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Sorghum:an ancient, nutritious and healthly old world cereal
 

Sorghum:an ancient, nutritious and healthly old world cereal

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    Sorghum:an ancient, nutritious and healthly old world cereal Sorghum:an ancient, nutritious and healthly old world cereal Presentation Transcript

    • Sorghum:an ancient, healthy andnutritious old world cereal Letizia SATURNI Dottore in Ricerca e Specialista in Scienze dell’Alimentazione Tutor Master Internazionale di Dietetica e Nutrizione Foodblogger – http://notonlyglutenfree.org
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 What is Sorghum? Class: Monocotyledones
 Order: Glumiflorae
 Family: Graminaceae (Gramineae or Poaceae)
 Sub family: Andropogonoideae
 Tribe: Andropogonaceae
 Sub tribe: Sorghastreae 
 Genus: Sorghum vulgare Pers.
 Synonym: Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Cerealswheat rice corn khorosan wheat buckwheat greunkern Tartarian (Kamut® ) buckwhea barley rye spelt t
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011from Cereals to….. rice corn wheat Biscuit Flours s Savoury Sweet snacks snacks Products Pasta Pizza Bread
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011…. in recent years ObeseCerealphobia! Diabetic I’m afraid of CHO because they make me put on weight Intollerant Allergic122 Kg pro-capita of cereals 28 Kg pro-capita 26 Kg pro-capita vs 89 Kg in Italy of pasta of sweets
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Nutrition Health
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal http://www.phytochemicals.info/ Naples 28 October 2011 Inorganic compounds Vitamins Carbohydrates Dietary fibre Sterols Proteins Flavonoids Phytic acid Cereals&Co. Pigments Lipids Phenolic acids Tocols
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Beatification of cerealsCerealphobia! I’m afraid of CHO because they make me put on weight cereal
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Cereals and Mediterranean Diet Carbohydrates in a balanced diet provide an intake of 55-60% of calories.Source: L. Saturni & G. Ferretti - Celiachia e Dieta Mediterranea senza glutine – Il Pensiero Scientifico ed., 2011
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Sorghum - an ancient cereal Sorghum - a nutritious cereal Sorghum - a healthy cereal
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 SorghumSorghum Millet Teff Teff(durra or grano di Siria) Sorghum Amaranth Europa Asia America Teff Quinoa India Africa Australia
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 What is an ancient cereal?There is no official definition but sorghum is a truly ancient grain.- Plinio (60-70 A.D.) was the first to give a written description of sorghum;- Vavilov considered the old Abyssinian (Ethiopian) areas the centreof origin of sorghum;- de Wet demonstrated that sorghum was the first to bedomesticated some 3000 to 5000 years ago;- Dahlberg and Wasylikowa reported on sorghum remains found atthe Nabta Playa archaelogical site in the Western Desert, southern Egypt datingback to 8000 B.C.Source: Lèder I. Sorghum and Millet. Cultivated plants, primarly as food sources – Vol 1
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Sorghum is the world’s fifth 23% of sorghum is grown most important cereal. for human consumption
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Why are ancient grains so important?Agricultural interest Consumer interestSorghum is the dietary staple of more Greater use in fine dining (unique flavours)than 500 million people in over 30countries of the semi-arid tropics More widely available other than from natural food sections in supermarkets(mainly in Africa and Asia). Health benefits (primarily used as wholeSorghum is particularly unique in that it grains–generally not refined)grows in both temperate and aridclimates. Visual interest (organoleptic characteristics like taste and colour, seed size and shape)Sorghum is drought-tolerant and Product applications include bakery, pasta,resistant to water-logging and grows in extruded snacks, batters and breadvarious soil conditions. products.
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Sorghum - an ancient cereal Sorghum - a nutritious cereal Sorghum - a healthy cereal
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Gluten-induced disorders Celiac disease…. from a rare disorder typical of infancy to a common auto-immune inflammatory disease of the small intestine. It is mainly triggered and maintained by the storage proteins (gluten) of wheat, rye and barley, in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten sensitivity
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 2828 October 2011 Naples October 2011 The causes The clinical spectrum Trigger + Genes + Typical symptoms Abdominal distension, diarrhoea, vomiting, weight loss, fatigue Leaky Extraintestinal symptoms small Alopecia, arthritis, ataxia, epilepsy, dental enamel hypoplasia, infertility, osteoporosis intestine Associated diseases Type 1 diabetes, vitiligo, primary biliary cirrhosisSource: Greetje J et al., Nature: Gastr & Hepat 7:204, 2010
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Common nutritient deficiencies• the length of time Upon diagnosis Gluten-free diet Long-term that an individual gluten-free diet has lived with the Protein - - active, but undiagnosed, Fibre Fibre Fibre disease Iron Iron - Calcium Calcium -• the extent of damage to the Vitamin D Vitamin D - gut intestinal Magnesium Magnesium - tract Folate, Niacin, Folate, Niacin, Folate, Niacin, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12• the degree of Riboflavin Riboflavin malabsorption Zinc - -
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal http://www.phytochemicals.info/ Naples 28 October 2011Chemical composition Minerals (iron, zinc, iodine) Vitamins Carbohydrates (vitamin A and B-complex) (fibres and starches) Dietary fibre Proteins (kafirins) Lipids Phytochemicals (tannins, phenolic acid, anthocyanins)
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Factors affecting the chemical compositionEnvirnomental - strictly dependent on the plant (age, gender, stage of development …..) - strictly dependent on ecological factors (climate, soil, altitude and interaction with other organisms like animal, plant, funghi, microrganisms) Artificial  Suitable harvesting  Correct storage conditions (cleaning, drying ……)  Industrial processing (extrusion, puffing, cooking ….)Source: Awika JM et al.. Phytochemistry. 2004 - 65:1199-1221
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Chemical composition (per 100 g edible portion; 12% moisture) Grains Protein Fat CHO Fibre Ca Fe Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin g g g g mg mg mg mg mg Wheat 11.6 2.0 71 2.0 30 3.5 0.4 0.10 5.05 Brown rice 7.9 2.7 76 1.0 33 1.8 0.41 0.04 4.31 Corn 9.2 4.6 73 2.8 26 2.7 0.37 0.19 3.57 Millet 6.0 1.5 75 3.6 350 5.0 0.3 0.10 1.4 Sorghum 10.9 3.2 73 2.3 27 4.3 0.30 0.13 2.83Data from Hulse et al. 1980; NRC/NAS (1982); USDA/HNIS (1989), Serna-Salvidar and Rooney (1991)
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Proteins (6-18%) Proteins Prolamins (Kafirins) Fibre Starch Minerals Enzymes ProteinsNon-Prolamine (albumins, globulins and glutelins) Fibre Lipids Vitamins Enzymes Minerals Kafirins are classified as either , , or based on molecular weight and solubility Kafirins are rich in glutamic and non-polar amino acids (proline, leucine and alanine), but almost without the essential amino acid lysine.
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Secalins Rye + gliadins Hordeins Barley + glutenins Avenins Oats ? Zeins Maize - Oryzins Rice - gluten Kafirins Millet, Sorghum - Recent developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of the biochemical and immunological aspects and the toxicity mechanism of prolamins.Source: Manone G et al., Expert Rev Proteomics 8(1):95, 2011
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Carbohydrates Cellulose Hemicellulose Soluble sugar Fibre (86%) Starch Pentosans (56-73% amylopectine and amylose)
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Amylose Amylopectin Starch % % Effect on serum glucose corn wax <1 >99 Both genetic and environmental sorghum 30-20 70-80 factors affect the amylose content of sorghum. tapioca 17 83 rice 19 81 potatoes 20 80 maize 30 70 wheat 25 75The digestibility of the starch, which depends on hydrolysis by pancreatic enzymes, determines theavailable energy content of cereal grains. Processing the grains by methods such as steaming, pressure-cooking, flaking, puffing or micronization of the starch increases the digestibility of sorghum starch.
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Naples 28 October 2011Effect of processing foodSource: Brand JC et al., J Clin Nutr 1985
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011(g/100g)(….) Dietary fibre is the edible part of plantsAmerican Association of Cereal Chemists Nuts Fruit and 4.0-12.0 Vegetables Pulses Coconut 5.0-18.0 0.5-5.0 12.0Buckwheat Sorghum Quinoa Amaranth Corn Rice 10.0 2.7 7.0 6.7 7.3 2.8Source: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/cgi-bin/list_nut_edit.pl
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011  produces a measurable reduction in the peak level of serum glucose after eating and also helps to regulate blood sugar levels (Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load) reduces the risk of developing Health and, consequently, dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD) Benefits  is helpful in preventing constipation  reduces the risk of gastrointestinal problems (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) and certain types of cancer (oral cavity, lung, oesophagus, stomach and colon-rectum)Source: American Association of Cereals Chemists report, 2001
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Riccardi G et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:269S-274S
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Minerals Rice 11 mg Calcium The bioavailability of minerals in sorghum varies from less than 1% 1.60 mg IronSorghum 1495 mg Calcium for some forms of iron to more than 90% for sodium and 77 mg Potassium 7 mg Sodium 12.5 mg Iron potassium. 1.20 mg Zinc 3300 mg Potassium 0.1 mg Copper 26.4 mg Sodium 15 mg Selenium 1.4 mg Zinc 0.4 mg Copper They are important components of 5.6 mcg Selenium body tissues, fluids and work in conjunction with enzymes,Corn 7 mg Calcium hormones and vitamins. Amaranth 159 mg Calcium 2.71 mg Iron 7.61 mg Iron 287 mg Potassium 508 mg Potassium 35 mg Sodium 4 mg Sodium 2.21 mg Zinc 2.87 mg Zinc 0.31 mg Copper 0.5 mg Copper 15.5 mg Selenium 18.7 mg SeleniumSource: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Phytochemicals Why is it important to talk about phytochemicals? In recent years cereals and their components have been accepted as functional foods and because they provide nutrients with antioxidant activity required for human health.Source: Charalampopoulos D et al.. Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: a review. Int J Food Microbiol.2002;79(1-2):131-41
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Flavonoids - Tannins Tannins of sorghum are almost exclusively of the condensed type. Grains mg/g (dry weight) Sorghum 10.0 - 68.0 Quantification of tannins Finger millet 3.6 - 13.1 from any source is further complicated by a lack of Buckwheat groats 1.7 - appropiate standards Pinto beans 1.5 - 3.3 - the choice of organic Fava beans 0.7 solvent Lentils 3.2 - 10.4 - extraction procedure. Cowpeas 1.8 - 2.9
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Flavonoids - AnthocyaninsLevels of anthocyanins - water-soluble pigments that contribute to the red, blue and purple pigmentation in plant foods Sample Amount (mg/100g) Corn Pink 0.09 0.3-0.9 0.2-5.0 0.3-7.5 0.2-0.9 Red 0.56 Purple 1.6 (mg/100g or 100ml) Blue 0.23 Black Rice 0-4.9 Black sorghum 4.0-9.8 Brown sorghum 1.6-3.9Source: L.Dykes et al.. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Foods World, vol. 52, 2007.JM Awika et al.. Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. Phytochemistry, 65:1199-1221, 2004 Red sorghum 3.3
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Phenolic Acids – benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives  a protective role against the cell-damaging effects of free radicals and they lower the risk of chronic degenerative Health diseases and the risk of the other age-related diseases. Benefits  reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, ischemic stroke, type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome and gastrointestinal cancers. Moreover Phenolic acids reported in cereals occur in both free and bound forms. Sorghum and millet contain the widest variety of them.Source: L.Dykes et al.. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Foods World, vol. 52, 2007; 105-111
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Phenolic acids Levels of phenolic acids in foods and beverages Sample Amount (mg/100g) Finger millet 0.61 Pearl millet 1.48 Corn 0.600.2-3.0 3.0-5.0 4.0-8.0 6.0-9.0 5.0-10 Oats 0.47 (mg/100g or 100ml) Rice 0.20-0.38 Sorghum 0.38-0.74Source: L.Dykes et al.. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Foods World, vol. 52, 2007; 105-111Marja P. Kahkonen et al. Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 3954-396
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011Phytosterols Grain Phytosterols (mg/100g) Sorghum 46-51 Corn 70-88 Barley 55-76 Wheat 40-74 Oats 35-60 Rye 96 Brown rice 72 Buckwheat 96
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011…. but Sorghum has some limitations, due to the presence of some factors such as Trypsin These compounds are known to interfere Amylasae inhibitors with protein, carbohydrates, mineral and Phytic acid other phytochemicals metabolism. TanninsFermentation makes the foods easier to digest and the nutrients easier to assimilate and also itretains enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients that are usually destroyed by food processing.Moreover, fermentation has been used for hundreds of years as an effective and low cost means topreserve the quality and safety of food.
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011The scientific community is not in complete agreement on the use of sorghum as a food for human nutritionbut……. Sorghum Injera Fermented flour Energy (kcal/100g) 385.88 388.48 379.67 Protein 12.25 11.55 10.70 Carbohydrate 74.68 80.16 75.36 Lipid 4.24 2.40 3.93 Fermentation was observed to Fibre 1.71 1.95 1.82 reduce the negative effects of Ca 3.75 4.75 4.99 some nutrients (write in red) Fe 2.24 3.95 3.64  improve mineral extractability Cu 0.61 0.71 0.32  improve protein digestibility Polyphenols 8.10 3.69 6.64  improve the amino acid Phytate 317.65 286.70 247.92 availability Tannins 0.18 0.16 0.18
    • Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Thank you for your attention!Dottoressa Letizia SATURNIDottore in Ricerca e Specialista in Scienze dell’AlimentazioneTutor Master Internazionale di Dietetica e NutrizioneFoodblogger – http://notonlyglutenfree.orgE-mail: lsaturni@univpm.it