Alliances and counter alliances


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  • Thus, the repeated attempts by King Louis XIV of France (reigned 1643–1715) to dominate continental Europe led to a coalition in opposition to France and eventually to the War of the Grand Alliance; and the ambitions ofNapoleon were similarly thwarted by a series of alliances formed against him.
  • Alliances and counter alliances

    2. 2. MEANING • An alliance is a coalition of state that coordinate their actions to accomplish some end. Most alliances are formalized in written treaties, concern a common threat, and are related to issues of international security , and endure across a range or period of time. • Short-term arrangements, such as the U.S led forces in Iraq, may be called a coalition. • Two countries may have a formal alliance and yet be bitter enemies or two members may create practical equivalent of an alliance without a treaty. • Counter alliances are alliances that are formed by states in reaction to already existing alliance.
    3. 3. DEFINITIONS • Walt's (1955) definition: "an alliance is a formal or informal arrangement for security cooperation between two or more sovereign states;“ • Snyder's (1924-13) : "alliances ... are formal associations of states for the use (or non-use) of military force, intended for either the security of their members, against specific other states..."
    4. 4. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION • In international relations, the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, signed in 1373 between the Kingdom of England(succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force. • Some important alliances till dateHoly Alliance, coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 Quadruple Alliance (disambiguation) Triple Alliance (disambiguation) Central powers and allies Axis powers and Grand Alliance North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty, agaist it warsaw pact was formed.
    5. 5. PURPOSE • Alliances generally have the purpose of augmenting their members’ power. By pooling their capabilities, two or more states can exert greater leverage in their bargaining with other states. • For smaller states, alliances can be their most important power element and for great powers the structure of alliances shapes the configuration of power in the system. • Most alliances are formed as a response to a perceived threat. When a state’s power clubbed with its allies grows and threatens to overmatch that of its rivals, the other state form counter alliances to limit that power. • On average, bargaining power of lesser allies in asymmetric alliances is strongest in a bipolar system, weaker in a multipolar system, and weakest in a unipolar system.
    6. 6. ALLIANCES IN BIPOLAR SYSTEM • A new level of alliance building in Europe was reached in the late 19th century, when enmity between Germany and France polarized Europe into two rival alliances. By 1910 most of the major states of Europe belonged to one or the other of these great opposing alliances: the Central Powers whose principal members were Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the Allies, composed of France, Russia, and Great Britain. This bipolar system had a destabilizing effect, since conflict between any two members of opposing blocs carried the threat of general war. Eventually, a dispute between Russia and Austria-Hungary in 1914 quickly drew their fellow bloc members into the general conflict that became known as World War I (1914–18).
    7. 7. • In 1949, the prospect of further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955. The alignment of nearly every European nation into one of the two opposing camps formalized the political division of the European continent that had taken place since World War II (193945). This alignment provided the framework for the military standoff that continued throughout the Cold War (1945-91)
    8. 8. ALLIANCES IN UNIPOLAR WORLD • When the international system becomes unipolar, non great powers increase their commitment to the existing and potential allies. • The single great power reduces its commitment to the existing and potential allies. • Non great powers increase their commitment to the existing and potential allies. • the single great power removes restraining arrangements with its allies (e.g. reduction of large military bases). • In general, the unipole will enjoy greater freedom of action and be less dependent on allied support, enabling it to rely more readily on ad hoc “coalitions of the willing.” • For eg- Because the single great power has a huge advantage in the unipolar alliance it can raise the price or reduce the supply of its export.
    9. 9. ALLIANCES IN MULTIPOLAR WORLD • Classical realist theorists, such as Hans Morgenthau and E. H. Carr, hold that multipolar systems are more stable than bipolar systems, as great powers can gain power through alliances • This system tends to have many shifting alliances until one of two things happens. Either a balance of power is struck, and neither side wants to attack the other; or one side will attack the other because it either fears the potential of the new alliance, or it feels that it can defeat the other side.
    10. 10. TRADITIONAL ALLIANCES • Traditionally, Rulers and national leaders have used political alliances for many different reasons . Military alliances were made to serve as a deterrent against opponents because of the threat of multifront wars. Groups of nations have also come together to form multistate alliance networks during armed conflicts in order to counter perceived threats. Some famous examples of these networks include the Holy Alliance against Napoleon; the Triple Alliance and its rival, the Triple Entente, during World War I; and the Axis powers against the Grand Alliance during World War II.
    11. 11. MORDERN ALLIANCES • In contemporary world, alliances may also serve for economic, political, or strategic interests • that alliances function to reassure firms that their trading relationships will remain safe into the future and that they can count on cooperation between their governments to ensure this. It also functions to increase maret and flourish oversees trade. • For business purposes ,Airline alliance an agreement between two or more airlines to cooperate on a substantial level. The three largest passenger alliances are the Star Alliance, SkyTeam and Oneworld. • Colombia and the United States: A Successful Trade Alliance • the Pacific Alliance
    12. 12. CONTRIBUTUION IN IR • BALANCE OF POWERBalancing process helps to maintain the stability of relations between states. A balance of power system functions most effectively when alliances are fluid, when they are easily formed or broken on the basis of expediency, regardless of values, religion, history, or form of government. Alliances arise from states’ attempts to maintain a balance of power with each other. In a system composed of a number of medium-size countries, such as that in Europe since the Middle Ages, no single state has been able to establish a lasting hegemony over all the others, largely because the other states join together in alliances against it. Weakness invites attack, so countervailing power must be used to deter potential aggressors.
    13. 13. • ALLIANCES AND SECURITY DILEMMA The fluidity of alliances deepens the security dilemma.If there were only two states, each could match capabilities to have adequate defence but an ability to attack successfully. But if a third state is free to ally with either side, then other state has to build in adequate defences. • ALLIANCES AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY • An alliance is a collective security arrangement among states in which all members of the alliance agree to not threaten each other, to punish defectors from this agreement whenever possible, and to threaten countries outside of the alliance whenever it is in their individual interest to do so.
    14. 14. • POWER TRANSITION The principle predictive power of the theory is in the likelihood of war and the stability of alliances. War is most likely, of longest duration, and greatest magnitude, when a challenger to the dominant power enters into approximate parity with the dominant state and is dissatisfied with the existing system. Similarly, alliances are most stable when the parties to the alliance are satisfied with the system structure.
    15. 15. Globalization and its impact on nature of alliances • Globalization which denotes widening, deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness. It is evident in all principal sectors of social interactions as economic(worldwide trade,MNCs), Millitary(globals arms trade and proliferation), legal(Int. laws), Ecological(environmental probs), Social(migration) etc. • States in order to fulfill its demand form alliances with other states and make interactions accordingly in this globalised world. Most alliances are made by looking upon the benefit they would get. • Global Strategic Alliances working partnerships between companies (often more than two) across national boundaries and increasingly across industries, sometimes formed between company and a foreign government, or among companies and governments. • MNCs example
    16. 16. Alliances to treaties and International laws • Alliances may be formal or informal, they are typically formalized by a treaty of alliance, the most critical clauses of which are those that define the casus foederis, or the circumstances under which the treaty obligates an ally to aid a fellow member. Alliances of nations have traces to treaties. • Treaties, international customs, and general principles are stated as the three primary sources of International law; and judicial decisions and scholarly writings are expressly designated as the subsidiary sources of international law. All these sources are affected by alliances between states.
    17. 17. Realist’s Critisisms • • • • • • • • • Can increase capabilities of aggressive states Provoke formation of counter-alliances Must try to control behavior of allies Today’s ally may be tomorrow’s enemy Provoke fears of adversaries/parties Entangle states in disputes of allies Preserves existing rivalries An alliance can limit the diplomatic freedom of a country. Lesser powers may use their alliance as an excuse to act irresponsibly because of their guaranteed protection from more powerful allies. • Great powers may also use their alliance to coerce or limit the actions of their less powerful allies.
    18. 18. CONTEMPORARY EXAMPLES • NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. • U.S JAPANESE SECURITY TREATY It is a bilateral alliance where the united states maintain nearly 50,000 troops in Japan and japan pays several billion dollars annually to offset about half the cost of maintaining the troops. The alliance was created in 1951 during the Korean war against the potentials to japan. • Pacific Alliance(economic)
    19. 19. CONCLUSION • Alliance politics always impose costs and that impediments to balancing are especially great in unipolar system that emerged at the wake of cold war. Alliances are not structural because alliances are for less effective that states in producing and deploying power internationally. Distinction is to be made between distribution of capabilities and alliances they form.