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Leadership

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Leadership …

Leadership
CHARACTERSTICS OF LEADERSHIP
Style of Leadership: A)AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE(Directional):
ADVANTAGES, LIMITATION B)CONSULTATIVE(Participative or Democratic) LEADERSHIP STYLE:
ADVANTAGES, LIMITATION
C)FREE REIN(Laissez Faire) LEADERSHIP: ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS - QUALITIES FOR LEADERSHIP, Likert's 4 system of leadership

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  • 1. Leadership: leadership is influencing people to follow in theachievement of common goal. A leader is a person who guides &directs others, called followers. He gives focus to the efforts ofhis followers. The manager, as a leader, influences hissubordinates to indulge in such activities as are vital for theaccomplishment of the enterprise goal. Leadership is a force thatbinds a group together & motivates it towards the desired goals.CHARACTERSTICS OF LEADERSHIP:1)Continuous Process: Leadership is a continuous process. Thepresence of a leader is always necessary in an organization. Thesubordinates need to be guided, influenced, controlled & induced towork continuously for the attainment of the organizational goal.2)Acceptance of Leadership: It requires the confidence offollowers/subordinates. To be accepted as a leader, the managermust gain the confidence of his subordinates. For this, he must bevery knowledgeable, sincere & committed to his work. He must be arole model for his subordinates. He must have certain beliefs &values.3)Followers or Subordinates: There cannot be a great leaderwithout followers. Thus leadership is co-existent with followership.There should be person who must obey the orders of the leader.4)Exemplary Conduct: The leader must be role model before thefollowers by his conduct. A leader must present himself in a waythat he wants from his sub- ordinates bcz the followers act in away that he learns from his leader. If a leader wants thesubordinates to finish the task on time, then he must also bepunctual in his work.5)Working Relationship: There is a working relationship b/wleader & followers. The leader works along with followers showsthem how to work & get their co-operation in return. The leader is anactive participant as he takes people with him & get the work done.6)Common Objectives: A leader directs the efforts of hisfollowers in the direction of achieving a common objective. Hebrings to their knowledge the common objective, clarifies & strivesto remove obstacles in their path, so that the objective is achieved.7)Situational: Leadership develops in a particular situation. Thequalities of leadership required in different situations is different.It depends upon the level of education, training, & experience of themembers of the group which the leader leads.8)Harmony of Interest: There is a unity of interest for bothleader & followers. If they work for different purposes therecannot be effective leadership. The leader tries to reconciledifferences & bring about a compromise b/w the two goals. He mustconvince the followers that in the protection of companys goalslies their interest of the followers. Technique orStyle of Leadership:A)AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE(Directional): In this style ofleadership, a leader has complete command & hold over theiremployees/team. The team cannot put forward their views even if theyare best for the team’s or organizational interests. They cannot
  • 2. criticize or question the leader’s way of getting things done. Theleader himself gets the things done. The advantage of this style isthat it leads to speedy decision-making & greater productivity underleader’s supervision. Drawbacks of this leadership style are that itleads to greater employee absenteeism & turnover. This leadershipstyle works only when the leader is the best in performing or whenthe job is monotonous, unskilled & routine in nature. Features:i)Retention of power in hands of Manager ii)Reliance upon commandsor orders in which specific & minute instructions are given iii)CloseSupervisionADVANTAGES OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE:1)Effective in Emergency Situations: The authoritarian leadershipworks positively during emergency & stressful situations. Duringsuch times, having an autocratic leader will be great as he will takethe reins in his own hands & direct the workers or employees tomove forward.2)Effective for Group Projects: In situation where theauthoritarian leadership style proves effective is while doing groupprojects. Such situations demand the need of an authoritativeleader who can make decisions for the group. The leader shoulddetermine the ways in which the project should be done, divide thejob among the members, & also set a deadline for the completion ofthe project.3)Quick Implementation: As the instructions of the leader arecarried out in this type of a leadership, their implementation is quick& without any ambiguity. As one person takes faster decisions, thetask gets completed within the stipulated time limit.4)Reduces Errors: As the decision-making power rests with onesingle accountable authority, the frequency of trial & error isreduced at the middle management or junior management level.5)Reduces Information Leak: Many times, competitors arelooking for information leak in an organization. However, since theinformation is not easily passed on to the employees, theprobability of gaining access to the classified information isreduced.6)Smooth Management: As the absolute management of theorganization practically rests in the hands of one person, all thefunctions of business are dealt smoothly.LIMITATION OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE:1)Exploitation: In autocratic leadership, there is a possibility thatthe leader may exploit his employees. Oftentimes, autocrats aredriven by their egos. There have been cases where an authoritativeemployer has fired employees bcz they showed the courage ofdisagreeing with him.2)Discourages Employees: Having an authoritative leader hindersworkplace communication & socialization. It is very important to havea cordial work environment, where everyone is friendly.Disagreements & conflicts can also crop up, if a group or companyis led by an autocratic leader. It can also lead to thedemoralization of subordinates in an organization.
  • 3. 3)Difficult to Handle: An autocratic leader may at times rendersevere punishments for small mistakes to influence the employees.In order to set an example he may even resort to threats, severeactions or termination of services of an employee. An autocrat iscapable of undertaking drastic measures to prove his point.4)One Man Army: An autocrat does not trust his co-workerseasily. He has complete confidence in himself & many times believes intaking the decisions based on his own understanding. This leaves noroom for others inputs & suggestions.5)Fear & Resentment: The employees who work under thesupervision of an autocratic leader often harbor the feelings offear & resentment. It demoralizes the employees & discouragesinnovation.6)One-Way Communication: In case of an autocratic style ofleadership, the communication often moves in a unilateral top-to-bottom movement. This often results in lack of awareness &knowledge about the decisions of the organization among theemployees.B)CONSULTATIVE(Participative or Democratic) LEADERSHIPSTYLE: Participative leader enables the employees to play a majorpart in any decision-making process, which makes employeeperformance better. Therefore, instead of the leader just throwingdirect, stringent orders to the employees, he acts like a guide & amentor to the employees, helping them in achieving their goals. So, itis like let us do. rather than I want you to do... . This style creates& maintains healthy relationships between the employees & theleader. This is probably the best type of corporate leadership style,that necessarily allows employees to give suggestions & take someof the crucial decisions, along with their manager. However, the finaldecision rests on the manager. The participative leadership style isconsidered to be the most balanced one. It increases manpowerproductivity, while giving the freedom of expression at the same time.ADVANTAGES OF CONSULTATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE:1)The team members are encouraged to share their thoughts &participate in making critical decisions.2)This increase in participation of the employees, makes them feelmore driven to work, thus increasing the companys output.3)The main advantage is that this technique promotes thedevelopment of potential leaders, amongst the team members.4)There are many minds involved in the decision-making process, &hence the decision is certainly well-thought upon from all angles,ruling out the possibilities of taking a wrong decision.5)With the involvement of so many people, a lot of alternative ideascan be generated. These ideas may prove to be beneficial inincreasing the output efficiency.6)The creativity aspect of the employees personalities is alsotapped, thus increasing the quality of ideas that are put forth bythem.
  • 4. 7) It gives the employees more than one reason to stay back in thefirm, thus increasing the retention rate.LIMITATION OF CONSULTATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE:1)The theory of collective decision-making might slow down theprocess of achieving targets. It requires time for the brainstormingsessions to take place. Also, the participants of the sessions alsoneed time to deliberate & come to an unanimous decision.2)Secrecy of the information that is shared & the decision that istaken cannot be guaranteed. If the project is of utmost importanceto the company & the related information needs to be safeguarded,this style of leadership might not work in the favour of thecompany.3)This leadership style might not work for companies that have hugemanpower. To involve so many people in the decision-making process,is not practically possible.4) If the project requires extensive knowledge in a particular area,the involvement of employees with no/less knowledge in the fieldwill be of no use for the company. Instead, the entire decision-making process will be further delayed.5)This technique is based on the assumption that the employees havea real interest in organisation. The individuals goals &organisational goals are in harmony. This is not true in all cases. 6)Many of the managers become uneasy with this approach thinkingthat they will lose control over employees.C)FREE REIN(Laissez Faire) LEADERSHIP: Here, the leader totallytrusts their employees/team to perform the job themselves. He justconcentrates on the intellectual/rational aspect of his work &does not focus on the management aspect of his work. Theteam/employees are welcomed to share their views & providesuggestions which are best for organizational interests. Thisleadership style works only when the employees are skilled, loyal,experienced & intellectual.ADVANTAGES OF FREE REIN LEADERSHP STYLE:1)It creates environment of freedom.2)It develops the latent abilities of subordinates3)It is the only suitable method when people are highly educatedmotivated & goal oriented.4)As the free & informal atmosphere prevails it becomes morecreative.LIMITATIONS OF FREE REIN LEADERSHIP STYLE:1)Some members try to butter their own bread, instead of achievingthe goals.2)Sometimes this technique results into disorganised management,which leads to inefficiency.3)A sense of insecurity & frustration develops due to lack ofdecision making authority & guidance from superior.
  • 5. 4)The team spirit is affected due to non-cooperation from some ofthe subordinates.QUALITIES FOR LEADERSHIP:1)Good communication skills: Communication is the key to be agreat leader. The reason for this is simple: if one possesses all theother qualities, but fails to communicate well, one has a littlechance of being a good leader. Communication helps in passing onvaluable information, motivation, healthy criticism, & above all aclear idea on what the team is aspiring to do.2)Honesty: The most valuable asset of a leader is honesty. He mustbe honest with both his followers. This quality is closely relatedto integrity. Once a leader compromises his or her integrity, it islost. That is perhaps the reason integrity is considered the mostadmirable trait. The leaders therefore must keep it "above all else."3)Visionary outlook: Leadership qualities are different fordifferent position. For example, a CEO must be able to anticipate thefuture trends in the industry & how it will affect his business. Aleader has to look beyond where his business is today, & knowwhere it is going. He has to use his vision to move the companyforward. Being able to do this is a rare skill indeed.4)Ability to take decisions: Although, there are a lot of advisors& analysts who help a leader with some valuable inputs on whataction needs to be taken, the sails are always in the skippers hands.The leader has to decide whether he wants to go for or against aplan. The call is his, & he has to accept appreciation or brickbats,whatever come his way after the decision is made.5)Ability to motivate people: A good leader must always keepmotivating his teammates for good work & strive towards maintaininga healthy environment. In a crisis situation, the morale & spirit takesa hard-hit, & it is the leader who has to motivate his team to fightagainst all odds.6)Consistency: Leadership effectiveness is impossible withoutconsistency. Every leader has an approach that is unique to them.Dont change your personal style radically after all; it got you in aleadership position. Modify the rough spots but take care not toconfound your staff by displaying inconsistency. Your expectations,though subject to modification based on ever-changing businessneeds, should remain as constant as possible.7)Ability to bear criticism: As the success rate increases yourcritics multiply & become louder. Come to peace with the fact thatyou will always have a camp of people who critique every decisionyou make. They are generally the ones who are excellent problem-identifiers rather than problem-solvers. Develop your skills ofrepelling such critics so that they do not diminish your confidenceor enthusiasm. On the other hand, it is essential that you take inconstructive feedback, & work on it, as maybe there are some areasin which you need definite improvement.Likerts 4 system of leadership: This model divides theleadership styles in four different types depending on the level ofthe leaders’ authority use:
  • 6. System1-Autocratic Leadership: autocratic, strongly arbitraryand organizes and strictly controls everything that occurs insidethe organization, threats and punishments are used, thecommunication is rare and group work is inexistent. The main negativeconsequences of this type of leadership are submission,dependency, inhibition and discouragement. It can have some positiveconsequences mainly at the fastness of decision making level. It’sgenerally verified in organizations of intensive manpower and notspecialized and with few technology.System2-Benevolent Autocratic: authoritarian and authoritativebut more compliant and less strict then the System I; in this systemalready exists come consulting and delegating and, along with thethreats, also exist rewards. The consequences are similar to theones of the Coercive Authoritarian System, however less intense. Ithappens in industrial organizations with some technology and morespecialized manpower.System3-Consultative Leadership: more participative and lessorganizational arbitrariness; goals and tasks are previouslydiscussed, there is some communication from below to the top andexists some encouragement to group work. Allows some collectivesafety and employees motivation, becoming, however, slower thanthe ones before. Usually use4d in services companies and in someareas of more organized industrial companies.System4-Participative Leadership: democratic, where allparticipate democratically in the decisions taking; there is a goodcommunication at all levels and achieves a good motivation level.From the main consequences stand out the feeling of collectivesafety and interdependence and a higher motivation, being able,however, that the decision process takes longer. Found in companiesof high technology and specialized personnel, where theprofessionals develop complex activities.