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Unit 1 introduction to psychology

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  • 1. Introduction to Psychology
  • 2. What is Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. •Most people think of psychology as the study of differences between people, but it also includes the study of similarities between people.
  • 3. What’s the difference? • Psychology vs. Pop-psychology • Psychology vs. Pseudoscience • Psychology vs. Common Sense
  • 4. What is Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. •All organisms function in an environment that is constantly presenting them with problems and challenges that must be solved.
  • 5. Is This Psychology?
  • 6. Is This Psychology?
  • 7. What’s the difference? • Psychology vs. Pop-psychology • Psychology vs. Pseudoscience • Psychology vs. Common Sense
  • 8. What’s the difference? • Psychology vs. Pop-psychology • Psychology vs. Pseudoscience • Psychology vs. Common Sense
  • 9. Definitions • William James (1890): - "The description and the explanation of states of consciousness as such". • According to McDougall (1905) - (In physiological psychology) says that, - "psychology may be best and most apprehensively defined as the positive science of the conduct of living creature. • According to McDougall (1908) - (Book in social psychology) says: "psychology is the positive science of the conduct of behavior".
  • 10. • According to Pillsbury, W.B. (1911) - (Thinks that) "psychology can be defined more satisfactorily as the science of human behavior". • The main reason of this definition is that the behavior includes nearly all the human activity. • According to Woodworth (1954) - "Psychology is the science of the activities of the individual in relation to its environment." • According to Munn (1955) - "Psychology, today concerns itself with the scientific investigation of behavior including from the stand point of behavior much of what earlier psychologists dealt with as experience".
  • 11. • According to C.E. Skinner (1956) - "Psychology deals with responses, to any and every kind of situation that life presents. By responses or behavior is meant all forms of processes, adjustment, activities and expressions of the organism". • According to E.G. Boring (1962) - "Psychology deals with both the behavior of the man as it appears in his responses and with consciousness as he finds it is his immediate experience".
  • 12. What does behaviour mean? • ‘the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation.’ • includes anything a person or animal does; that can be observed in some way. • Behaviour can be: • observed, • recorded • and studied
  • 13. • All behaviour is goal oriented. In other words our behavior is generally motivated by a desire to attain a goal. • All human behavior is learned.
  • 14. History of Psychology
  • 15. Plato – (427-347) • Plato was interested in moral philosophy and despised natural philosophy (that is, science) as an inferior and unworthy sort of knowledge. • Believed we are born with complete knowledge within our soul. • Learning – a process of inner reflection to discover the knowledge within us.
  • 16. Democritus of Abdera 460-370 BC • Democritus explained all changes in the world as changes in motion of the atoms, or the way that they were packed together.
  • 17. • This brought mathematics into a fundamental physical role since the whole of the structure proposed by Democritus was quantitative and subject to mathematical laws. • Another fundamental idea in Democritus's theory is that nature behaves like a machine, it is nothing more than a highly complex mechanism.
  • 18. Aristotle (384-322) • Greek naturalist and philosopher who theorized about learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, and personality. – Knowledge acquired through experience. • Four Laws of Association – – – – Law of similarity Law of Contrast Law of Contiguity Law of Frequency
  • 19. René Descartes: 1596-1650 • Originated the concept of Dualism, viewed mind and body as interactive machines. • Stated that the mind could follow body and vice versa. • Proposed the idea of both voluntary and involuntary behavior. • Ruled out areas other than the brain mental functioning. for
  • 20. John Locke: 1632-1704 • Knowledge should be acquired by careful observation. • No innate ideas: all knowledge comes from experience or reflection. • Mind is a blank slate written on by experience (tabula rasa).
  • 21. Charles Darwin 1850s • Studied the evolution of finches and expands his study to include humans. • Opposed religious teachings of the time by suggesting that man had a common ancestor as the lower species.
  • 22. Phrenology: Franz Gall (1758-1828)
  • 23. Wilhelm Wundt: Father of Psychology • 1879: Leipzig, Germany. • Intended to make psychology reputable science. • Many American psychologists eventually went on to study in Leipzig. a
  • 24. Wilhelm Wundt: • Most of his experiments on perception. sensation and • Did not think that high order mental processes could be studied experimentally. • Trained in medicine and philosophy. • Wrote many books about psychology, philosophy, ethics, and logic.
  • 25. Can you read this? This is bcuseae the huammn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Amzanig, huh?
  • 26. E.B. Titchener • Wundt’s student. • Taught at Cornell University. • Studied nature of mental experiences. • Structuralism: Analyze sensations, images and feelings into their most basic elements.
  • 27. William James: 1842-1910 • Claimed that searching for building blocks was a waste of time because brain and mind are constantly changing: focused on function. • Functionalism. Underlying causes and practical consequences of certain behaviors and mental strategies: “Stream of Consciousness.”
  • 28. Herman Ebbinghaus (1885) • Published classic studies on memory, nonsense syllables, learning curve.
  • 29. American Psychological Association (APA) Founded in 1892: the governing body of all research not conducted by universities.
  • 30. G. Stanley Hall • First president of the APA, established the first psychological lab in the U.S. in 1883, at Johns Hopkins University. • Started the American Psychological Journal (1887) now the American Journal of Psychology.

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