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Theoris of international relation

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  • 1. IDEALIST THEORY BY- AKANKSHA KUMARI R450212011
  • 2.  IR scholars usually subscribe to one of two dominant theories, realism or liberalism. One theory , is more pessimistic about the prospects of peace, cooperation, and human progress whilst the other, liberalism/idealism, is more upbeat and sanguine about human nature and human possibilities.
  • 3. History  The 19th and early 20th centuries saw two general schools of thought in IR. The realist tradition, where states were in a constant state of competition for power, focused on securing power and security through military might.
  • 4.  The second was idealism, which stressed other considerations that all states have, such as peace, and held that state action need not be motivated by power politics.
  • 5. Like realism, the roots of idealism can be traced back for centuries in various forms. We see strains of idealism in the teachings of Christ, Buddha as well as other non-sectarian teachings.
  • 6. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy.
  • 7. “No state shall by force interfere with the internal affairs of another state.” “No independent state, large or small, shall come under the dominion of another state.” “No state shall, during war, permit such acts of hostility which would make mutual confidence in the subsequent peace impossible.”
  • 8. “Governments need to reduce military spending and armament. Standing armies shall in time be totally abolished. “ “No treaty of peace shall be regarded as valid, if made with the secret reservation of material for a future war.”
  • 9. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, in office from 1913 to 1921.
  • 10.  In the American study of international relations, idealism usually refers to the school of thought personified in American diplomatic history by Woodrow Wilson, such that it is sometimes referred to as Wilsonianism, or Wilsonian Idealism. Wilson gets the credit of being the father of the league of nation
  • 11.  He was a great propagator of world peace. Idealism holds that a state should make its internal political philosophy the goal of its foreign policy. For example, an idealist might believe that ending poverty at home should be coupled with tackling poverty abroad.
  • 12. Main Tenets of Idealism 1. Universal Ethics -- All humans should abide by common standards such as natural laws. There is a universal ethic common to all people.
  • 13. 2.Peace is better than war -- War is seen as immoral by idealists. 3. War is irrational – Breakdown of rationality according to idealists, whereas realists say it becomes rational because of anarchy.
  • 14. 4.Harmony of interests -- Idealists believe it is possible for humans to live together in harmony if the proper measures are taken. 5.Trade between states promotes peace
  • 15. Liberals believe the full implementation of democracy could provide a harmony interests: wealth and the good life. War disrupts economics; wars are destructive and not necessarily profitable, especially to most individuals in the world.
  • 16. 6.People are good: Idealists are more optimistic about human nature. In the proper setting, man would enjoy peace and be free from conflict. Human beings tied to common humanity.
  • 17. 7.The Power of Public Opinion: People that are active can take charge of politics. Political leaders can manipulate common people to fight in war, but an active, democrat movement of common people can reverse this manipulation.
  • 18. International Law and organization -Idealists put a lot of faith in international law and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) such as the United Nations and International Court of Justice to solve problems on the international level. Prominent figures in this tradition include Woodrow Wilson.
  • 19. CRITICISM  Failure of league of nation  It sacrifices the element of rationality and desires that action be founded on feelings rather than logic.  Too optimistic about human nature  Lot of faith in International institution
  • 20. conclusion The basic idealist position is that humanity cannot afford to continue in the realist tradition, especially with the advent of nuclear weapons. International peace means social and economic development; money from military projects can be put into more socially useful infrastructural projects.
  • 21. Idealists accept that power is a consideration in state actions, but unlike the realist, idealists believe that states can rise above selfish concerns for the benefit of the entire international system.
  • 22. REFRENCES  AN INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL RELATION BY GULAM MOHAMMED DAR  INTERNATIONAL RELATION AND POLITICS BY J.C JOHARI  http://hhh.gavilan.edu/mturetzky/pols4/Theoretic alPerspectivesLiberalismRealism.htm  http://www.currentconcerns.ch/index.php?id=189 5

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