Organizations- G8, G20, BRICS.
Made by – Sumaiya Saleem
BA LLB Sec-B, 3rd Sem
The term intergovernmental organization
(IGO) refers to an entity created by
treaty, involving two or more nations, to
work in good faith, on issues of common
In the absence of a treaty an IGO does not
exist in the legal sense.
Main Purpose of IGOs :To create a
mechanism for the world’s inhabitants
Types of IGOs
IGOs are typically organized by their
membership and by their purpose. For
example, among the oldest IGOs is the United
Nations, which replaced the League of Nations.
Other IGOs are referred to as selective
organizations because they base their
membership on criteria other than geography.
The Organization of the Islamic Conference, for
example, bases its membership on religious
OPEC, on the other hand, is comprised only of
countries that produce oil.
Specialized IGOs, such as NATO, limit their
activities to a particular field.
Types of Legal Issues and Positions
Draft acts, rules and regulations for legislative
bodies and serve as their policy advisors.
Provide legal expertise to an IGO's dispute
resolution mechanism or executive body.
Prosecute persons for war crimes and other
violations of international human rights.
Serve as a Legal Officer performing legal
research, providing written and oral legal
advice to the principal and subsidiary organs
of the IGO, and minimizing its legal liabilities.
Participation and involvement
• Economic Rewards - North American Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
• Political Influence – European Union (EU)
• Security – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
• Improve democracy and the likelihood of
democratic survival -
• What does the G stand for?
• What is the G8?
Since 1975, the heads of state or government of
the major industrial democracies have been
meeting annually to deal with the major
economic and political issues faced by their
domestic societies and the international
community as a whole.
The six countries at the first summit, held at
Rambouillet, France, in November 1975, were
France, the United States, Britain, Germany,
Japan and Italy, sometimes referred to as the
They were joined by Canada at the San Juan
Summit of 1976 in Puerto Rico. From then
on, membership in the Group of Seven, or
G7, was fixed.
Consequently, the 1998 Birmingham Summit
saw full Russian participation, giving birth to the
Group of Eight, or G8.
The responsibility of host rotates throughout the
summit cycle at the end of the calendar year, as
Role/Objectives of G8
• The G8 Summit has consistently dealt with
macroeconomic management, international
trade, and relations with developing countries.
• The G8 has developed a network of
supporting ministerial meetings, which allow ministers
to meet regularly throughout the year in order to
continue the work set out at each summit.
• The G8 provides an important occasion for busy
leaders to discuss major, often complex international
issues, and to the develop the personal relations that
help them respond in effective collective fashion to
sudden crises or shocks.
• The summit members comply modestly with the
decisions and consensus generated by and codified at
their annual meeting.
Structure of G8
• By design, the G8 deliberately lacks an administrative
structure like those for international organizations,
such as the United Nations or the World Bank. The
group does not have a permanent secretariat, or
offices for its members.
• The presidency of the group rotates annually among
member countries, with each new term beginning on 1
January of the year.
• The country holding the presidency is responsible for
planning and hosting a series of ministerial-level
meetings, leading up to a mid-year summit attended
by the heads of government.
• The president of the European Commission
participates as an equal in all summit events
The G20 is an informal group of 19 countries and the
European Union, with representatives of the International
Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
On 25th September 1999, the finance ministers and central
bank governors of the Group of Seven countries (the G-7)
announced their intention to “broaden the dialogue on key
economic and financial policy issues among systemically
significant economies and promote co-operation to achieve
stable and sustainable world economic growth that benefits all.”
The main motivation for launching a new international group
was the crisis in emerging economies that had begun in
Thailand in mid 1997, and which widened and intensified
through the next two years, touching other important Asian
economies, before spreading to Russia and Latin America.
The announcement marked the official birth of what
subsequently became known as the Group of Twenty
countries (the G-20), consisting of 19 countries—Argentina,
Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India,
Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, the
Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the
United Kingdom, the United States—and the European
Union. The Managing Director of the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) and the President of the World Bank,
along with the chairs of the International Monetary and
Financial Committee (IMFC) and the Development
Committee (DC), also participate in G-20 meetings of finance
ministers and central bank governors ex officio.
Collectively, the G-20 brings together systemically important
advanced and emerging economies that represent roughly 85%
of global GDP and two-thirds of the world’s population.
Roles/Objectives of G20
• Help shape the international agenda and to discuss
economic and financial issues in areas where consensus
had not yet been achieved.
• G-20 discussions also contributed to the introduction of
collective action clauses in international bond contracts,
and to the adoption of an informal code of conduct.
• The establishment of the G-20 recognized the considerable
changes in the international economic landscape over the
• Initial focus was on issues related to international financial
• The G-20 played an important role supporting
globalization, and efforts to ensure that its benefits could
be shared by all, including the poorest developing
Structure of G20
• The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or
staff. The chair rotates annually among the members
and is selected from a different regional grouping of
countries. The chair is part of a revolving threemember management group of past, present and
future chairs referred to as the Troika.
The incumbent chair establishes a temporary
secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates
the group's work and organizes its meetings. The role of
the Troika is to ensure continuity in the G-20's work and
management across host years. The current chair of the
G-20 is Russia; the chair was handed over
from Mexico after the June 2012 G-20 Summit.
• BRICS is the acronym for an association of five
major emerging national economies :
Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
• The BRICS members are all developing or newly
• all five are G-20 members.
• The foreign ministers of the initial four BRIC states
(Brazil, Russia, India, and China) met in New York City in
September 2006, beginning a series of high-level
meetings. A full-scale diplomatic meeting was held
in Yekaterinburg, Russia, on 16 May 2008.
First BRIC summit
• The BRIC grouping's first formal summit, also
held in Yekaterinburg, commenced on 16 June
• The summit's focus was on means of
improving the global economic situation and
reforming financial institutions, and discussed
how the four countries could better cooperate in the future.
Roles/Objectives of BRICS
• The BRICS Forum encourages commercial, political and cultural
cooperation between the BRICS nations.
• Although the BRICS have not reached the level of industrialization
that characterizes traditional donors and are still plagued by
persistent inequality and poverty, the BRICS have started to
disburse significant investment and foreign assistance funds to
other developing countries.
• It is expected to lead peace and security efforts, promote regional
economic integration and fund development projects.
• Promote the technological information exchange among the
• Improve the professional development and education of the BRIC
Points to remember
• Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, has been the current G8
senior leader since 7 May 2012.
The first G8 summit meeting was held in November of 1975 in
The 39th G8 summit was held on 17–18 June 2013 in Northern
• The current chair of the G-20 is Russia.
The first meeting of the G20 Leaders took place in Washington,
D.C., on November 14-15, 2008.
The 8th G20 Summit was held on 5-6 September 2013 in Russia.
• Presently, South Africa holds the chair of the BRICS.
The 1st BRIC summit took place in Yekaterinburg, Russia on June
The 5st BRIC summit took place in Durban, South Africa in 2013.
How does intergovernmental
organizations influence international
• IGOs contribute to habits of cooperation. Through IGOs,
states become socialized to regular interactions.
• IGOs often spearhead the creation and maintenance of
international rules and principles. They establish
expectations about their behavior of other states.
• For states, IGOs enlarge the possibilities for foreign policy
making and add to the constraints under which states
operate and especially implement foreign policy. States join
IGOs to use them as instruments of foreign policy.
• IGOs affect individuals by providing opportunities for
leadership. As individuals work with or in IGOs, they, like
states, may become socialized to cooperate internationally.
• Since the inception of various intergovernmental organizations,
their membership and outside observers have come to view these
as an important addition to the international architecture that has
made a valued contribution to better global governance.
• Such organizations have been particularly successful in sharing
experiences and exchanging views on key global issues.
• The keys to their success have been the ability to engage in
meaningful debate, frankly and informally, and a commitment to
• These intergovernmental organizations must continue to build on
these successes, since their future role will depend on the ability of
their members to continue to collaborate in an effective manner.