Define OER • Digitsed materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research (OECD) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 2007 • OERs are educational materials and resources offered freely and openly for anyone to use and under some licenses to remix, improve and redistribute. (Wikipedia) • Digitalized materials offered freely and openly for use and reuse in teaching, learning and research (UNESCO) 2009 'Any educational content that is shared under an open license, regardless of its granularity. ’ Principles of openness: Share, Use, Reuse, Remix, Share Again A culture and community of sharing learning resources Access to the end product source materials so that it can be reused Social motivation for this, accessibility and availability - plus shift in ownership and control - more empowerment to students - teachers / learners come closer.
Rationale • Drive towards universal access to education • Globalisation and competition in HE • Growth of open source software means there is a demand for similarly available content • Increased funding for OER initiatives (in UK through JISC, for example) • Developments of Creative Commons licensing Arguments in favour: • Enables faster technical and research developments • Free sharing reinforces societal development and diminishes social inequality (bridging the digital divide) • Traditional academic values of openness may be marginalised by powerful online market forces such as Apple, Google, Microsoft
Typically, OER is about doing these things: reading downloading copying sharing storing printing searching linking crawling It does not mean we are copying – a common anxiety is that reusing OER is ‘cheating’ but the reality is that it might be no different from using a peer reviewed journal article to inform your teaching – providing the resource has been appropriately quality assured. Everything we use is built on the work of others. OER is a way to continue that culture of 'standing on the shoulders of giants' share and share-alike You might be asking: How can I use the content effectively? Where can I find openly licensed content? (e.g. Flickr, VADs, OpenLearn, JORUM, Merlot etc etc)
Share is the key word Sustains the culture of sharing amongst an academic community There may be many benefits around this such as raising personal and institutional profiles, contributing to scholarship, disseminating good practice and research. We will return to a discussion about this later.
A comment on commerciality Resources may or may not be allowed for commercial purposes. To avoid any greyness, JISC Legal advocate non-commercial licensing (HE could be deemed as a commercial venture)
Derek Wenmoth, CORE Education Ltd, NZ Raises some important themes: • Licensing, Creative Commons (copyright slides) • Creators not just consumers (teacher/learner slide) • Use of multimedia (for example in this slideshow, I have created none of the content, only recontextualised it) • Large variety and number of resources, does this raise a quality issue (light bulb slide) • Alter, repurpose, share and sharealike (creative commons slide) • Not the power of content, the power of context and our ability to repurpose content to enhance student learning. (*toolkit activity).
Benefits to HEI
Benefits to Practitioners
Benefits to Practitioners
Key debates around OER: • Policies - institutional mandates and strategy; access options; staff support and capacity building; put-up/take-down policy • Sustainability - insitutional model (eg MIT); donations; contributor pay; sponsorship; government; enterprise • Quality - QA/QE; assessment of quality; keeping content current; widely available; more to choose from good or bad? • Technical - interoperability; metadata standards; tracking and assessing value of OERs in TLA • Legal - IPR; licensing; ethics associated with using student work • Audience - formal or informal; local or global; digital divide
More to choose from A brighter solution
Audience debate QUALITY of TLA, how do we measure this, how do we know what is of good quality? Professional judgment, teacher as facilitator. Ownership of learning and dialogue of such brought closer together Both teacher and learner carried along
More or less restrictive
More than the sum of our parts Not the power of content, the power of context and our ability to repurpose content to enhance student learning. (*toolkit activity).
Context important Quality assurance vital Xerte, OpenLearn, Jorum How to with JORUM
Where to find OERs
1 Reusing other content (this is easy) • Look at this presentation: I've used an image, it was from Flickr and is licensed under an Attribution Sharealike license - you can see the license logo, author attribution and I've shared alike in Slideshare under the same license options. • The importance of context: when you share, add the context you designed and used it in. Think laterally about repurposing content. • Quality check
2 Sharing your content (not difficult, but there are some golden rules) • Make sure you have IPR clearance • Treat student work ethically, (we are allowed to use it as Uni has IPR over it, but permission should be sought) • Choose neutral or your own HEI to publish • Spend a little bit of time investigating what tags/metadata to use (there may already be one in common use that is more suitable than using your own) • Use an institutional tag: universityofcumbria; cumbria; cumbriauni • Take credit and make sure your name is included as well as course and HEI • Provide a context statement where possible • Check back to track the number of views/downloads • Respect your responsibility to share and share alike • Take responsibility for quality assurance (this is largely devolved in OER)
Where is UoC up to? Policy extract QA a priority in order for it to align with our strategic aims as an institution
What are OERs?
What are OERs? Simon Allan | Lecturer in Academic Development | CDEPP
Open source goes to high school , by Libby Levi and Mike Esser for ‘ opensourceway ’ | http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4967939593/in/set-72157623343017387/
Education without limits , by Christina Hardison for ‘ opensourceway ’ | http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5393579026/in/set-72157625612605617/
Open access overview: Focusing on open access to peer-review research articles and their preprints , by Colleen Simon for ‘ opensourceway ’ | http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5188228228/in/set-72157623343017387/
Improving the speed and quality of research via shared algorithm implementations , by Meredith Atwater for ‘ opensourceway ’ | http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5752191166/
Open Source Bach , by Christina Hardison for ‘ opensourceway ’ | http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5755171802/in/photostream
Benefits of OER to the University • Increased visibility • Showcase for attracting students • Decrease duplication • Increase collegiality • Enhance institutional expertise • Develop reputation as socially responsible
Benefits to HE Practitioners Ernest Boyer (1997) • Extended reach and visibility • Individual publicity and reputation • External collaboration • Stimulates innovation • Potential for commercialisation • Contribution to scholarship Teaching Discovery Integration Application SCHOLARSHIP
Benefits to Learners • Greater control and ownership of learning • Selectivity over institutions and learning resources • Wider pool of knowledge to tap into
Sharing your content • Choose a neutral repository or your own HEI to publish • Investigate standardised metadata to improve visibility • Use an institutional tag: universityofcumbria; cumbria; cumbriauni • Include your name as well as the course and HEI • Provide a context statement where possible • Check back to track the number of views/downloads • Respect your responsibility to share and share alike • Take responsibility for QA (largely devolved in OER) • Treat reuse of student work ethically • Make sure you have IPR clearance
Quality Assurance Peer Review Self Assessment Internal QA ICT (repository support) CDEPP (pedagogy support) LISS (IPR support) AQS (existing QA processes) OER at the University of Cumbria?
Q&A orange , by Libby Levi for ‘ opensourceway ’ | http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5556249000/sizes/l/in/photostream/
JISC OER Infokit https://openeducationalresources.pbworks.com/w/page/24836860/What-are-Open-Educational-Resources JORUM http://www.jorum.ac.uk/ Open University ’s OpenLearn http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/ Open Cumbria http://open.cumbria.ac.uk Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org OER IPR Toolkit http://www.web2rights.com/OERIPRSupport/index.html