Boyer – scholarship of teaching Theories for curriculum, learning, teaching, assessment design Practice of teaching – pedagogy, We will have our own practice that does enact some of these values – you can use this to unpick and analyze, critique and evaluate what we are doing to help understand concepts and consider them in your own teaching.
Phenomenography and social constructivism are the two most influential theories of learning at present Constructive alignment is the basis for developing learning activities and assessment that is right for the learning you wish the students to achieve Situated learning is particularly pertinent for professional learning where ‘ functioning ’ knowledge within a community of practice is important D&S learning – and the activities that can promote these Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge at this higher level of knowing. – and what is knowledge anyway!
Phenomenography is the research lense for considering the philosophical phenomenology perspective.
In his studies, Piaget noticed there was a gradual progression from intuitive to scientific and socially acceptable responses to unexpected questions. Piaget theorized children did this because of the social interaction and the challenge to younger children’s ideas by the ideas of those children who were more advanced.
Constructive in that students construct their meaning and context of the ILOs Alignment is activation of learning through appropriates activities for learning and assessment Remember – what the student does is usually more important than what the teacher does (or says) So first of all decide what you want the students to learn, then decide how you will know that they have learnt it (or what they have learnt), and finally consider what activities will best help them to do that learning. This should enable maximum consistency through the curriculum – at both micro and macro levels.
Vygotsky – learning through interactions in social contexts Bruner – most important intellectual activity is meaning making which is inevitably socially and culturally acquired
HEPP7001 Foundations of Academic PracticeKey ideas on teachingto support learning inHigher EducationSimon Allan MODULE LEADERDawn Johnson PROGRAMME LEADER
Underpinning ideas• Taking a scholarly approach to drive and support teaching for effective learning.• Theoretical approaches that underpin programme design and content.• Frameworks to underpin your own practice.• Critical reflection on how this programme models these approaches to support your learning.
These ideas include…• Phenomenography• Social constructivism• Constructive alignment• Situated learning• Deep and surface approaches to learning• Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge
Phenomenography• This term was coined by Marton following his work with Saljo (1984) looking at student approached to their learning.• The learner’s perspective defines what is learnt and the way [s]he sees the world and the teacher’s role is to alter that perspective of the way the learner sees the world.
Social Constructivism• Originates with Piaget and Vygotsky.• Emphasises the students’ construction of meaning and knowledge through what they ‘do’.• Focus is on student activity rather than teacher activity.• As we learn our conceptions of phenomena change. Biggs. J. and Tang, C. (2007)• Acquisition of information in itself does Teaching for quality learning at university. (3rd Ed.) not bring about the change, but the Maidenhead, OU Press way we structure that information and Entwistle, N. (2009) Teaching for Understanding at think with it does. University: deep approaches and distinctive ways of thinking. London, Palgrave Macmillan
Activity 1With a partnerBriefly discuss these two philosophies underpinninglearning, and how your approach to ‘teaching forstudent learning’ may relate to the principles – jotdown a couple of examples from your experience asa teacher or a learner…
Diagram of Constructive Alignment LearningTeaching/learn outcomes Assessmenting activities Expressed as tasksTeacher, self or verbs that the Evaluate how wellpeer controlled students have to outcomes areas best suits enact demonstratedcontext Verbs are chosen to select levelChapter 4 in Biggs. J. and Tang, C. (2007) Teaching for quality learning at university. (3rd Ed.)Maidenhead, OU Press. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMZA80XpP6Y is also useful.
Deep and surface learning approachesConstructive alignment is highly influential in helpingstudents to adopt a deep approach to their learning.As a reminder the following slides summarise whatis meant by these terms ‘deep’ and ‘surface’approaches to learning…
Surface learningStudents focus their attention on the details andinformation in a lecture or text. They try to memoriseindividual details in the form they appear in thelecture of text or to list the features of the situation.They do not focus on overall meaning or considerchallenging the concepts and discourse. It is of littleuse to students once they have completed theirassessments as it is quickly forgotten and notintegrated with their other learning.
Deep learningStudents focus their attention on the overall meaningor message in a lecture, text or situation. Theyattempt to relate ideas together and construct theirown meaning, possibly in relation to their ownexperience. ‘Facts’ are learnt but in the context of ameaning and can therefore be challenged throughdiscussion and experience. It is more easily retainedas it encourages a broader understanding of thecontext and means something to the student. Deeplearning involves integrating new ideas with existinglearning.
Activity 2With a different partnerDiscuss what may influence students’ approaches toadopting a surface of deeper approach to learningand how you in your teaching role can manage this.
You may have included…Deep Surface•Motivational context •Excessive content•Student activities appropriate •Excessive workloadto level •Lack of background student•Student interaction knowledge•A well-structured knowledge •Assessment that encouragesbase to enable building up or tolerates memorisationnew knowledge •Large classes•Teaching to elicit responses •Teacher-focus•Emphasis on principles anddepth of understanding
Situated learning • Influenced by Vygotsky and Bruner. • All learning is context specific. • Communities of practice, sharing common values, goals, practices, standards. • Professional knowing: fluid, mobile, nuanced, tacit.
Threshold concepts Areas of learning that involve conceptual change rather than incremental adding of knowledge – transformative in terms of understanding of the subject. The ‘aha’ moment – seeing the world differently. Irreversible – it cannot be ‘unlearned’. Integrative – acquisition of threshold concepts illuminate the underlying inter- relatedness of other aspects of the subject.Land, R., Meyer, J.H.F. & Smith, J. (eds) (2008) ThresholdConcepts within the disciplines. Rotterdam, Sense Publishers
Troublesome knowledgeConceptually difficult – e.g. threshold conceptsRitual – meaningless and routineInert – difficult to transfer into meaningful situationsForeign – too far removed from what is knownTacit – deeply embedded and difficult to articulate
Pulling these ideas togetherAt your tablesRecap on the principles and ideas we havediscussed this morning and then…Individually, construct a concept map of how theyinteract, and some of the teaching and learningactivities you have experienced that exemplify theideas.
Standing back and looking inAt your tablesHow have the methods we have used so far in thisworkshop been congruent with these varioustheories and principles in…•Building up the knowledge;•Creating links, looking for relevance to contexts;•Social interaction to explore and clarify concepts;•Modeling practice?Discuss together and jot down a couple ofcomments on a postcard.