The communal issue was far from being a
new element in Indian politics in 1945.
Some authorities have looked on the
failure of Congress to form coalition
ministries in 1937. Others go back to 1928,
when the all parties’ conference rejected
Some see Jinnah’s departure from the
Congress in 1921 as the point of no return;
others go back to the birth of Muslim
League in 1906. But this problem goes
A. SOCIAL CAUSES:
The Hindus already established them in
government services, as also in key
positions in trade, industry and finance.
They needed the support of the masses of
their community in their struggle with the
Hindu rivals for jobs.
B. ECONOMIC CAUSES:
Due to lack of modern industrial
development, unemployment was an acute
problem in India. Many thought of such
short- sighted remedies as communal and
religious and later caste and provincial
reservations in an attempt to get a larger
share of the existing limited employment
C. POLITICAL CAUSES:
Modern political consciousness was late in
developing among the Muslims. Denied
British patronage, and relatively
uninterested in British education, they
slipped ever deeper into political and
D. BRITISH POLICY OF ‘DIVIDE AND
Revolt of 1857.
Muslims kept out of ranks of the army.
From 1870, there was perceptible shift in
British policy. They decided to come out as
champions of Muslims.
Britishers patronize the Muhammadan
Anglo- Oriental College of Sayyid Ahmed
E. ROLE OF SAYYID AHMAD KHAN
First Muslim leader to organize a
movement for uniting the Muslims and
instilling into them a desire for the western
He founded Muhammadan Anglo- Oriental
College at Aligarh.
He discouraged Muslims from joining
Indian National Congress.
F. COMMUNALISM IN WRITING OF
• British writers of Indian history served the
imperial cause by initiating, developing the
Hindu- Muslim approach in their study of
G. OFFSHOOT OF SOCIO- RELIGIOUS
• These movements contained some
paradoxical aspects, they generated some
H. SIDE EFFECT OF NATIONALISM:
I. COMMUNAL HINDU ORGANIZATIONS
OF MUSLIM LEAGUE ON
PARTITION OF BENGAL
GROWTH OF PAKISTAN IDEA
THE PAKISTAN RESOLUTION
DIRECT ACTION DAY