THEORIES OF GLOBALIZATION
BALLB SEC B
• Theories of globalization is significant in today’s world ,as
after 1991 when globalization came ,that effected the
international theories i .e. liberalism ,realism ,marxism
, constructivism, and moulded it with globalised character
.Globalization also lead to creation of many other new
theories of globalization.
• These theories compete with one another as they attempt to
explain important aspects of economics, politics and culture.
• The theories argue that globalisation will encourage ‘good
things’ like the growth of online communities that can span
the world and might be able to break free of repressive
GLOBALISATION AND LIBERALISM.
• LIBERALISM-emphasis on the central issues that it seeks to address
are the problems of achieving lasting peace and cooperation in
international relations, and the various methods that could
contribute to their achievement.
• The strongest case for globalization is liberalism: the main pillar of
• The invisible hands of Liberal market: economy will turn profits into
an engine of social progress through enhanced corporate
responsibility when technology advancing supports trade across
borders and integration of production.
• Liberalism is consistent with necessary government interventions
as corrective measures in the market-economy.
• Under Liberalism capitalism: globalisation makes many workers
better off against worsening of some workers.
• Under free trade, consumers tend to be better
off as their standard of living improves.
• Under liberal trade, a country shifts its pattern of
production in the direction of specialisation and
• Technological progress and transfer of
technology in the globalisation process would
create more winners against losers.
• Most outward FDI from rich countries goes to
other rich countries rather than poor countries.
Globalisation and neo-liberalism
• The goal of neoliberal economic globalization is the
removal of all barriers to commerce, and the privatization
of all available resources and services.
• Neoliberal polices are propagated through the IMF, World
Bank and WTO.
• Neo-liberalism favours the free-market as the most
efficient method of global resource allocation.
Consequently it favours large-scale, corporate commerce
and the privatization of resources.
• The neoliberal experiment has failed to combat extreme
poverty, has exacerbated global inequality, and is
hampering international aid and development efforts.
Globalization and realism
Realism-acc to realism state works only to increase their own power
relative to that of other states and looks into states primary
interest is self preservation .Therefore , state must seek power
and must always protect itself .
Globalization Must Coexist with Realism
• Globalization does directly challenge the basics of realism. The
movement towards a more global world definitely means the death
of realism and all the ideas that are part of it.
• Globalization will and has started to cause two worlds to be
created. It has developed an advanced world that is economically
powerful and then a world surrounded by poverty. Globalization
has led to many civil wars and failed states, when the removal of
realism was to reduce war.
• Many states have tried to protect their people from
Western values that have been shown through media.
China is a key example of a state trying to stop Western
values from taking over due to globalization
• globalization has given illicit actions an easier time
growing in value and becoming more global.
• Globalization must be approached slowly because the
consequences of killing off realism and accepting
globalization will not benefit the world but hurt many
• Globalization is changing the twenty first century from
a realistic era of nation-states to an interdependent
world based on economic power.
GLOBALISATION AND NEO-REALISM
neo-realism defines the state’s interests as defined by power and wealth.
realists, neo or classical, do have a common set of basic assumptions that
they agree on, being, self-help, statism, and survival.
• However, in light of current events and the expansion of globalization, it
has become such. Neo-realism has addressed the limitations of classical
realism, allowing us to evaluate the evolving world of international
• For example, the evaluation of the influence that organizations such as
the G-20, the IMF, and the World Bank have on international relations are
possible with a neo-realist approach.
• A neo-realist approach to current affairs such as terrorism and
international market regulation is absolutely necessary if we are to be able
to evaluate the influence that these individual actors have on international
Globalization and marxism
• The political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx in which
the concept of class struggle between rich and working class.
Marxism and globalisation
• Globalisation as a cure for class alienation.- the lines and
cleavages of economic benefit are changing in the global
• They say that nearly both the classes have a comparative
advantage in one way or another within the global economy.
• Many of the most important perspectives on the economic
aspects of globalization are associated with Marxian theory.
• In Marxist terms globalisation can be seen as the situation to
which capitalism inevitably leads, i.e., where the ceaseless
drive to accumulate more and more capital obliges capitalists
to try to break down all remaining impediments to
investment, markets, resources, cheap labour and profitable
Constructivist Theories and
• In international relations, constructivism is the claim that significant
aspects of international relations are historically and socially
constructed, rather than inevitable consequences of human nature or
other essential characteristics of world politics.
Constructivism relation with globalization
• national and transnational identities both reshaping and being reshaped
• statist identities under challenge
• reactionary politics
• trans-national and cosmopolitan identities emerging
• calls for new forms of global governance
• examine homogenization & hybridization of cultures, politics, and