INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONTREDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBORURBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESUNIVERSITY OFWISCONSIN-...
CONTENTSCONTENTS 4   INTRODUCTION     BRIEF HISTORY, PLANNING THEMES, POLITICAL CLIMATE14   EXISTING CONDITIONS     DEMOGR...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYTHE INNER HARBOR and theTRANSFORMATION of MILWAUKEEGreat cities emerge over time - not with one project, ...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
INTRODUCTIONEarly Milwaukee residents also called the Inner Harbor home, with theKaszubian fishermen (immigrants from the ...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESBelow: Various maps ...
INTRODUCTIONBelow: Various Maps from 1916, 1935, 1962, and 1984. While the street and block pattern for the northern part ...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESAbove/next page (one...
INTRODUCTIONindustries are still major employers for this part of Milwaukee. The InnerHarbor is a chance to further the tr...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
INTRODUCTIONboth the State and City and County Governments of Milwaukee.                     The Milwaukee shareNew Jobs a...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
INTRODUCTION2012 ElectionsWhile the Inner Harbor is not a politically charged area, local, state and fed-eral elections wi...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
EXISTING CONDITIONSMilwaukee’s vision of the Inner Harbor calls for the development of severaleconomic clusters to build o...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
EXISTING CONDITIONSThe following tables show the housing, incomes, and commute times forworkers in neighborhoods surroundi...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENT MILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES     Long Term     ...
EXISTING CONDITIONS Images: Existing conditions from various locations within the Inner Harbor project boundary.          ...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
EXISTING CONDITIONS    Total Assessed Land Value per Square Foot                                                Legend    ...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                 Cur...
EXISTING CONDITIONSIn 2011, the Redevelopment Plan for the Port of Milwaukee was passed                                   ...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
EXISTING CONDITIONS               Bus Stops and Routes - Inner Harbor Area     h g     g h     h h     g g     h h     g g...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESImages: Susceptible ...
EXISTING CONDITIONS              Potential Phases for Change                                                    Inner Harb...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
EXISTING CONDITIONSFinally, this document made clear the City’s plans for reclamation of thewater’s edge (Milwaukee River,...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
EXISTING CONDITIONSmanufacturing.- South of Washington or Scott Streets, preserve large parcels and possibly       Kinnick...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
EXISTING CONDITIONSProject Design Principles- Preserve natural river featuresand functions.- Buffer sensitive natural area...
INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES                    ...
EXISTING CONDITIONScations and personal care products have increased concern among the sci-entific community because of th...
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
Industrial Waterfront Redevelopment: Milwaukee's Inner Harbor, Urban Design and Redevelopment Strategies
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  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONTREDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBORURBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESUNIVERSITY OFWISCONSIN-MILWAUKEEURBAN PLANNINGSTUDIO 858, SPRING 2011JEREMY DAVIS I MARK SAUER I DEVIN YODER
  2. 2. CONTENTSCONTENTS 4 INTRODUCTION BRIEF HISTORY, PLANNING THEMES, POLITICAL CLIMATE14 EXISTING CONDITIONS DEMOGRAPHICS, PHYSICAL CONDITIONS, STAKEHOLDERS CASE STUDIES38 BROWNFIELD REMEDIATION, CONNECTING COMMUNITIES, MIXED-USE WATERFRONTS, AGGLOMERATION, IDENTITY AND ACCESS, PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS STRATEGIES AND ALTERNATIVES54 STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES,THREATS, STRATEGIES AND ALTERNATIVES78 NEXT STEPS PLANNING, DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION 3
  3. 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYTHE INNER HARBOR and theTRANSFORMATION of MILWAUKEEGreat cities emerge over time - not with one project, plan, or program, but through an evolu-tion of transformative development. For decades, Milwaukee has engaged in this transforma-tion process assertively and with broad community support.Today, the Inner Harbor offers thepotential for new achievements that can elevate Milwaukee even further on the internationalstage of great cities.This publication moves us closer to that achievement by envisioning pos-sibilities for the Inner Harbor’s transformation.Since the 1970s, UWM’s School of Architecture and Urban Planning (SARUP) has played akey role in helping Milwaukee envision successful long-term initiatives, including the Lakefront,Park East, and the Menomonee Valley (to name a few).The frameworks for such community-changing initiatives have matured through the open dialogue among Milwaukee’s electedofficials, professional experts, and students and faculty. Actions based on these visionaryframeworks have taken root in new public and private investments. This publication plantsnew seeds for regenerating the Inner Harbor. The redevelopment strategies offer ideas - notsolutions - that can subsequently improve the ongoing process of implementation.This publication represents the work of a team of undergraduate and graduate level students(both planners and architects) investigating urban design and redevelopment strategies. Theprojects range from overall master plans to designs for specific public places. All have grownfrom a series of community-based initiatives engaging local neighborhoods, land owners, andbusiness leaders.Work on the Inner Harbor was initiated in the plans, programs, and policies of variousstakeholders, including the City of Milwaukee, the Port of Milwaukee, and the MilwaukeeMetropolitan Sewerage District. Not the least of these efforts is the signature investment inUWM’s new School of Freshwater Sciences - a leadership initiative based on Milwaukee’sand UWM’s long-standing connection to the Great Lakes. At the same time, the integrationof existing plans offers opportunities for conceptualizing innovative yet pragmatic possibilities.The projects in this publication focus on embracing urban redevelopment into a Port environ-ment.The concepts integrate industrial, commercial, and institutional uses, as well as housingand a full complement of public places and environmental features. Students also used con-cepts gleaned from other classes focused on issues of landscape, engineering, water-baseddesign, urban agriculture, sustainability, and public policy.This effort will continue each semester as a new Inner Harbor takes shape. SARUP’s Insti-tute for Ecological Design will continue a school-wide effort to develop a coordinated pro-gram of dialogue, research, planning, and design among multiple studio classes, work¬shops,seminars, lectures, and presentations. This publication, as well as the work of other classesin Spring 2011, sets a foundation of ideas that next semester’s students can use to movefurther in the process. This multi-year and multi-class effort provides one more example ofSARUP’s innovation in community-based education and the achievement of UWM’s urbanmission. In a decade or less, Milwaukee should be able to look back at this effort and see re-sults from this unique formula that combines UWM’s urban mission with Milwaukee’s publicand private leadership. Larry Witzling, Studio Critic 5
  4. 4. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES INTRODUCTION The City of Milwaukee has developed and changed around the Inner Har- bor, the area where the Menomonee, Kinnickinnic, and Milwaukee rivers converge and empty into Lake Michigan. Milwaukee has grown and changed around this area, seeing its fortunes rise and fall with the ebb and flow of activity on the lake’s edge. The Inner Harbor has many assets to offer the City, but also has challenges that local leaders will have to address as the area continues to change with Milwaukee. The Inner Harbor sits along rail lines near downtown, and is surrounded by the neighborhoods of Bay View, Walker’s Point, the 5th Ward, and the 3rd Ward. The adjacent area also has a large number of vacant properties, of- fering opportunities for future development. The Inner Harbor represents a place of great potential to the City and the region, but also has obstacles to overcome , such as aging street infrastructure, brownfield sites, and phys- ical and psychological disconnections from the surrounding area. The groups of people and types of industries around the Inner Harbor have gradually changed over time: fishing no longer provides a major way of lifeBelow: Walker’s Point, Jones Island, andthe Inner Harbor circa 1937. Notice the for local residents, and industries have moved away from the harbor, eithernatural state of Jones Island (except for out of the City or the state. The Inner Harbor is still an active port, andthe sewage plant built in 1926) and the provides other uses too, such as storage for coal and salt and dry docks fordense, residential neighborhood of Walk- boats. The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District also uses the land,er’s Point before I-94. housing its large wastewater treatment facility there. The Inner Harbor clearly still has value to Milwaukee, but how might the city further utilize this resource? BRIEF HISTORY Milwaukee’s Inner Harbor area has long provid- ed resources to local residents. Native groups, explorers, and early settlers all harvested on the bounty of wild rice and fish that the swampy bot- tomlands held near the confluence of the three rivers. As the City of Milwaukee grew, the ur- ban area spread out from the harbor. The har- bor became a major shipping port on the Great Lakes, receiving products like coal, and shipping out grain and industrial goods. The port’s loca- tion at the mouth of three rivers also allowed for inland waterway navigation. The Inner Harbor contained various industries and rail yards, helping further develop Milwaukee’s economy. 6
  5. 5. INTRODUCTIONEarly Milwaukee residents also called the Inner Harbor home, with theKaszubian fishermen (immigrants from the West Prussian Peninsula of Hel)and other European groups settling on what would come to be called JonesIsland.The island was home to a thriving fishing community until the 1940s,when industry and the wastewater treatment facility started redevelopingthe land. Today, only a small park on the island and histiorical accounts re-main to remind us of this former settlement. Above: The average Jones Island family had six to nine children. The youngsters’ playground was the beach, the lake, and the river. They fished, crabbed, swam, and built boats with sails made of stolen bedsheets. Above: A street scene on Jones Island. In the heyday of the island, the near- est building was a grocery store. In theThe Kaszubes 1930s it became a fish market.To the question, “who are the Kaszubes?’ The answer varies. They weremostly farmers and fishermen. Hard-working people who survived livingunder many different regimes, they owe their preservation to the trait oftenacity. They did not get involved in the politics of the particular regimebut went about their lives working, eating, drinking and making merry. Theywere known for decades as a religious, peaceful, mostly Catholic group. Aclose knit community, they depended on each other for survival. Below: A map of block 195 illustrates the quilt pattern of houses and enclo- sures on Jones Island in 1887.These traits they carried over to Jones Island until they were forced to re-locate to different areas and lost their community structure. However, theirassimilation into the larger community happened well before that time.Henry Rotta writes in his book Jones Island that “many think we were onlyfishermen but we held many jobs. Only small percentages were fishermen.Some of those occupations were banker, lighthouse keeper, boat builder,carpenter, factory worker and postal worker.”(Excerpt from South Milwaukee Historical Society Newsletter:Volume 1, Issue 2. June 2009) 7
  6. 6. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESBelow: Various maps from 1836, 1870, 1876, and 1900. Notice the progression from a marshy wetland to an islandto an industrialized peninsula with port slips. 8
  7. 7. INTRODUCTIONBelow: Various Maps from 1916, 1935, 1962, and 1984. While the street and block pattern for the northern part ofthe site is carried over into a new century, the development pattern is much more scattered and industrialized. 9
  8. 8. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESAbove/next page (one image): A PLANNING THEMES1915 view of Jones Island shows The Inner Harbor redevelopment project presents both a unique challengea conglomeration of fishing shan- and opportunity to the City of Milwaukee. The following section looks atties, houses, trees, and boats. Onthe northern tip are the U.S. Coast the significant planning themes which will be addressed in the design andGuard station and the pumping sta- redevelopment strategies outlined in this document.tion. Adjacent to them is land whichwas condemned and cleared to make 1. Accessway for harbor and sewerage disposal The Inner Harbor, historically home to many of Milwaukee’s industries, isimprovements. Entering the harbor at present a neglected and overlooked area of the City. Once home to theis the tourist vessel, Christopher railway switchyards that connected the City to the region, the Inner Har-Columbus. bor never formally developed a robust street grid. Reconnecting the area to Milwaukee’s street grid is an essential first action.The Fisherpeople of Jones Island Additionally, Lake Michigan is undoubtedly one of Milwaukee’s greatest as- sets, an asset which should be accessible to its citizens. Redevelopment therefore must emphasize public access to the waterfront. The Harbor presents an opportunity for a continuous harbor walk along the water, as well as a series of public parks, landings, and natural wetlands. 2. Working Brownfields The Inner Harbor area includes over 90 separate brownfield sites, which could better serve the City in active use, generating revenue and creating employment. Environmental remediation will be an important first step. Furthermore, new parcels and infrastructure should be planned to present the best opportunity for working reuse. Finally, designs for reuse should incorporate strategies to maintain or improve the environmental quality of the site and its surroundings, using best ecological practices and stormwa- ter management. 3. Milwaukee Manufacturing Governor Walker’s commitment to add 250,000 jobs and 10,000 new busi- nesses in the state means 65,000 jobs and 2,800 new businesses in the Mil- waukee metropolitan statistical area. Demographics of the neighborhoods adjacent to the Inner Harbor show that manufacturing and related 10
  9. 9. INTRODUCTIONindustries are still major employers for this part of Milwaukee. The InnerHarbor is a chance to further the tradition, connecting to the MenomoneeValley and hosting the emerging organizations of Milwaukee’s water cluster.4. A Rich HistoryMilwaukee historian John Gurda notes the Inner Harbor’s importance inMilwaukee’s history, as well as its peculiarities. Redevelopment should seekto build on this history - history as a working harbor, and history as hometo a group of exceptional Milwaukeeans—the Kaszubes. Relevant histori-cal themes can be used in developing a memorable and exciting brand forthe Inner Harbor areas.5. A Unique ApproachThe unique aspects of the Inner Harbor demand a redevelopment strategythat is not reproduced from a case study nor regurgitated from a previousproject. Redevelopment must focus on creating vibrant neighborhoods,districts and corridors that incorporate traditionally separated land uses,use innovative environmental strategies, and challenge stakeholders tothink outside the box.6. Railway –Obstruction or OpportunityRailways present a great challenge to urban design, as it is difficult to createnew crossings or encroach on railroad right-of-way. Critical upgrades tothe Greenfield Avenue bridge will undoubtedly interfere with the railway;this could present opportunities to relocate the tracks into a configurationmore friendly to parceling land.Moreover, the Inner Harbor presents a unique chance for the City of Mil-waukee to create its first full-scale transit-oriented development, in a lo-cation amenable to both a future streetcar and the growing Milwaukee-Chicago commuter line. Above: Some of the existing rail lines in the Inner Harbor7. Water QualityThe EPA has designated the entire Inner Harbor an area of concern, where- 11
  10. 10. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES by environmental degradation has impaired certain beneficial uses of natu- ral waterways. The Inner Harbor hosts the confluence of the Kinnickinnic To learn more about and Milwaukee rivers, as well as the harbor and the connection to Lake Milwaukee’s water Michigan. Redevelopment must incorporate strategies to clean up the In- quality and Lake ner Harbor and rivers, and establish sustainable, green practices to protect the invaluable resource in the future. Michigan, visit:http://waterlife.nfb.ca/ 8. School of Freshwater Sciences Successful redevelopment projects at Goose Island, Chicago, and Dubuque, Iowa, were both catalyzed with large research and development institutions (Wrigley’s Global Innovation Center and the IBM Global Delivery Center, respectively). The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee has made a very strong commit- ment at the heart Inner Harbor with the new School of Freshwater Sci- ence, the only of its kind in the nation. The school can serve as a catalyst and anchor facility, incubating technologies that promote focus areas of water, energy and advanced manufacturing. 9. Leverage Diversity An inner-city endeavor at the scale of the Inner Harbor redevelopment project will require coordination of numerous stakeholders. These stake- holders, including the City of Milwaukee, the Port Authority, and UWM, each have diverse concerns and unique interests. However, these stakeholders together have the capacity to harness considerable resources needed for a successful project at the scale for the Inner Harbor. 10.Think Long-Term Finally, the Inner Harbor project is an expansive undertaking, thus certainly an expensive one. A pragmatic redevelopment strategy must identify stages of development, and include five-, ten- and twenty-year time frames. Long range planning will outline a vision for the future of the site and provide future planners and developers with the goals and objectives as well as catalytic projects to be completed to make the development successful. This framework will allow future planners to fill in the gaps where develop- ment can and should occur. POLITICAL CLIMATE The redevelopment of the Inner Harbor will commence under a political climate unique in Wisconsin’s history. A Democratic Milwaukee Mayor and a Republican Governor with opposing budgets means Milwaukee will have to be creative in its approach to redevelopment and its efforts for funding. Despite some challenges, the Inner Harbor redevelopment project has the opportunity to bridge political parties, and provide a common ground for12
  11. 11. INTRODUCTIONboth the State and City and County Governments of Milwaukee. The Milwaukee shareNew Jobs and Businesses of Governor Walker’sGovernor Scott Walker, in his inaugural address, declared that “Wisconsin new jobs and busi-is open for business!” The Governor has stated goals of creating 250,000 nesses totals 65,500new jobs in the state and 10,000 new businesses by 2015. As Milwaukee isthe largest economy in the state, a large percentage of those jobs will likely new jobs and 2,800be in the City. The Inner Harbor site can play a role in the economic future new businesses.of the City of Milwaukee and the State of Wisconsin.The Milwaukee metropolitan statistical area (MSA)contains over one quarter of the state’s civilian laborforce. If Milwaukee’s labor force were to gain itsproportional share of the new jobs, the MSA wouldgrow by 65,500 new jobs.The Milwaukee MSA is also home to roughly 37,000of the 133,000 business establishments in the Stateof Wisconsin; 28% of the State’s total. Adding 10,000new businesses in the state would mean an addition-al 2,800 new establishments in the Milwaukee MSAThe Inner Harbor project presents a unique opportunity to the State,County, and City. Redevelopment of the Inner Harbor can incubate manynew businesses and create thousands of new jobs. This in turn will helpthe Governor and Mayor to reach their economic goals for Milwaukee and US Census Bureau Statistics of USWisconsin. Businesses, 2007As the table (above) shows, unemployment has dropped in the past year.While the state has added 25,300 jobs from February 2010 to February2011, the month-by-month statistics are not as promising. The state ispredicted to add 900,000 to its unemployment rolls from January 2011 toFebruary 2011.2011-2012 BudgetThe budget for the 2011-2012 biennium is constrained by the current eco-nomic conditions. While many programs are experiencing stagnant or de-creased funding, there are several bright spots which are encouraging for 13
  12. 12. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES the Inner Harbor redevelopment. Wisconsin Economic Development Corporation- The State Budget has an allot- ment of $200 million for the WEDC. Set to replace the State’s Department of Commerce, the WEDC will provide new and existing businesses with support, expertise, and financial assistance. This is promising for the Inner Harbor’s brownfields, potentially home to a variety of new industries. Transportation infrastructure improvements- The State Budget has $3.2 billion set aside for highway construction and rehabilitation projects. An impor- tant first step to redevelop the Inner Harbor is repairing and extending the existing street network to improve accessibility and connectivity. Federal Funding of Projects Inherent in the Inner Harbor redevelopment project are a litany of up-front costs. An essential element in the redevelopment is leveraging federal dol- lars to support the project. The following (page 11) are two opportunities which currently exist. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act- The ARRA provides funds for fed- eral contracts, grants and loans with the intent of spurring economic activ- ity and creating long term growth. EPA Superfund- The EPA Superfund is a federal fund which helps to clean-up hazardous waste sites. Environmental remediation will be necessary for the redevelopment of the Inner Harbor.14
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION2012 ElectionsWhile the Inner Harbor is not a politically charged area, local, state and fed-eral elections will still doubtlessly influence the redevelopment prospects.Milwaukee County elected Chris Abele as County Executive to serve untilthe 2012 election cycle. In addition, 2012 will see new or re-elected of-ficials at the City level (the Mayor and Aldermen), the County (Executivepositions), the State (half of Senators and all Assemblymen), and the Federallevel (President, Congress, and Senate).The 2012 elections will no doubt change the face of Wisconsin politics.This will have its impact on Milwaukee and the Inner Harbor in numer-ous ways. However, the Inner Harbor is a massive land area with a lot ofdevelopment opportunities. It must be treated with a long time frame inorder to achieve a long- term result. The political climate is ever-changingso taking advantage of all the opportunities for support at federal, state, andlocal levels is something the City should watch and plan for. 15
  14. 14. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES EXISTING CONDITIONS This section, examining the existing conditions of the Inner Harbor site, in- cludes demographics and physical conditions. Demographics are important because they acknowledge the social capital of the study area, and help to Manufacturing and understand who its residents are, where they work, how they travel, and related industries how they live. By comparing the Inner Harbor to Milwaukee and other employ 37.5% of the cities of similar size, we can begin to see similarities and differences which present opportunities for the site. Working in tandem with physical condi- population of the tions, demographics tell the story of the area and how it came to be. Physi- Inner Harbor niegh- cal conditions paint the picture of the various land uses and their values, borhoods. ownership and agglomeration, the urban form, vacancies in the fabric of the city, accessibility, and opportunities for growth and development. DEMOGRAPHICS Demographic analysis shows the importance of manufacturing and industry to the City of Milwaukee and the neighborhoods around the Inner Harbor. The table below shows the working populations of four U.S. metropolitan areas, and the neighborhoods surrounding the Milwaukee Inner Harbor. Pittsburgh is noted for successfully reinventing its economy from industry to health care and the service economy. Portland has a vibrant harbor and industries. Both Milwaukee and Green Bay have long traditions of manu- facturing and industry in their respective cities. Manufacturing and related industries employ over one-third of the workforce in metropolitan Milwau- kee and Green Bay. In the neighborhoods surround- ing the Inner Harbor, manufacturing and related in- dustries employ 37.5% of the population, the highest percentage in the comparison. Manufacturing alone accounts for 23.5% of employ- ment in the neighborhoods surrounding the Inner Harbor, almost double the percent of metropolitan Pittsburgh’s employment share, and higher than any other in the comparison.Employment in Industry & Employed Civilian Transportation Total Population Construction Manufacturing Wholesale Trade Utilities Total Total PercentRelated Population, 16+ & WarehousingPittsburgh, Pennsylvania 2,358,695 1,074,663 6.10% 12.30% 3.60% 5.30% 1.30% 307,221 28.60%Portland--Salem, Oregon 1,919,985 959,420 6.70% 15.10% 4.70% 4.10% 0.90% 301,935 31.50%Milwaukee--Racine, 1,689,572 832,079 5.00% 21.40% 3.70% 3.90% 0.80% 289,612 34.80%WisconsinThe Inner Harbor & 64,814 27,657 5.00% 23.50% 3.60% 5.20% 0.40% 10,382 37.50%Adjacent NeighborhoodsGreen Bay, Wisconsin 226,778 120,530 6.20% 21.10% 4.00% 4.80% 1.40% 45,148 37.50%Data: 2000 Decennial Census, SF-3 Files 16
  15. 15. EXISTING CONDITIONSMilwaukee’s vision of the Inner Harbor calls for the development of severaleconomic clusters to build on the City’s strengths while exploring new op-portunities. The two identified sectors, green energy and water technology,are exciting growth sectors. Both sectors depend on creativity and innova-tion as drivers of growth.In turn, creativity and innovation are sourced from the ‘creative class’, youngand well-educated adults. So how do Milwaukee’s and the Inner Harbor’screative classes stack up? Below are some demographics looking at educa-tion of the population 25 and above, as well as demographics of the 25-45age range. High school or Associate Bachelors Masters Professional school Doctorate Total, TertiaryEducational Attainment Population 25+ equivalent degree degree degree degree degree degreePortland--Salem, Oregon 1,253,461 23.70% 6.60% 19.10% 6.40% 2.10% 1.00% 35.30%Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1,643,114 37.70% 7.00% 15.10% 5.70% 2.00% 1.00% 30.90%Milwaukee--Racine, 1,090,663 29.50% 6.80% 17.80% 5.80% 1.90% 0.70% 33.00%WisconsinInner Harbor & Adjacent 38404 45.20% 6.60% 15.00% 4.90% 1.50% 0.50% 28.50%NeighborhoodsHistoric Third Ward 381 7.30% 5.50% 42.50% 6.60% 8.70% 3.40% 66.70% 17
  16. 16. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES In educational attainment of its population 25 years and older, metropolitan Milwaukee compares well with its peers Portland and Pittsburgh. However, the Inner Harbor & adjacent neighborhoods have the lowest percentage of its population above 25 with a tertiary degree. This is in dramatic contrast to the Historic Third Ward just across the river, where two-thirds of the population has a tertiary degree. Planning for contemporary, urban housing options in the Inner Harbor Area to complement the School of Freshwater Sciences can introduce a higher percentage of the creative class into the area.The Creative Years, Percent Creative Total population 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 Total, 25 to 44of Population ClassPortland--Salem, Oregon 1,919,985 7.70% 7.80% 8.10% 8.20% 609,165 31.70%Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 2,358,695 5.60% 6.50% 7.60% 8.40% 661,710 28.10%Milwaukee--Racine, Wisconsin 1,689,572 6.50% 7.10% 8.20% 8.40% 510,260 30.20%Inner Harbor & Adjacent 38,113 9.70% 7.80% 7.60% 6.70% 12,121 31.80%NeighborhoodsHistoric Third Ward 491 10.80% 19.10% 9.80% 8.40% 236 48.10% The above table shows the 25-44 age range as a percentage of population. Again, the Inner Harbor area is in line with Metropolitan averages, but well below Milwaukee’s Historic Third Ward. The Inner Harbor compares to Pittsburgh in the percent of population in the creative class. This presents Percentage of Population in the “Creative Class” Age Group, 25-44 the Inner Harbor an opportunity for a similar approach to redefining itself.18
  17. 17. EXISTING CONDITIONSThe following tables show the housing, incomes, and commute times forworkers in neighborhoods surrounding the Inner Harbor. It is importantto know these demographics because there is often a direct relationshipbetween where people live and work. We’ve seen a shift in the averagecommute time in recent years as the suburbs have grown. Correspond-ingly, there has been a shift of higher income and higher value housing in thesuburbs. In this comparison, we see how that shift in wealth and proximityto the workplace has not occurred in the Historic Third Ward. Althoughit is a more affluent district in terms of housing and income, likely fromthe Historic designation, the Historic Third Ward exemplifies how the live/work relationship can prosper in the urban environment.In both the Inner Harbor areas and the Historic Third Ward, residents areoften located very close to their workplace, and use a variety of transpor-tation to get there. This allows for a multi-modal approach to transporta-tion at the policy level. Additionally, it can allow for a more prosperous andsocial neighborhood because residents are more active and their presenceon the street allows for a strong social capitol and a safer environment.The area adjacent to the Inner Harbor is a vibrant residential area, withover 25,000 households, and strong historical roots. The housing stock ismature; the average residential structure built in 1940. This housing stockcompares to the Historic Third Ward in age, but not type. While the ThirdWard is a mix of old warehouses and distribution facilities converted tolofts and condominiums, the Inner Harbor and adjacent neighborhoodscontains a residential building stock of bungalows and duplexes. 19
  18. 18. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENT MILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Long Term 8 - 15 Years 17.6% Immediate Change PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 10.1% Milwaukee’s Inner Harbor still serves as an active port, and will continue Short Term 1 - 7 Years to receive and ship goods. Because of the required dock space, the Inner Long Term 8.7% 8 - 15 Years Harbor currently has little public access either along the harbor itself, or onComplicated 17.6% Immediate Change 10.1% the lake side. Vehicle and pedestrian access to the Inner Harbor is also lim- 23.8% Not Happening Short Term ited because of incomplete and disjointed street infrastructure. Both the location of the docks and the railways has reduced access in and around 1 - 7 Years 8.7% 39.7% Complicated the Inner Harbor area. Additionally, Jones Island only has limited access at 23.8% the southern end, and the area has security considerations as well. Not Happening 39.7% Two large sites in the Inner Harbor area have redevelopment promise. The Grand Trunk Railroad site at the southern end of the harbor contains some protected wetlands, and is the future site for the Gillen Company. While Immediate Change - 85.33 acres - Mean Value $3.47/sq. ft. Short Term - 1 - 7 Years - 72.95 acres - Mean Value $5.73/sq. ft. this area has potential for redevelopment, change may not occur for some Long Term - 8 - 15 Years - 147.49 acres - Mean Value $19.24/sq. ft. Complicated - 199.84 acres - Mean Value $14.86/sq. ft. time. The former Solvay Coke site south of Greenfield Avenue represents Not Happening - 332.52 acres - Mean Value - $24.40/sq. ft. Immediate Change - 85.33 acres - Mean Value $3.47/sq. ft. a better near-term opportunity for redevelopment, but is also a brownfield Short Term - 1 - 7 Years - 72.95 acres - Mean Value $5.73/sq. ft. Long Term - 8 - 15 Years - 147.49 acres - Mean Value $19.24/sq. ft. Complicated - 199.84 acres - Mean Value $14.86/sq. ft. and will require remediation first. Not Happening - 332.52 acres - Mean Value - $24.40/sq. ft. The 1st Avenue corridor represents opportunities The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee has area at the end of Greenfield Avenue for its School of Freshwater Sciences, which could potentially for commercial, residential, change the landscape at the edge of the harbor. While the school has not and even industrial develop- started new work yet, UWM stands to play a major role in the redevelop- ment that could help better ment of the Inner Harbor. Key stakeholders see this area as a potential knit together the surround- development for Milwaukee’s growing water-related industry cluster. The ing neighborhoods with the railways in the Inner Harbor also creates a physical and psychological divi- Inner Harbor. sion between the harbor and the 1st Street corridor. 20
  19. 19. EXISTING CONDITIONS Images: Existing conditions from various locations within the Inner Harbor project boundary. 21
  20. 20. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Inner Harbor Study Area Legend Milwaukee County-owned Property City-owned Property ¯ Inner Harbor Study Area 0 1,000 2,000 4,000 Feet 1 inch = 1,270 feet22
  21. 21. EXISTING CONDITIONS Total Assessed Land Value per Square Foot Legend Inner Harbor Study Area VALUE_ACRE $0.00 - $1.50 $1.51 - $2.73 $2.74 - $3.57 $3.58 - $5.38 $5.39 - $9.00 $9.01 - $15.36 $15.37 - $20.40 $20.41 - $28.49 $28.50 - $43.45 $43.46 - $175.56 ±0 650 1,300 2,600 Feet 1 inch = 900 feet 23
  22. 22. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Current Zoning - Inner Harbor Area Legend Inner Harbor Area <all other values> ZONING Industrial-Heavy Industrial-Light Industrial-Mixed Industrial-Office Local Business Pending Parks Two-Family ± 0 500 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 Feet 1 inch = 1,469 feet24
  23. 23. EXISTING CONDITIONSIn 2011, the Redevelopment Plan for the Port of Milwaukee was passed Sub Area “A”by the Common Council. The Plan proposes less restrictive zoning to al- Permits: Commercial, Light Indus-low for redevelopment of the Inner Harbor area. Until the passage of the trial and Multi-Family ResidentialRedevelopment Plan, the existing zoning was almost exclusively Industrial- UsesHeavy. Alternatively, the new plan now allows for Industrial-Mixed and Prohibits: Heavy Industrial, MotorIndustrial-Office (along with Industrial-Heavy). These zoning changes will Vehicle Sales, Salvage Operationsenable mixed-use development and lessen restrictions on industry type, and Single-Family Residentialcreating greater variety. Sub Area “B” Permits: Commercial, Office, Re-The Port as an Economic Driver: search and Light Industrial Uses- 1,119 direct jobs Prohibits: Residential and Heavy- 909 indirect jobs Industrial Uses, Motor Vehicle Sales and Salvage Operations- $93.6m in wages Sub Area “C”- $79.6m in business revenue Permits: Light to Heavy Industrial- $35m in federal, state and local taxes and Manufacturing Uses- Over 3m tons/year of imported raw materials Prohibits: Residential and most(steel, salt and coal) and grain and heavy machinery exports Commercial Uses- Profitable unit of City government Park (PK) Zoning Zoning Park (PK) 25
  24. 24. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Street Heirarchy ± PITTSBURGH BARCLAY K P OL M A RS HA OREGON RI VE W ER RW FLORIDA 1ST AT IE AL 3RD LL E R K VIRGINIA BRUCE BRUCE Legend PIERCE Streets NATIONAL WALKER WALKER Street Type MINERAL Thoroughfare S JO NE BARCLAY WASHINGTON JONES Arterial SCOTT Collector MADISON GREENFIELD Local ORCHARD LI N CO 2ND LN LAPHAM ME MO 4TH R IA MITCHELL HAR L MAPLE BO CAR R BURNHAM F ER MARINA ANDERSON RY STEWART BECHER LENOX BECHER 2ND ALLIS BAY KI NN RO ALDRICH WINCHESTER WOODWARD IC BI KI MOUND NS LN NN LENOX LENOX O LINC ON D IC AR W LINCOLN HOWELL 3RD LOGAN BAY LINUS BURRELL AUSTIN HAYES SU SMITH ER CONWAY P IO WILSON R 0 950 1,900 3,800 Feet 1 inch = 1,108 feet26
  25. 25. EXISTING CONDITIONS Bus Stops and Routes - Inner Harbor Area h g g h h h g g h h g g Legend h g h g Bus Stops h h g g h g " ) 18 Bus Routes h g h g h h g g Route 11D 15 h h g g h h g g 18 h g h g 48D h h g g h h g g 53 54 h g 1/4 Mile Walking Buffer hh h gg g h h g g h g " )h g 11D " ) 48D ± " )15 " ) 48D h g h g h gh ghg h hh g gg hh gg " ) 17 h gh g h g h g" ) 54 h g h g h g " ) 40Dhg h g h gh g h g h g h g hh gg h g h h g g h g " ) h gh g 53 gh hg h g h g h g h g hh gg h g h g 0 750 1,500 3,000h g Feet 1 inch = 1,010 feet 27
  26. 26. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIESImages: Susceptible to changeproperties. From top to bottom:Immediate change, short-term(1-7 years), long-term (8-15 years)or complicated. 28
  27. 27. EXISTING CONDITIONS Potential Phases for Change Inner Harbor Study Area Immediate Change Short Term - 1 - 7 years Long Term - 8 - 15 years Complicated Not Happening ±0 800 1,600 3,200 Feet 1 inch = 1,071 feet 29
  28. 28. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES STAKEHOLDERS The primary objectives of this chapter are to determine the catalytic proj- ects and plans impacting the Inner Harbor site and its future use.These de- terminations were made through analysis of Milwaukee’s Southeast Side and Near South Side Area Plans, The Port of Milwaukee Redevelopment Plan, the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC) study on the KRM South Side Station location and Request to Initiate Pre- liminary Engineering, and several studies of the Kinnickinnic River. While there are realistically hundreds of stakeholders in the primary proj- ect study area, this report looks at some of the major stakeholders and their interests. Included among these are the Redevelopment Authority of the City of Milwaukee, the neighborhoods of Bay View, Walker’s Point, and the 5th Ward, the Port of Milwaukee, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) is one of the major play- ers in the future of the Inner Harbor. UWM has recently selected a site on Greenfield Avenue as its new home for the School of Freshwater Sci- ences. This site lies in the geographic center of the Inner Harbor and offers UWM the opportunity for expansion as well as direct access to the lake and potential future industries in the surrounding context. Much of the land adjacent to the UWM site is will remain industrial. Since this is nearly half of the project site, this analysis contains excerpts from the two Area Plans which favor industry as a major use in the area. Additionally, this land provides the City of Milwaukee the opportunity to market to national and international companies to expand its economic development just as it did in the Menomonee Valley. This site is perfect for the ever-growing “green” industry cluster led by the Wisconsin Energy Research Consor- tium (WERC) and the Milwaukee Water Council. Another major theme throughout this analysis was the inclusion of Transit- Oriented Development and a South Shore Station location. This type of development, primarily mixed-use in nature, would be located at the south end of the Inner Harbor site. The location provides an opportunity for neighborhood development based on the future use of a commuter train running between Milwaukee and Chicago. It also allows for a transition between the neighborhood of Bay View to the south and The Port and industrial uses to the north. While mixed-use was deemed to be the best use of land in this area, increased density and architectural quality were also major objectives. Mixed-use was also recommended to the north of the Inner Harbor site as a transition to the 5th Ward.30
  29. 29. EXISTING CONDITIONSFinally, this document made clear the City’s plans for reclamation of thewater’s edge (Milwaukee River, Menomonee River, Kinnickinnic River, and “Great discoveriesInner Harbor) for public access and use. The various projects and plans and improvementscollectively recommend balancing the need for economic development andenvironmental protection while preserving the water’s edge for public ac- invariably involvecess in the form of pocket parks and extended Riverwalk segments. Ad- the cooperation ofditionally, the restoration of wetlands and natural habitat is intended to beutilized as both stormwater and water quality management strategies. many minds.”The preferred alternative for the Inner Harbor recommends a strategic,aggressive, and focused approach to redevelopment for three objectives: – Alexander Graham Belleconomic development, transit-oriented development, and public accessand environmental remediation of the water’s edge.UNIVERSITY OFWISCONSIN-MILWAUKEEOf all the major stakeholders invested in the Inner Har-bor, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee arguablyhas the most to gain from the Inner Harbor’s redevel-opment. Home to the new School of Freshwater Sci-ences, the Inner Harbor presents acres of vacant landfor the University to continue its community involve-ment by expanding its campus on the Inner Harbor site.Surrounding the School of Freshwater Sciences, UWMcould provide housing, entertainment, and other ameni-ties to serve a growing student population and act as acatalyst to integrating the existing neighborhoods of Above: A proposed rendering of UWM’sWalker’s Point, Bay View, and the 5th Ward into future development. School of Freshwater Sciences along Greenfield Avenue in the heart of theA large portion of the land in the Inner Harbor will remain industrial, pre- Inner Harborsenting UWM with a second opportunity-to partner with new industries.The industry/institution partnership allows partners to share information,resources, and research and development facilities. As the School of Fresh-water Sciences is the only graduate school in the nation dedicated solely tothe study of freshwater, the opportunity for a new water industry clusteris ideal. WERC seeking new world headquarters: Milwaukee in the Mix! The Wisconsin Energy Research Consortium, of which UWM is already a member, combines Wisconsin’s industry leaders with the state’s leading engineering research Universities to provide consulting, research & workforce development capabilities. They leverage the knowledge and resources of our University and Technical Colleges to sup- port our member companies, develop new companies & expand Wisconsin’s Energy, Power and Control Industries. 31
  30. 30. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES DEPARTMENT OF CITY DEVELOPMENT NEAR SOUTH SIDE AREA PLAN The Near South Side Area Plan is a community-led comprehensive plan facilitated by the City of Milwaukee and community partners. The plan is a guide to future investment, development, and preservation in the area for the benefit of the Near South Side’s residents and businesses. Below are excerpts, taken from the plan, which impact the Inner Harbor study area. Catalytic Projects Catalytic Project #4: Riverfront Node Parks and Riverwalk Extension Currently, no mechanism preserves areas along the river for public access to open space, and there are limited parks and open spaces within the near south side. A system of finger-like parks and canals that are connected by the Riverwalk should be created. Nodes would generally be located where existing and future roadways terminate at the rivers and canals, and provide public access and maintain view sheds to the waterways. Specific RecommendationsAbove: Near South Side Area Plan: - Preserve space for river node parks prior to development occurring, (i.e.Adopted May 2009 roadway stubs preserved for public access as conservation easements)spe- cifically at Water and Bruce streets, Water and Florida streets, Water and Oregon streets, 1st and Seeboth streets, and 3rd and Seeboth streets. - River node parks should be primarily landscaped areas that contain vege- tation, grass and other natural plant- ing while limiting hardscapes. Addi- “...participants sug- tional park activation features are en- gested targeting couraged, i.e. benches, fountains, play equipment. green industries, - Focus preservation efforts for river research and de- node parks in areas that are likely to see development in the short term. velopment firms, - Make each river node park unique educational facilities, in the context of the surrounding natural and built environment. and mixed commer- - Space for parks and Riverwalk ex- cial and residential tensions should be preserved regard- less of adjacent land uses. uses...” Accordance with the Port Redevelopment Plan - Continue the adaptive re-use of former industrial/warehouse buildings into mixed-use structures that support commercial and industrial uses. - Encourage a mix of retail, residential, office and entertainment uses alongAbove: Catalytic project # 4 proposes the 1st Street corridor.parks and public access on the water. - North of Washington or Scott Streets, allow the transition of the area into a mixed use business area with a range of commercial, retail and light 32
  31. 31. EXISTING CONDITIONSmanufacturing.- South of Washington or Scott Streets, preserve large parcels and possibly Kinnickinnic River Corridorcombine underutilized and obsolete parcels to create a business park for Neighborhood Planoffices, research and development, and light manufacturing. “The new KK River corridor isDEPARTMENT OF CITY DEVELOPMENT envisioned as a greenway, withSOUTHEAST SIDE AREA PLAN improved pedestrian and bicycle connections, community gatheringLike the Near South Side Area Plan, the Southeast Side Area Plan contains places, water quality and storm-several catalytic projects and recommendations for the future of its neigh- water management features, in-borhood. Because of the proximity to the Bay View’s main commercial stream and riparian habitat forcorridor (Kinnickinnic Avenue), all the recommendations and projects are fish, birds, insects and other wild-sensitive to the fact that there is a need for uses other than commercial. life, and new economic opportuni-One of those uses, proposed in Catalytic project #2: Army Reserve Site, is ties for local businesses and entre-the idea of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). Primarily residential in preneurs.”nature, this type of development would be served by a South Shore stationand provide Bay View’s middle class with an alternative mode of transporta-tion. Another design proposal for the site is a net-zero energy communitycalled Solar Village.Catalytic ProjectsCatalytic Project #2: Army Reserve SiteThis site (2372 S. Logan Avenue) “is ideally suited for redevelopment, suchas multi-family and/or senior housing”. Increased housing means customerbase for local business like the Kinnickinnic commercial corridor, and in-creased property value in the existing neighborhoods. There is an excellentopportunity for a Kenosha Racine Milwaukee TOD passenger rail stationwhich has been identified east of the site.Project Objectives- Maintain neighborhood context while improving transition between resi-dential and industrial Port.- Create housing options which includes a diversity of housing and sup-ports a dense customer base. Above: Southeast Side Area Plan:- Facilitate transit-oriented development next to a future KRM site - mixed Adopted October 2008use (boutique style hotel/inn), high-density residential, and green space. Below: A typical Dutch Woonerf is used- Add significant architectural quality to the area to increase property val- to create a public space between build- ingsues. Consider limiting height to match the surroundingcontext, while allowing a few developments of four storiesor more to take advantage of lake views.- Extend Linus Street east to create a critical connection. Consider the option of the Woonerf.Specific Project Recommendations- Multi-Family Housing- Preserve option for Transit-Oriented Development 33
  32. 32. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Options for the Army Reserve Site - Elderly Housing - Transit Oriented Development - Solar Village - Combination of all Catalytic Project #3: Kinnickinnic River Area Catalytic Project #4 proposes to create a new neighbor- hood which provides jobs and housing in an improved natu- ral setting. “Sensitive treat-Above: A bird’s-eye view of Solar Village, ment of the KK River riparian“Concept A” is one option for the Army edges could improve the water resource value in this EPA-designated “AreaReserve Site. There is an active RFP for of Concern” while also spurring contextually appropriate economic de-Eco Bay housing development which velopment.” An example is the Menomonee Valley in Milwaukee, whereproposes a “net zero” energy residential industrial parcels were created by raising the sites out of the floodplain anddevelopment of 135 total residential, controlling stormwater runoff through ecological management techniques.mixed-use units and a transit stop. Industrial economic development has been the result, with almost all rede- veloped parcels sold out. Remediation and removal of contamination has occurred at the Solvay Coke Plant. The Grand Trunk RR site has immediate access to RR and the water. “It has a wetland and plant communities that stakeholders have expressed a desire to protect, and the site may be large enough for the development flexibility entailed in its protection.” Project Objectives (Guided by Ecological Riverfront Design) - Create a new neighborhood in a vastly improved natural setting. - Honor the form and functioning natural system of the Kinnickinnic River by naturalizing river edges where viable. - Redevelop underutilized riverfront land to create a green, accessible wa- terway for public use and economic development. - Create “Use Zones” to transition from industrial uses (at the harbor) to mixed residential and green spaces (upstream and inland). - Use parks to create a green infrastructure network of trails which con- nect visually and physically with the river. - Support Multi-modal transportation. - Integrate seasonal activities. - Design buildings to engage public space. 34
  33. 33. EXISTING CONDITIONSProject Design Principles- Preserve natural river featuresand functions.- Buffer sensitive natural areas.- Restore riparian and in-streamhabitats.- Use non-structural alternativesto manage water resources.- Reduce hardscapes.- Manage stormwater on site anduse non-structural approaches.- Balance public access with riverprotection.- Incorporate history and infor-mation about the natural resources of the river into the design with inter- Above: Conceptual rendering of apretive signs, public areas, and other functional design elements. “Smart Growth” development along the Kinnickinnic RiverSpecific Project Recommendations- Balance economic development with environmental protection.- Gradually transition from green space, waterfront residential and mixeduse development on the west, through industrial, mixed use and institu-tional uses to industrial uses consistent with the working Port on the east. - Case Study #1- Chicago River Corridor Design Guidelines and Standards- narrow green riparian buffer along Kinnickinnic River (30 ft). Balance pollutant removal with economic development. - Case Study #2- Willamette River Greenway Program (Oregon)- relatively wide green riparian buffer (100 to 150 ft). Maximize pollutant removal but reduce economic potential.Accordance with Milwaukee Port Redevelopment Plan- Preserve the port as a resource.- Identify development opportunities and encourage employment oppor-tunities.- Buffer industrial uses from residential uses.- Encourage water-related industrial and market-rate industrial develop-ment. Above: Two perceived concepts for the edge of the Kinnickinnic River 35
  34. 34. INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTMILWAUKEE’S INNER HARBOR: URBAN DESIGN AND REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES PORT OF MILWAUKEE REDEVELOPMENT PLAN The Port Redevelopment Plan balances the need to create family-support- ing jobs while remediating brownfields and restoring the natural environ- ment. The Plan provides a framework for several hundred million dollars in anticipated development and associated property tax revenues, as well as hundreds of jobs and associated income tax revenue. Main Objectives - Preserve land for uses that support operations and growth of the Port of Milwaukee and water-related businesses. - Promote development that creates or retains employment opportunities in the City of Milwaukee. - Mitigate environmental contamination and eliminate blighted influences. - Improve public access to natural water resources. General Development Standards - All new construction or building additions should follow urban design principles, use high-quality materials and provide sufficient landscaping.Above: Jones Island is home to the Port of - Buildings that incorporate aggressive energy-efficiency practices, alter-Milwaukee and the Milwaukee Metropoli- native energy methods, recycled materials and other sustainable buildingtan Sewerage District (MMSD) Wastewa- features are highly encouraged.ter Treatment Facility. - Wherever feasible, when a property along the water is redeveloped, public access to the water should be provided in the form of a path or riverwalk segment- a permanent public easement for each segment should be sought. - Efforts should be made to preserve or reinstate wetlands where possible. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Great Lakes Restoration Initiative In 2009, President Obama, along with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 15 other federal agencies, made restoring the Great lakes a na- tional priority, proposing $475 million for a Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). The Action Plan will guide the various agencies in the restoration process of the Great Lakes, with the EPA leading the development and implementation of the initiative. The GLRI will report to the President annually on the progress of the action plan and accomplishments to date. Areas of Concern Human populations, settled near polluted and degraded areas of the Great Lakes, comprise the Area’s of Concern (AOCs). Wisconsin AOCs include: the Menomonee River, the Fox River/Southern Green Bay area, the She- boygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. The Action Plan, created to ad- dress these areas, focuses on cleaning up legacy contamination (or prior- use pollution), including persistent toxic substances (PTS) such as mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Flame retardants, surfactants, medi- 36
  35. 35. EXISTING CONDITIONScations and personal care products have increased concern among the sci-entific community because of their harmful effects to humans and wildlifesurrounding the Great Lakes.Beneficial Use ImpairmentsBeneficial Use Impairments, or BUIs, are defined in the Great Lakes WaterQuality Agreement (with Canada) as “a change in the chemical, physical, orbiological integrity of the Great lakes System sufficient to cause any of thefollowing”: 1. restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption 8. eutrophication or undesirable algae 2. tainting of fish and wildlife flavor; 9. restrictions on drinking water consumption, or taste and odor problems; 3. degradation of fish wildlife populations 10. beach closings; 4. fish tumors or other deformities; 11. degradation of aesthetics 5. bird or animal deformities or reproduction problems; 12. added costs to agriculture or industry; 6. degradation of benthos (community of organisms 13. degradation of phytoplankton and that live on lake bed); zooplankton populations; 7. restrictions on dredging activities; 14. and loss of fish and wildlife habitat.Focus Areas The vessel (image below) was originally owned by theBy identifying significant ecological stress factors, the Great Edward E. Gillen Towing Company of Milwaukee. TheLakes Restoration Initiative created five focus areas with Edward E. Gillen Company is to this day actively in-goals and objectives to address those stress factors. These volved in marine construction projects, with a facilityinclude Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern; Invasive located on the Kinnickinnic River in the primary studySpecies; Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution; area. One of only three known Wisconsin-built woodenHabitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration; Account- tugs, this vessel was built by the Sturgeon Bay (WI)ability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication Ship Building and Dry Dock Company in 1928. The tugand Partnerships. was sold by the Company in the mid-1960s and subse- quently stripped (salvaged) and then abandoned at aWISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF bend in the Kinnickinnic River across from the EdwardNATURAL RESOURCES E. Gillen Company site. It was documented as a historicThe main role of the WI-DNR has been the remediation and artifact and removed by the US EPA and WI DNR inremoval of contaminated soil from the Kinnickinnic River 2008 as part of the KK River dredging.and primary study area. Because the site contains a for-ty-plus acre brownfield, the WI-DNR must work with theRACM and the EPA to remediate the site for future devel-opment. The removal of contaminants in the soils and wa-terways of the project site will provide short- and long-termenvironmental and economic benefits including reduction ofcontaminated sediment getting in to Lake Michigan, reduc-tion of toxicity and the risks of the contaminated sedimentsto aquatic life and human health, improvement of habitat fishand wildlife, and navigation improvements likely resulting inan increase in recreational and commercial boating. 37

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