Where, Ї is the autonomous investment (that is, independent of both income and interest rate), ‘i' is the rate of interest and coefficient ‘ θ ’ measures the responsiveness of investment to changes in interest rate Planned investment spending Interest rate
A flatter investment schedule shows higher responsiveness.
If the investment responds very little to the interest rates, then the schedule would be nearly vertical.
As the investment curve shows the relationship between interest rate and planned investment spending, a change in the investment due to change in the factors other than interest rate would lead to a shift in the investment schedule. Thus, if autonomous investment changes the schedule shifts right or left.
At a given interest rate, equilibrium in panel (a) determines the income level. A drop in the interest rate increases aggregate demand. The IS curve shown in panel (b) depicts the resulting inverse relationship between interest rates and income.
Characteristics of Points that do not lie on the IS curve i 1 Interest Rate Y 2 Y 1 E 3 E 2 E 4 E 1 ESG EDG Income and Output (Y)
"LM curve shows different combinations of interest rates and income (or output) at which demand for money (L) equals supply of money (M)"
Demand for Money L 1 =kY 1 - hi i 1 Interest Rate KΔY L 2 =kY 2 - hi Demand for money (L) Figure 1.4
Money Market Equilibrium and the LM Curve i 2 i 1 LM L i 1 i 2 L 2 E 1 E 2 E 2 E 1 Y 2 Y 1 L 2 L 1 Y (a) (b)
Characteristics of Points that do not lie on the LM curve ESM i 1 Interest Rate Y 2 Y 1 E 1 E 4 E 2 E 3 EDM Income and Output (Y) LM
Shift in the LM Curve M 1 /P LM 1 L 1 i 2 i 1 LM L i 1 i 2 M/P E 2 E 1 E 2 E 1 Y 2 Y 1 Y (a) (b)
Equilibrium in the Goods and Money Markets (Simultaneous Equilibrium) i 0 Interest Rate Y 0 E Income and Output (Y) Figure 1.8 LM IS
Characteristics of Points that do not lie on the IS and LM Curves III II ESM i 0 ESG ESM Interest Rate Y 0 E EDM Income and Output (Y) Figure 1.9 LM EDM EDG ESG EDG I IV IS
Region Goods Market Money Market Disequilibrium Output Disequilibrium Interest Rate I ESG Falls ESM Falls II EDG Rises ESM Falls III EDG Rises EDM Rises IV ESG Falls EDM Rises
Fiscal Policy I 0 IS 1 E E 11 i 1 Interest Rate Y 0 E 1 Income and Output (Y) LM IS Y 1 Y 11
The Transmission Mechanism The Transmission Mechanism Step One Step Two Change in aggregate demand results in adjustments in output and income. Change in real money supply Adjustments in the portfolio, leading to a change in asset prices and interest rates Changes in interest rates lead to change in aggregate demand
Monetary and Fiscal Policy LM 1 E 1 E 1 i 1 i 0 Interest Rate Y 0 E Income and Output (Y) LM IS Y 1
Policy Effects on Income and Interest Rates Policy Equilibrium Income Equilibrium Interest Rate Expansionary Monetary policy Increase Decrease Expansionary Fiscal Policy Increase Increase Note that expansionary policy (fiscal or monetary) is the policy that is aimed to increase income. Expansionary monetary policy, thus, includes increasing money supply in the economy, while expansionary fiscal policy involves increasing government spending and reducing taxes. We discuss these aspects in detail later chapters.
Crowding Out I 0 IS 1 E E 11 i 1 Interest Rate Y 0 E 1 Income and Output (Y) LM IS Y 1 Y 11 LM 1