The Translation Of Proper Names And Institutional Andop

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A presentation on the theories on translation of proper names and brand names.

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The Translation Of Proper Names And Institutional Andop

  1. 1. Saundra Swain
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Both refer to people, objects or processes peculiar to a single ethnic community” (70) </li></ul><ul><li>Proper names: singular references </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Terms: classes of entities </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Unless the name already has an accepted translation, or is used as a metaphor, do not translate it </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Figures: Well known, translatable names are translated in Europe, but have recently begun to be kept in English </li></ul><ul><li>Biblical figures: translate </li></ul><ul><li>Always translate the name of the Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Surnames: Do not translate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some surnames of Italian artists and classical writers are naturalized. Ex: Aristotle </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Belles-lettres: names are translated if the characters and settings are naturalized. </li></ul><ul><li>If surnames in fiction have a connotation, they should be explained in a glossary and the name left untranslated </li></ul><ul><li>Fairy tales, folk tales, and children’s literature are usually translated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folk hero’s names are not translated if they represent national qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literary proper names: if they have a connotation in the source language, “translate the word that underlies that proper name into the target language” and then naturalize it into a new source language proper name (71) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Trademarks, brand names, and proprietary names: do no translate unless they are eponyms and are generically used (ex: kleenex) </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical names: check usage to make sure that another name is not used </li></ul><ul><li>Streets and squares: Not translated (except those listed in article) </li></ul><ul><li>Public buildings: partially translate if the generic term is common (ex: iglesia) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Forms of address: address everyone as Mr. or Mrs. or keep Señor/Señora/ Signore for western and central European languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocratic and professional titles: translate if there is an equivalent. If not, kept it or omit it and add professional information. </li></ul><ul><li>Private institutions, schools, universities, hospitals: do not translate </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers, journals, and periodicals: do not translate </li></ul><ul><li>Famous works of art: use established translated title. If the work is not well known, keep the original, with the translation in parenthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Untranslated books: keep original, put translation in parenthesis. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Do not translate unless there is an established translation, these add color and flavor of a period </li></ul><ul><li>To assist with the meaning, provide a glossary or explain in parenthesis, adjectival clauses, or footnotes. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep and explain Ancien R é gime terms like parlement, intendant </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Most have official translations </li></ul><ul><li>Some have international acronyms </li></ul><ul><li>Positions and institutions in the Roman Catholic Church and Vatican State are always intertranslatable </li></ul><ul><li>The translator’s “main task is to find the authorized translation, not to make his own” (75) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Procedures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literal Translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through-translation (loan-translation, calque) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural equivalent (ex: Prime Minister) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation label: “An approximate equivalent or a new term, usually a collocation, for a feature peculiar to the SL culture” (76) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation couplets: transcription + translation in parenthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation triplets: literal translation + transcription + denotation </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Deletion: Only if the term is not important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalization: pronounced as English/ anglicized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acronyms: use acronym and add translation of full title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphor: if name of building is personified (ex: The Pentagon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply an explanation in the text, in footnotes, or in a glossary </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ecological terms: do not translate. “local ecological terms are preferred to their TL equivalents (cf. various words for ‘desert’ used in English, e.g. steppe, tundra)” (81) </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminate and alert TL reader to cultural terms that infringes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . These should be labeled as ‘prej’ in dictionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Exported products: Do not translate </li></ul><ul><li>Can be treated more freely than institutional terms. Usually can keep the term for flavor, national pride, etc, with an explanation in the text </li></ul>

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