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Escherichia Coli Bacterium E. coli is a bacterium. That is a crude cell, it is not a virus because viruses are protein containers with DNA cores or RNA cores.
E. Coli and the Bacteriophage What it looks like in real life
The Structure Of a Virus
Viruses are composed of a core of nucleic acid
The Nucleic acid core is surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid
The Nucleic core is either made up of DNA or RNA but never both
Cycle of Lytic and Lysogenic
Viruses grown on chicken embryos are attenuated vaccines
Another type of vaccine is made by heat killing the virus
Change DNA into RNA.
Example of a Retrovirus is HIV
A typical, "minimal" retrovirus consists of:
an outer envelope which was derived from the plasma membrane of its host
many copies of an envelope protein embedded in the lipid bilayer of its envelope
a capsid; a protein shell containing
two molecules of RNA and
molecules of the enzyme reverse transcriptase
Cells that do not have a nucleus
Exist almost every where on earth
Grow in numbers so great you can see them with the unaided eye
Are placed in either the Eubacteria or the Archebacteria Kingdoms
Make up the smaller of the two kingdoms
Make up the larger of the two prokaryote kingdoms
Generally are surrounded by a cell wall composed of complex carbohydrates
Contain membranes that carry out the process of photosynthesis
Do not contain the same type of chloroplasts as plants do
This bluish-greenish algae can be found nearly everywhere on earth.
Can survive in extremely hot environments and even extremely cold environment
Lack important carbohydrate found in cell walls
Have different lipids in their cell membrane
Different types of ribosomes
Very different gene sequences
Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments
They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments.
Cocci~ Sphere shaped bacteria
Bacillus~ Rod shaped bacteria
Spirrillium ~ Spiral shaped bacteria
Flagella~ Leg-like structures that help to propel the bacterium.
Gram + and Gram – Bacterium Cell Walls
Chemical nature of a cell wall can be determined by Gram Staining
By finding out what color the cell produces when it is gram stained you can figure out the type of carbohydrates in the cell wall
Flagella ~ Tail like structure the whips around to propel the bacterium
Cillia ~ Miniature flagella surround the cell that help to “swim”
Non motile ~ Sticky cillia like structures that keep the bacterium from moving
Bacteria and their energy
Make their own energy
Using Solar energy
Make own Energy
Using Chemical energy
Live without Oxygen
Can live with or without oxygen
Cannot live without oxygen.
Cellular organism copies it’s genetic information then splits into two identical daughter cells
A type of Bacteria Sex
Two organism swap genetic information, that contains the information such as a resistance to penicillin
Spore Formation: Endospore
A type of dormant cell
Exhibit no signs of life
Highly resistant to environmental stresses such as:
Endospores are formed by vegetative cells in response to environmental signals that indicate a limiting factor for vegetative growth, such as exhaustion of an essential nutrient.
Close relationship between to species in which at least one species benefits from the other
Live together for LIFE
Bacteria exploit the host cell, injuring them
Eg. Mychobacterium tuberculosis
Symbiosis in which two of the species live together in such a way that both benefit from the relationship
Process by which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into a form that can be used by living things
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