Understanding the principal methods and techniques used in marketing and public relationships
Katie Torpey and Savannah Hardwick
Why is it important in marketing to understanding your clients and their requirements?
Companies and businesses will have to make sure that they are familiar and understand their clients, as this
will affect the overall outcome of the work they produce and it can also affect the success of the client. By
ensuring that you understand the client’s desires and needs, you are making sure that you are building an
effective relationship with the client. The client may have a specific way in which they want the
product/work to look, and it is the marketing team’s job to make sure that the client gets what they want. If
the work produced is not what the client wants, then it is unlikely that the client will go forward with the
work or with the marketing company.
Why is understanding the market you are working in important? What techniques and tools could be used
to help someone understand their market?
Understanding the market in which you are working is important because you need to be aware of any
competition in this area, as well as the type of consumer you will have for the product, it will be helpful to
you when figuring out where to place the product. There are many different techniques and tools that you
can use to better understand their market. Specific tools and techniques are market research and analysis,
getting to know the market by doing primary and secondary research. The business or the specific individual
often conducts primary research. This research would be complied of interviews, questionnaires and the use
of online surveys. Each of these primary research techniques are useful when trying to understand a market
because each of them is a way of getting the information directly form the source (the target market).
Secondary research can also be used to help understand a market; this research is based primarily on
existing data, such as reports, articles, trade publications and statistics. An example of using primary
research to understand your market is used by Ringgold Inc. who used it clients, including The Oxford
University Press, The American Medical Association and many others, in order to understand who they were
aiming their products at.
What is a SWOT analysis? Why are they are they a useful tool?
SWOT analysis is a way of assessing your ideas and evaluating them with a specific structure. SWOT itself
stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. When conducting a SWOT analysis on your
product, you should look at how strong it is, will it do its job and will it be effective? But as well as looking
into the strengths, you should also always look at its weaknesses and consider what you can do about them.
A useful thing to do is to look at the opportunities that come from the project and how these opportunities
will affect you, both good and bad. You will also need to look into the threats that come from the
project/product; a threat in this case would be anything that
could affect its success. If you are aware of the weaknesses
and threats of the product, then you are able to work on
them, and get a handle on them before they become an issue
as knowing what your weaknesses are helps to create a better
product. SWOT analysis is a good tool because allows your to
dissect your work, letting you know what the strengths and
opportunities from the product are, but also what the
weaknesses and threats are form it. An example of SWOT
analysis is from Queensland Government, who conducted
SWOT analysis on a business.
What is audience profiling? What sort of information might be included in an audience profile?
Audience profiling is a way of building knowledge about the organisations client, understanding
who the client Is and what they want. Profiling your audience means finding out about their age,
sex, location, life-stage, income brand, property value and lifestyle choices. You will also need to
find out about how much they will interact with your product, meaning how often do they purchase
it? How many times have they purchased it? And when do they purchase it? You will then need to
figure out how the clients currently view the product and services, for example is the product
perceived to be a necessity for the person, a luxury for them or default option.
Select a magazine and find their audience profile:
Cosmopolitan, a woman’s fashion and gossip magazine have a very clear idea of who their audience is. They
understand that their audience are employed woman, most likely with children, A/B and aged 18-38.
Because they have a clear idea of who their product is aimed at, they can tailor the product to fit their
audience’s needs, making them more likely to purchase the product.
Explain in detail the 4 different elements of the marketing mix.
The four mains elements of the marketing mix are Price, Product, Place and Promotion.
When thinking about the product itself, you need to think about what the customer
would want from the product itself, what specific features will the product need to
meet the needs of the consumer, how and where will the customer be using it, what
does the product look like, what size and colour should the product be, what is the
name of the product, how is it going to be branded and finally how is this product
different from the other competitors.
When talking about the price of the product, you need to consider the value of the product or the service to
the buyer, is there an established price for the product or service in this area, is the customer price sensitive,
what types of discounts could be offered to the trade customers, and finally how will your price compare to
its competitors, is it better or worse value for money? When thinking about the prices of products, they will
also need to think about the demographics they are aiming at, as some people might want to buy the
products but not be able to afford them. They will need to consider the price for both ABC1 and C2DE
demographics, and whether they want to aim their products at both types of earner.
When thinking about the placement of the product you need to consider where buyers go to look for the
product or service, if they look in a store for the product, what kind of store is it?, would you need to use a
sales force for the product, and you will also need to think about what your competitors would be doing, and
how you can learn form this, or make sure that yours is different from it. The product will have to accessible
to a wide variety of people, therefore they will need to make sure that the places the product are showcased
is well known. For example, a product like an Iphone would be easily found in technology stores, but can also
be accessed online or through some supermarkets. Which is the same from clothing lines, most clothing lines
are found in stores, but also are online.
When looking into where to promote your product, you need to think about where and when you will be
able to get across your message to the target market, you need to figure out of you will reach your target
market by advertising in the press, TV, radio or billboards. You will also need to think about when the best
time to promote is, and also how your competitors promote their products and how this will influence your
choice of promotional activities. An example of this would be how when a new film is being released, it is
promoted in many different areas, such as on buses, on billboards and on posters in areas where the films
target market are likely to be.
Select a publication, product or audience and explain the range of marketing materials that they use.
There are many different ways that you can market your product, including interactive tools, audio, video
and print. The product Only By The Night, a new album released by group The Kings Of Leon uses a range of
marketing materials. The main tools for this group would be print, audio and video. They use the audio tool
by promoting their product on the radio, playing small parts of sings they have produced as well as stating
how much it costs and where it can be bought. They have also used video, having it played on televisions all
through the day to promote their new album, the video will feature snippets of music videos the group have
done, as well as the relevant information. Finally they used print as a marketing tool, they created
promotional adverts to show the band and that they had released a new album. These three tools are
effective for marketing this product because each of the tools will be seen by a large variety of people,
having their product (the album) seen by many people. This band used socials media sites such as Face
book, MySpace, Twitter and YouTube to reach out to their fans and to advertise their new album release. On
sites like YouTube, an advert for the album will appear before songs similar to theirs. They will use sites like
Face book, twitter and MySpace to communicate directly with their fans; this is a useful way of marketing
themselves because they can choose what they want to share with the public, and how they share it,
including information about their album release.
Provide your own definition of advertising.
Advertising is a way of communicating a product, person, event or company to the public. The desired effect
is that the advertisement will encourage people to by the product, invest in the person, to go to the event or
to support the person(s) being advertised. Sometimes advertising Is used to manipulate the audience into
thinking that they want the product, or changing their opinion of something/someone. Advertisements can
be found everywhere; they are often in areas where you are more likely to see the product which is being
advertised, as well as constantly being on the television or radio. By having adverts constantly being shown
to the public the product is constantly being shown as well.
What is the purpose of sponsorship? Support your answer with detailed examples.
Sponsorship Is where companies will use celebrities or well-known people to help promote their product.
This can involve donations in exchange fro the company’s logo being worn by the celebrity, or having their
advertising materials shown near the person. Many television shows and sports personalities will be
sponsored by a specific product. A few examples of this would be:
When ‘Friends’ was running on E4, the drink ‘Appetiser’ sponsored the show, and was shown before
and after, as well as during the breaks of the programme.
The glasses company ‘SpecSavers’ used celebrities to endorse their product, being seen wearing
them as well as being part of advertisements for the company.
Martini is a sponsor of the F1 races.
Fosters sponsors original comedy shows on Channel 4, E4 and More 4.
Rimmel sponsors Fashion on E4 and Channel 4.
Black XS (AFTERSHAVE) sponsors Skins.
Nina L’Elixir sponsors New Girl.
Bet365 Bingo is currently sponsoring Emmerdale.
Impulse body spray sponsor Hollyoaks.
What is the purpose of endorsements? Explain a range of different types of endorsements and use
The purpose of endorsements is to use celebrities, getting them to make positive statements, or to be seen
wearing/using a specific product, in order to help influence the public’s perception of the product, with the
outcome that the public will then want to go and buy this product. Usually a company will get someone who
is in a similar field as what the product would be used in to endorse it. For example a company wanting to
promote new sports wear would get a well known sports person to be seen in this clothing, advertising it.
However it doesn’t always have to be celebrities that endorses the product, companies might chose to get
expert in the field that the product would be used in, this is a way of showing the public that this expert
would chose to use this product, which is a way of marketing the product effectively. There are many
examples of celebrity and non celebrity endorsements:
Beyonce signed a multi-million dollar endorsement deal with Pepsi.
David Beckham has a lifetime deal, worth over $150 million, with Adidas.
Jessica Simpson signed a $4 million endorsement with Weight Watchers.
50 Cent has a $100 million endorsement deal with Vitamin Water.
Tiger Woods had a 5year deal with NIKE, endorsing its products.
Catherine Zeta-Jones endorsed T-Mobile from 2005-2006, and again in 2009.
Why could holding an event be a good marketing strategy? What are some of the opportunities and
threats of holding an event?
Holding events is a good marketing strategy because you as a company have the chance to build up positive
publicity about yourself, the event and the product. It is a great marketing strategy because it will draw in
different types of people from different background, who are all interested in your product. Each
business/company can hold an event, and the type of event will vary depending on the company and the
product itself. The opportunities of holding an event are huge;
You will be advertising your product in an exciting and individual way.
Your company/business will be gaining positive publicity.
A wide variety of people will see/hear about the product.
You are promoting your company, its products and the ability to through a successful event all in
As well as many different opportunities to hosting an event, there can also be many threats;
The venue of the event would have to be big enough- too little space could cause problems.
Dangerous situation can arise from events, especially if the events were to be giving away free items
An example of an event that has gone well in the industry would be Smartphone launch parties by
companies such as Apple, Samsung, Nokia and Blackberry. Each of these companies has turned the release
of their new product into a massive event that press, public and celebrities alike should want to be a part of.
An example of an event gone wrong would be when WII hosted an event named ‘hold your wee for a wii’.
The purpose of the event was to get contestants to drink as much water as they could without going to the
toilet. A woman who came in second place drank 7 litres, and died the day after from water intoxication. The
radio station that held the even then had to pay out $16.5 million to the woman’s family, and fired 10
What is merchandising? Use detailed examples to help explain.
Merchandising is a method used in marketing to gain awareness of a brand or product. Marketing has a
range of different meanings. For example it can mean creating a public display of products in an organised
and persuasive way. By creating a display of products this could be a technique used to interest the audience
and create a curiosity from the audience about the brand or product. By creating an interesting presentation
of the products this could attract the attention from the audience. Another method of using merchandising
is using the brand on an item to promote recognition of the brand. An example of this is
www.zomtastic.co.uk this website sells merchandised products of TV shows such as The Simpsons, Family
Guy, Pepper Pig, Star Wars and Disney. On this website the fans and the audience can purchase t-shirts,
posters, phone cases, toys and even calendar’s of their favourite TV show. This is an effective technique
used in marketing as it will increase sales and it will also increase interest from the current audience and
What is the purpose of a press release? What sort of things should a good press release contain?
A press release is a type of publication, which is often used to broadcast to the public about specific
information. It is often used to state something, which is newsworthy and could take interest of the public. A
press release is a type of communication between the media and the community. They used to be sent
through as letters to the media however they are now often sent through a fax or email. The press release is
often used to broadcast new information such as new events, performances, or organisations however they
are often used by companies to announce to the audience information about their new products, offers and
sales. Press releases are generally used in a journalistic, and news format which may give the impression to
the audience that it is news and that it is important. As well as being published in magazines and newspapers
press releases can also be seen online on news websites such as www.mirror.co.uk/news. An example of a
press release website is http://www.contactmusic.com/press/pressreleases10x12x2013 A website which has
all the recent press releases from the music industry. By using press releases the musicians will be able to
broadcast the release of their new songs, albums, concerts and announcements the public.
What is the purpose of an electronic media pack? What sort of things should a good electronic media pack
This is a very effective way of sending out information instantly to a source, which
could be useful to the company. A media pack is a document of information about the
business and organisation. Often including a press release, biography of the company,
testimonials, articles and photographs, examples of the product and also statistic of
the company and business. This is a very useful way to promote and raise awareness
of the business by allowing the source to get an understanding of the company.
Magazines often use media packs to encourage sales to the audience and the media
packs are often sent to advertisers to get an idea of the magazine, its audience, theme
and subjects. For example if a magazine had a high percentage of the audience as
ABC1 age from 25-40. Then the advertisers would know to create advertisements,
which are aimed for this age range. An example of a media pack is on the right hand
side which is HELLO!’s media pack. I have selected a section from the media pack,
which has information about the audience. This is what advertisers will use to get an
idea about the audience and who they aiming the advertisements at.
What is the purpose of a PR briefing? Why should you create one? Explain some of the areas a brief should
A PR brief is a document which is created and analysed by the company who want to create a PR campaign.
A PR brief is an important source when it comes to the start of the campaign as it will organise the company
and help the company identify the main objectives and what they want to achieve. By doing this it shows a
clear plan of what the company is going to complete. A PR brief should include the main points of the
campaign including the goals of the campaign. By identifying the main targets for the campaign this will
allow the company to work towards the aims. It will also help the company develop and understand what
they need to succeed. The audience will also have to be identified within the brief as this will allow the
company to understand who they are aiming their campaign at, this could eventually affect the success of
the campaign and the sales. Another aspect, which will have to be considered, is the effect of the campaign.
Questions will have to be answered such as how will this campaign affect the public? And also what effect
will this campaign have? This is so that it is clear of what the campaign is going to do. The budget is also a
very important factor, as it will determine how much money is spent on the campaign. It is important that
the budget is kept during the campaign so that the campaign does not spend over the amount, which could
create a negative impact on the company. There is also many more features which a PR brief should include.
Depending on the type of campaign the brief should include these main features which can be seen at
An example of a PR brief is… source (http://www.slideshare.net/karoline_44/brie-fslideshare)
What is the purpose of a press conference? Why might you hold one? Use specific examples to help you
with your response.
A press conference is similar to an interview however it is much more open and general. In a press
conference normally a person or 2 people will announce a statement, which will be held in front of
journalists, reporters and the media. Sometimes press conferences may include questions from the media
allowing them to ask questions directly to the speaker however sometimes questions are not permitted
during the press conference if this occurs this will mean that the speaker will only make a statement which
could result in a photo opportunity for the media. Press conferences are often held for a number of reasons
including that it is a good way in which to get your message across to the media and the audience. They are
also often help because the speaker will be able to give their opinion and also give more information than
from other sources of media such as an interview or press release where the speaker may on have a limited
speech amount. Another reason why a press conference may be held is because it generates notice and
publicity of your opinion, which could gain attention from the public and maybe change opinions. Press
conferences are held by many different people from criminal investigations, sporting events such as football,
music artists and also a political press conference. An example of a recent press conference is from Barack
Obama who held a press conference recently to discuss the economy of the USA as well as politics. During
the press conference Obama discussed a number of issues, and also answered questions from the media at
the end of he press conference. Source - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/09/06/remarkspresident-obama-press-conference-g20
Why could hand-outs be useful when managing a PR event?
Handouts are documents, which are often given out to the audience and the media along with a press
conference, press release or a media pack. The handouts are very useful for the audience as it is a tool,
which can allow the audience to gain more of an understanding of the campaign and will allow the media
and the audience understand the basics to the key ideas of the promotion campaign. By giving out handouts
this can raise the understanding of something, which the audience may not of, understood before. Following
the event handouts may include extra information, which may not have been covered in the other source. A
hand out can include anything for example if a company was releasing a press release of their new product.
A handout may include merchandise of the company or the information of the new product.
What are some of the advantages of holding an interview instead of a press conference?
Although that an interview and a press conference is very similar they are quite different. A press
conference is more open to questions and much more public however an interview is generally more
personal and one to one rather than talking publically to an audience. During a press conference it is also
quite one sided as there is normally only 1 speaker and they will tell the message in their opinion however
an interview allows a range of different topics to be discussed and explained instead of keeping to the same
subject. The advantages of holding an interview instead of a press conference is that the interviewee is
talking to 1 journalist rather than a group of journalists, this means that it is much more direct and could
become more in depth rather than being very general and basic. Another advantage of having an interview
rather than a press conference is that it is a chance to build up a relationship with the interviewer who will
more than likely be an editor, journalist or reporter. This is a huge advantage as this could provide positive
benefits in the future such as interviewing them again for future promotion of products. Another advantage
of having interviews is that often people will know the questions before the interview takes place. This gives
them chance to get an idea on how to answer the questions rather than being at the press conference and
being surprised by un expected questions.
Why do people set up film and picture opportunities? Use examples to help our response.
Film and picture opportunities are opportunities which are given too photographers to capture a person
such as a celebrity doing something positive. This is a very effective method of promotion and people
normally set up film and picture opportunities to capture a moment of a person who could influence the
sales of a company by influencing the audience. People who use film and picture opportunities can range
from celebrities to politicians and even sports people. By using this technique it will gain attention from the
public and generate positive publicity. An example of someone who has used picture and film opportunities
in history is Franklin D. Roosevelt during the 1930’s. When he has photography sessions his press secretary
told the photographers to avoid taking photographs of the president in a wheelchair but instead advised the
photographers to take images when the president was without the wheelchair as this would provide positive
publicity and give an encouraging impression rather than a negative one. A more modern example of where
there has been a picture opportunity is with Gary Barlow. Gary Barlow often carries out charity work for a
number of charities. Whilst carrying out this charity work Gary Barlow often gets photographers to capture
this and sometimes to film it to broadcast on TV for Children in Need or Comic Relief. Although that he does
do this charity work, by having photographs taken this does present him to be a much more friendly, helpful
and caring person which gives him a positive view from the public.
Why are contacts and networking important in marketing and PR? What kinds of contacts could be useful?
Provide details of a PR contact from at least one organisation.
Contacts and networking are very important within the marketing and PR industry. Making sure that a
company has enough contacts of people will give the company a better opportunity. The people who are in
charge of contacts are often in charge of managing the PR for a company. By having a range of different
contacts and networks this is a way of developing business opportunities for promotion, advertising and
sales. Dealing with requests for press releases, conferences, interviews and other tasks are just some
examples, which will involve using contacts and networking. By having lots of contacts in an organisation will
benefit the company, as it will allow the PR to be managed successfully. Useful contacts could include
celebrities, TV bookers, editors, publishers and also bloggers, as these people will help manage the message.
Corinthia is a hotel company. They have the details of their PR contact on their website for organisations to
be in contact this includes…