R K 2 Bluetooth Technologies


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R K 2 Bluetooth Technologies

  1. 1. An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. CONTENT <ul><li>Overview of Bluetooth History </li></ul><ul><li>The Bluetooth Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Bluetooth Scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with other technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 3. Example : The Networked Home
  4. 4. What is Bluetooth? <ul><li>“ Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.” </li></ul>One of the first modules (Ericsson) A recent module
  5. 5. Ultimate Headset
  6. 6. Cordless Computer
  7. 7. Bluetooth Goals & Vision <ul><li>Originally conceived as a cable replacement technology </li></ul><ul><li>Short-Range Wireless Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Open Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Voice and Data Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Usability </li></ul><ul><li>Other usage models began to develop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Area Network (PAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data/voice access points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless telematics </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Overview of Bluetooth History <ul><li>What is Bluetooth? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why this name? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When does it appear? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1994 – Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First specification released in July 1999. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Timeline <ul><li>1994 : Ericsson study complete / vision </li></ul><ul><li>1995 : Engineering work begins </li></ul><ul><li>1997 : Intel agrees to collaborate </li></ul><ul><li>1998 : Bluetooth SIG formed: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia & Toshiba </li></ul><ul><li>1999 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0A </li></ul><ul><li>SIG promoter group expanded: 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft & Motorola </li></ul><ul><li>2000 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, 2000+ adopters </li></ul><ul><li>2001 : First retail products released, Specification 1.1 </li></ul><ul><li>2003 : Bluetooth Specification 1.2 </li></ul><ul><li>2005 : Bluetooth Specification 2.0 (?) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Special Interest Group
  11. 11. Technical features 8-128 bits (configurable) Data Security –Encryption Key 9 x 9 mm Module size Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying Modulation 8 devices Supported Stations 128 bit key Data Security –Authentication Key 30 ft Range Spread Spectrum (Frequency Hopping) & Time Division Duplex (1600 hops/sec) Connection Type 1 Mbps Data Rate 1 mw – 100 mw Transmission Power 2.4 GHz ISM Open Band (79 MHz of spectrum = 79 channels) Spectrum
  12. 12. Bluetooth FHSS <ul><li>Employs frequency hopping spread spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce interference with other devices </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudorandom hopping </li></ul><ul><li>1600 hops/sec- time slot is defined as 625 microseconds </li></ul><ul><li>Packet 1-5 time slots long </li></ul>
  13. 13. Time-Division Duplex Scheme <ul><li>Channel is divided into consecutive slots (each 625  s) </li></ul><ul><li>One packet can be transmitted per slot </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent slots are alternatively used for transmitting and receiving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict alternation of slots between the master and the slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master can send packets to a slave only in EVEN slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave can send packets to the master only in the ODD slots </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classification <ul><li>Classification of devices on the basis of Power dissipated & corresponding maximum Range. </li></ul>1 m 0 dBm CLASS III 10 m 0-4 dBm CLASS II 100 m 20 dBm CLASS I RANGE POWER
  15. 15. Typical Bluetooth Scenario <ul><li>Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between devices in a piconet. </li></ul><ul><li>Point to Point Link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master - slave relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth devices can function as masters or slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piconet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the network formed by a Master and one or more slaves (max 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each piconet is defined by a different hopping channel to which users synchronize to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each piconet has max capacity (1 Mbps) </li></ul></ul>m s s s s m
  16. 16. Piconet Structure <ul><li>All devices in piconet hop together. </li></ul><ul><li>Master’s ID and master’s clock determines frequency hopping sequence & phase. </li></ul>Master Active Slave Parked Slave Standby
  17. 17. Ad-hoc Network – the Scatternet <ul><li>Inter-piconet communication </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 10 piconets in a scatternet </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple piconets can operate within same physical space </li></ul><ul><li>This is an ad-hoc, peer to peer (P2P) network </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bluetooth Protocol Stack
  19. 19. Baseband
  20. 20. Baseband <ul><li>Addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>48 bit IEEE MAC address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Member address (AM_ADDR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 bits active slave address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all zero broadcast address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parked Member address (PM_ADDR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 bit parked slave address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This MAC address is split into three parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Non-significant Address Part (NAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for encryption seed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Upper Address part (UAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for error correction seed initialization & FH sequence generation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lower Address Part (LAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for FH sequence generation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Packet Structure Voice No CRC Data CRC header ARQ FEC (optional) FEC (optional) 72 bits 54 bits 0 - 2744 bits Access Code Header Payload
  22. 22. Connection State Machine Standby Inquiry Page Connected Transmit data Park Hold Sniff
  23. 23. Channel Establishment <ul><li>There are two managed situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A device knows the parameters of the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It follows paging process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No knowledge about the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then it follows inquiring & paging process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Two main states and sub-states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standby (no interaction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection (working) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven more sub-states for attaching slaves & connection establishment </li></ul></ul>Connection State Machine
  24. 24. Channel Establishment (contd.) <ul><li>Seven sub-states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave response </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Link Manager Protocol
  26. 26. Link Manager Protocol <ul><li>The Link Manager carries out link setup, authentication & link configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>Channel Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the work related to the channel control is managed by the master </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The master uses polling process for this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The master is the first device which starts the connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This roles can change (master-slave role switch) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Service provided to the higher layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L2CAP provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol multiplexing and demultiplexing capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation & reassembly of large packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes in length. </li></ul></ul>L2CAP
  28. 28. Middleware Protocol Group <ul><li>Additional transport protocols to allow existing and new applications to operate over Bluetooth. </li></ul><ul><li>Packet based telephony control signaling protocol also present. </li></ul><ul><li>Also includes Service Discovery Protocol. </li></ul>RF Baseband Audio Link Manager L2CAP Data SDP RFCOMM IP Control Applications Middleware Protocol Group
  29. 29. Middleware Protocol Group (contd.) <ul><li>Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means for applications to discover device info, services and its characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Protocols for packet data communication, routing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFCOMM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable replacement protocol, emulation of serial ports over wireless network. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. IP Over Bluetooth <ul><li>IP over Bluetooth v 1.0 </li></ul>
  31. 31. IP Over Bluetooth <ul><li>IP over Bluetooth v 1.1 </li></ul>
  32. 32. File Transfer Profile <ul><li>Profile provides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced client-server interactions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- browse, create, transfer folders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- browse, pull, push, delete files </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Headset Profile <ul><li>Profile provides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both devices must provide capability to initiate connection & accept/terminate calls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume can be controlled from either device. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio gateway can notify headset of an incoming call. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Core Bluetooth Products <ul><li>Notebook PCs & Desktop computers </li></ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Other handheld devices </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless peripherals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headsets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD Player </li></ul><ul><li>TV/VCR/DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Access Points </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Answering Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Cordless Phones </li></ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul>
  35. 35. Other Products… <ul><li>2004 Toyota Prius & Lexus LS 430 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hands free calls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Pulse Oximetry System </li></ul><ul><li>Toshiba Washer & Dryer </li></ul><ul><li>Nokia N-gage </li></ul>
  36. 36. Security <ul><li>Security Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link Level Encryption & Authentication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device, can generate the keys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further encryption can be done at the application layer. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. A Comparison WLAN
  38. 38. Bluetooth vs. IrD <ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point to Multipoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data & Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier Synchronization due to omni-directional and no LOS requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices can be mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 10 m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IrD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point to point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended for Data Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared, LOS communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can not penetrate solid objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both devices must be stationary, for synchronization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 1 m </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Bluetooth: Today & Tomorrow
  40. 40. Will Bluetooth become a household name?
  41. 41. Future of Bluetooth <ul><li>Success of Bluetooth depends on how well it is integrated into consumer products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers are more interested in applications than the technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth must be successfully integrated into consumer products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must provide benefits for consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must not destroy current product benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Success Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Production at Low Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End User Experience </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Summary <ul><li>A new global standard for data and voice </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate Cables </li></ul><ul><li>Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices </li></ul><ul><li>Future Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for optimal resource allocation and utilization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. “ Things that think… don’t make sense unless they link.” - Nicholas Negroponte, MIT Media Laboratory
  44. 44. Thank You