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Hey friends, let us have a look on nuclear power plant...!!!! Are they really safe or not???...Read the presentation and find out the answer...!!! A special info with updated knowledge is provided.

Hey friends, let us have a look on nuclear power plant...!!!! Are they really safe or not???...Read the presentation and find out the answer...!!! A special info with updated knowledge is provided.

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Nuclear tpp Nuclear tpp Document Transcript

  • NUCLEAR ENERGY AND POWER PLANTS: AN ANALYSIS DESIGNED BY: SAURABH SINKAR BE ELECTRICAL Abstract: This technical paper focuses on the current scenario of use of nuclear energy in India and foreign countries as well. Paper will also provide some working aspects regarding nuclear power plants which leads to an important conclusion that nuclear power is a clean source of energy as compared to any other type of energy like thermal or hydro. Current nuclear power plants in India are also mentioned with their installed capacities. Nuclear power generation also has some drawbacks like radiation effect which is very dangerous drawback is also discussed with latest updates. A politics behind nuclear energy is also a main factor for opposition to power generation. In short, paper will provide info from basic to advanced level which will help us in deciding whether to use nuclear energy or not. I. INTRODUCTION Today, only about 8-10% power is generated with the help of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is the clean source of energy. At present, nuclear energy has bright future. Availability of power by hydro and thermal power plants gets affected due to different factors like rainfall deficit in case of hydro and coal deficit in case of thermal plant. Sometimes due to low coal availability in mines thermal power plants generation gets affected which results in serious power shortages in particular areas. Such problems may occur in variety of plants. Hence, it is now very advisable to use nuclear power generation. The use of nuclear power has many advantages: 1. The problem of transportation of conventional fuels is avoided since the requirements of nuclear fuel for nuclear power station is negligible in comparison with conventional power plants. 4. These plants are non-polluting unlike coal or oil fired power plants hence it is called as pollution free plant. 5. Performance of these plants is high. Also nuclear plants producing power produces valuable fissile material. Hence, due to such advantages nuclear power plants are built in different parts of the country. Now let us have a look on some drawbacks of nuclear plants which may become very dangerous issue. Drawbacks: 1. Its capital cost is high. 2. It needs trained man power. 3. A large amount of radioactive waste is produced during power generation which is very harmful for humans and all living beings. This waste disposal is very big issue in case of such power plants. 4. High degree of safety is needed for the personnel working on these plants against nuclear radiations. 5. Cost of power generation is very high. Having brief info about advantages and drawbacks now let us have some knowledge regarding some power plant requirements II. (A) Nuclear fuel:  Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy. The most common type of nuclear fuel is fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear reactor  The most common nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu. Not all nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactions. 2. Load shading problem is avoided as in case of hydroelectric plants whose power output depending on rainfalls. 3. Large storage facilities of fuels are not needed as in case of thermal power plant. NUCLEAR POWER FACTS
  • (B) Nuclear fission:  GENERAL LAYOUT When a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, the uranium splits into two lighter atoms and releases heat simultaneously.  III. Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments. (c) Nuclear chain reactions:  A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus. This nucleus in turn produces neutrons and the process repeats. If the process is controlled it is used for nuclear power or if uncontrolled it is used for nuclear weapons. The figure above shows typical layout of nuclear power plant. There are different parts which are required to be operated for power generation. Let us have a short look on each part for better understanding. (A) Nuclear reactor:   U235 + n → fission + 2 or 3 n + 200 MeV If each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the number of fissions doubles each generation. In that case, in 10 generations there are 1,024 fissions and in 80 generations about 6 x 10 23 (a mole) fissions. (D) Nuclear fusion:   Nuclear fusion is the process in which two lighter nuclei are combined to be fused together to form a heavier and stable nucleus. A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an exploitation. Graphite and Beryllium are most commonly used elements for nuclear reactors.  The materials chosen for nuclear reactors should have good absorptivity and also good reflectivity.  Nuclear reactors are of variety of types: (a) THERMAL REACTORS: 1. Pressurized water reactor (PWR) 2. Boiling water reactor (BWR) 3. Gas cooled reactor (GCR) 4. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) The mass of the product nucleus formed is always less than the sum of the masses of the nuclei fused.  Energy released per nucleon is 6.67 Mev.  Process is possible only at high temperatures 5. Pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) (b) FAST BREEDER REACTORS: 1. Liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR)
  • 2. Gas cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFBR) (B) Control rods:  Control rods are used to control the chain reaction by absorbing required neutrons.  These rods can be moved in and out of the reactor core assembly either automatically or manually.  The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers like, boron, cadmium or indium. The objective of the condenser is to reduce the turbine exhaust pressure to increase the efficiency and to recover high quality feed water in the form of condensate & feedback it to the steam generator without any further treatment. (H) Cooling towers:  Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.  Water circulating through the condenser is taken to the cooling tower for cooling and reuse. (C) Steam generators:  Steam generators are heat exchangers used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core.  Either ordinary water or heavy water is used as the coolant. IV.  Nuclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of green house gases and therefore the contribution of nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little.  This technology is readily available as it does not have to be developed first.  It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant.  The problem of radioactive waste is still an unsolved one.  High risks: It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security.  The energy source for nuclear energy is Uranium. Uranium is a scarce resource as its supply is estimated to last only for the next 30 to 60 years depending on the actual demand.  Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks.  During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste is produced, which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons.  Even 21 century science has no answer for Nuclear Waste Disposal. (D) Steam turbines:  A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical power.  Various high-performance alloys and super alloys have been used for steam generator turbines. (E) Coolant pumps:  The coolant pump pressurizes the coolant to pressures of the order of 155bar.  The pressure of the coolant loop is maintained almost constant with the help of the pump and a pressurizer unit. (F) Feed pump:   Steam coming out of the turbine, flows through the condenser for condensation and recirculated for the next cycle of operation. The feed pump circulates the condensed water in the working fluid loop. (G) Condenser:  Condenser is a device or unit which is used to condense vapor into liquid. POINTS TO NOTE A nuclear power plant analysis came towards following conclusions which are most important for industry point of view. st
  •  Waste contaminates (beyond scope for inhabitation) a huge area in its vicinity for 1000’s of years is fabricated at “Nuclear fuel complex”, Hyderabad. 6. Kaiga atomic power station: V. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN INDIA Following nuclear power plant stations have been built in India: The sixth nuclear power station is located at kaiga in Karnataka state. It has two units of 235 MW each. 1. Tarapur atomic power station: 7. Other power plants planned: This is India’s first nuclear power station of capacity of 380 MW which has been built at Tarapur situated on west coast at a distance of about 100 km from Bombay in collaboration with USA. It consists of two boiling water reactors which uses enriched uranium as a fuel. Two PWR nuclear power plants of capacity 2000 MW have been planned at Kundankulam and new projects of (6 * 500= 3000) MW capacity are under planning stage at various locations. VI. 2. Rana pratap sagar atomic power station: This is the second nuclear power plant built in India in collaboration with Canada. It has been commissioned at about 67 km south-west of Kota in Rajasthan. It has 2 reactors of CANDU type each 200 MW capacity. It was installed in 1971. 3. Kalpakkam nuclear power station: It is built In India at 65 km away from Madras. This is the first nuclear power plant which has been fully designed by Indian scientists and Engineers using indigenous materials. It has 2 units each of capacity of 235 MW. Its first unit was installed in 1983 and the other in 1988. It has pressurized heavy water reactors and uses natural uranium as fuel. BIG ISSUES AND DANGERS Till now we have made analysis of layout and power plants in India. Extreme effects of nuclear energy are very dangerous. These effects have caused number of humans, plants and animals in last few decades. Our discussion till now will conclude that nuclear energy should be used all over the world. But after considering the issues and dangers associated with nuclear power plants it will be much beneficial for all of us to restrict use of nuclear energy.  Radiation emission is one of the big problem associated with such power plants which gets multifold at every stage of power generation.  Radioactive waste gets Generated at each stage - Mining, Enrichment, Power Generation  Radioactive Waste generated from Enrichment has been used in Depleted Uranium (DU) bombs which were used in Iraq  Waste contaminates (beyond scope for inhabitation) a huge area in its vicinity for 1000’s of years 4. Narora nuclear power station: This is India’s fourth nuclear power station built at Narora in Buland shahr district of UP. It has 2 plants each of capacity of 235 MW with a provision for extension of its capacity up to 500 MW. 5. Kakarpar nuclear power station: The fifth nuclear power station is located at Kakarpar near Surat in Gujrat. It would have four CANDU- pressurized heavy water reactors each of capacity of 235 MW. It is similar in design as the reactors used at Narora. The fuel IMPACTS OF RADIATION EMISSION: RADIATION CONTAMINATES ALWAYS:
  • • Even if there is NO NUCLEAR ACCIDENT • Around a Uranium Mine • Around an Enrichment Facility • Around a Nuclear Plant • Around Nuclear Waste “Radiation Spares Nothing” Impacts Vegetation - Agriculture -Trees near Jaduguda Uranium Mines have DEFORMED SEEDS. Nuclear ‘Meltdown’ in the USA • Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania: Happened in 1979 due to the meltdown of fuel rods.Health effects mostly unstudied or kept clandestine -Agricultural product is bound to carry unacceptable amounts of radioactive content Impacts Animals -Radioactive Boars on the rise in Germany (thanks to Chernobyl- the worst case ever) Impacts Human Beings -Human beings get impaired organs like unequal spacing in eyes The following pictures shows extreme effects Impact of Nuclear Radiation on Humans • Cancer in the next 2 to 60 years • Deformed babies - FOREVER! There are much more extreme effects than this which can’t be told. Hence it is very dangerous for all of us to use nuclear energy. Still India is building more and more nuclear power plants. Nuclear Accidents Are Worse! Hence if we want to replace nuclear energy we can do following remedies. Chernobyl : An area of 1,00,000 sq km is UNINHABITABLE for 20,000 years forever. Use Renewable Sources • They are Cheap
  • • They are Unlimited • They don’t Kill • We can save 30% increased demand of electricity by 2013 by using energy efficient electrical infrastructure at home • 3. We CAN NOT sue them in Indian or Foreign courts. Refrigerators, ACs, Air Coolers • 2. They WILL NOT pay any Compensation Fans, Incandescent Bulbs, Tube Lights • 1. Any foreign company WILL NOT be held liable for any nuclear accidents on Indian soil, whatsoever. Electric Water Heaters   – Computers, TVs, DVD Players, Set-Top-Boxes (active mode) • – India can save 30-40% of its electricity deficit by simple Conservation techniques – – The ‘West’ is Disowning Nuclear Power: Most Americans are against Nuclear Power Major concerns: Continuous radiation emitted in normal functioning of Nuclear Plants Improving the efficiency of existing power plants (we are way behind international standards at the moment) • Nuclear Waste disposal • Threats of nuclear accidents Decentralizing electricity generation to reduce long distance transmission losses • Australia has never built a Nuclear Power Plant! NUCLEAR PLANT POLITICS: • Current energy policies are designed to benefit foreign MNCs like General electrics, Westinghouse, Areva • Newspapers admitted that they are here for 40 billion dollar business. • Profit for MNCs who will provide reactor designs • Commission for Indian Politicians, Intellectuals, Scientists Why is Renewable Energy Unknown? Giant MNCs are too strong to hide renewable sources from entire world. OUR GOVERNMENT’S GIFT: Our government has signed following terms given by foreign companies. SO WE WANT TO SPREAD ONE IMPORTANT MESSAGE: • Understand the politics of promoting Nuclear Power in India • Spread awareness about this massive public betrayal
  • VII. safety of the computer system in this reactor but Finland has ordered one such reactor none the less JAITAPUR POWER PLANT After considering all dangerous issues now let us get switch over to study of JAITAPUR POWER PLANT which is till now in construction progress. o The cost of building the plant is about Rs. 20 crore /Mwe capacity compared with Rs. 5 crore /Mwe for coal power station o The cost of electricity from this power plant will be below Rs. 4 per kilowatt hour o The Jaitapur project in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra has been in the public eye in recent months due to a host of controversies that surround the project. BRIEF ABOUT THE PROJECT: o Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project is a proposed 9900 MW power project of Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) at Madban village of Ratnagiri district in Maharashtra. o If built, it would be the largest nuclear power generating station in the world by net electrical power rating. o On December 6, 2010 agreement was signed for the construction of first set of two thirdgeneration European Pressurized Reactors and the supply of nuclear fuel for 25 years in the presence of French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. JAITAPUR AS A LOACATION: o o French nuclear engineering firm Areva S.A. and Indian state-owned nuclear operator Nuclear Power Corporation of India signed this multibillion valued agreement of about $9.3 billion. This is a general framework agreement along with agreement on 'Protection of Confidentiality of Technical Data and Information Relating to Nuclear Power Corporation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy' was also signed. o Estimated cost of project is around 1000000 crore (US $ 18.2 billion) o This type of reactor is not currently operational anywhere in the world o Though the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission had expressed concerns about the o This project will spread over 968 hectares of land o Jaitapur is on the Arabian Sea coast in Ratnagiri district on the south-western part of Maharashtra, India The district is the part of the Konkan in Western Ghats. It is known as one of the best ports from Neolithic era. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL REASONS FOR SELECTION OF JAITAPUR SITE: o The Site Selection Committee recommended setting up a nuclear power plant at Jaitapur, based on the suitability of meeting criteria like which include availability of land vs. population density, available source of cooling water , seismicity, safe-grade elevation at site (flood analysis etc), environment aspects and proper access for transportation of heavy/overdimensional equipment to plant site. o The Jaitapur site is not considered earthquakeprone. As per seismic zoning map of Government of India, Jaitapur site falls within zone III. The longitude and latitude of the land covered for Jaitapur nuclear power project are given below: These are third generation pressurized water reactors (PWR) o The proposed Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project is located at the west coast with an average elevation of 90 feet It is purposed to construct 6 European pressurized reactors designed and developed by Areva of France each of 1650 megawatts thus totalling to 9900 megawatts o o
  • o India is poised to go largely for peaceful use of nuclear energy in generating electricity, which resulted in the waiver from Nuclear Supplier Group, enabling India to have nuclear trade o Latitude of JNPP site: 16° 34’ 38” N to 16° 36’ 29” N India, thus, aims at increasing the share of nuclear energy to reach from the present 4120 MWe to 23000 MWe by the end of XIIth National Plan. o The electricity generated by Jaitapur Nuclear Power Park (JNPP) will be supplied to the beneficiary states in westerns region with possibility of inter regional transfer. Longitude of JNPP site: 73° 19’ 02” E to 73° 20’ 48” E • NPCIL intends to establish a Nuclear Power Park by installing 6x1650 MWe PWR category NPPs at this location in a phased manner • Required land is available for establishing the NPP and the residential complex at Jaitapur. • land being acquired for JNPP (site and residential complex) admeasuring around 938.026 ha is rocky with poor fertility and barren with small patches of agriculture. IMPORTANCE TO REGION AND COUNTRY: • • • There is no physical displacement of any family from the proposed land being acquired for the project (site and residential complex). • The project site is far away from urban area. • The population density on land within 10 km around the site is estimated to be about 150 persons / sq. km considering approx. • The radio-nuclides generated from nuclear power plants are handled, processed and disposed off carefully within the limits, which are specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) of India. • Nuclear power in India has been established to be safe, reliable, clean & environment friendly and economically compatible with other sources of power generation of the NPP units in India. • Much needed electricity with minimal environmental impact and with comparable cost of electricity generation. Abundant sea water is available for Condenser Cooling and desalination plant. • Power plants do not generate conventional pollutants. The land is non forest and is privately owned. • 50% of the area falling into sea The average elevation of the site is about RL +24.5 m above mean sea level while the safe grade elevation is +7.0 m with respect to Chart Datum (as per the study of CWPRC, Pune NEED FOR THIS PROJECT: o Nuclear power is green and clean source of energy WARNINGS: • The Jaitapur is located in a seismically sensitive region. • It comes under Zone IV as per the earthquake hazard zoning of India. • This zone is called the High Damage Risk Zone. o very much necessary for India to complement the electricity production in the country which is mostly by thermal power plants (with 63.95% share) • According to Greenpeace, “Over the past 20 years alone, there have been three earthquakes in Jaitapur exceeding 5 points on the Richter scale. o The present share of nuclear power in total generation of electricity in the country is only 2.83% as on 31st July 2008 • The Konkan region’s rich natural resources are already under severe threat on account of several “development” projects along the Western Ghats.
  • • Water discharged from the plant will be 5 °C hotter than the ambient sea temperature. But “even a 0.5 °C of continual thermal stress will lead to mortality of marine species.” • On December 4, 2010, protests became violent when over 1500 people were detained from among thousands of protesters, who included environmentalists and local villagers. • The BNHS has also mapped 407 hectares of mangrove vegetation around a 10 km-radius of the nuclear plant. • Members and leaders of the Konkan Bachao Samiti (KBS) and the Janahit Seva Samiti were also detained. OPPONENTS: • On April 18, 2011, one man was shot and killed by police and eight were injured after protests turned violent. • • • • According to the Earthquake hazard zoning of India, Jaitapur comes under Zone III. This zone is called the moderate Risk Zone and covers areas liable to MSK VIII The presence of two major creeks on the proposed site has been ignored while clearing the site Moreover jaitapur is located on plateau probability of tsunami reaching jaitapur is quite less It is not clear where the nuclear waste emanating from the site will be dumped. The plant is estimated to generate 300 tonnes of waste each year. • Government of India is not fully transparent with its own citizens • the government also manipulating notification of the area from high severity earthquake zone to moderate seismic severity zone PROTESTS: • Many protests have been carried out by local people against the proposed nuclear power plant. On 29 December 2009, 12 January 2010, and 22 January 2010. • When the government authorities visited Madban for distribution of cheques in lieu of compulsory land acquisition, the villagers refused to accept the cheques. • Government officials were shown black flags, denied any co-operation in carrying out their activities. 72 people were arrested on 22 January 2010 when people protested against the compulsory land acquisition. NEWS ARTICLES: • France in talks with India on nuclear law implications, Oct 29, 2013 • Jaitapur: Govt promises speedy payment of compensation, Sep 7, 2013 • Committed to Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project, India tells France, January 10, 2013 • Pune man files PIL against nuke project, January 21, 2012 • State needs N-plant to meet power demand, says CM, Dec 2, 2011 • Public court's 'verdict' on nuke plant in August, May 22, 2011 • Jaitapur protests intensify, policemen injured in stone-pelting, Apr 18, 2011 • Govt to review safety at nuclear plants, March 15, 2011 • Fukushima gives boost to nay-sayers in Jaitapur, Mar 24, 2011 • Jaitapur to be a reality: CM, Dec 15, 2010
  • CONCLUSION From entire discussion of jaitapur power plant we conclude as follows: • • Most decision makers and investors talk about sustainability and corporate social responsibility, yet the entire nuclear cycle blatantly contradicts this. Radioactive contamination routinely occurs throughout the fuel chain, from uranium mining to processing, reactor operation to the management of nuclear waste. A severe accident of a typical pressurized water nuclear reactor, due to technical or human failure, could affect many millions of people, causing tens of thousands of victims and forcing the evacuation of areas as large as Belgium. • The nuclear industry has spent the past decade trying to convince the public and decision makers that, despite its downsides, nuclear power is needed to tackle the climate crisis. The industry promised to have learned from past disasters, and that it would offer a clean, safe, cheap and reliable source of energy. None of these claims is true. • The 2010 International Energy Agency (IEA) energy scenario clearly shows that, even if the world were to build 1,300 new reactors and quadruple nuclear power generation by 2050, greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced by less than 4%. Given the long planning and construction schedules required, this would come far too late to meet the imperative to significantly decline greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 and thus prevent climate chaos. In addition, implementing the IEA scenario would require $10 trillion US dollars for reactor construction, massively increase the amount of nuclear waste that we and future generations will have to deal with, and create enormous proliferation hazards. A single reactor typically produces several hundred kilograms of plutonium every year – an amount sufficient for dozens of nuclear of nuclear weapons. VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge Brainwaves committee for giving golden opportunity to present our views on nuclear power plants. IX. REFERENCES [1] Nuclear reactor engineering-reactor design basics [2] Power plant engineering- P Nag [3] Power plant engineering- R k Rajput
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