Un peacekeeping


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Un peacekeeping

  1. 1. • • United Nations The United Nations was established to Peacekeeping* “save succeeding generations from the scourge of war” and one of its main purposes is to maintain international peace and security. The Charter of the United Nations calls upon the peoples of the world "to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security", and charges the Security Council with the task of "determining the existence of any threat to the peace and deciding
  2. 2. • Peacekeeping originated and evolved in a largely ad hoc basis. Each operation has been tailor-made to meet the demands of a specific conflict. o Chapter VI outlines specific means which countries may use to settle disputes: negotiations, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional institutions or arrangements or other peaceful means. o Chapter VII provides for enforcement action by UN Member States, including the use of armed force or other collective measures for
  3. 3. • What is Peacekeeping? Peacekeepers are people helping the parties to a conflict to resolve their differences peacefully. • Traditionally, peacekeeping operations fall into two main categories: 1. observer missions and 2. peacekeeping forces. • Observer missions usually consist of unarmed military and civilian personnel who monitor the implementation of ceasefire agreements.
  4. 4. Department of Peacekeeping • DPKO tracesOperations with the its roots to 1948 creation of the first UN peacekeeping operations: UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) and UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). • The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) is dedicated to assisting the Member States and the Secretary-General in their efforts to maintain international peace and security. • 122,000 personnel
  5. 5. How a peacekeeping operation starts • Set up by the Security Council, the UN organ with primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security • The Council decides the operation's size, its overall objectives and its time frame. • Member States decide whether to participate in a mission and, if so, what personnel and equipment they are willing to offer
  6. 6. • UN Peacekeeping is guided by three basic principles: 1. Consent of the parties; 2. Impartiality; 3. Non-use of force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate. Depending on their mandate, peacekeeping operations may be required to: • Deploy to prevent the outbreak of conflict or the spill-over of conflict across borders; • Stabilize conflict situations after a ceasefire, to create an environment for the parties to reach a lasting peace agreement;
  7. 7. • Assist in implementing comprehensive peace agreements; • Lead states or territories through a transition to stable government, based on democratic principles, good governance and economic development. UN peacekeepers are often mandated to follow essentially peacebuilding activities: • Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants; • Mine action; • Security sector reform and other rule of
  8. 8. • Protection and promotion of human rights; • Electoral assistance; • Support for the restoration and extension of State authority; • Promotion of social and economic recovery and development.
  9. 9. The Four Types of Mandates* 1.Observer missions- UNMOT and UNMOP missions in Tajikistan and Croatia 2.Traditional missions- UNPRESEP mission in Macedonia 1995{99 and the UNIFIL mission in Lebanon 3.Multidimensional missions- ONUSAC mission in El Salvador 1991-95 and the UNMIT mission in Timor-Leste 4.Enforcement missions- UNPROFOR mission in former Yugoslavia 1992-95 and the UNMIS mission in Sudan
  10. 10. The First UN Peacekeeping • The United Nations Truce Supervision Mission Organization (UNTSO), an observer mission, was established in 1948, in the Middle East. Earlier in 1947, the United Nations adopted a plan to divide Palestine and create a Jewish and an Arab State. On 15 May 1948, the British administrative power formally ended its control over Palestine, and within 24 hours the State of Israel was proclaimed. Fierce hostilities broke out immediately between the Arab and Jewish communities.
  11. 11. • But as the hostilities continued and the number of Palestinian refugees fleeing Israel grew, the Security Council decided to create a Truce Commission to supervise the cease-fire. Count Bernadotte was to be assisted in this by a group of military observers. Unfortunately the Count was assassinated in the Israeli held sector of Jerusalem on 17th September 1948. He was succeeded by Ralph Bunche of the United States who took over as Acting Mediator. He directed the military observers and laid down the operation procedure. Today, more
  12. 12. • UNTSO is typical of what is now known as “traditional” peacekeeping. • Traditional peacekeeping falls under Chapter VI (Pacific Settlement of Disputes) of the UN Charter* • Peacekeeping today ranges from small unarmed ceasefire observer missions to large-scale multidimensional missions. • Since the UNTSO, 68 peacekeeping operations have been deployed by the UN.
  13. 13. UN Peacekeeping Post Cold War • Field operations expanded from “traditional” missions involving generally observational tasks performed by military personnel to complex “multidimensional” enterprises. • Over the time, the nature of conflicts also changed • Originally developed as a means to deal with inter-state conflict, now UN Peacekeeping was being applied to intrastate conflicts and civil wars
  14. 14. • The transformation of international environment has given rise to a new generation of “multi-dimensional” UN peacekeeping operations. • These operations are typically deployed in the dangerous aftermath of a violent internal conflict and may employ a mix of military, police and civilian capabilities to support the implementation of a comprehensive peace agreement. • In addition to monitoring and observing cease-fires, multi-dimensional UN peacekeeping operations are frequently
  15. 15. Critical Evaluation • National Interest or Common Interest? • In the Cold War period only thirteen peacekeeping missions were established and many conflicts were excluded, because of great power rivalry and their vital interests or sphere of interests. • During the Cold War, peacekeeping advanced US interests in the Middle East, where six operations were deployed between 1948 and 1978 and promoted the security of Israel, one of America's closest
  16. 16. Protection of Civilians • It was only in the late 1990s, after the Rwandan genocide and the massacre of Srebrenica, that the United Nations began systematically to address the issue of civilian protection: The “Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflicts” became a separate item on the Security Council’s agenda and the task to “protect civilians under imminent threat of physical danger”
  17. 17. • It was not until October 22, 1999, however, that the Security Council for the first time authorized a peacekeeping force, the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), to use force in order to afford protection to civilians under imminent threat of physical violence • However, the UN has also been accused of inaction. • In situations of internal armed conflict, civilians account for the vast majority of casualties. • Many civilians are forcibly uprooted within
  18. 18. • In many of the cases, the UN peacekeepers have been criticized for violence and atrocities committed against the people. • Belgian troops were accused of roasting a Somali boy in UNOSOM in 1997. • Many cases of rape and sexual abuse of children have also been reported • Sexual Abuse • Sexual abuse and exploitation was first documented in Bosnia, Herzegovina and Kosovo in the early 1990s, then later in Mozambique, Cambodia, East Timor and
  19. 19. • As the number of missions and peacekeepers has grown, widespread accounts of inappropriate behavior and sexual exploitation by peacekeepers have been reported around the world, notably in Haiti, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Bosnia, Cambodia, East Timor, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s, UN peacekeepers helped support sex trafficking as customers of brothels relying on forced prostitution, according to Amnesty International.
  20. 20. Effect on the Environment • In recent years, UN peace operations have been criticized for having a negative impact on the environments in which they work. • The UN has failed to effectively promote environmental issues in their post-conflict peacebuilding efforts, and the missions themselves are environmentally destructive. • In many places, UN missions implement policies that can hasten the degradation of local environmental resources. This, in
  21. 21. UNAMID The UN peacekeeping mission in Darfur (UNAMID) not only removed trees from an already arid environment to make space for their camp and operations, but the mission also chose to bolster the local economy by making bricks rather than importing them. This policy incentivized Darfurians to “cut and burn even greater amounts of forest—already in serious decline—to produce the bricks”. Many argue that resource scarcity in Darfur played a
  22. 22. Peacekeeping, intervention and • Consent is critical for the presence of a Sovereignty peacekeeping force inside a country and provides it the required legal basis; otherwise, it will violate the Article 2(7) of UN Charter. • Consent ensures the sovereignty of state within the system • Once the host state or the main parties give the consent, the other important point is the maintenance of that consent. • If force is delivered without any
  23. 23. UNPROFOR (Yugoslavia) UNPROFOR was beset by operational difficulties from the start of its operations. It met with noncooperation and interference with its freedom of movment. This escalated to offensives across UNPROFOR positions in violation of the U.N. peacekeeping plan in Croatia and of local ceasefires in Bosnia, and to attacks on U.N. forces and hostage taking. All the parties were responsible for this noncooperation. Partly in response to these difficulties, the
  24. 24. Chapter VII empowers the Security Council to make decisions authorizing enforcement action by member states or by U.N. forces, and these decisions are binding on all member states. Thus, although UNPROFOR was originally established as a peacekeeping force whose deployment depended on the consent of the host state, the Security Council subsequently turned to Chapter VII in order to impose binding obligations on member states, including the host state, to comply with its resolutions and to cooperate with the
  25. 25. Conclusion After the end of Second World War, United Nations was established for keeping the peace through peaceful means to collective security. But, the great power rivalry at the very beginning blocked UN ability for the collective security action. As a result, peacekeeping evolved as an alternative to collective security that the UN designed. Managing conflict requires a multidimensional, comprehensive, whole-of-government or integrated approach. All these approaches
  26. 26. References • http://www.senseandsustainability.net/2011/ 08/18/the-environmental-consequences-ofun-peacekeeping/ • http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/cont ent/article/199/40816.html • http://www.hertieschool.org/fileadmin/images/Downloads/wor king_papers/47.pdf • http://www.cdrb.org/journal/2004/3/1.pdf • http://law.wustl.edu/WUGSLR/Issues/Volum e7_2/Defeis.pdf
  27. 27. • http://fordhampoliticalreview.org/a-dark-sideto-un-peacekeeping-missions/ • http://pbpu.unlb.org/pbps/library/capstone_do ctrine_eNg.pdf • http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/brie fing/peacekeeping/peacekeeping.pdf • http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documen ts/civilhandbook/Civil_Affairs_Handbook.pdf • http://www.ipu.org/splze/unga04/peacekeeping.pdf • http://www.bzu.edu.pk/PJSS/Vol30No22010/ Final_PJSS-30-2-04.pdf • http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewconte