Common nutritient deficiencies C. Kupper. Dietary Guidelines and implementation for celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2005; 128:S121-S127 the length of time that an individual has lived with the active, but undiagnosed, disease the extent of damage to the gut intestinal tract the degree of malabsorption Folate, Niacin, Vitamin B 12 Folate, Niacin, Vitamin B 12 , Riboflavin Folate, Niacin, Vitamin B 12 , Riboflavin - - Zinc - Magnesium Magnesium - Vitamin D Vitamin D - Calcium Calcium - Iron Iron Fibre Fibre Fibre - - Protein Long-term gluten-free diet Gluten-free diet Upon diagnosis CELIAC CONDITION
VARIED WELL BALANCED MODERATE CELIAC CONDITION – correct information 1-2 glasses of WINE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Celiac subjects consume small amounts of freshly produced bread, pasta, biscuits and other cakes, whereas they eat a lot of products made by gluten-free food companies. GLUTEN-FREE PRODUCTS The food manufacturers use lipids, sugars, salt and other additives because of their technological properties i.e. to improve the flavour of the food, shelf life, texture of bread or snacks. I hope that they don’t wish to treat their customers badly!
Source: Charalampopoulos D et al.. Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: a review. Int J Food Microbiol. 2002;79(1-2):131-41 Phytochemicals In recent years cereals and their components have been accepted as functional foods and nutraceuticals because they provide nutrients with antioxidant activity required for human health. Why do we want to talk about phytochemicals? CEREALS (not only carbohydrates)
Source: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/ Phytochemicals: Minerals They are important components of body tissues, fluids and they work in conjunction with enzymes, hormones and vitamins. L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates) Corn Rice 11 mg Calcium 1.60 mg Iron 1.20 mg Zinc 15 mg Selenium 0.1 mg Copper 7 mg Sodium 77 mg Potassium 7 mg Calcium 2.71 mg Iron 2.21 mg Zinc 15.5 mg Selenium 0.31 mg Copper 35 mg Sodium 287 mg Potassium Teff Amaranth 180 mg Calcium 7.63 mg Iron 3.63 mg Zinc 4.4 mg Selenium 0.8 mg Copper 12 mg Sodium 427 mg Potassium 159 mg Calcium 7.61 mg Iron 2.87 mg Zinc 18.7 mg Selenium 0.5 mg Copper 4 mg Sodium 508 mg Potassium
Phytochemicals: Minerals The first conclusion to be drawn is that it is most important to choose a good cereal (or a good mix of them). Therefore it is not always necessary to enrich the gluten-free products with minerals. L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates)
Proteins Starch Antioxidants Minerals Vitamins Fibre Minerals Vitamins L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates)
Souce: Sayoko Ideda et al.. Nutritional Profile of Minerals in Buckwheat and Its Products. The proceeding of the 8th ISB :485-488(200 I) Phytochemicals: Buckwheat 100 g of buckwheat flour can provide approximately between 10 and 80% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances ( RDA) for zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates) Buckwheat seeds contain quite high levels of minerals. Buckwheat products (such as pasta, crêpes, cakes, noodles …) appear to be a key source of minerals for those who consume them.
Phytochemicals: dietary fibre Dietary Fibre is the edible part of plants or analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine. Complete or partial fermentation occurs in the large intestine by bacteria (microorganisms that normally live in the digestive tract and can perform a number of useful functions). American Association of Cereals Chemists report, 2001 L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates) Pectins Mucilages Tannins Suberin Saponins Cutin Phytate Waxes Substances Associated with Non-starch Polysaccharides and Lignin Complex in plants Lignins Indigestible (“resistant”) Starch Synthesized Carbohydrate Compounds Indigestible Dextrins (Resistant Maltodextrins, Resistant Potato Dextrins) Analogous Carbohydrates Gums Galactooligosaccharides Polyfructoses (Inulin, Oligofructans) Hemicellulose (Arabinoxylans, Arabonogalactans) Cellulose Non-starch Polysaccharides and Resistant Oligosaccharides
Phytochemicals: dietary fibre American Association of Cereals Chemists report, 2001 CEREALS (not only carbohydrates)
reduces risk of developing and, consequently, dying from coronary heart disease (CHD)
produces a measurable reduction in the peak level of serum glucose after eating and also helps to regulate blood sugar levels
is helpful in preventing constipation
reduces risk of gastrointestinal problems (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) and certain types of cancer (oral cavity, lung, oesophagus, stomach and colon-rectum).
Phytochemicals: dietary fibre In my opinion also in this case, it is not necessary to enrich the products with commercial dietary fibre. They are derived from industrial chemical processes which are patented by food companies. L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates) Fibersure® Alixir regularis® Actilight® Nutriose® Litesse® Citrucell® Fibercon® Benefiber® Usually they are synthetic carbohydrate polymers or they are carbohydrate polymers obtained from foods by physical, chemical and enzymatic processes (inulin and FOS).
Source : L.Dykes et al.. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits . Cereal Foods World, vol. 52, 2007; 105-111 Phytochemicals: phenolic compounds Phenolic Compounds are any compounds containing a benzene ring with one or more hydroxyl groups. Moreover All plant-based foods contain phenols, which affect their appearance, taste, aroma and oxidative stability. L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates)
reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, ischemic stroke, type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome and gastrointestinal cancers.
Phytochemicals: Carotenoids L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates)
reduce the incidence of several chronic degenerative diseases and they have anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties.
Health Benefit Carotenoids are coloured pigments and they are believed to provide antioxidant protection to lipid-rich tissue. They are most abundant in rice, corn, yellow sorghum and millet.
Immagin: GliAironi – Risi&Co, http://www.gliaironi.it/index.php Phytochemicals: Rice L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates) Wholemeal rice Red wild rice Black rice Arborio, Baldo, Carnaroli, Vialone nano White rice
Phytochemicals: Phenolic acids Phenolic acids include gallic, vanilic, syringic, coumaric, caffeic and ferulic are present in all cereals. Moreover Phenolic acids reported in cereals occur in both free and bound forms. Sorghum and millet have the widest variety of them. L. Saturni CEREALS (not only carbohydrates)
have a protective role against the cell-damaging effects of free radicals and they lower the risk of chronic degenerative diseases and the risk of the other age-related diseases.
Levels of phenolic acids in foods 0.2-3.0 3.0-5.0 4.0-8.0 6.0-9.0 5.0-10 Phytochemicals: phenolic acids Source : L.Dykes et al.. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits . Cereal Foods World, vol. 52, 2007; 105-111 Marja P. Kahkonen et al. Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 3954-396 (mg/100g or 100ml) L. Saturni 13th International Coeliac Disease Symposium 2009 1.48 Pearl millet 0.38-0.74 Sorghum 0.20-0.38 Rice 0.47 Oat 0.60 Corn 0.61 Finger millet Amount (mg/100g) Sample
I hope that I have given you an overview of cereals to improve the variety of the raw materials of gluten-free products. L. Saturni Moreover I hope to have demonstrated that if we improve our knowledge about chemical composition of cereals, we will be able to produce healthy and well-balanced gluten-free products. CONCLUSION
L. Saturni Thank you for your kind attention! CONCLUSION Have a happy gluten-free Easter!