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Mauryas Mauryas Presentation Transcript

  • Mauryan Empire: Asoka’s Dhamma, Administration and Economy
  • Do you recognize which modern nation the Mauryan empire was located in?
  • • The period from the late 7th to the late 5th century B.C. was a most decisive phase of the history of Indian subcontinent. • In this period the first territorial kingdoms were established in the central part of the Gangetic plains.
  • • From the numerous small tribal kingdoms (Janapadas), sixteen major ones (Mahajanapadas) emerged in the 5th century B.C • The rise of the Mahajanapadas was directly connected with the emergence of the early urban centres of the Gangetic plains that were the capitals of Mahajanapadas.
  • Origins of the early state • A new phase of political development in the Eastern Gangetic plains started when some of the Mahajanapadas established their hegemony over others.  Koshala.  Vatsa.  Magadha.
  •  Another important indicator for a well developed urban culture, a script has not yet been found in those Gangetic cities. Asoka’s inscriptions of the 3rd century B.C. still remain the earlier evidence for an Indian script. But since the two scripts Brahmi and Kharoshthi were fully developed, scholars believe that they may have originated in the 5th century B.C.
  • • This new culture found its spiritual expression in reform movements which was a reaction to Brahmin Kshatriya alliance. This reform movement is mainly identified with the teachings of Gautama Buddha who is regarded as the first Historic figure of Indian History, and of Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, the younger contemporary of Buddha
  • Religious Beliefs Hinduism Buddhism Jainism
  • Mauryan Dynasty • Chandra Gupta Maurya (321- 297 B.C.) • Bindusara (297-272 B.C.) • Asoka (268-232 B.C.)
  • CHRONOLOGY OF MAURYAN DYNASTY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 321-297 Chandragupta Maurya 297-272 Bindusara 268-232 Asoka 232-224 Dasaratha 224-215 Samprati 215-202 Salisuka 202-195 Devavarman 195-187 Satadhanvan 187-180 Brihadratha
  • Chandragupta maurya  Unified northern India.  Defeated the Persian general Seleucus.  Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement.  He feared assassination  food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc.  301 BCE  gave up his throne & became a Jain.
  • War Invasion of Alexander the Great (320 B.C.E) Defeat of Seleucus (305 B.C.E.) Battle at Kalinga (265 to 264 B.C.E.)
  • kautilya Chandragupta’s advisor. Brahmin caste. Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra. A guide for the king and his ministers: Supports royal power. The great evil in society is anarchy. Therefore, a single authority is
  • King Asoka  Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in 262 BCE.  Dedicated his life to Buddhism.  Built extensive roads, hospitals for man and animals.
  • King Asoka was a religiously tolerant ruler. He respected all religions. He ruled a vast empire and he ordered the building of roads and hospitals
  •  Edicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan.  Written mostly in Prakrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic.  rock edicts.  Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high.  Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
  • POLITICAL STRUCTURE • Centralized • Large staff – Tax collection, trade and commerce, vital statistics, welfare of foreigners, maintaining public places • Organized army • Provinces – Districts • Villages
  • Mauryan Administration  Based on Saptanga theory or the theory of seven elements of State:  Swamin (King)  Amatya (Ministers)  Janapada (Territory and Population)  Durga (Fort)  Kosa (Treasury)  Bala (Army)  Mitra (Ally)
  • • Revenue Department:  Samaharta: (In charge of collection of all revenues of empire and looked after income and expenditure)  Sannidhata: (Chief treasury officer)
  •  Military Department: (Under Senapati)  According to Megasthenes: divided into 6 committees of 5 members each.  Supervision of Naval fleet.  Supervision of War materials.  Infantry.  Cavalry.  Chariots.  Elephant corps
  • WEAPONRY • They used both weapons and military engines. • Variety of bows • Weapons with piercings (kunta). • Different types of swords • Razor-type weapons (parasu, kuthara) • Variety of armors and shields
  • Judicial department
  • • Police Department: Two fold functions:  Preventing the commission of crimes.  Bringing the transgressors of law to justice.
  • • Espionage department • Department of Foreign Affairs • Palace Department
  • Provincial Administration •     Four Provinces: Uttarapatha (Capital- Taxila) Avantiratha (Capital- Ujjain) Dakshinapatha (Capital- Suvarnagiri) Kalinga (Capital- Tosali)
  • Municipal Administration • According to Megasthenes: Six committees of five members each.  Related to industrial arts.  Attend to the entertainment of foreigners  Registration of Births and Deaths.  Trade and commerce.  Supervises manufactured articles.  Payment of taxes.
  • Economy of the Mauryas • Land Revenue. • Extension and intensification of Agriculture. • Industrial Crafts. • Artisan Guilds. • State Monopolies. • Trade and Commerce. • Urbanisation.
  • Agriculture • Food Crops – Rice, Coarse Grain, Sesamum, Pepper, Saffron, Wheat, Barley, Linseed, Mustard, Grapes, Sugar Cane, Pumpkin, Medicinal Roots Most Important Least Important • Economy was driven by agriculture • Huge farms were kept by the state and were operated and cultivated by slaves.
  • Trade/Economy •Mauryan empire was driven by agriculture •Internal trade expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace •Chandragupta established single currency across India. Silver punch mark coin
  • The Arts The Mauryan Empire were the first in India to transition from wood to stone in their architecture and art. Stupa Pillars Coins
  • THE WRITING SYSTEM • Sanskrit - was the writing system that was used during the Mauryan Empire. Only used by scholars however.
  • King Asoka encouraged teachers to spread Buddhism throughout India and beyond.
  • Asoka’s Policy of Dhamma  Dhamma is the prakrit form of Sanskrit world Dharma. However, Asoka tried to use it in a much wider sense. His Dhamma was a code of moral duties, benevolent acts and freedom from passions for an individual. It comprised personal, social and moral virtues. The principles of Dhamma were such as could be acceptable to people belonging to any religious sect.
  • Main Features:  Prohibition of Animal sacrifices.  Avoiding expensive and meaningless ceremonies.  Non- violence to animals.  Humane treatment of servants.  Tolerance among all the sects.  Appointment of Dhammamahamatyas.  Dhammayatras.  Social welfare policies.  Replacement of Bherighosha by Dhammaghosha
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • • • • • • “Maurya Empire." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 28 Sept. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurya_Empire>. "Early Hinduism." Ancient India. The British Museam. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/>. "Historical Vedic Religion." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_Brahmanism>. "Indian Mythology - Hindu Mythology Articles, Facts @ Indian Divinity.com VISHNU." Webonautics: Web Design & Web Development | Information | Online Resources. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://www.webonautics.com/mythology/vishnu.html>. "Maurya Empire - Timeline of the Maurya Empire." Ancient / Classical History - Ancient Greece & Rome & Classics Research Guide. 18 Sept. 2006. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_time_mauryakings.htm>. "Physiographic Map of India, India Physiographic Map." India Map, Map of India. 22 May 2003. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. <http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/physiographic.htm>. "The Mauryan Empire." A Complete Reference on the History of India. 21 Mar. 2010. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://indianhistoryataglance.blogspot.com/2010/03/mauryan-empire.html>. "The Mauryan History Society and Culture." History Tution,History of Ancient India. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://www.historytution.com/the_mauryan_empire/society_and_culture.html>. Spielvogel, Jackson J., and Duiker. World History. Fourth Edition. New York: Glencoe/McGrawHill, 2008. 41-42. Verma, Rajesh. "Social Structure of Ancient India." Mair Rajputs. Web. 03 Oct. 2010. <http://mairrajputs.tripod.com/structure.html>. (QUOTE!!!)
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • • • • "The Mauryan Administration." India Information Portal. Web. 30 Sept. 2010. <http://www.indiaandindians.com/india_history/mauryan_administration.php>. "Mauryan Empire: Encyclopedia - Mauryan Empire." Enlightenment - The Experience Festival. Web. 30 Sept. 2010. <http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Mauryan_Empire/id/1896014>. "RES GESTAE Part 6 :Mauryan Empire - Total War Center Forums." Total War Center Home. Web. 01 Oct. 2010. <http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showthread.php? t=49911>. "Mauryan Empire." Mauryan. Web. 01 Oct. 2010. <http://www.iscanmyfood.com/hd/index.php?t=Mauryan empire>. "Mauryan Empire, Mauryan Dynasty, Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, Ashoka, Ashoka'S Dhamma." All about India. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://india.mapsofindia.com/the-country/ancient-history/mauryan-rulers.html>. "Mauryan Art,mauryan Empire,mauryan Dynasty,mauryan Architecture,mauryan Empire Art Objects in Mauryan Period." Civil Services India. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. <http://www.civilserviceindia.com/subject/History/prelims/mauryanart.html>. "Mauryan Empire Timeline, Features,economic, Political Structure of Mauryan Empire." Indianchild.com. Web. 04 Oct. 2010. <http://www.indianchild.com/mauryan_empire.htm>. "Mauryan Empire, Mauryan Dynasty, Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, Ashoka, Ashoka'S Dhamma." All about India. Web. 04 Oct. 2010. <http://india.mapsofindia.com/the-country/ancient-history/mauryan-rulers.html>.