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The Translation Of Proper Names And Institutional Andop
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The Translation Of Proper Names And Institutional Andop


A presentation on the theories on translation of proper names and brand names.

A presentation on the theories on translation of proper names and brand names.

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  • 1. Saundra Swain
  • 2.
    • “ Both refer to people, objects or processes peculiar to a single ethnic community” (70)
    • Proper names: singular references
    • Cultural Terms: classes of entities
  • 3.
    • Unless the name already has an accepted translation, or is used as a metaphor, do not translate it
    • Historical Figures: Well known, translatable names are translated in Europe, but have recently begun to be kept in English
    • Biblical figures: translate
    • Always translate the name of the Pope
    • Surnames: Do not translate
      • Some surnames of Italian artists and classical writers are naturalized. Ex: Aristotle
  • 4.
    • Belles-lettres: names are translated if the characters and settings are naturalized.
    • If surnames in fiction have a connotation, they should be explained in a glossary and the name left untranslated
    • Fairy tales, folk tales, and children’s literature are usually translated
      • Folk hero’s names are not translated if they represent national qualities
    • Literary proper names: if they have a connotation in the source language, “translate the word that underlies that proper name into the target language” and then naturalize it into a new source language proper name (71)
  • 5.
    • Trademarks, brand names, and proprietary names: do no translate unless they are eponyms and are generically used (ex: kleenex)
    • Geographical names: check usage to make sure that another name is not used
    • Streets and squares: Not translated (except those listed in article)
    • Public buildings: partially translate if the generic term is common (ex: iglesia)
  • 6.
    • Forms of address: address everyone as Mr. or Mrs. or keep Señor/Señora/ Signore for western and central European languages.
    • Aristocratic and professional titles: translate if there is an equivalent. If not, kept it or omit it and add professional information.
    • Private institutions, schools, universities, hospitals: do not translate
    • Newspapers, journals, and periodicals: do not translate
    • Famous works of art: use established translated title. If the work is not well known, keep the original, with the translation in parenthesis.
    • Untranslated books: keep original, put translation in parenthesis.
  • 7.
    • Do not translate unless there is an established translation, these add color and flavor of a period
    • To assist with the meaning, provide a glossary or explain in parenthesis, adjectival clauses, or footnotes.
    • Keep and explain Ancien R é gime terms like parlement, intendant
  • 8.
    • Most have official translations
    • Some have international acronyms
    • Positions and institutions in the Roman Catholic Church and Vatican State are always intertranslatable
    • The translator’s “main task is to find the authorized translation, not to make his own” (75)
  • 9.
    • Procedures:
      • Transcription
      • Literal Translation
      • Through-translation (loan-translation, calque)
      • Recognized translation
      • Cultural equivalent (ex: Prime Minister)
      • Translation label: “An approximate equivalent or a new term, usually a collocation, for a feature peculiar to the SL culture” (76)
      • Translation couplets: transcription + translation in parenthesis
      • Translation triplets: literal translation + transcription + denotation
  • 10.
      • Deletion: Only if the term is not important
      • Naturalization: pronounced as English/ anglicized
      • Acronyms: use acronym and add translation of full title
      • Metaphor: if name of building is personified (ex: The Pentagon)
      • Supply an explanation in the text, in footnotes, or in a glossary
  • 11.
    • Ecological terms: do not translate. “local ecological terms are preferred to their TL equivalents (cf. various words for ‘desert’ used in English, e.g. steppe, tundra)” (81)
    • Discriminate and alert TL reader to cultural terms that infringes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . These should be labeled as ‘prej’ in dictionaries.
    • Exported products: Do not translate
    • Can be treated more freely than institutional terms. Usually can keep the term for flavor, national pride, etc, with an explanation in the text