Gupta empire:
Administration, Agrarian and
revenue system, patterns of
urban settlement and trade
Pre- Gupta period: 200 B.C.to
300 A.D.

Sungas
 Kanvas
 Bactrian Greeks
 Scythians
 Parthian
 Kushana
 Kharavela
 ...
SILK ROAD
Features of this period
• Described as dark period in Indian History.
• Foreign Dynasties fought with each other
for short...
• Organization of Empires includes large
scale incorporation of local rulers.
• Best known contribution of this period was...
• Around 320 A.D.,
• another great
• Indian empire
• emerged. It
• was known as
• the Gupta
• empire.
Gupta Period:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Srigupta.
Ghatotkacha Gupta.
Chandra Gupta I (320 A.D.-325 A.D.)
Samudra Gupta (325 A.D.-375 ...
Hierarchy of Rulers
Chandragupta I I (320 –
Chandragupta (320 –
335 A.D.)
335 A.D.)

Samudra Gupta (335 –
Samudra Gupta (3...


Chinese Buddhist monk traveled
along the
Silk Road and visited India in the 5c.



He was following the path
of the Bu...
Gupta Dynasty
Chandragupta I
• Chandragupta was a chieftain who
married Kumaradevi and inherited a small
kingdom.
• Eventually he expand...
Samudragupta
Son of Chandragupta I. Crowned Samudragupta to
be the King for his abilities even though he was not
the elde...
Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

He extended his rule in every direction but South. He added the title
to his...
Kumargupta I
• Further expanded the kingdom and
performed Ashwamedh Yagna.
• No other exceptional achievements are
noted d...
Gupta Administration:
 Kingship:
• Assumption of High sounding titles.
• Divine nature of Monarchy.
• Ruler was administr...
Mantriparishad:
 Prime Minister.
 Council.
 Kumaramatyas.
Army Administration:
 Commander- in- chief.
 War Office.
 War finances.
Taxation System:
• Land Tax.
• Merchants, Artisans, Traders, paid taxes.
• Income from Mint.
• Booty of War.
• Tribute fr...
•
•
•
•
•

Villages.
Vithis.
Vishayas.
Bhuktis.
Center.
Provincial Administration:
 Provinces called Bhuktis.
 Governors Called Uparika Maharaja.
 Council of ministers.
District Administration:
 Districts called Vishayas.
 Headed by Kumaramatya.
 Council.
City Administration:
 Had their own Advisory Council.
 Consisted of various representatives of
different localities.
Town Administration:
 Called Vithis.
 Administration conducted by members
representing landed and military interests.
Village Administration:
 Autonomous bodies.
 Head of the village Gramika.
 Other officials.
During the Gupta
empire, Indian
mathematicians
made great
advances.
They discovered
the concept of zero
and the decimal
sy...
International Trade
Routes during the Guptas
Extensive Trade:
4c
sp
ic
es

rice &
whea
horses t
ivory
&
gold
s
good
on
co t t

s
silk
s
good
on
cottspices

gold & ivor...
Kalidasa

 The greatest of Indian poets.
 His most famous play was Shakuntala.
 During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.
500 healing
plants identified

1000 diseases
classified

Printed
medicinal guides
Plastic
Surgery

Gupta
Achievemen
ts
Kal...
The Decline of the Guptas
 Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled
the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though
at ...
Gold Coins of Guptas
Gold coins contd….
Gold coins contd…………..
Trade routes
Trade routes
Trade Routes
Gupta
Art

Greatly influenced
Southeast Asian art & architecture.
Art and Architecture
Ajanta caves
Art and architecture
contd………
Art and architecture contd……..
Art and architecture contd…….
Art and Architecture
contd………
Gupta empire
Gupta empire
Gupta empire
Gupta empire
Gupta empire
Gupta empire
Gupta empire
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Gupta empire

  1. 1. Gupta empire: Administration, Agrarian and revenue system, patterns of urban settlement and trade
  2. 2. Pre- Gupta period: 200 B.C.to 300 A.D.  Sungas  Kanvas  Bactrian Greeks  Scythians  Parthian  Kushana  Kharavela  Satavahanas  Cholas  Pandyas  Keralputras  Satiyaputras  Cheras
  3. 3. SILK ROAD
  4. 4. Features of this period • Described as dark period in Indian History. • Foreign Dynasties fought with each other for short lived and ephemeral supremacy. • Intensive Cultural and Economic contact from outside world. • Buddhism enjoyed royal patronage. • New cult of Hinduism arose.
  5. 5. • Organization of Empires includes large scale incorporation of local rulers. • Best known contribution of this period was to Indian Art. • Compilation of the Authoritative Hindu Law Books.
  6. 6. • Around 320 A.D., • another great • Indian empire • emerged. It • was known as • the Gupta • empire.
  7. 7. Gupta Period: • • • • • • • Srigupta. Ghatotkacha Gupta. Chandra Gupta I (320 A.D.-325 A.D.) Samudra Gupta (325 A.D.-375 A.D.) Chandra Gupta II (375A.D.-415 A.D.) Kumara Gupta (415 A.D.-454 A.D.) Skanda Gupta (454 A.D.-467 A.D.)
  8. 8. Hierarchy of Rulers Chandragupta I I (320 – Chandragupta (320 – 335 A.D.) 335 A.D.) Samudra Gupta (335 – Samudra Gupta (335 – 375 A.D.) 375 A.D.) Kumar Gupta (415 – Kumar Gupta (415 – 454 A.D.) 454 A.D.) ChandraGupta II ChandraGupta II Vikramaditya Vikramaditya (375 – (375 – 415 A.D.) 415 A.D.) Skanda Gupta(454- 467 Skanda Gupta(454- 467 AD AD
  9. 9.  Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c.  He was following the path of the Buddha.  He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor. Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India
  10. 10. Gupta Dynasty
  11. 11. Chandragupta I • Chandragupta was a chieftain who married Kumaradevi and inherited a small kingdom. • Eventually he expanded to become the King of Magadha. His kingdom was limited to that region.
  12. 12. Samudragupta Son of Chandragupta I. Crowned Samudragupta to be the King for his abilities even though he was not the eldest. He was very adventurous and led his army across the 4800 km span of India and conquered kingdoms along the way. Performed Ashawamedha Yagna (Horse Sacrifice) and proclaimed himself Emperor. Very talented in musical instrument of Veena. Study of art, literature, and science flourished. Buddhist monastry at Bodh Gaya was built.
  13. 13. Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) • • • • • • • He extended his rule in every direction but South. He added the title to his name: Vikramaditya (Son of Power). Hindus still call Vikram Samvat: i.e. beginning of the year of his kingdom. All his achievements are inscribed on famous iron pillar in Delhi which remain clear even today. Established direct trade with Egypt and other western countries. Yagnavalka rishi, Kalidasa lived during this time. Paintings in Ajanta and Ellora caves are from this era. Fa Hien, the Chinese pilgirm spent 11 years during this time studying Sanskrit and wrote about prosperity.
  14. 14. Kumargupta I • Further expanded the kingdom and performed Ashwamedh Yagna. • No other exceptional achievements are noted during this time.
  15. 15. Gupta Administration:  Kingship: • Assumption of High sounding titles. • Divine nature of Monarchy. • Ruler was administrator of Law. • Rulers authority was circumscribed by various checks.
  16. 16. Mantriparishad:  Prime Minister.  Council.  Kumaramatyas.
  17. 17. Army Administration:  Commander- in- chief.  War Office.  War finances.
  18. 18. Taxation System: • Land Tax. • Merchants, Artisans, Traders, paid taxes. • Income from Mint. • Booty of War. • Tribute from feudatories.
  19. 19. • • • • • Villages. Vithis. Vishayas. Bhuktis. Center.
  20. 20. Provincial Administration:  Provinces called Bhuktis.  Governors Called Uparika Maharaja.  Council of ministers.
  21. 21. District Administration:  Districts called Vishayas.  Headed by Kumaramatya.  Council.
  22. 22. City Administration:  Had their own Advisory Council.  Consisted of various representatives of different localities.
  23. 23. Town Administration:  Called Vithis.  Administration conducted by members representing landed and military interests.
  24. 24. Village Administration:  Autonomous bodies.  Head of the village Gramika.  Other officials.
  25. 25. During the Gupta empire, Indian mathematicians made great advances. They discovered the concept of zero and the decimal system.
  26. 26. International Trade Routes during the Guptas
  27. 27. Extensive Trade: 4c sp ic es rice & whea horses t ivory & gold s good on co t t s silk s good on cottspices gold & ivory
  28. 28. Kalidasa  The greatest of Indian poets.  His most famous play was Shakuntala.  During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.
  29. 29. 500 healing plants identified 1000 diseases classified Printed medicinal guides Plastic Surgery Gupta Achievemen ts Kalidasa Literature Literature Medicine Medicine Inoculations Gupta India C-sections performed Decimal System Mathematics Mathematics Concept of Zero PI = 3.1416 Solar Calendar Astronomy Astronomy The earth is round
  30. 30. The Decline of the Guptas  Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them.  After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c.
  31. 31. Gold Coins of Guptas
  32. 32. Gold coins contd….
  33. 33. Gold coins contd…………..
  34. 34. Trade routes
  35. 35. Trade routes
  36. 36. Trade Routes
  37. 37. Gupta Art Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
  38. 38. Art and Architecture
  39. 39. Ajanta caves
  40. 40. Art and architecture contd………
  41. 41. Art and architecture contd……..
  42. 42. Art and architecture contd…….
  43. 43. Art and Architecture contd………
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