Viruses 001
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Viruses 001 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Viruses & Bacteria Chapter 17 Biology 11 Presentation put together by Mandie Lynn Walls
  • 2. What are Viruses
    • A virus is a non-cellular particle made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells.
  • 3. T4 Bacteriophage
  • 4. Herpes Virus
  • 5. Escherichia Coli Bacterium E. coli is a bacterium. That is a crude cell, it is not a virus because viruses are protein containers with DNA cores or RNA cores.
  • 6. E. Coli and the Bacteriophage What it looks like in real life
  • 7. The Structure Of a Virus
    • Viruses are composed of a core of nucleic acid
    • The Nucleic acid core is surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid
    • The Nucleic core is either made up of DNA or RNA but never both
  • 8. Cycle of Lytic and Lysogenic
  • 9. Vaccines
    • Viruses grown on chicken embryos are attenuated vaccines
    • Another type of vaccine is made by heat killing the virus
  • 10. Retrovirus
    • Change DNA into RNA.
    • Example of a Retrovirus is HIV
  • 11.
    • A typical, "minimal" retrovirus consists of:
    • an outer envelope which was derived from the plasma membrane of its host
    • many copies of an envelope protein embedded in the lipid bilayer of its envelope
    • a capsid; a protein shell containing
    • two molecules of RNA and
    • molecules of the enzyme reverse transcriptase
  • 12. Bacteria Cell
  • 13. Prokaryotes
    • Cells that do not have a nucleus
    • Exist almost every where on earth
    • Grow in numbers so great you can see them with the unaided eye
    • Are placed in either the Eubacteria or the Archebacteria Kingdoms
    • Make up the smaller of the two kingdoms
  • 14.  
  • 15. Eubacteria
    • Make up the larger of the two prokaryote kingdoms
    • Generally are surrounded by a cell wall composed of complex carbohydrates
  • 16. Cyanobacteria
    • Photosynthetic bacterium
    • Bluish-greenish color
    • Contain membranes that carry out the process of photosynthesis
    • Do not contain the same type of chloroplasts as plants do
    • This bluish-greenish algae can be found nearly everywhere on earth.
    • Can survive in extremely hot environments and even extremely cold environment
  • 17. Archaebacteria
    • Lack important carbohydrate found in cell walls
    • Have different lipids in their cell membrane
    • Different types of ribosomes
    • Very different gene sequences
    • Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments
    • They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments.
  • 18. Identifying Prokaryotes
    • Cell Shape
    • Cell Wall
    • Movement
  • 19. Bacterium Shapes
    • Cocci~ Sphere shaped bacteria
    • Bacillus~ Rod shaped bacteria
    • Spirrillium ~ Spiral shaped bacteria
    • Flagella~ Leg-like structures that help to propel the bacterium.
  • 20. Gram + and Gram – Bacterium Cell Walls
  • 21. Cellular Walls
    • Chemical nature of a cell wall can be determined by Gram Staining
    • By finding out what color the cell produces when it is gram stained you can figure out the type of carbohydrates in the cell wall
  • 22. Movement
    • Flagella ~ Tail like structure the whips around to propel the bacterium
    • Cillia ~ Miniature flagella surround the cell that help to “swim”
    • Non motile ~ Sticky cillia like structures that keep the bacterium from moving
  • 23. Flagella
  • 24.  
  • 25. Bacteria and their energy
    • Autotrophs
    • Chemotrophs
    • Heterotrophs
  • 26. Autotrophs
    • Make their own energy
    • Using Solar energy
    • Eg. Cyanobacteria
  • 27. Chemotrophs
    • Make own Energy
    • Using Chemical energy
    • Eg. Archaebacteria
  • 28. Heterotrophs
    • Obtain food
    • By eating
    • Eg. E-coli
  • 29. Bacteria Respiration
    • Obligate Anaerobes
    • Facultative Anaerobes
    • Obligate Aerobes
    • Live without Oxygen
    • Can live with or without oxygen
    • Cannot live without oxygen.
  • 30. Bacteria Reproduction
    • Binary Fission
    • Conjugation
    • Spore Formation
  • 31. Cellular organism copies it’s genetic information then splits into two identical daughter cells
  • 32. Conjugation
    • A type of Bacteria Sex
    • Two organism swap genetic information, that contains the information such as a resistance to penicillin
  • 33. Spore Formation: Endospore
    • A type of dormant cell
    • Exhibit no signs of life
    • Highly resistant to environmental stresses such as:
    • -High temperatures
    • -Irradiation
    • -Strong acids
    • -Disinfectants
    • Endospores are formed by vegetative cells in response to environmental signals that indicate a limiting factor for vegetative growth, such as exhaustion of an essential nutrient.
  • 34. Symbiosis
    • Close relationship between to species in which at least one species benefits from the other
    • Live together for LIFE
  • 35. Parasitism
    • Bacteria exploit the host cell, injuring them
    • Eg. Mychobacterium tuberculosis
  • 36. Mutualism
    • Symbiosis in which two of the species live together in such a way that both benefit from the relationship
    • Eg. E-coli
  • 37. Nitrogen Fixations
    • Process by which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into a form that can be used by living things
  • 38. THE END
  • 39. This powerpoint was kindly donated to is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.