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Costumes of east indian tribes

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All the details related to some well known East Indian Tribal Costumes

All the details related to some well known East Indian Tribal Costumes

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  • 1. 1 East India is a portion comprising the states of West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar and Jharkhand. The diversity of East India is evident from its population, individual count and of course the intellectual stamina of the people residing in this region. An even more wondrous fact that can be given is that each state is vastly and distinctly different from each other, with novelty in the spheres of cuisine, costume, culture, education, entertainment, forests, ways of living, economy and travel. When leaving aside the metropolitan population and city living, tribal living in east India is somewhat common in some spheres of culture and entertainment. East Indian tribes come to a significant numbering count under the vast section of Indian tribes. This fact has received national as well as vast international recognition in the past several decades. Kharia Tribe Baiga Tribe Kalinga Tribe Banjara Tribe Santhal Tribe Munda Tribe • Bhumij Tribe • Magh Tribe Asur Tribe Karmali Tribe The Kharia tribes have occupied a major portion of the rugged slopes of Ranchi, Lohardaga and the furrowed incline of west and east Singhbhum and Hazaribagh of the Jharkhand. Although the Kharia tribes have mainly concentrated in Jharkhand, yet they can also be found in Orissa and West Bengall in little number. Being a part of the `Proto- Austroloid` family group, the language of the Kharia tribes are known as Kharia language. These Kharia tribes also speak languages like Sadani, Hindi language and few other dialects that have originated locally. As per the ancient history of the Kharias, they are the descendants of Nagvanshi Raja, Munda. Occupation The major source of livelihood for this Kharia tribe is agriculture. Some of them also depend on small forest products like roots, seeds, flowers, edible herbs, leaves, fruits, wax, honey, etc. Instances are also not rare when these Kharia tribes adapt to labor works. Fishing, hunting as well as animal husbandry is exercised as supplementary occupations. They cultivate Bari crops like marua, maize, vegetables and bean etc. Their lands are of two types namely Tanr land and Don land. They cultivate Til, Arahar, Kurathi, Tisi etc. along with Vadai crops in Tanr land and paddy in the Don land. They practice wet cultivation to cultivate Rabi crops like Masuri, Chana, Khesari etc. Apart from these the Kharia people also grow brinjal, lady`s finger, tomato, bean, potato, peas etc. in their lands. Houses The houses of the Kharias are built with mud, wood, bamboo, straw, Khar grass and rope. There is no window in those houses and are of rectangular shape. Doors are made with wood and iron. Some of the people of this tribal community build pigsty and cattle shed for domestic animals.
  • 2. 2 Costime The costumes of the male groups of this Kharia tribe includes shirt, ganji, pants, half Dhoti, Kurta and Gamachha. The female groups of this community wear salwar-suits, frock, Jhula, Saree, Sata. Ornaments are highly sought after in their community and the women wear earrings, nose rings, necklaces, metal hair pins, wristlets, rings, anklets etc are some of their favourite ornaments. They use seed, shell, bronze, thread, brass, nickel, silver, gold and silver imitation as the metals of their jewelleries. Festival Several religious ceremonies are feted where almost all the Kharia tribes revere the Giring or Bero. Burha Burhi or Marsi Masan is the progenitor of Kharia tribes whom also these Kharia tribes worship and also are respected. Their religion is a blend of the beliefs and rituals of Hinduism, tribalism and Christianity. They worship the deities of Nag Deo, Jal Deo, Gram Deo, Dharati Mai, Burn Deo, Thakur Deo, Fire God, Burha-Burhi Deo etc. and the spirits. the Kharia tribes, a lot of local festivals and occasions are also celebrated by the people of the tribal community. Just like other tribes of the region, these Kharia tribes celebrate festivals like Karma, Sohrai, Sarhul, Nawakhani, Ramnawami, Dussehra, Diwali etc. Dance and music are an important part of their festivals and occasions. They use Kartal, Dol, Nagara, flute etc during their musical performances. During their tribal dance whistling and clapping also serve as rhythmic tune. Baiga tribe is a primitive Dravidian tribe. Baiga tribes are located in the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, and West Bengal. They are scattered over the hilly forest provinces of India including Shahdol, Bilaspur, Rajnandgaon, Mandla, and Balaghat. As far as the origin of the Baiga tribes is concerned, they have got a rich history behind it. Baiga tribes belong to the Dravidian groups and are one of the ancient tribes of the central India including Madhya Pradesh. In the regions of Mandla and Balaghat, Binjhwar sub-caste is considered as the civilised sub-division of Baiga tribe. Bhainas are another off-shoot of Baiga tribe. Occupation The Baiga tribes practice shifting cultivation in forest areas. They say they never ploughed the Earth, because it would be like scratching the breast of their Mother, and how could they possibly ask Mother to produce food from the same patch of earth time and time again – she would have become weakened. That‟s why Baigas used to lived a semi- nomadic life, and practiced Bewar cultivation (slash & burn) – out of respect, not aggression. Until fairly recently the Baigas practiced 'dahiya' cultivation, that is, slash and burn. Language It is believed that the ancestors of the Baigas spoke an Austroasiatic language, however no trace of it is left now. Some Baigas (specifically those from the Mandla district) have mentioned "Baigani" as their mother tongue in the past: Baigani is now recognized as a variety of Chhattisgarhi influenced by Gondi and Western Hindi. Most Baigas communicate with outsiders in Hindi, and some of them also know Gondi or Marathi depending on the region they live in.
  • 3. 3 Tattoo There are different tattoos for different parts of the body and these tattoos are also inked at different times of their lives. „Chati Godai‟ means tattooing on the chest which can be done any time after marriage. The tattoos extend from the elbows to the finger tips. It takes 20 to 25 years for the completion of all the tattoos prescribed. In the whole process of stretching the identity of their tribes on their bodies, the most attractive items are the 10 to 12 long pointed needles which pierce the skin. The process involves the use of a prominent grape of this area. It gives out carbon which is collected when the seeds are burnt. This is collected in small boxes. And after liquidation it is ready to be used as the ink to draw the pictures with a thin bamboo stick. After the outlining, the inking starts. The Godhna (the tattoos) prepares the girl of the pains of becoming a mother. This pain gives her the strength to face all the different challenges in her life. Second, it is their clan identity. And thirdly they consider Godhna to be the only earthly impression to accompany them in the life after death. Costume Due to long hours in the Sun and outdoors, the skin of the Baigas is dark. The men and women get their hair cut once in a life time. If a Baiga is asked why he does not clip his hair, his instant response with immense pride is that it is a Baiga tradition. This tribe wears very few clothes. The men usually wear a „fatka‟ to cover their private parts. This „fatka‟ is very similar to the loin cloth used for the dhoti of the Gonds. Women wear a sari which covers their body but their blouses are short and chest hugging. It is evident from this that their style of clothing is simple and hassle free. Some of the Baigas tie a cloth around their head which looks similar to a turban. Religion he Gond people do not believe that they are Hindu. They also have Ramayana as one of their epics and the characters and story is similar to the one written by Sant Valmiki. However, the language in which it is written is different. They worship „Bahadeo‟ that is Lord Shankar. The Kalingas as a tribe are almost always associated with the Angas and Vangas in ancient Indian literature. These three tribes along with the Pundras and Suhmas are said to have been named after the five sons of Bali, Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Suhtna who were called Baleya Kshatra and also Baleya Brahmanas. These five tribes evidently then lived conterminously and had their distinct entities within respective geographical boundaries to which they gave the names of their respective tribes. In the Markandeya Purana it has been mentioned that a Kalinga tribe had their settlement on the Satadru. In many of the Puranas Kalingas have been described as people of the southern region. It has been said that they dwelt in the southern region along with the Maharastras, Mahisakas, Abhiras, Vaisikyas, Savaras, Pulindas and others. origin Early It comprised most of the modern state of Odisa , Andhra and region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh. Occupation Kalingas are in rice farming. Some of them are skilled potters with pot making. They are also excellent in basketry, loom weaving and metal works.
  • 4. 4 Costume Women are dressed in colourful woven rap around materials that is knotted. They use blouse for upper body which is simple cut and stitched. Men use G-string , woven fabric and they use colourful beads as a part of the costume. The culture of Banjara tribes has uniqueness and exquisiteness flows from top to bottom. Though, their history is still a mystery, the dress sense, culture, customs and language, of Banjara tribe in Orissa signify that they originated from Rajasthan. Culture Colorful is the one word that comes to mind when we think of this enthusiastic tribe of India. They live in settlements called Tandas. Urdu, Telegu, Kutni, Lambadi are amongst the popular languages spoken here. A woman of Banjara tribes in Orissa is accustomed to wearing "ghaghra" and `choli` (a blouse). Ghagra is a whirling skirt made of red, black and white cotton, with pieces of mirrored glass embroidered on it. The craze for Jewels is of the highest degree amongst these celebrated tribes of Orissa. Anklets, silver earrings, hair plaits and bone bangles add charm to the enriched culture of Banjaras. Rituals Banjara tribes in Orissa are huge devotees of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati. The love and dedication flourishes to such extent that, they save money from their living to visit to the pilgrimage of Tirupati Balaji. Clothing : Women are known to wear colorful and beautiful costumes like phetiya and kanchalli. They use mirror chips and often coins to decorate it. Women put on thick bangles on their arms (patli). Their ornaments are made up of silver rings, coins, chain and hair pleats are tied together at the end by chotla. Men wear Dhoti and Kurta (short with many folds). These clothes were designed especially for the protection from harsh climate in deserts and to distinguish them from others. A step forward, in our Indian tribal tour takes us to Santhal tribe. With a population of more than 49000, Santhal tribes are the third largest tribes in India. Belonging to pre Aryan period, these tribes of India are found in regions of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Jharkhand. Many call them as “the tribes at extreme”, a visit to their place will surly get your money‟s worth. Language Santhali is the prime language spoken by the Santhal Tribe. This Indian tribe also have a script of their own called Olchiki. Apart from Santhali they also speak Bengali, Oriya and Hindi. Culture Dancing and music are the streamline of these Indian tribes. Santhal women dress in the red bordered white sari and dance in the line sequence. These tribes in India play mind soothing music with instruments like Tirio, Dhodro banam, Phet banam, Tumdak, Tamak, Junko and Singa
  • 5. 5 Costume: Santhal women dress in the red bordered white sari and dance in the line sequence. Munda tribe mainly inhabit in the region of Jharkhand, Although they are well spread in the states of West Bengal, Chhatisgarh, Orissa and Bihar. Munda generally means headman of the village. Occupation For the occupation, Munda tribes in the ancient days used to be woodcutters, cutting down the forests and then selling the wood and they have even taken up fishing and earth cutting. Munda tribes have remained hunters for centuries. Gradually they converted into the settled agriculturist. Most of them do not have land of their own and are largely dependent on the labour work in the fields to earn their livelihood. Food and clothing Mundas are animal eaters for a long time. Their usual food inculdes frogs, snakes, rats, earthworms, shells and snails. Mundas prefer having Tari and Haria wine on the various occasions. They are in close touch with the Hindu society. Munda men wear pant and shirts, While the women are seen wearing the cotton saris with the cholis or blouse. Mundari are generally short in height, dark complexion, and good looking. They have short curly hair. Language Munda tribes are the largest tribe of India. The main language spoken by them includes "Munda" or "Killi" , Santali and Mundari. The titleernative name of Munda is 'Heriki'. Culture These Indian tribes usually follow Christianity. Munda tribes also have their own religion called “Sarna”. They have an ideology that God is one. These tribes of India also believe in the supreme power of Singbonga, which means the Sun God. One unique thing that you rarely find in any of the tribes in India is the willingness to marry people from other tribes. Many people of Munda tribes of India also worship Lord Shiva. Bhumij are a tribal/Adivasi people living primarily in the Indian states of West Bengal, Odisha and Jharkhand, mostly in the old Singhbhum district. In the western districts of West Bengal, there are prominent groups of Bhumijes, although numerically they are considerably behind the Santals and Bauris. They live in the territory between the Kasai and Subarnarekha rivers. Language They speak the Mundari language of the Austroasiatic language family or sometimes the predominant local language such as Bengali. Costume Children of both the sexes go naked up to four or five years. Then, they wear a towel ( Gamucha) or a pant till adolesence when they start wearing clothes. The male dress consists of a shirt, a dhoti and a towel. The towel is kept on the shoulder. In summer, men do not use shirt when they are in the village. .The women wear sari and blouse called Jakit. The sari worn is generally of white colour. During winter, they also use sari or dhoti as wrapper for protection against cold.
  • 6. 6 Occupation Their source of income is agriculture, collection of forest produce from the forest, lac cultivation and basketry. Asur tribes are usually found in the state of Jharkhand in the eastern part of the subcontinent of India. One of the thirty major tribes is Asur in Jharkhand who have made the state of Jharkhand their home. The people of this tribe form quite a big part of the total population of the state of Jharkhand. Occupation Asurs are traditionally iron-smelters. They were once hunter gatherers, having also involved in shifting agriculture. However, majority of them shifted into agriculture with 91.19 percent enlisted as cultivators as per the 2010 edition of the Encyclopaedia Of Scheduled Tribes In Jharkhand. Culture Asur's culture is found embedded in their household possession which includes utensils, furniture, war weapons, hunting implements, iron-smelting implements, baskets, dress, ornaments etc. The Asur build their house with the help of mud, wooden poles, bamboo, leaves, grasses and tiles. The house is rectangular in shape. Each house consists of one or two rooms with a balcony. There is door and wooden gate and no window. Clothes The Asur Tribal men wear Dhoti and have a Gamchha on their head or shoulder. They wear ganji and kurta when they have to go out of the village, they use plastic shoes or slippers at the time of going to market or to some other villages. The women wear Sari, Saya and Blouse. Previously Asur woman used to cover their entire body with the same sari without Blouse and Saya. The Asur children wear Pant, Ganji, Shirt and Salwar Suit in late childhood. In early childhood, the children wear Ganji or Shirt only. They purchase clothes from the local Haat. Asur women are very much fond of ornaments which they wear in fingers, wrist, neck, ear and feet. Their ornaments are made up of bronze, steel, glass, thread, wild seeds and imitation of gold and silver. Now-a-days tattooing is not so popular. Magh tribes of East India have actually migrated from the hilly neighborhood countries of India. The term `Magh` has got etymological significance as it means Mongoloid. The Magh society has rich heritage as exemplified in its cultural aspects. Magh tribes have their own local dialect for carrying on conversation amongst each other. Riddles, proverbs and folk tales are part and parcel of the Magh tribal community. In the social structure, the priest who is locally known as Phongyee and also village or Roa schools, play a significant role for the preservation of conventional education system in the Magh society.
  • 7. 7 Occupation The main occupation of Magh tribes is agriculture. People those who live in the mountainous terrains, undertake the practice of `jhum cultivation`. While some people residing in the plains plough cultivation. Weaving and fish catching are also taken up by many of them. Business community, traders and service holders are barely ever found in their society. Child labor is unfamiliar, and also Magh females are seen working in the construction sites and field. Religion These Magh tribes are religious minded, widely practicing Buddhism. They are mainly the followers of theravada (hinayana) Buddhism. Tripitaka is the sacred book of these Magh tribes, written in the Pali language. The Monastic Community and the Laity are religious communities. The priests wear yellow robes and live in the religious residence, while the Laity leads a family life with wife, children and relatives. Festivals Festivals are an integral part of Magh tribes, mostly associated with the full moon of each month, which they call labray, a Burmese word for full moon. To them the full moon is sacred and they believe that most religious events take place on the day following the night of the full moon. On this occasion, Buddha is worshipped and various ingredients like food, fruits and flowers and by lighting candles and incense sticks are being offered. Costume Amongst dresses of these Magh, males are lungis or sarongs, shirts and slippers. As festival wears, they prefer to wear tight fitting coat called `prakha angyi` over the shirt buttoned at the throat. They also use a white kerchief called `goungpoung`. It is a type of headdress. Tattooing, locale known as `matoray`, beautifies their bodies. Usage of shirts and trousers are common among the aristocrat people of this community. The women of Magh tribal group wear angyi (blouse) and thami along with a tuft known as chaungtung on head. Flowers and jewelleries are also used by the women folks to bedeck their hair. Salwar kamiz is also popular among the Magh women. Karmali tribe is one of the artisan tribes of Chhotanagpur. They smelt iron and prepare iron tools. Iron tools are supplied to the tribes who are engaged in agricultural tribes and castes. They have been associated with the occupation of the craft making.
  • 8. 8 Culture of Karmali Tribe Karmali tribe erect their houses with mud wall that is thatched with bamboo and tiles. Their houses are rectangular that has wooden doors which they prepare themselves. There are no separate cattle sheds and they are accommodated in the Veranda of the house. As they rear and eat pigs, the Munda and other tribes consider them untouchable and do not have food and water relation. They also weave different types of baskets. They prepare sickle, knife, karahi, cholani, dabu, axes, Basula, Rukhani, Bhala, Ber, Garasa, bow and arrow. The women wear ornaments in neck; earn nose, hand, wrist, feet and fingers that are made of brass, bronze, steel, thread, shell and seeds. Religion of Karmali Tribe Singbonga is the chief deity of the Karmali. Pahan is their religious priest and head. Other deities include Grambonga, Dihwar bonga, Nagbona, Beghbonga, Banshbonga and so on. Karmali tribe also believes in a number of ancestral spirits. Their ancestral spirits reside in the house. In order to please the spirits and deities they offer sacrifices with the help of the priest. They also believe in witch craft. Costume: The women wear ornaments in neck; earn, nose, hand, wrist, feet and fingers that are made of brass, bronze, steel, thread, shell and seeds. They wear saris. http://www.indianetzone.com/37/east_india n_tribes.htm http://tribes-of- india.blogspot.in/search/label/banjara%20trib es%20in%20orissa http://www.baiga.org/tribes.php http://www.indianmirror.com/tribes/mundat ribe.html http://www.shodhana.org http://santali.wordpress.com/2009/05/23/sa ntal-santali-santhal-santhali-santhal-pargana- adivasi-tribal-sarn/

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