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Citation

  1. 1. CITATION
  2. 2.  PRIMARY LEGAL MATERIAL  SECONDARY LEGAL MATERIAL
  3. 3.  PRIMARY: AUTHORITATIVE RECORDS OF LAW MADE BY LAW MAKING BODIES - Legislation made by Parliament  - rules, regulations, orders, and by laws  - authoritative reports of decisions of the court.
  4. 4.  SECONDARY : THOSE PUBLICATION WHICH REFER AND RELATE TO THE LAW WHILE NOT BEING THEMSELVES PRIMARY SOURCES.     - DICTIONARIES - LEGAL TEXT BOOKS - DIGESTS - JOURNALS
  5. 5.  WHAT IS CITATION?  It is necessary to reference any statement of law that is made by attributing the legal (primary) authority , the starting point for legal research is to know how that law ,contained in the report of a case, section or clause of regulation ,is referred by legal profession. This is known as citation of cases.  Aim is to avoid piracy .
  6. 6. STANDARDISATION OF CITATION RULES  The Bluebook  ALWD Citation Manual  Maroonbook  AIJA GUIDE
  7. 7.  ABBREVIATIONS  Section s3  Paragraph par(a)  Subsection and  Regulation s3(2)  Order O3 reg 4 s3,s4 and s5 par(a),par(b) and par ( c) s3(2),s3(3) s 3(4) reg4 and reg 6
  8. 8.  Rule r 2 and r 3  Clause cl 5  Chapter ch I r 2, r3, and r4 cl 6 and cl 7
  9. 9. BOOK  Book: author(s), book title, edition, publisher, date of publication, and page number(s) if appropriate.  Smith, G Administrative Law (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, London,1970.  Singh Avtar, Law of Contract and Specific Relief, (10th ed.),Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, 2008.
  10. 10. JOURNALS  Journal: author(s), article title, journal title, date of publication, and page number(s).  Rogers,B ,“The Pitfalls in Occupational Health and Safety”, Vol 15 No 4 ,1998, p,13.
  11. 11. NEWSPAPER  Newspaper: author(s), article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number(s) if desired, date of publication.  Shruti Setia Chhabra, “A green candle to cut pollution”, Times of India ,Editorial,, 2010, p 3, Aug 28 
  12. 12. LEGISLATION  Prisons Act, 1903  Indian Contract Act,1986  Drugs & Cosmetics Act,1940  Drugs & Cosmetics Rules,1945
  13. 13. CASE CITATION  M.C.Mehta v. Union of India, AIR 1987 SC 1086 at pp.1092-1098.  Brijendra Singh v. Haryana, MANU/SC/0230/2005  Ibid  supra1
  14. 14. WEBSITE  Web site: author(s), article and publication title where appropriate, as well as a URL, and a date when the site was accessed.  Judith Lloyd Yero, “The Meaning of Education”, available at http://www.teachersmind.com/pdfdirectory/Edu . Accessed on 8th September 2010.

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