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  • 1. Chapter Six Networking Hardware
  • 2. ObjectivesIdentify functions of LAN connectivityhardwareInstall and configure a network adapter(network interface card)Identify problems associated withconnectivity hardware
  • 3. ObjectivesDescribe the factors involved inchoosing a network adapter, hub,switch, or routerDescribe the functions of repeaters,hubs, bridges, switches, and gatewaysDescribe the uses and types of routingprotocols
  • 4. Network AdaptersAlso called network interface cards (NICs)Connectivity devices enabling a workstation,server, printer, or other node to receive andtransmit data over the network mediaIn most modern network devices, networkadapters contain the data transceiver
  • 5. Types of Network AdaptersFor a desktop or tower PC, network adapteris likely to be a type of expansion board Expansion boards connect to the system board through expansion slotsThe circuit used by the system board totransmit data to the computer’s componentsis the computer’s bus
  • 6. Types of Network AdaptersPC bus types youmay encounter: Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) MicroChannel Architecture (MCA) Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Figure 6-1: The four primary bus architectures
  • 7. Types of Network Adapters Figure 6-2: A system board with multiple bus types
  • 8. Types of Network AdaptersPCMIA Developed in early 1990s to provide standard interface for connecting any type of device to a portable computer More commonly known as PC Cards Figure 6-3: Typical PC Card network adapter
  • 9. Types of Network AdaptersUSB (universalserial bus) port Standard external bus that can be used to connect multiple types of peripherals Figure 6-4: A USB network adapter
  • 10. Types of Network Adapters Figure 6-5: A parallel port network adapter
  • 11. Types of Network Adapters Figure 6-6: Wireless network adapters
  • 12. Types of Network Adapters Figure 6-7: A variety of Ethernet network adapters
  • 13. Types of Network Adapters Figure 6-8: Token Ring network adapters
  • 14. Types of Network Adapters Figure 6-9: Ethernet network adapters for printers
  • 15. Installing Network AdaptersTo install modern network adapters, first installhardware, then install software shipped with NICIn some cases you must perform a third step: Configure the firmwareElectrically erasable programmable read-onlymemory (EEPROM) Type of ROM found on a circuit board Configuration information can be erased and rewritten through electrical pulses
  • 16. Installing and Configuring Network Adapter Hardware Figure 6-10: A properly inserted network adapter
  • 17. Installing and Configuring Network Adapter Hardware Figure 6-11: Installing a PC Card network adapter
  • 18. Installing and Configuring Network Adapter HardwareJumper Small, removable piece of plastic that contains a metal receptacleFigure 6-12: A jumper and a row of pins indicating two different settings
  • 19. Installing and Configuring Network Adapter HardwareDIP switch Small, plastic toggle switch that represents “on” or “off” status Figure 6-13: DIP switches on a NIC
  • 20. Installing and Configuring Network Adapter SoftwareEnsure that the correct device driver isinstalled for the network adapter and that itis configured properlyDevice driver Software that enables an attached device to communicate with computer’s operating system
  • 21. Installing and Configuring Network Adapter Software Figure 6-14: Windows 2000 Upgrade Device Driver Wizard
  • 22. IRQ (Interrupt Request Line)Message to the computer that instructs it tostop what it is doing and pay attention tosomething elseAn interrupt is the wire on which a deviceissues voltage to signal this requestEach interrupt must have a unique IRQnumber
  • 23. IRQ (Interrupt Request Line) Table 6-1: IRQ assignments
  • 24. IRQ (Interrupt Request Line)When two devices attempt to use the same IRQ,any of the following problems may occur: Computer may lock up or “hang” either upon starting or when operating system is loading Computer may run much slower than usual Though computer’s network adapter may work properly, other devices may stop working Video or sound card problems may occur Computer may fail to connect to the network Computer may experience intermittent data errors during transmission
  • 25. IRQ (Interrupt Request Line) Figure 6-15: Computer resource settings in Windows 2000
  • 26. IRQ (Interrupt Request Line)CMOS (complementary metal oxidesemiconductor) Firmware on a PC’s system board that enables you to change its devices’ configurationsInformation saved in CMOS is used by thecomputer’s BIOS (basic input/outputsystem) BIOS is a simple set of instructions enabling a computer to initially recognize its hardware
  • 27. Memory Range and Base I/O PortMemory range Hexadecimal number indicating the area memory that the network adapter and CPU will use for exchanging, or buffering, the dataBase I/O port Setting that specifies, in hexadecimal notation, which area of memory will act as a channel for moving data between the network adapter and CPU
  • 28. Firmware SettingsOnce you have adjusted the networkadapter’s system resources, you may need tomodify its transmission characteristics These settings are held in the adapter’s firmwareLoopback plug Plugs into port and crosses over the transmit line to the receive line so that the outgoing signal can be redirected back into the computer for testing
  • 29. Choosing the Right Network Adapter Table 6-2: Network adapter characteristics
  • 30. RepeatersConnectivity devices that regenerate andamplify an analog or digital signal Figure 6-16: Repeaters
  • 31. HubsMultiport repeater containing multiple portsto interconnect multiple devices Figure 6-17: Detailed diagram of a hub
  • 32. HubsElements shared by most hubs: Ports Uplink port Port for management console Backbone port Link LED
  • 33. HubsElements shared by most hubs (cont.): Traffic (transmit or receive) LED Collision LED (Ethernet hubs only) Power supply Ventilation fan
  • 34. HubsFigure 6-18: Hubs in a network design
  • 35. HubsPassive hubs Only repeats signalIntelligent hubs Possesses processing capabilities
  • 36. Standalone HubsHubs that serve a group of computers thatare isolated from the rest of the network Best suited to small, independent departments, home offices, or test lab environmentsDisadvantage to using a single hub for manyconnection ports is that it introduces a singlepoint of failure on the network
  • 37. Stackable HubsPhysically designed to be linked with other hubs in a singletelecommunications closet Figure 6-21: Figure 6-20: Rack-mounted Stackable hubs stackable hubs
  • 38. Modular Hubs and Intelligent HubsModular hubs  Provide a number of interface options within one chassisIntelligent hubs  Also called managed hubs  Network administrators can store the information generated by intelligent hubs in a MIB (management information base)
  • 39. Installing a HubAs with networkadapters, thebest way toensure a hub isproperly installedis to follow themanufacturer’sguidelines Figure 6-22: Connecting a workstation to a hub
  • 40. Choosing the Right HubFactors to consider when selecting theright hub for your network: Performance Cost Size and growth Security Management benefits Reliability
  • 41. BridgesLike a repeater,a bridge has asingle input andsingle output portUnlike arepeater, it caninterpret the datait retransmits Figure 6-23: A bridge
  • 42. BridgesFiltering database Collection of data created and used by a bridge that correlates the MAC addresses of connected workstations with their locations Also known as a forwarding table Figure 6-24: A bridge’s use of a filtering database
  • 43. BridgesSpanning tree algorithm Routine that can detect circular traffic patterns and modify the way multiple bridges work together, in order to avoid such patternsTransparent bridging Method used on many Ethernet networksSource-route bridging Method used on most Token Ring networksTranslation bridging Method that can use different logical topologies
  • 44. SwitchesSubdivide anetwork intosmallerlogicalpieces Figure 6-25: Examples of LAN switches
  • 45. Cut-Through Mode and Store and Forward ModeCut-through mode Switching mode in which switch reads a frame’s header and decides where to forward the data before it receives the entire packet Cut-through switches can detect runts, or packet fragmentsStore and forward mode Switching mode in which switch reads the entire data frame into its memory and checks it for accuracy before transmitting the information
  • 46. Using Switches to Create VLANsVirtual local area networks (VLANs) Network within a network that is logically defined by grouping its devices’ switch ports in the same broadcast domainBroadcast domain Combination of ports that make up a Layer 2 segment and must be connected by a Layer 3 device
  • 47. Using Switches to Create VLANs Figure 6-26: A simple VLAN design
  • 48. Higher-Layer SwitchesSwitch capable of interpreting Layer 3 data iscalled a Layer 3 switchSwitch capable of interpreting Layer 4 data iscalled a Layer 4 switchThese higher-layer switches may also becalled routing switches or applicationswitches
  • 49. RoutersMultiport connectivity deviceCan integrate LANs and WANs running atdifferent transmission speeds and using avariety of protocolsRouters operate at the Network layer(Layer 3) of the OSI Model
  • 50. Router Features and FunctionsModular router  Router with multiple slots that can hold different interface cards or other devices Figure 6-27: Routers
  • 51. Router Features and FunctionsFilter out broadcast transmission to alleviate networkcongestionPrevent certain types of traffic from getting to anetworkSupport simultaneous local and remote activityProvide high network fault tolerance throughredundant componentsMonitor network traffic and report statistics to a MIBDiagnose internal or other connectivity problemsand trigger alarms
  • 52. Router Features and FunctionsStatic routing  Technique in which a network administrator programs a router to use a specified paths between nodesDynamic routing  Automatically calculates best path between nodes and accumulates this information in a routing tableHop  Term used in networking to describe each trip data take from one connectivity device to another
  • 53. Router Features and Functions Figure 6-28: The placement of routers on a LAN
  • 54. Routing ProtocolsTo determine the best path, routerscommunicate with each other through routingprotocolsIn addition to its ability to find the best path, arouting protocol can be characterized accordingto its convergence time and bandwidth overhead Convergence time The time it takes for a router to recognize a best path in the event of a change or outage Bandwidth overhead Burden placed on an underlying network to support the routing protocol
  • 55. Routing ProtocolsThe four most common routing protocols: RIP (Routing Information Protocol) for IP and IPX OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) for IP EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) for IP
  • 56. Brouters and Routing SwitchesBridge router  Also called a brouter  Industry term used to describe routers that take on some characteristics of bridgesRouting switch  Router hybrid that combines a router and a switch
  • 57. GatewaysCombination of networking hardware andsoftware that connects two dissimilar kinds ofnetworksPopular types of gateways include: E-mail gateways IBM host gateways Internet gateways LAN gateways
  • 58. Chapter SummaryNetwork interface cards (NICs) come in a variety oftypesIn addition to network adapters that interface withnetwork cabling, network adapters can be designedfor wireless transmissionInstalling a NIC involves attaching it to the bus (orport), installing the NIC device drivers, andconfiguring its settingsFirmware combines software and hardwareAn IRQ is the means by which a device can requestattention from the CPU
  • 59. Chapter SummaryRepeaters are connectivity devices that performthe regeneration of a digital signalAt its most primitive, a hub is a multiportrepeaterA MIB is a collection of data used bymanagement programs to analyze networkperformance and problemsBridges resemble repeaters in that they have asingle input and single output port, but differfrom repeaters because they can interpret thedata they transmit
  • 60. Chapter SummarySwitches, like hubs, subdivide a network intosmaller logical piecesA switch running in cut-through mode will read aframe’s header and decide where to forward thedata before it receives the entire packetIn store and forward mode, switches read theentire data frame and check it for accuracybefore transmitting itIn addition to improving bandwidth, switches cancreate virtual local area networks (VLANs)
  • 61. Chapter SummaryA router is a multiport device that can connectdissimilar LANs and WANs running at differenttransmission speeds and using a variety of protocolsTo determine the best paths across networks,routers communicate with each other using routingprotocolsThe networking industry has adopted the term“brouter” to describe routers that take on somecharacteristics of bridgesGateways are combinations of networking hardwareand software that connect two dissimilar kinds ofnetworks