Blu Ray(Ind)

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  • Mitigatig DoS attacks:Location Hiding Approach
  • Mitigatig DoS attacks:Location Hiding Approach
  • Blu Ray(Ind)

    1. 1. Blu-Ray Disks Submitted By Satyajeet S.Navale(1SG06IS042) Information Science & Engineering Sapthagiri College Of Engineering
    2. 2. ISE, SCE Blu_Ray Disks
    3. 3. INDEX <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History & Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Working </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Future & Commercial Market </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>ISE, SCE Blu_Ray Disks
    4. 4. INTRODUCTION ISE, SCE <ul><li>Blu-ray disc (BD) is appropriately named after the blue laser used to write the data </li></ul><ul><li>A Blu-ray Disc (also known as BD or Blu-Ray ) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the standard DVD format. </li></ul><ul><li>The disc has the same physical dimensions as standard DVDs and CDs </li></ul><ul><li>Takes up about five times more bandwidth and therefore requires a disc with about five times more storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Blu-ray is the next-generation digital video disc. It can record, store and play back high-definition video and digital audio, as well as computer data. The advantage to Blu-ray is the sheer amount of information it can hold. </li></ul>
    5. 5. INTRODUCTION(contd) <ul><li>A single-layer Blu-ray disc, which is roughly the same size as a DVD, can hold up to 25GB of data -- that's more than two hours of high-definition video or about 13 hours of standard video. </li></ul><ul><li>A double-layer Blu-ray disc can store up to 50 GB, enough to hold about 4.5 hours of high-definition video or more than 20 hours of standard video. </li></ul><ul><li>Users will be able to connect to the Internet and instantly download subtitles and other interactive movie features. </li></ul>
    6. 6. HISTORY <ul><li>1st GENERATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Compact disc (CD): --- 650/700 MB </li></ul><ul><li>It is with us for over 20 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength of laser which reads data: 780 nm </li></ul><ul><li>Color of laser: Red </li></ul><ul><li>2nd GENERATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Digital versatile disc (DVD): --- 4.7 GB </li></ul><ul><li>It offers high quality sound and video than CD. </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength of laser which reads data: 650 nm </li></ul><ul><li>Color of laser: Red </li></ul><ul><li>3rd GENERATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Blue-ray disc (BD): --- 25/50 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by blue-ray disc association (which includes Apple, Hitachi, HP, LG, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony) </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength of laser which reads data: 405 nm </li></ul><ul><li>Color of laser: Blue-violet which was developed by </li></ul><ul><li>SHUJI NAKAMURA </li></ul><ul><li>at NICHIA CORPORATION </li></ul>
    7. 7. FEATURES ISE, SCE <ul><li>Record high-definition television (HDTV) without any quality loss </li></ul><ul><li>Instantly skip to any spot on the disk </li></ul><ul><li>Record one program while watching another on the disc </li></ul><ul><li>Create playlists </li></ul><ul><li>Edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program </li></ul><ul><li>Access the Web to download subtitles and other extra features </li></ul>
    8. 8. Working ISE, SCE <ul><li>Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits -- spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges. </li></ul><ul><li>A laser reads the other side of these pits -- the bumps -- to play the movie or program that is stored on the DVD. </li></ul><ul><li>The more data that is contained on a disc, the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller the pits , the more precise the reading laser must be. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike current DVDs, Blu-ray uses a blue laser . A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nanometers). </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are only 0.15 microns (µm) this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD. </li></ul><ul><li>Blu-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0.74 microns to 0.32 microns. The smaller pits, smaller beam and shorter track pitch together enable a single-layer Blu-ray disc to hold more than 25 GB of information </li></ul>
    9. 9. THE TECHNOLOGY Pits : spiral grooves that run from the centre of the disc to its edges Bumps : other sides of these edges. Track pitch : it is the distance between the two tracks (of pits) on the surface. ----------------------------- Disc store digitally encoded data in PITS.
    10. 10. So, in blu-ray disc: Pit size – 0.15 microns ( more than twice as small as the pits on DVD ) Track-pitch is : 0.32 microns Laser needed : blue-violet laser (405 nm) Data transfer rate : 36 Mbps
    11. 11. Each Blu-ray disc is about the same thickness (1.2 millimeters) as a DVD. But the two types of discs store data differently
    12. 12. How it’s Made The Blu-ray disc overcomes DVD-reading issues by placing the data on top of a 1.1-mm-thick polycarbonate layer. Having the data on top prevents birefringence and therefore prevents readability problems. And, with the recording layer sitting closer to the objective lens of the reading mechanism, the problem of disc tilt is virtually eliminated. Because the data is closer to the surface, a hard coating is placed on the outside of the disc to protect it from scratches and fingerprints. The design of the Blu-ray discs saves on manufacturing costs. Traditional DVDs are built by injection molding the two 0.6-mm discs between which the recording layer is sandwiched. The process must be done very carefully to prevent birefringence. The two discs are molded. The recording layer is added to one of the discs. The two discs are glued together. Blu-ray discs only do the injection-molding process on a single 1.1-mm disc, which reduces cost.
    13. 13. <ul><li>Higher density enables better data seek times </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter to travel for same amount of data results in faster data seek </li></ul><ul><li>Better for random access of data </li></ul>BLU-RAY DISKS DENSITY ADVANTAGE
    14. 14. DUAL LAYER
    15. 15. CODING FOR BD OPTICAL RECORDING
    16. 16. <ul><li>Blu-ray Disc uses a &quot;blue&quot; (technically violet ) laser , operating at a wavelength of 405 nm , to read and write data. The diodes are InGaN (Indium Gallium Nitride) lasers that produce 405 nm photons directly, that is, without frequency doubling or other nonlinear optical mechanisms. Conventional DVDs and CDs use red and near-infrared lasers, at 650 nm and 780 nm, respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>The blue-violet laser's shorter wavelength makes it possible to store more information on a 12 cm CD/DVD-size disc. The minimum &quot; spot size &quot; on which a laser can be focused is limited by diffraction , and depends on the wavelength of the light and the numerical aperture of the lens used to focus it. By decreasing the wavelength, increasing the numerical aperture from 0.60 to 0.85, and making the cover layer thinner to avoid unwanted optical effects, the laser beam can be focused to a smaller spot. This allows more information to be stored in the same area. For Blu-ray Disc, the spot size is 580 nm . In addition to the optical improvements, Blu-ray Discs feature improvements in data encoding that further increase the capacity. </li></ul>LASER AND OPTICS
    17. 17. Recording speed 15 7.5 54 432 12× ] 22.5 11.25 36 288 8× 30 15 27 216 6× 45 22.5 18 144 4× 90 45 9 72 2× 180 90 4.5 36 1× Dual-Layer Single-Layer MB/s Mbit/s Theoretical Write time for Blu-ray Disc (minutes) Data rate Drive speed
    18. 18. Software standards Codecs The BD-ROM specification mandates certain codec compatibilities for both hardware decoders (players) and movie software. Video For video, all players are required to support MPEG-2 Part 2 , H.264/MPEG-4 AVC , and SMPTE VC-1 .MPEG-2 is the codec used Audio For audio, BD-ROM players are required to support Dolby Digital (AC-3), DTS , and linear PCM .
    19. 19. Java <ul><li>Java is used to implement interactive menus on Blu-ray Discs, as opposed to the method used on DVD video discs. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of a Java Virtual Machine , as well as network connectivity in some BD devices, will allow updates to Blu-ray Discs via the Internet, adding content such as additional subtitle languages and promotional features not included on the disc at pressing time. </li></ul><ul><li>This Java Version is called BD-J </li></ul><ul><li>Most Blu-ray Discs that have BD-J menus do not allow a Blu-ray Disc player to automatically resume a movie from the point at which it was stopped. </li></ul>ISE, SCE
    20. 20. <ul><li>Although the Blu-ray Disc specification has been finalized, engineers continue to work on advancing the technology. Quad-layer (100 GB) discs have been demonstrated on a drive with modified optics </li></ul><ul><li>JVC has developed a three-layer technology that allows putting both standard-definition DVD data and HD data on a BD/(standard) DVD combination. If successfully commercialized, this would enable the consumer to purchase a disc that can be played on current DVD players </li></ul><ul><li>In December 2008, Pioneer Corporation unveiled a 400 GB (containing 16 data layers, 25 GB each) and a 500 GB (containing 20 layers) Blu-ray Disc that will be compatible with current players after a firmware update. Its planned launch is in the 2009–10 time frame for ROM and 2010–13 for rewritable discs. Ongoing development is under way to create a 1  TB (1,000GB) Blu-ray Disc as soon as 2013. </li></ul>Ongoing development
    21. 21. Future <ul><li>Expect the BD to become more prevalent once the HDTV market establishes its presence. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and video will reach higher qualities with larger storage space. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for BD with more than two layers as the technology is further refined. </li></ul><ul><li>Sony has made the Disc with size 200GB already. </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer announced on August 5, 2008 , that they have got success </li></ul><ul><li>in making BD with </li></ul><ul><li>increased Disc Size </li></ul><ul><li>of 500GB. </li></ul>
    22. 22. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>More capacity, Density and Performance </li></ul><ul><li>More Industry Support/Consumer Reach (BDA has 140+ members) </li></ul><ul><li>More Durable </li></ul><ul><li>More Interactive User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>More Flexible Content Protection: AAC, BD+ Renewability Technology and ROM Mark </li></ul>AVMON for Distributed Systems
    23. 23. REFERENCES <ul><li>http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/254136 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=1616, </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.docstoc.com/docs/424938/White-paper-General-Blu-ray-Disc-Format </li></ul><ul><li>http://allfreedownloadlinks.com/free-softwares/free-multimedia-software/blu-ray- to-dvd-pro-v120/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://reviews.cnet.com/1770-9991_7-0.html?query= blu+ray+disc&searchtype=products&tag=ltcol;narrow </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blu-ray_Disc# Technical_specifications </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.thefreelibrary.com/_/search/Search.aspx? </li></ul><ul><li>SearchBy=0&Word=blu+ray+disc&By=0 </li></ul>

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