommended to carry out a site investigation of the soils at that location, coupled with a various field and laboratory tests, which greatly will aid to achieve the required penetration of the sheet pilings. Choice of sheet piling sections for piling With all civil engineering projects, there is a primary need to minimize the cost of the work. It is therefore important that the most effective pile must be selected for the task. It is suggested to use wide, deep pilings which tend to be more cost-effective since they provide the same bending strength (at a lower weight per square foot) comparing with narrow sections. Their increased width means that fewer pilings are required to cover a given length of wall, so installation costs can therefore be reduced. The greater the surface area of the piling profile, the greater the driving force required. It is proposed to use a minimum cross section available on the market. To avoid unnecessary deformation of the pile head, proper care is needed to ensure that the pile section chosen be compatible with the prevailing soil conditions. 45
  45. 45. The geometry of the pile section may cause plugging of the pilings in most cohesive soil strata and also in certain dense, granular strata. Choice of driving system The choice of a suitable driving system is of fundamental importance in order to ensure a safe and successful pile installation. To insert piles in place it is suggested to use single-acting drop hammer. This hammer is easily adapted to drive any of the piling sections for all ground conditions (above and below the water table). Sheet piling presses It is advised to use sheet piling presses to eliminate of the noise of sheet pile driving, which had for years been accepted as a nuisance to be tolerated. Originally developed to install pilings silently, the machines are also widely recognized for their vibration-free operation. 46
  46. 46. Procedure of pile installation Figure 13: shows steps how sheet piles are placed in the ground Sheet pilings are installed in a panel, and the machine is set on the panel by means of a crane (Type 1). The hydraulic cylinders are connected to the pilings and, by pressurizing two drives while the others are locked, enable the pilings to be pushed into the ground, two at a time, to the full extent of the drives. When all the drives have been extended, they are retracted simultaneously, causing the crosshead and power pack to be lowered. The cycle is then repeated to completion. These presses can develop forces of up to 330t/300mt. A movable frame to hold the installed panel and to move from panel to panel, giving complete independence from a crane. In this system, pre-drilling loosens the soil during the press operation (Type 2). A chain pull connected to a fixed point, or to pilings that have already been driven, can provide supplementary press force. 47
  47. 47. Jack one pile after another to the complete depth while walking on the previously set pilings. These machines work completely independently from a crane, and they also use the reaction force of the pilings already set to operate. If required, these machines can accommodate limited circular construction (Type 3). Figure 13 shows steps how sheet piles are placed in the ground. Once the piles are driven in place the back filling procedure will commence. It is suggested to use recycled materials for backfilling to make it more sustainable. Finally, the road surface is placed. Design of East pier foundation Introduction to Foundations The current bridge west pier is supported on a caisson founded 5.8m below low water level on rock. The caisson appeared to be heavy pitching stones had been laid around pier. According to the Whitby Bridge Survey & Assessment 1970 the masonry of east pier is founded on a solid mat of timbers supported on 13.7-15.2m timber piles driven into the river bed. Further investigation should be undertaken on west pier‟s and caisson foundation‟s condition and bearing capacity. At this stage is assumed what foundation is suitable to carry imposed loads and there are no improvements or modification required for the new swing bridge. Despite of all timbers of east pier are found in good condition, the pile stresses are fairly critical. New bridge deck designed to carry two-lane traffic, so imposed load on foundation would exceed piles capacity. Therefore decision to replace foundation of east pier was accepted. The second reason to modify east pier is geometry on new proposal. Due to wider bridge deck, structure is constrained with control house (listed building) and plans to use existing west pier. To accommodate these requirements, bridge is offset by an angle in plan around west pier i.e. east pier is moved slightly towards North. See Drw. No. 003. 48
  48. 48. Construction of East pier foundation Very important aspect in the bridge design involves determining the appropriate type of foundation. As the West column will be reused for the new swing bridge, we will consider only foundation for the East column. The cost of construction is usually higher if pile foundations are used instead of shallow foundations. Based on the data given us in the design brief and example of the foundation of the current East column, the soil is not sufficiently strong for shallow foundation, so the pile foundation will be used instead. According to the geology of our interest area and analysis of boreholes, a strong incompressible layer is positioned below the location of the current bridge. Hence, the load of the bridge can be transferred to the hard stratum and most suitable type of piles for that are “end bearing piles”. (see App. A-03) Figure 14 Material required for piles to efficiently resist loads and marine environment. The most important parameter when selecting the material is cost. Hence our design team made a research to select comparatively low cost material, having all the other parameters necessary for building piled foundation in this specific case. The research stated that timber is the cheapest and fully acceptable material. 49
  49. 49. List of factors, affecting the choice of material Ability to carry design load According to our team approximations, each of foundations will have to carry maximum of 50 tons of dead load in worst case. According to www.piledrivers.org website information, and “Pile Foundations in Engineering Practice” book, timber piles are capable to safely support up to 75 tons with a safety factor at least of two. But loads of more than 30 tons are rarely used on timber piles as a protection against damage due to high driving. Ease of use Very big advantage of timber piling is that it is generally readily available and usually does not require long lead times for shipment. Timber is also easier to handle and install comparing to other materials used for piles, it is also easy to drive and cut to elevation. Durability in specific marine environment Timber used for piled foundation in our design, will be fully protected from the decay as it is fully submerged but fungi need moisture, air, and favourable temperature to grow. As Whitby is a coastal city, there is also an effect of the marine environment: timber structures in a marine environment are subject to attack by a variety of destructive organisms , such as marine borers. The piles are going to be treated with appropriate preservatives and it will prevent or significantly retard this type of deterioration. Based on this information and on the fact that timber piles of the current bridge lasted for 100 years, timber piles will obviously last till the end of the design life of new bridge. Sustainability Timber is a very environmentally friendly, naturally renewable resource that can be replanted after harvesting and it easy to safely dispose all the cut-offs. It makes timber more sustainable than all the other materials used for piled foundations. 50
  50. 50. Conclusion Based on the current information and considering the foundation experience of the current bridge it is clearly seen that relatively cheap and efficient timber piled foundation can be created for East column, satisfying all the design needs. Construction Parameters of piles (length, quantity, ultimate load) For timber piles, a series of tests ( static analysis, etc.) will be preformed to determine minimum required pile section to provide necessary capacity. Analysis will help to optimize the cost by defining the perfect number of piles required and showing ultimate load for each pile. After that, the ultimate load will be multiplied by Geotechnical Safety Factors. Construction method For structures that are located over water and especially for timber piles, driving piles is the most suitable method, as it is the cheapest solution for moderate loadings , and installation of piles do not cause significant ground heave or vibrations to existing structures nearby. Figure 15 First of all, cofferdam will be constructed around the location of the old column and proposed new column location (see App-A-05 for details). After that, the same crane that is mounted near the east column on the Bridge Street, that is used to deconstruct the old column, will be used to drive piles in combination with pile-driving mechanism. (see Figure 17 above) 51
  51. 51. East foundation construction sequence 1. Construction of the cofferdam 2. Driving the test pile and performing a set of pile analyses. 3. While analysis is performed deconstruction of the bridge will be started 4. Driving piles at the proposed location of the new column 5. Concrete slab will be put on piles, this will finish the construction of foundation, allowing the construction of column to begin. Flood risk assessment Introduction Whitby is a coastal town, with a flood risk that is mainly caused by sea level rise .The impacts of flooding can result in costly repairs, loss of business and in some cases loss of life. The potential prospects for climate change could further increase the risk of flooding in future years. In the design brief it is stated that the highest recorded tide at Whitby was 3.0m and based on the history of flooding in Whitby combined with statistical estimates of extreme sea levels, the water may rise to the level of 3.85m once in 50 years and the level of 4.10m once in 200 years. In the design brief it is recommended to provide protection for the flood level of 4.80 meters. The given ground levels of Whitby were analysed and approximate flooding map was produced by our team. (see Appendix D-01 for details) 52

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