Australia

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Australia

  1. 1. 2189480833755Australia<br />Australia  ,officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent (the world's smallest), the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.N4 Neighboring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia to the northeast and New Zealand to the southeast.<br />For at least 40,000 years before European settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians who belonged to one or more of the roughly 250 language groups. After sporadic visits by fishermen from the immediate north and discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606,[13] Australia's eastern half was claimed by Britain in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in the following years; the continent was explored and an additional five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were established during the 19th century. Australia offers irony and contrast beyond the disposition of its relaxed inhabitants. The spectacular Great Barrier Reef along the Queensland shore is one is kind in the world. Uluru (famous for its towering red rock projection (348 m), Barosssa Valley (well known for its delicate wines), Flinders Ranges (bushwalks, salt lakes, national parks and gorges), Freycinet Peninsula, Kakadu National Park, Snowy Mountains, and The Kimberley (epitome of raw outback Australia with rivers, oasis, crocodiles etc) are the tourist attractions that TSI Holidays assures you visit on your tour to Australia. The Festival of Sydney lights up the city with fireworks and a host of other events (open-air concerts, street theatre etc) through the month of January. Held in March on alternate years, The Adelaide Arts Festival draws art enthusiast from the entire world. Another festival that rocks the city Adelaide during the month of March is the famous outdoor festival of world music and dance - Womadelaide. The world famous Melbourne International Festival (October), Comedy Festival (April), and Writer's Festivals (September) showcase the artistic character of Melbourne city. <br />Great Barrier Reef<br />The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometers (1,600 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometers (133,000 sq mi). The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in north-east Australia.<br />The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world's biggest single structure made by living organisms. This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps. This reef supports a wide diversity of life, and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981. CNN labeled it one of the seven natural wonders of the world. The Queensland National Trust named it a state icon of Queensland.<br />A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which helps to limit the impact of human use, such as fishing and tourism. Other environmental pressures on the reef and its ecosystem include runoff, climate change accompanied by mass coral bleaching, and cyclic population outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish. The Great Barrier Reef supports a diversity of life, including many vulnerable or endangered species, some of which may be endemic to the reef system. Thirty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises have been recorded in the Great Barrier Reef, including the dwarf minke whale, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, and the humpback whale. Large populations of dugongs live there.<br />Six species of sea turtles come to the reef to breed – the green sea turtle,leatherback sea turtle, hawksbill turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, flatback turtle, and the olive ridley. The green sea turtles on the Great Barrier Reef have two genetically, one in the northern part of the reef and the other in the southern part.  Fifteen species of seagrass in beds attract the dugongs and turtles, and provide fish habitat. The most common genera of sea grasses are Halophila and Halodule. 215 species of birds (including 22 species of seabirds and 32 species of shorebirds) visit the reef or nest or roost on the islands, including the white-bellied sea eagle and roseate tern.[32] Most nesting sites are on islands in the northern and southern regions of the Great Barrier Reef, with 1.4-1.7 million birds using the sites to breed. The islands of the Great Barrier Reef also support 2,195 known plant species; three of these are endemic. The northern islands have 300-350 plant species which tend to be woody, whereas the southern islands have 200 which tend to be herbaceous; the Whitsunday region is the most diverse, supporting 1,141 species. The plants are propagated by birds.<br />Seventeen species of sea snake live on the Great Barrier Reef in warm waters up to 50 meters (164 ft) deep and are more common in the southern than in the northern section. None found in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area are endemic, nor are any endangered. Four hundred coral species, both hard corals and soft corals inhabit the reef. The majority of these spawn gametes, breeding in mass spawning events that are triggered by the rising sea temperatures of spring and summer, the lunar cycle, and the diurnal cycle. Reefs in the inner Great Barrier Reef spawn during the week after the full moon in October, while the outer reefs spawn in November and December. Its common soft corals belong to 36 genera. Five hundred species of marine algae or seaweed live on the reef, including thirteen species of genus Halimeda, which deposit calcareous mounds up to 100 meters (110 yd) wide, creating mini-ecosystems on their surface which have been compared to rainforest cover.<br />10890256144260Great Barrier Reef 3386455189230-840105189230-8401053044190<br />Flinders Ranges<br />Flinders Ranges is the largest mountain range in South Australia, which starts approximately 200 km North West of Adelaide. The discontinuous ranges stretch for over 430 km from Port Pirie to Lake Callabonna. Its most characteristic landmark is Wilpena Pound, a large, sickle-shaped, natural amphitheatre covering nearly 80 square kilometers, containing the range's highest peak, St Mary Peak (1170m), and adjoining the Flinders Ranges National Park. The northern ranges host the Arkaroola wilderness sanctuary and the Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park. The southern parts of the ranges are notable for the Pichi Richi scenic railway and Mount Remarkable National Park.<br />Several small areas in the Flinders Ranges are protected as National Parks. These include the Flinders Ranges National Park near Wilpena Pound and the Mount Remarkable National Park in the southern part of the ranges near Melrose. The Arkaroola Wilderness Sanctuary is a scenic protected area at the northern end of the ranges. In addition, The Dutchman’s Stern Conservation Park, west of Quorn, and the Mount Brown Conservation Park, south of Quorn, are protected areas of the ranges. The Heysen Trail and Mawson Trail run for several hundred kilometers along the ranges providing scenic long distance routes for walkers, cyclists and horse-riders. The Flinders Ranges are largely composed of folded and faulted sediments of the Adelaide Geosynclines. These very thick sequences of sediments were deposited in a large basin during the Neoproterozoic on the passive margin of the ancient continent of Rodinia. During the Cambrian, approximately 540 million years ago, the area underwent the Delamerianorogeny where the geosynclinals sequence was folded and faulted into a large mountain range. Since this time the area has undergone erosion resulting in the relatively low ranges today.<br />Most of the high ground and ridgetops in the Flinders are sequences of quartzites that outcrop along strike. The high walls of Wilpena Pound are formed by the outcropping beds of the eponymous Pound Quartzite in a synclinal structure. The same formation forms many of the other high parts of the Flinders, including the high plateau of the Gammon Ranges and the Heysen Range. Cuesta forms are also very common in the Flinders.<br />he flora of the Flinders Ranges is largely made up of species adapted to a semi-arid environment such as sugar gum,cypress-pine, mallee, and black oak. Moister areas near Wilpena Pound support grevilleas, Guinea flowers, lilies andferns. Reeds and sedges grow near permanent water sources such as springs and waterholes.<br />Flinders Ranges [][] [p‘;<br />30035560960<br />692150308610<br />3656330170815Freycinet Peninsula<br />Freycinet Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Tasmania, Australia. It is located north of Schouten Island, at 42.21°S 148.3052778°E. It is the site of Freycinet National Park. Also on the peninsula is the small village of Coles Bay, Wineglass Bay, Honeymoon Bay and the Friendly Beaches Reserve. Nicholas Baudin named the peninsula after French explorer Louis de Freycinet. Baudin also named Cape Baudin, Cape Faure, Cape Forestier and Thouin Bay, although that Bay is now known as Wineglass Bay.<br />692150269240<br />Sydney<br />Sydney is the largest and most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. With an approximate population of 4.5 million in the Sydney metropolitan area the city is the largest municipality in Oceania.[5] Inhabitants of Sydney are called Sydney siders, comprising a cosmopolitan and international population of people from many places around the world. The site of the first British colony in Australia, Sydney was established in 1788 at Sydney Cove by Arthur Phillip, commodore of the First Fleet as a penal colony. The city is built on hills surrounding Port Jackson which is commonly known as Sydney Harbour, where the iconic Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge are featured prominently. The hinterland of the metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks, and the coastal regions feature many bays, rivers, inlets and beaches including the famous Bondi Beach. Within the city are many notable parks, including Hyde Park and Gardens. In 2010, Sydney was ranked 10th worldwide by consulting firm Mercer on quality of living. In 2009, Sydney was ranked 3rd in Asia, and 22nd in the world on social and economic innovation, across 31 sectors in the Innovation Cities Index by innovation agency 2thinknow. Sydney regularly appears in a variety of global city rankings of livability and commerce, competing with Melbourne, Wellington and Auckland for top rankings in Australia and New Zealand.<br />Sydney has a reputation as an international centre for commerce, arts, fashion, culture, entertainment, music , education and tourism. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events, including the 1938 British Empire Games, the 2000 Summer Olympics, and the final match of the 2003 Rugby World Cup. The main airport serving Sydney is Sydney Airport.<br />461010276860<br />Sydney Opera House<br />The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was conceived and largely built by Danish architect, who, in 2003, received the Pritzker Prize, architecture's highest honour.<br />The Sydney Opera House was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 28 June 2007.It is one of the 20th century's most distinctive buildings and one of the most famous performing arts centers in the world. The Sydney Opera House is situated on Bennelong Point in Sydney Harbour, close to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. It sits at the northeastern tip of the Sydney central business district (the CBD), surrounded on three sides by the harbour (Sydney Cove and Farm Cove) and neighbored by the Royal Botanic Gardens.<br />Contrary to its name, the building houses multiple performance venues. As one of the busiest performing arts centers in the world, hosting over 1,500 performances each year attended by some 1.2 million people, the Sydney Opera House provides a venue for many performing arts companies including the four key resident companies Opera, The Australian Ballet, the Sydney Theatre Company and the Sydney Symphony, and presents a wide range of productions on its own account. It is also one of the most popular visitor attractions in Australia, with more than seven million people visiting the site each year, 300,000 of whom take a guided tour.[3]<br />The Sydney Opera House is administered by the Sydney Opera House Trust, under the New South Wales Ministry of the Arts. The Sydney Opera House is a modern expressionist design, with a series of large precast concrete "shells", each composed of sections of a sphere of 75.2 metre (246 ft 8½ in) radius, forming the roofs of the structure, set on a monumental podium. The building covers 1.8 hectares (4.5 acres) of land and is 183 meters (605 ft) long and 120 meters (388 ft) wide at its widest point. It is supported on 588 concrete piers sunk as much as 25 meters below sea level.<br />628015574040<br />

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