Peneltian Prof Merlyna Lim, DEMOCRATIZATION & CORPORATIZATION OF MEDIA

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  • 1.                   @crossroads:   DEMOCRATIZATION  &  CORPORATIZATION  OF  MEDIA     IN  INDONESIA           author:   MERLYNA  LIM         published  jointly  by:   PARTICIPATORY  MEDIA  LAB                  AT  ARIZONA  STATE  UNIVERSITY     &       2011  
  • 2.   TABLE  OF  CONTENT    ACCESS  &  ACCESSIBILITY   1  Television:  c losing  the  urban-­‐rural  divide   2  Radio:  urban  decline,  rural  rise   3  Print:  Limited  reach,  Jakarta  oriented   4  Internet:  Urban  middle  class  consumption   4  Gender  and  age  disparities   7  Mobile  phone  as  a  platform  of  convergence   8  Telecom  infrastructure:  rural  neglect,  non-­‐transparent  spectrum  allocation   9    MEDIA  AND  PUBLIC  INTEREST  COMMUNICATION   10  Media  ownership   10  Television:  C oncentration  of  Ownership   12  Radio:  Growing  Independent  &  Community  Radios   13  Print  media:  Domination  of  Two  Players   13  Online  m edia:  Diverse  Y et  The  Top  Rules   14  Production  and  Content   15  Television:  Domination  of  Urban  Entertainment   15  Radio:  Promise  of  Diversity   16  Print:  Varied  but  not  Plural   16  Online  m edia:  Many  Voices  but  Who  are  Heard?   17    ADVANCING  HUMAN  RIGHTS  &  SOCIAL  JUSTICE  THROUGH  DIGITAL  COMMUNICATIONS   19  Web  1.0  Mobilization   19  Web  2.0  Mobilization   19  The  limitS  of  online  mobilization   19  Online  video  activism   20  Channeling  sensitive/inaccessible/filtered  information   21    CONTROLLING  MEDIA  AND  COMMUNICATIONS   21  Post  Suharto’s  early  democratization  and  the  set  back   21  The  abuse  of  criminal  defamation  codes  &  t he  Indonesian  CyberLaw   22  The  return  of  State  c ontrol:  Ruling  t he  press,  public  access  to  information  &  public  morality   22  Future  Crime  and  C onvergence  Bills   23  Corruption,  intimidation,  and  self-­‐censorship   23    CONCLUDING  REMARKS   24  Summary  of  current  situation   24  Civil  society  engagement—Opportunities   24  Regulatory  and  Policy  Issues   25  Sympathetic  Stakeholders  and  allies   25  Strategies  for  Interventions  &  C hanges   26  Notes   26      
  • 3.   LIST  OF  FIGURES    Figure  1  Most  Important  News  Media  Sources ................................................................................................................3  Figure  2  Most  frequently  used  locations  for  Internet  access .........................................................................................5  Figure  3  Daily  Unique  Visitors:  detik.com  vs  t empointeraktif.com  vs  republika.co.id  (2009-­‐2011) ...........................5  Figure  4  Growth  of  Facebook  users  (2008-­‐2011) ..............................................................................................................6  Figure  5  Twitter:  Indonesia’s  Busiest  Cities ......................................................................................................................7  Figure  6  Male-­‐Female  ratio  of  Facebook  users  (2011) .....................................................................................................8  Figure  7  Age  distribution  of  Facebook  users  (2011) .........................................................................................................8  Figure  8  Teledensity  of  telephony  system  in  %  (2006-­‐2010) ...........................................................................................8  Figure  9  P enetration  map  of  telecom  in  rural  and  urban  area  of  Indonesia  (2010).....................................................9  Figure  10  Timeline:  Television  development  in  Indonesia  (1962-­‐2011)..........................................................................12  Figure  11  Distribution  of  Indonesian  online  media  audiences  (visitors) ...................................................................... 15  Figure  12  Trending  Topics  in  Indonesian  Twitter  (March  2011)......................................................................................17  Figure  13  P opularity  of  Issues  in  Top  80  Indonesian  Blogs ........................................................................................... 18         LIST  OF  TABLES    Table  1  C ountry  Profile......................................................................................................................................................... 1  Table  2  Percentage  of  Population  with  Media  Related  Activities..................................................................................2  Table  3  Weekly  media  use  frequency  for  news ................................................................................................................2  Table  4  Main  sources  of  political  information  (2009)......................................................................................................2  Table  5  Media  usage  in  urban  areas  (2011)........................................................................................................................2  Table  6  Print  Media  in  N umber...........................................................................................................................................4  Table  7  ICT  profile  (2008-­‐2010) ...........................................................................................................................................4  Table  8  Top  50  sites  in  Indonesia  (June  2011) ...................................................................................................................6  Table  9  Profiles  of  select  newspapers  readers.................................................................................................................7  Table  10  Indonesian  Media  C onglomerates ..................................................................................................................... 11  Table  11  Television  landscape:  Main  National  P layers.....................................................................................................12    
  • 4. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim     @crossroads   D EMOCRATIZATION  AND   C ORPORATIZATION  OF   M EDIA  IN   I NDONESIA 1   MERLYNA  LIM*    The  return  of  freedom  of  expression  to  Indonesian  society  and  the  rapid  infiltration  of  the  market  economy   are   the   two   main   elements   that   have   influenced   media   development   in   Indonesia   since  May  1998  in  the  reformasi3  era.  The  rejection  of  the  f ormer  authoritarian  rule  of  the  Suharto  regime  by  Indonesian  society  was  profound  and  led  to  broad-­‐based  support  f or  the  concept  of  political  and  economic  reform,  in  which  the  role  of  the  state  is  to  be  minimized,  and  where  free  market  forces  are  to   preside   over   society,   including   the   media.   This   is   the   socio-­‐political   climate   in   which   the   privatization   of   entire   industries,   Table  1  Country  Profile2   including   the   media,   is   taking   Area   1,904,569  sq  km  (total)   place.  As  a  consequence,  in  the  last   Land   1,811,569  sq  km   decade   since   the   end   of   Suhartos   Water   93,000  sq  km   centralized   media   regime,   the   Population   245,613,043  (July  2011  est.)   media   sector   has   simultaneously   Growth  rate   1.069%  (2011  est.)   undergone   a   democratization   Age  structure   (2011  est.)   process   whilst   expanding     0-­14   27.3%  (male  34,165,213/female  32,978,841)   tremendously   and   giving   way   to   15-­65   66.5%  (male  82,104,636/female  81,263,055)   increasing   media   corporatization.   Meanwhile,   digital   technologies   65  and  over   6.1%  (male  6,654,695/female  8,446,603)     and   converged   platforms   are   not   Urban  population   44%  (2010)     just   making   media   more   Rate   1.7%  annually   ubiquitous,   but   also   offer   Jakarta  (capital)  9,121,000   tremendous   opportunities   to   re-­‐ Surabaya  2,509,000   Major  cities   construct   the   mediascape   in   the   Bandung    2,412,000   (population,  2009  est.)   post-­‐Suharto   Indonesia,   especially   Medan  2,131,000   in   the   political   and   cultural   Semarang  1,296,000   spheres.  Against  this  backdrop,  any   GDP  per  capita   $4,200  (2010  est.)   discussion   on   media   access   and   Labor  force   116.5  m illion  (2010  est.) rights   in   Indonesia   needs   to   be   Unemployment  rate   7.1%  (2010  est.) anchored.      A CCESS   &  A CCESSIBILITY  Like  most  countries,  i n  I ndonesia,  a  country  with  a  population  of  around  238  million,  citizens  access  the   information   mostly   through   the   media—including   print,   television,   radio,   and,   more   recently,  the   Internet.   In   general,   television   still   dominates   the   media   landscape   in   Indonesia.   Over   90%   of  Indonesians  (over  10  years  old)  account  watching  television  as  one  of  their  main  social  and  cultural  activities  (Table  2).  Listening  to  radio,  however,  i s  a  waning  practice  i n  Indonesia.  Only  23.5%  of  the  population   still   listen   to   the   radio,   a   decline   from   over   50%   in   2003   (Table   2).   Meanwhile,   only  18.94%   of   the   population   are   newspaper   readers   and   this,   too,   is   in   decline   (Table   2).   In   the  meantime,   accessing   the   Internet,   a   relatively   newer   activity,   has   grown   popular   among   urban  middle  class  populations.                                                                                                                                *  Director  of  Participatory  Media  L ab  at  ASU,  Faculty  of  School  of  Social  Transformation  and  Consortium  for  Science,  Policy  and  Outcomes,  Arizona  State  University.        
  • 5. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim  In   a   2011   survey   (Table   5),   for   39%   of   a   select   urban   population,   the   Internet   has   become   the  second  most  consumed  media  after  television,  surpassing  r adio  and  newspapers.   Table  2  Percentage  of  P opulation  with  Media  Related  Activities4     2003   2006   2009   Watching  TV 84.94% 85.86% 90.27% Listening  to  Radio 50.29% 40.26% 23.50% Reading  Newspapers 23.70% 23.46% 18.94% Table  3  Weekly  media  use  frequency  for  news5   Media   2006   2007   2009   Television   95%   97%   97%   Radio   50%   44%   35%   Newspaper   22%   17%   16%   Internet/Online   2%   3%   4%   SMS   6%   5%   9%   Table  4  Main  sources  of  political  information  (2009)6   Media   %   Television   82%   Radio   26%   Newspaper   23%   Internet   4%   Table  5  Media  usage  in  urban  areas  (2011)7   Media   %   Television   97%   Internet   33%   Newspaper   25%   Radio   24%    TELEVISION:  CLOSING  THE   U RBAN-­‐RURAL   D IVIDE  There   has   been   increase   in   the   number   of   households   with   a   television   set,   from   54%   in   2000   to  65%   in   2007.8   Inline   with   Table   2,   a   survey   by   InterMedia   (2010)   reports   that   91%   of   total  population  has  access  to  television.9  While  there  is  a  slight  disparity  of  access  b etween  urban  (96%)  and   rural   (88%)   populations,10   the   television   has   successfully   made   its   way   to   almost   every  Indonesian  living  room.  Most  of  the  adult  population  in  the  country  watches  the  news  on  television  at  least  once  a  week. Television  also  maintains  its  position  as  the  most  i mportant  source  of  news,  as  shown   in   Table   3.   A   comparable   survey   focusing   on   political   information   by   the   International  Republican  I nstitute  (2009)  in  Table  4  also  yields  similar  results.    By  and   large,  accessing  television  is  no  longer  a   problem  for   any  regular  Indonesia.  But   that  does  not   imply   that   television   serves   various   populations   equally.   Nor   do   all   segments   of   society   have  equal  and  fair  access  to  needed  information.  Despite  the  fact  that  88%  of  rural  access,  people  living  in  remote  areas,  mostly,  can  only  watch  state  owned  television  Televisi  Republik  Indonesia  (TVRI);  they  are  prohibited  from  accessing  other  stations.  Subscription-­‐based  cable  and  satellite  television  services  are  growing  very  slowly.  In  2009,  close  to  15%  of  Indonesian  households  had  satellite  television.11  In  the  same  year,  overall  household  cable  access   was   at   3%,   however   it   only   experienced   very   modest   growth   in   rural   areas   with   less   than  1%.12     2  
  • 6. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    RADIO:  URBAN  DECLINE,  RURAL  RISE  Although   broadcast   radio   is   highly   accessible   from   most   places   in   Indonesia,   in   contrast   to  television,   household   radio   ownership   has   been   in   decline   since   2006.   Sixty   seven   percent   of  households  had  at  least  one  radio  by  December  2006,  compared  to  50%  by  April  2009.13  The  most  severe  drop  in  radio  ownership  in  the  past  year  occurred  in  urban  areas,  from  72%  in  late  2007  to   58%   in   early   2009.14   As   stated   previously,   TPI Print listening   to   radio   news   is   a   declining   activity   in   2% Radio Trans TV 4% 3% 1% Indonesia.  In  2009  only  35%   of  Indonesians   are   TVRI weekly   radio   news   listeners,   which   has   4% RCTI 29% decreased   from   50%   by   December   2006.15   This   TV One data   is   consistent   with   another   survey   by   5% Nielsen  Research,  which  shows  that  in  2009  only   31%  of  urban  dwellers  listened  to  the  radio  on  a   Metro TV weekly  basis  decreased  from  50%  in  2005.16  The   15% 2011   Net   Index   Survey   of   Yahoo!     Indonesia— with   respondents   living   in   Jakarta,   Bogor,   SCTV Tangerang,   Bekasi,   Surabaya,   Bandung,   Medan,   Indosiar 21% Medan,   Semarang,   Palembang,   Makassar,   16% Yogyakarta  and  Denpasar—shows  an  even  lower   figure,   with   only   24%   of   the   population   still   listening  to  the  radio.    Figure  1  Most  Important  News  Media  Sources 17  In   spite  of  its  obvious  downturn,  radio   still  comes   second  after   TV  as  a   source  of  news  in  general  (Table   3)   as   well   as   of   information   about   day-­‐to-­‐day   politics   (Table   4).   Yet,   only   1   percent   of  Indonesians   mentioned   a   radio   station   when   asked   about   their   most   important   source   of   news  (Figure   1).   Despite   this   trend,   Radio   KBR68H   reports   an   increase   in   time   devoted   to   listening   the  radio.18  For  some  segments  of  society,  radio  may  still  be  an  attractive  alternative  vis-­‐à-­‐vis  the  poor  quality  of  TV  news  reporting.  The  majority  of  the  stations  broadcast  their  programs  in  Indonesian,  but   there   are   some   programs   in   local   languages.   Some   foreign   stations,   such   as   the   BBC   World  Service,  Radio  Australia,  and  Voice  of  America  are  accessible  in  Indonesian.  In   contrast   to   those   living   in   urban   areas,   Indonesians   in   remote   and/or   border   areas   assert   that  radio  is  their  only  source  of  information  and  entertainment.  This  contributes  to  the  availability  of  a  state-­‐owned  radio,  Radio  Republik  Indonesia  (RRI),  in  those  areas.  In  Ende,  Nusa  Tenggara  Timur,  for  example,  85%   of  the  population   listens   to  RRI.   While  in  Bangka-­‐Belitung  islands,   RRI   listeners  count  for  90%  of  over  1.2  million  residents.19    Radio   listeners   seem   to   be   concentrated   in   two   social   groups   of   differing   classes.   Popular   urban  radio   stations   are   predominantly   consumed   by   middle-­‐class,   young   (18-­‐25   years   old),20   urban  dwellers   in   big   cities.21   Observably,   this   reflects   the   accessibility   of   this   population   to   private   car  ownership   as   radio   is   mostly   listened   to   while   driving   to/from   work.22   While   those   from   lower  income  groups  residing  in  r emote  areas,  as  mentioned  above,  listen  to  RRI  stations.    With  only  85%  of  Indonesian  areas  reachable  by  radio  broadcast,  more  than  forty  thousand  villages  are   left   without   access   to   radio.   Community   radios   emerged   out   of   this   situation   to   fill   the   gap   in  both   access   and   content   disparities.   It   is   estimated   there   are   700   of   them   operating   all   over   the  archipelago,  including  i n  remote  villages.23   3  
  • 7. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    PRINT:  LIMITED   R EACH,   J AKARTA   O RIENTED  While  representing  only  20%  (Table  2,  Table  3),  reading  newspapers  comes  third  after  (watching)  television   and   (listening   to)   radio.   Only   2%   of   respondents,   however,   referred   to   newspapers   as  their  most  i mportant  source  of  news  (Table  4,  Figure  1).  Television  and  radio,  the  print  media  has  a  far  more  limited  reach.  The  number  of  print  media  grew  significantly  since  1998  reformasi,  yet  the  overall  circulation  and  readership  has  not  increased  much.  In  1997,  with  only  289  print  media,  the  circulation   reached   14.4   million   copies.   Meanwhile,   in   2010   where   the   number   of   print   media  quadrupled   to   1,076,   together   they   only   produced   21.5   million   copies24   in   which   over   60%   are  circulated   in   Jakarta.   Print   media   is   reasonably   accessible   all   over   the   country,   but   numbers   of  available  prints  and  their  circulations  are  highly  unequal.  The  numbers  are  exceptionally  low  in  the  eastern   part   of   Indonesia.   For   instance,   provinces   in   Papua   have   only   45,000   copies   daily,   West  Sulawesi  15,500,  and  10,800  for  Gorontalo.25     Table  6  Print  Media  in  Number26   Year   Total  n o.  of  print  media   1997   289          03/1999   289   1999   1,381   2001   1,881   2006   889   2007   983   2008   1,008   2009   1,036   2010   1,076    INTERNET:   U RBAN  MIDDLE   C LASS   C ONSUMPTION  In   June   2010,   the   Ministry   of   Communications   and   Information   Technology   reported   that   the  number   of   Indonesian   Internet   users   had   reached   45   million,   or   approximately   18.5%   of   total  population,27  growing  50%  from   30   million  in  2009  (Table  7).28  This  was  a  dramatic  growth  from  only  0.26%  in  1998.29  The  number  of  broadband  Internet  connections  has  more  than  doubled  since  2008.30   However,   broadband   service   remains   prohibitively   expensive   or   otherwise   unavailable   to  many   Indonesians.   Currently,   personal   broadband   users   in   average   spend   200,000   to   500,000  Indonesian  rupiahs  (US$23-­‐59)  per  month.31  By  comparison,  the  monthly  per  capita  income  among  the   poorest   segments   of   the   population   is   less   than   355,000 rupiah   (US$41),32   and   in   Jakarta   the  minimum  wage  for  workers  is  about  1.29  million  rupiah  (around  US$151)  per  month.33     Table  7  ICT  profile  (2008-­2010)34   2008 2009 2010 No.  of  Internet  users  (000) 25,000  (10.5%) 30,000  (12.9%) 45,000  (18.5%) No.  of  broadband  Internet  subscribers  (000) 1,457  (0.6%) 2,263  (1%) 3,447  (1.5%) %  of  fixed  broadband   0.43   0.73   —   No.  of  mobile  broadband  subscribers  (‘000)   3,300  (3.48%)   (6.4%)   —   (‘(‘000)(‘000)   w ith  Internet     %  of  households   1.32  (2007)   —   —   %  of  households  w ith  computers   8.22   8.4   —   %  of  fixed  telephone  subscribers   13.36   14.76   —   %  of  prepaid  mobile  phone  subscribers   90   —   91.1   %  of  regular  mobile  phone  subscribers   61.83   69.24   —   No.  of  mobile  phone  penetration  (‘000)   140,578   163,676   211,145     4  
  • 8. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim  Home   broadband   connections   are   still   the   luxury   of   the   urban   middle   and   upper   classes,  particularly  in  big  cities  on  Java.  Given  Indonesia’s  archipelagic  geography,  cable  infrastructure  has  been  costly  to  provide  and  is  mostly  confined  to  urban  areas,  particularly  in  Java  and  Bali.  Another  factor  contributing  to  the  low  use  of  ICTs  is  the  limited  knowledge  and  use  of  English.  Indonesians  use   Indonesian,   the   national   language,   at   work   and   school   as   well   as   in   daily   conversations   while  other  local  dialects  and  languages  are  still  very  i mportant  in  certain  areas.  As  such  the  ability  to  use  the  I nternet  is  limited.  Since  most  Indonesians  have  no  access  to  fixed  telephones,  computers  or  the  Internet,  and  because  they   cannot   afford   to   own   these   facilities   or   pay   to   use   these   services   (even   when   access   is  available),   the   Internet   café,   warnet   model   of   Internet   access   has   been   most   successful.   Warnets  provide   relatively   affordable   access   ranging   from   as   low   as   US$   0.1   to   US$2   (depending   on   the  location)  per  hour  any  time  of  the  day.  Currently,  there  are  about  5,000  warnets  in  Indonesia  where  64%  of  Internet  users  (65%  in  urban  areas  and  63%  in  rural)  gain  Internet  access  (Figure  2).    Figure  2  Most  frequently  used  locations  for  Internet  access35   65% In   addition   to   warnet,   there   is   also   64% 70% 63% RT/RW-­‐Net   initiative.   RT/RW-­‐Net   is   60% neighborhood   Internet   network   using   wireless   technology,   an   initiative   50% proposed  and  started  by  Onno  Purbo  and   40% Urban his   groups   in   2004.36   The   network   is   Rural 30% Total built   using   wireless   (radio   packet   19% 18% 18% 15% Internet)   connection.   It   can   connect   6   20% 17% 14% 12% 14% houses   with   8   connection   ports.   Purbo   9% 9% 8% 10% 5% 3% 2% and   his   groups   modified   the   0% 1% specifications   for   the   network   to   use   a fé or k sit y me ic e he r some   recycled   elements,   such   as   empty   tc w er ho ev Ot ne At niv At ed tin   cans,   to   minimize   the   cost   of   t er /u bil In ge o At co lle gh m equipment.  The  monthly  subscription  fee   o l/ ro u sc ho Th is   approximately   US$35-­‐40   plus   a   start-­‐ At up   fee   of   US$50.   There   is   no   definite   number   of   RT/RW   networks.   However,  with   the   little   progress   the   government   and   big   corporations   have   made   in   providing   affordable  Internet,   especially   in   peri-­‐urban   and   rural   areas,   the   neighborhood   networks   will   continue   to  grow.    Online  media.  With  the  relatively  small  I nternet  population,  consequently  online  media  is  still  very  much   a   minor   source   of   information   (only   4%,   as   shown   in   Table   3   and   Table   4).   Yet,   accessing  online   news   has   been   one   of   the   most   dominant   online   activities   of   Indonesian   users.   The   most  popular  local  news  sites  are  Detik.com,  followed  by  Kompas.com,  Vivanews.com  and  Okezone.com.    Figure  3  Daily  Unique  V isitors:  detik.com  vs  tempointeraktif.com  vs  republika.co.id  (2009-­2011)37   Most   popular   websites   among  Indonesians,  however,   are   not   local   ones.   Global   social   networking   site   Facebook.com   ranks   first,   followed  by  the  global  search   engine,   Google,   and   Blogger.com,   as   one   of   the   oldest  blogging  platforms.38     Among   the   top   50   sites,   19   are   local   and   31   are   global.   Detik   dominates   the   chart   by   5  
  • 9. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim  claiming   position   #11,   #17,   #19,   and   #34.   Meanwhile,   kaskus.us,   the   Indonesian   online   forum,  authoritatively  positions  itself  in  rank  #6,  to  b e  the  only  Indonesian  site  that  makes  it  to  the  top  10.  While   not   as   popular   as   Detik.com,   nearly   all   major   newspapers   have   an   online   presence.   For  example,   Kompas   with   its   kompas.com   and   kompasiana.com,   while   Tempo   owns  tempointeraktif.com,  and  Republika  has  r epublika.co.id.       Table  8  Top  50  s ites  in  Indonesia  (June  2011)39   URL       URL     1. facebook.com   global     26. paypal.com   global   2. google.co.id   global   27. okezone.com   local   3. google.com   global   28. clicksor.com   global   4. blogger.com   global   29. histats.com   global   5. yahoo.com   global   30. googleusercontent.com   global   6. kaskus.us   local   31. kapanlagi.com   local   7. youtube.com   global   32. indowebster.com   local   8. wordpress.com   global   33. bankmandiri.com   local   9. twitter.com   global   34. detikhot.com   local   10. 4shared.com   global   35. bing.com   global   11. detik.com   local   36. goal.com   global   12. wikipedia.com   global   37. games.co.id   local   13. vivanews.com   global   38. live.com   global   14. kompas.com   local   39. nicrosoft.com   global   15. klikbca.com   local   40. lintasberita.com   local   16. bp.blogspot.com   global   41. photobucket.com   global   17. detiknews.com   local   42. wordpress.org   global   18. mediafire.com   global   43. indowebster.web.id   local   19. detiksport.com   local   44. scribd.com   global   20. ziddu.com   global   45. kompasiana.com   local   21. adsense-­id.com   local   46. sponsoredviews.com   global   22. tokobagus.com   local   47. files.wordpress.com   global   23. adf.ly   global   48. yieldmanager.com   global   24. multiply.com   global   49. stafaband.info   local   25. amazon.com   global   50. idr-­clickit.com   local  All   major   national   televisions   also   own   websites   and   some   are   making   their   (select)   programs  available   online   through   live   streaming.   Among   the   most   popular   live   streaming   sites   are  liputan6.com   (from   SCTV),   metrotvnews.com,   and   kickandy.com   (MetroTV’s   talk   show).  Commercial   radio   stations’   programs,   too,   are   mostly   available   online.   They   are   mostly   accessible  from  the  livestreaming  aggregator  such  as  IndoSound40  and  Radioguide.FM.41  Blogging.   Blogging   platforms   such   as   blogger.com   and   wordpress.com   are   among   the   most  accessed  sites  by  Indonesians.42  The  number  of  I ndonesian  bloggers  i s  not  very  well  documented.  I n  2007   the   estimated   number   of   bloggers   in   Indonesia   was   around   150,000.43   In   contrast   to   some  claims  that  the  Indonesian  blogosphere  has   started  to  die   with  the  rapid  growth  of  Facebook   and  Twitter  users,  the  number  of  bloggers  has  increased.  The  most  recent,  and,  reliable,  source  records  over  5  millions  blogs  in  2011.44    Figure  4  Growth  of  Facebook  users  (2008-­2011)45   Facebook  and  Twitter.  Despite  the  r easonably  low  number   of  Internet  subscribers,  Indonesia  witnesses  a  rapid  growth   in   social   media   usage.   As   clearly   shown   in   Figure   4,   Facebook   is   tremendously   popular   among   Indonesian   Internet  users.  It  shows  47.3%  growth  in  twelve   months  or   18,000%   of   the   Facebook   population   in   mid   2008   (only   6  
  • 10. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim  209,760),  when  Indonesians  started  to  recognize  the  availability  of  this  social  networking  platform.  In  September  2011,  the  total  Facebook  users  in  Indonesia  r eaches  40,418,860  making  i t  the  second  largest  nation  on  Facebook,  exceeded  only  by  the  United  States.  The  number  represents  16.46%  of  Indonesia’s   total  population.  In  addition  to   Facebook,  Indonesians  also  embrace   Twitter  as  one   of  their  social  networking  tools.  In  August  2010,   ComScore.com  reported  that  Indonesia,  at  20.8%  of  93   million,   had   the   highest   proportion   of   its   home   and   work   Internet   audience   visiting  Twitter.com.46   Reflecting   strongly   a   pattern   of   technological   dependency,   social   media   users   are  concentrated   in   urban   areas   with   over   60%   traffic   coming   from   a   small   number   of   cities   such   as  Jakarta,  B andung,  Medan,  Y ogyakarta,  Surabaya,  and  Semarang  (Figure  5).   Figure  5  Twitter:  Indonesia’s  Busiest  Cities47  GENDER  AND  AGE  DISPARITIES    Among  television  viewers  and  radio  listeners  there  are  no  significant  disparities.  While  there  is  no  general  statistics  on  the  male-­‐female  ratio  of  newspaper  readers,  numbers  from  select  newspapers  show  a  serious  gender  divide  (Table  9)  and  the  concentration  of  readership  on  people  aged  20-­‐39  years  old.     Table  9  Profiles  of  select  newspapers  readers 48     Gender  ratio   Age  Kompas   Male  76%            Female  24%   30-­‐34:  19%  Jakarta  Globe   Male  60%            Female  40%   15-­‐24:  25%          25-­‐34:  39%            35+:  37%   10-­‐19:  24%          20-­‐29:  32%            30-­‐39:  22%  Seputar  Indonesia   Male  53%            Female  47%   40-­‐49:  12%          50+:  10%  Suara  Pembaruan   Male  67%            Female  33%   20-­‐29:  38%            30-­‐39:  51%    Despite  the  growth  of  I nternet  and  social  media  users,  gender  and  age  disparities  persist.  These  are  reflected  in  the   demographic  of  Indonesian   Facebook  users  where  60%  of  the  users   are   male   and  40%  female  (Figure  4),  predominantly  18-­‐34  years  old  (62%)  with  only  1%  are  over  55  years  old  (Figure  7),  which  reflects  gender/age  disparities  of  Internet  access  in  general.  The  biggest  group  of   7  
  • 11. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim   Internet  users  are  Indonesians  aged  between  15  and  24.  Similar  disparities  are  f ound  among  mobile   web  users,  where  53%  are  18-­‐27  and  82%  are  male.49           Figure  6  Male-­Female  ratio  of  Facebook  users  (2011)50   Figure  7  Age  distribution  of  Facebook  users  (2011)51   MOBILE   P HONE  AS  A   P LATFORM  OF   C ONVERGENCE   Mobile  telephony  continues  to  be  the   most  popular  communication  tool  in  Indonesia.  “The   mobile   telephone  ownership  is   much   more  widespread  and  expands   at  a   more  rapid  pace  than  computer   ownership  and  Internet  subscriptions  do.  The  urban-­‐rural  divide  in  mobile  telephone  ownership  is   slowly   closing.”52   In   2010,   there   are   approximately   211   million   mobile   phone   users   in   Indonesia   (Table   7)   with   over   88%   of   mobile   phone   penetration   (Figure   8).   Mobile   phone   ownership   at   the   household  level  in  rural  areas  grew  from  24%  to  45%  in  roughly  one  year.  In  2009,  69%  of  urban   households  have  at  least  one  mobile  phone  (compared  to  53%  a  year  before).53     The   growth   of   Internet   access   via   mobile   phones   has   been   a   positive   development,   as   prices   are   relatively   affordable   and   the   cost   of   the   necessary   infrastructure   is   far   less   than   for   cable   broadband.   Telkomsel,   the   largest  100 mobile-­‐phone   service   provider,   has   90 88.85 reported   that   mobile   phone   Internet   service  is  available  in  all  major  cities   80 and   the   capitals   of   all   regencies.54   71.75 70 58%   of   the   Internet   users   in   urban   61.72 areas   access   the   Internet   via   mobile   60 phones.55   50 The   boom   in   mobile   phones   as   a   41.52 40 means   of   social   networking   is   28.73 significant.   Data   from   30 SalingSilang.com,  for  example,  shows   20 that   86.98%   access   Twitter   from   13.37 9.53 11.69 mobile   devices.56   The   sharp   increase   10 3.94 2.71 3.88 4.81 3.81 3.69 3.55 of   Facebook   users   in   2009   was,   0 hypothetically,   related   to   the   2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 increased   sale   of   BlackBerry   and   similar  mobile  devices.57     Fixed Wired Phone Fixed Wireless Phone Mobile Phone   Figure  8  Teledensity  of  telephony  system  in  %  (2006-­2010)58   8  
  • 12. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim  TELECOM   INFRASTRUCTURE:   RURAL   NEGLECT,   NON-­‐TRANSPARENT   SPECTRUM  ALLOCATION  The  telecom  sector  has  been  one  of  the  fastest  growing  sectors  i n  the  country,  with  over  200  million  wireless  subscribers.  However,  certain  aspects  of  spectrum  allocation,  vertical  integration,  as  well  as   neglect   of   marginalized   communities,   especially   in   rural   areas,   by   telecom   service   providers  remain  areas  of  concern.  Rural  areas  lack  access  to  even  the  most  basic  telecom  infrastructure.  Of  the  66,778  villages  across  Indonesia,  almost  65  percent  r emain  unwired59  and  19  million  households  (40%  of  the  population)  have   no   electricity   service.60   In   2010   (see   Figure   8),   teledensity   of   fixed   telephony   in   Indonesia  reaches  3.55%,  which  means  there  are  7  wired  telephone  connection  units  serving  200  people.  This  number   is   categorized   as   low   teledensity.   The   utilization   of   wireless   telephony   (mobile   phone),  however,   has   reached   88.85%   which   can   be   considered   as   high-­‐teledensity.   The   central   problem,  thus,   is   not   the   low   teledensity   in   the   country,   but   unequal   distribution   of   telecom   infrastructure.    The  telecom  penetration   shows  a  significant   gap  between  urban  and  rural  areas   (Figure  9).   While  teledensity  of  urban  areas  has  reached  35%  or  at  least  11-­‐25%,  in  rural  areas  it  only  reaches  0.25%  (Figure  9).     Figure  9  Penetration  map  of  telecom  in  r ural  and  urban  area  of  Indonesia  (2010)61    Funding   for   rural   ICT   development   in   Indonesia   is   obtained   from   all   licensed   telecommunication  operators  and  service  providers.  “To  develop  communications  access  i n  remote  and  i solated  areas”,  operators  are  “obliged  to  pay   an   USO  (Universal   Service  Obligation)  distribution  of  0.75%  of  their  annual   revenues”.   But   “this   contribution   is   considered   too   small”   and   “there   is   a   concern   over  government  transparency  in  managing  this  USO  fund.”62    Using   the  USO  funding,  the   Ministry  of   Communication   and  Information  has  started  two  rural  ICT  development   programs.   The   first   program,   Desa   Berdering   (Ringing   Village),   was   launched   to  provide   telephone   access   in   all   villages   in   Indonesia   by   2010.   The   program   does   not   seem   to   be  equally  sustainable  across  villages.  In  some  villages,  villagers  stopped  using  the  service  as  soon  as  the   (subsidized)   credit   ran   out.   Four   months   after   the   deadline,   in   April   2011,   the   program   has  served  only  32,800  villages  out  of  43,000  targeted  villages.63  The  Minister,  though,  is  optimistic  that  the  whole  program  will  b e  completed  i n  no  time.    The   second   program,   Desa   Pinter   (an   abbreviation   of   Desa   Punya   Internet,   or   “the   village   has  Internet”),  which  in  Bahasa  Indonesia  also  literally   means  “smart  village”,  is  a  program   to  provide  internet   access   to   all   villages   in   Indonesia   by   2015   by   developing   5,748   district   Internet   service   9  
  • 13. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim  centers.   It   is   too   early   to   predict   whether   this   program   is   successful   or   not.   Being   delayed   due   to  some  problems  associated  with  the  auction  document,  the  program  finally  started  in  2010  and   was  inaugurated  by  the  President  in  January  2011.    Much   of   the   telecom   infrastructure   problems   originate   from   the   regulatory   framework.   For  example,  the  existing  regulations  regarding  telecom  access  provision  allows  for  vertical  integration  (e.g.   PTSN—long   distance   and   international   calls—duopoly)   which   makes   it   hard   to   control   anti-­‐competition   practices.64   Meanwhile,   the   current   licensing   process   for   spectrum   allocation   lacks  clarity  and  transparency  and  is  suspected  to  b e  “corrupt,  involving  collusion  and  nepotism.” 65  M EDIA  AND   P UBLIC   I NTEREST   C OMMUNICATION    The   demise   of   the   Suharto   era   in   1998   produced   several   positive   developments   for   media  democratization   in   Indonesia.   The   Department   of   Information,   once   led   by   the   infamous   Minister  Harmoko   was   abandoned,   followed   by   several   major   deregulations   that   changed   the   media  landscape   dramatically.   From   1998   to   2002,   over   1200   new   print   media,   more   than   900   new  commercial   radio   and   five   new   commercial   television   licenses   were   issued.   Over   the   years,  however,   Indonesian   media   went   ‘back   to   business’   again.   Corporate   interests   took   over   and  continues  to  dominate  the  current  Indonesian  media  landscape.      MEDIA  OWNERSHIP  The   map   of   media   ownership   in   Indonesia   (Table   10)   shows   that   12   media   groups   have   control  over  100%  of  national  commercial  television  shares  (10  out  of  10  stations).  These  groups  also  own  five   out   of   six   newspapers   with   the   highest   circulation,   four   out   of   the   four   most   popular   online  news  media,  a  majority  of  Jakarta-­‐flagship  entertainment  radio  networks,  and  a  significant  portion  of   the   major   local   television   networks.   In   addition,   some   of   these   groups   also   take   control   over  digital   pay-­‐TV   services   and   media   related   businesses,   such   as   telecommunications,   information  technology,  and  content  production  and  distribution.  Media  corporations,  too,  have  expanded  their  businesses   into   non-­‐media   sectors   and,   thus,   given   their   owners   stronger   economic   and   political  control.    Among   these   groups,   there   are   veteran   players   such   as   Kompas   Gramedia   Group   and   Jawa   Pos  Group  that,  in  Sen  and  Hill’s  words,  “given  their  relative  political  autonomy,  were  least  vulnerable  to  the  political  and  economic  crisis  of  the  last  days  of  the  New  Order,  and  best  placed  to  move  into  the   post-­‐Suharto   era.”66   Then   there   are   groups   that   have   obvious   political   ties.   Media   Group   is  owned   by   Surya   Paloh,   the   Chairman   of   the   Advisory   Board   of   the   former   ruling   party   Golkar.67  Another  Golkar  related  company  is  Bakrie  &  Brothers  (antv  and  TVOne,  among  others).  Its  owner  Aburizal  Bakrie  is  the   Chairman  of   Golkar.68   While   not   directly  involved  in  politics,  Lippo   Group’s  owner  James   Riyadi  has   made   his   political   connections   apparent  by  appointing   Theo  Sambuaga,   a  prominent  leader  of  Golkar,  as  the  president  of  the  group.  Another  player,  Trans  Corpora  (Trans  TV  and   Trans   7),   is   owned   by   Chairul   Tanjung   who   is   a   close   ally   of   President   Susilo   Bambang  Yudhoyono.   While   not  affiliated   with  any   political   party,  Hary  Tanoesoedibjo  of  the  MNC   Group  is  known  for  his  close  r elations  with  major  political  players.69    Interesting   to   note   here   is   the   prominence   Tempo   Inti   Media   Harian   (of   Tempo   magazine   and  newspaper),  headed  by  writer  Goenawan  Muhammad.  Tempo  is  the  only  non-­‐media  conglomerate  that  survives  i n  the  mainstream  media  industry  while  maintaining  its  political  i ndependence.  As  the  media   environment   is   dominated   by   just   a   small   number   of   large   corporations—some   of   which  have  obvious  political  connections—the  Indonesian  public  does  not  receive  an  adequate  quality  or  quantity  of  news  and  i s  only  exposed  to  the  viewpoints  and  opinions  of  a  few.  This  concentration  of  ownership   also  leads   to  a  disproportional   political   control  by   the   media,70  the  public’s  decreasing  access  to  important  i nformation,  and  the  under-­‐representation  of  certain  groups  in  the  media.71   10  
  • 14. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim   Table  10  Indonesian  Media  Conglomerates 72   TV  stations   Print   Media  Group   Group  L eader   Radio  stations   Online  media   Other  businesses   National   Other   Newspapers   Magazines/  Tabloids   RCTI,   Indovision,  Sky   IT,  content  production   Trijaya  FM,  Radio   Media  Nusantara   Hary   Global  TV,   Vision,  SunTV   Seputar  Indonesia   High  End  magz,  Genie,   and  distributions,  talent   Dangdut,  ARH   Okezone   Citra  (MNC)  Group   Tanoesoedibjo   MNCTV  (ex   Network  (13   (Koran  Sindo)   Mom  &  Kiddie  tabloids   management,   Global  Radio   TPI)   local  stations)   automobile   Republika,     Parents  Indonesia,  A+,   Mahaka  Media   Entertainment,  outdoor   Erick  Tohir   TVOne   Jak  TV,  Alif  TV   Radio  JakFM   Harian  Indonesia     Golf  Digest,  Area,   Republika  Online   Group   advertisement   (in  Mandarin)   magazines   Hotels,  public  relation   Currently  build   Kompas,  Jakarta  Post,   Intisari  +  43  magazines   Kompas  Gramedia   Jakob  Oetama,   Sonora  Radio  &   Kompas  Cyber   agencies,  university  &   —   Kompas  TV   Warta  Kota,  +  other  11   &  tabloids,  5  book   Group   Agung  Adiprasetyo   Otomotion  Radio   Media   telecommunication   network   local  papers   publishers   tower  (in  plan)   JTV,  BatamTV,   Jawa  Pos,  Indo  Pos   RiauTV,  FajarTV   Fajar  FM   Mentari,  Liberty   Jawa  Pos  D igital   Travel  bureau,  power   Jawa  Pos  Group   Dahlan  Iskan   —   Rakyat  Merdeka,  Radar   +  others  (total:   (Makassar)   magazines  +  11  tabloids   Edition   plant   +  others  (total:  151)   12)   Bali  Post,  Bisnis  Bali,   Bali  TV  +  other   Global  Kini  Jani,   Tokoh,  Lintang,  &   Media  Bali  Post   Suluh  Indonesia,   Bali  Post,  Bisnis   Satria  Narada   —   local  stations   Genta  FM  +  others   Wiyata  Mandala   —   Group  (KMB)   Harian  Denpost,  &   Bali   (total:  9)   (total:  7)   tabloids   Suara  NTB   Wireless  broadband,   Elang  Mahkota   pay-­‐TV,   Eddy  K usnadi   SCTV,   O’Channel,   Elshinta,  Gaul,  Story,   Teknologi   Elshinta  FM   —   —   telecommunications,   Sariaatmadja   Indosiar   ElShinta  TV   Kort,  Mamamia   (EMTEK)  Group   banking,  IT  solutions,   production  house   Jakarta  Globe,  Investor   Investor,  Globe  Asia,  &   Jakarta   Property,  hospital,   Lippo  Group   James  Riady   —   First  Media   —   Daily,  Suara   Campus  Asia  magazines   Globe  Online   education,  insurance   Pembaruan   Telecommunications,   antv,   property,  metal,  oil  &   Bakrie  &  Brothers   Anindya  Bakrie   Channel  [V]   —   —   —   VIVAnews   TVOne   gas,  agribusiness,  coal,   physical  infrastructure   Pia  Alisyahbana,   Femina,  Gadis,  Dewi,   Femina,  GitaCinta,   Production  house,  event   U-­‐FM  Jakarta  &   Femina  Group   Mirta   —   —   —   Ayahbunda  +  others   Ayahbunda,  Gadis,   management,  boutique,   Bandung   Kartohadiprodjo   (total:  15)   Parenting  Online   education,  printing   Media  Indonesia,   Media  Group   Surya  Paloh   Metro  TV   —   —   Lampung  Post,   —   Media  Indonesia   —   BorneoNews   Mugi  Reka   Cosmopolitan  FM,   Cosmopolitan,   Holder  of  several   Dian  Muljani   Aditama  (MRA)   —   —   Hard  Rock  FM,  I-­‐ —   Cosmogirl,  Fitness  +   —   international  boutique   Soedarjo   Group   Radio,  Trax  FM   others  (total:  16)   brands   Banking,  venture   Trans  Corpora   Trans  TV,   capital,  insurance,   Chairul  Tanjung   —   —   —   —   Detik  Online   (Para  Group)   Trans  7   theme  parks,  resort,   retail,  cinema   11  
  • 15. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    TELEVISION:  CONCENTRATION   O F   O WNERSHIP  Figure  10  Timeline:  Television  development  in  Indonesia  (1962-­2011)  73   Currently   there   are   10   private   national   television   networks   in   Indonesia—RCTI,   Global   TV,   MNCTV,   SCTV,   Indosiar,   TVOne,   antv,   Metro   TV,   Trans   TV,   Trans   7—that   operate   in   competition   with   the   state-­‐owned   Televisi   Republik   Indonesia   (TVRI).   In   addition,   there   are   more   than   100   local   television   stations   all   over   the   country   and   some   locally   produced   programming   and  cable  television  channels.    Six  groups   own  all   ten  private  national  television  networks.  Among   these  groups,  MNC   Group   has  the  highest  share  (36.7%)  with  the  ownership  of  RCTI,  Global  TV,  and  MNCTV,  making  it  the  most  powerful  player  in  broadcast  television.  The  newcomer  EMTEK,  which  just  controversially  acquired  Indosiar   in   May   2011,   comes   second   with   31.5%,   followed   by   Trans   Corp   (18.5%)   and   the  partnership   of   Bakrie   and   MM   Group   (8.7%).   Meanwhile,   TVRI,   which   was   the   only   television  broadcaster  in  the  country  from  1962  to  1989,  currently  has  the  smallest  share  with  only  1.4%  of  the  total  television  market  share.  The  concentration  of  ownership   of  television  in  Indonesia  results  from   the   practice   of   mergers.   While   mergers   and   the   consolidation   of   media   business   is   a   logical  consequence   of   media   liberalization,   it   is   not   favorable   in   terms   of   media   democratization.   When  there   is   lack   of   competition   and   only   a   small   number   of   media   companies   remain,   power   and  dominance  is  inevitable.  The  companies  r emaining  dominate  the  media  industry  and  create  a  media  oligopoly  and  will  contribute  to  biased  political  views.     Table  11  Television  landscape:  Main  National  Players 74   TV  channels   First  on  air   Current  status     Market  share  %   TVRI   1962   State/Independent   1.4   1.4   RCTI   1987   Merged  ( MNC)   19   Global  TV   2001   Merged  ( MNC)   5.1   36.7   MNCTV  (formerly  TPI)+   1990   Merged  ( MNC)   12.6   SCTV   1989   Merged  (EMTEK)+   17.3   31.5   Indosiar   1995   Merged  (EMTEK)+   14.2   Trans  TV   2001   Merged  (TransCorp)   12.1   18.5   Trans  7   2001,  re-­launch  in  2006   Merged  (TransCorp)   6.4   TVOne  (formerly  Lativi)   2001   Merged  (Bakrie/MM  Group)+   4.5   8.7   antv   1993   Merged  (Bakrie/MM  Group)+   4.2   Metro  TV   2000   Media  Group/Independent   1.9   1.9    On  a  regional/local  level,  ownership  is  less  concentrated.  With  the  growth  of  local  TV  stations  in  the  last  five  years,  local  TV  eventually  managed  to  steal  a  share  of  the  national  TV  audience.  However,  the  audience  share  of  local  TV  is  very  modest  if  compared  to  national  TV.  Local  TV  audience  share  increased  from  an  average  of  2.1%  in  2005  to  3.2%  of  the  total  audience  share  in  2008.  The  trend,  however,  went  down  to  2.5%  in  2010.75  Among  more  than  100  local  TV  stations,  TVRI  still  has  27  stations   spread   in   27   different   provinces   while   the   rest   are   owned   by   at   least   10   other   local  television  networks.   12  
  • 16. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    However,   as   there   is   no   longer   any   space   for   private   national   television   expansion,   some   big  business   entities   start   looking   at   this   market.   For   example,   one   of   the   richest   Indonesians,   Peter  Sondakh,   with   his   group,   Rajawali   Corp,   who   formerly   owned   RCTI,   went   back   to   the   media  business   by   establishing   the   network   of   TV   Nusantara   (22   stations).   A   similar   step   was   taken   by  giant  newspaper  player  Jawa  Post  Group  and  Bali  P ost  Group.  MNC  Group  has  also  expanded  to  the  local   level   by   creating   SunTV   Network.   Soon   the   largest   print   media   company,   Kompas   Media  Group,  will  own  its  own  Kompas  TV   network,   too.   The  current   map   shows   a  drift   that  in  the  near  future  local  television  networks,  too,  might  be  dominated  by  a  small  number  of  media  moguls.    RADIO:  GROWING   I NDEPENDENT   &   C OMMUNITY   R ADIOS  While   not   free   from   the   sights   of   media   conglomerates,   the   ownership   of   radio   is   much   more  diverse   compared   to   television.   Of   the   estimated   2,800   radio   stations   in   the   country   (up   from  around   700   in   Suharto   era),   around   700   are   community   radio   stations.   Radio   Republik   Indonesia  (RRI),  the  state  radio  network  of  Indonesia  that  previously  functioned  as  a  mouthpiece  of  the  New  Order   government,   has   64   stations.76   While   no   longer   monopolizing   the   radio   landscape   in  Indonesia,   RRI   still   adopts   its   role   in   ‘distributing,   spreading   information,   and   educating,  entertaining   society   to   maintain   Indonesian   identity’   and   is   committed   to   ‘protect   the   unity   and  togetherness  of  the  United  Nation  of  the  Republic  of  Indonesia’.77  Since  2006,  the  expansion  of    RRI  has  taken  place  mainly  in  border  areas  focusing  on  developing  the  ‘safety  belt  i nformation’  program  in  partnership  with  TVRI.    The  most  promising  data  on  media  ownership  is  the  fact  that  the  country’s  largest  radio  network  i s  KBR68H,  a  quality  citizen  journalism  radio.  Founded  as  a  news  agency  on  29  April  1999,   KBR68H  was   created   as   part   of   civil   society   response   to   the   ‘transition   to   democracy’.   In   2000,   KBR68H  started  to  use  a  satellite  to  distribute  its  radio  programming,  enabling  the  radio  station  partners  to  relay  the  agency’s  programs  using  just  a  parabolic  antenna  and  a  digital  receiver.  In  one  decade,  the  radio  news  agency  has  expanded  rapidly,  becoming  a  network  that  reaches  625  stations78  with  an  estimated  18  million  listeners,  and  is  available  in  10  countries  in  Asia  and  Australia.    Commercial  radio  networks  are  also  on  the  rise.  The  major  ones  include  Ramako  Group,  Smart  FM,  and  Masima  Group,  all  of  which  have  flagship  stations  in  Jakarta  and  branches  in  other  cities.  Some  out-­‐of-­‐Jakarta   regional   networks   are   also   emerging,   such   as   Arbes   Network   in   Padang,   Suzana  RadioNet   in   Surabaya,   and   Volare   Group   in   Pontianak.   There   are   also   an   increasing   number   of  commercial   networks   owned   by   conglomerates.   These   include:   Hard   Rock   FM,   Cosmopolitan,   I-­‐Radio,   and   Trax   owned   by   MRA   Group;   Trijaya   FM,   ARH,   and   Radio   Dangdut   by   MNC   Group;  Elshinta  by  EMTEK,  and   Sonora   FM  by   Kompas   Gramedia   Group.  Yet,  the  investment  of  big   media  players  tends   to  be  concentrated  in  big  cities  such   as  Jakarta,  Bandung,   and   Surabaya,  leaving   the  rest   of   the   country   to   smaller,   independent,   groups,   including   hundreds   community   radios   that  proliferate  small  towns  and  rural  areas.    PRINT  MEDIA:  DOMINATION   O F  TWO   P LAYERS  The  post-­‐Suharto  euphoria  and  an  easing  of  press   restrictions  had  catapulted  the   number  of  print  media  from  289  in  early  1999  to  1,881   in  2001.79  The  euphoria,  however,  did  not  last  long.  Market  realities  pushed  some  to  go  out  of  b usiness  soon  after  they  were  established.  As  of  the  end  of  2010,  there  are  just  107680  print  media  in  operation.  Kompas  leads  with  600,000  copies  daily,  followed  by  Jawa  Pos  (450,000),  Suara  Pembaruan  (350,000),  Republika  (325,000),  Media  Indonesia  (250,000),  and  Koran  Tempo  (240,000).81    Currently,  there  are  two  dominant  players  in  the   print  media   sector.  The  first  is  the  largest  media  conglomerate   in   Indonesia,   Kompas   Gramedia   Group.   Its   chief   outlet,   the   morning   newspaper  Kompas   (600,000   copies/day),   is   Indonesia’s   most   prestigious   daily   and   the   largest   ‘quality’  newspaper   in   Southeast   Asia.   Benedict   Anderson   once   described   Kompas   as   ‘the   New   Order   par  excellence.’82   This   newspaper   consistently   earns   more   than   25%   of   the   nation’s   newspaper  advertising   revenue.   The   group   also   runs   the   Jakarta   Post   (90,000)   which   was   the   only   English  newspaper   in   Indonesia   until   Lippo   Group-­‐founded   Jakarta   Globe   (60,000)   entered   the   scene   in   13  
  • 17. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    2008.     Besides   Kompas   daily,   Kompas   Gramedia   Group   also   owns   Warta   Kota   daily,   Intisari  magazine,   and   11   other   local   newspapers,   43   magazines   and   tabloids,   and   5   book   publishers.  Through   these   businesses,   Kompas   Gramedia   group   dominates   the   publishing   industry.   The  country’s  second  largest  print  media  company  is  Jawa  Pos  Group,  well  known  for  i ts  Jawa  Pos  daily.  With  450,000  copies  a  day,   Jawa  Pos  is  the  nation’s  second  most  r ead  daily.  Taking  a  different  route  than   Kompas-­‐Gramedia,   Jawa   Pos   Group   concentrates   almost   exclusively   on   provincial   markets.    With   151   newspapers   distributed   in   more   than   20   provinces,   11   tabloids,   and   2   magazines,   this  group  situates  itself  as  a  close  competitor  of  Kompas  Gramedia.  The   rest   of   the   newspaper   market   is   divided   between   other   media   conglomerates,   such   as   MNC  Group   (Seputar   Indonesia),   Mahaka   Media   Group   (Republika),   Bali   Post   Group   (Bali   Post),   Lippo  Group  (Suara  Pembaruan),  and  Media  Group  (Media  Indonesia),  many  other  small  companies,  and  Koran   Tempo.   With   a   daily   circulation   of   240,000   copies,   Koran   Tempo   is   the   only   non-­‐conglomerate-­‐owned   newspaper   surviving   the   competition   against   big   players.   Tempo   Inti   Media  Harian,   the   publisher   of   Koran   Tempo   daily,   is   a   major   player   in   print   media   sector.   Its   magazine,  Majalah   Tempo   (180,000   copies/week),   holds   68%   of   the   share   of   weekly   magazine   market.   Like  newspapers,   the   magazine/tabloid   segment,   too,   is   not   free   from   media   conglomerates’  undertakings.   In   this   area,   there   are   MRA   Group   (Cosmopolitan,   Cosmogirl,   Men’s   Fitness),   an  experienced   player   Femina   Group   (Femina,   Gadis,   Dewi),   EMTEK   (Elshinta,   Gaul,   Story),   and   Bali  Post   (Tokoh,   Lintang).   However,   these   are   mostly   focused   on   lifestyle   and   entertainment.   By  focusing  on  investigative  journalism,  Tempo  has  developed  its  own  niche  and  is  still  far  superior  to  Forum  Keadilan  and  newcomer  Tokoh  tabloid  who  also  try  to  venture  i n  the  same  genre.    ONLINE  MEDIA:  DIVERSE   Y ET  THE  TOP   R ULES  The   web   has   become   a   critical   part   of   Indonesia’s   media   environment.   It   is   now   the   largest  information  source  and  most  of  the  content  is  provided  b y  millions  of  I ndonesian  individuals.  Thus,  we  expect  to  see  that  online  media  would  have  less  concentration  of  ownership.  But,  in  reality,  the  vast  plethora  of  web  content  has  not  yet  translated  into  diversity  for  what  users  see  and  access.  On  the  contrary,  despite  the  vast  amount  of  content,  the  structure  of  the  web  leads  to  a  staggering  and  unexpected  degree  of  concentration.  This  explains  why  global  companies  such  as  Facebook,  Google  and   the   like   have   most   Indonesian   users   and   dominate   the   top   10   of   most   visited   websites.   The  outlier  is  Kaskus.us,  Indonesia’s  very  own  community  forum,  who  makes  it  into  the  top  6.    In   spite   of   that,   in   acquiring   content   Indonesians   typically   go   to   local   content   providers   such   as  Detik.com.  The  language  preference   might  be  one  explanation  behind  this  occurrence.  In  addition,  Detik.com,  online  since  1998,  is  one  of  the  oldest  news  providers  in  Indonesia  and  thus  has  created  a  path  dependency  in  the  online  media  market.    As  seen  in  Figure  11,  Detik.com  is  disproportionably  superior  against  the  rest  of  content  providers.  Along  with  its  subsidiaries—Detiknews.com,  Detikhot.com,  Detiksport.com—Detik.com  with  other  big   new   media   players   such   as   Kompas.com,   Vivanews.com,   and   Okezones.com   dominates   the  market—top   corporate   online   media   occupies   ‘the   head’,   an   immense   volume   of   the   share.  Blogdetik.com  and  kompasiana.com  can  be  classified  as  citizen  journalism,  yet  they  take  place  in  the  space  owned  by  Detik  and  Kompas.    Although   no  one  disputes  the  lengthening  of  the  tail—clearly   more  blogs  and   more  blog-­‐posts  are  being   made   online   every   day—the   tail   is   extremely   flat   and   populated   by   content   that   originates  from,   is   driven   by,   or   communicates   with   those   in   ‘the   head’.   Even   the   number   one   blogger   site  IndonesiaMatters.com  shares  only  less  than  1.5%  of  Detik.com’s  daily  and  monthly  visitors.     14  
  • 18. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim     800,000 16,000,000 80 ,8 92 ,8 13 14,000,000 700,000 12,000,000 60 600,000 ,0 6 60 90 9, 6 10,000,000 1, 68 Monthly unique visitors 0 Daily unique visitors 18 0, 89 500,000 7, 8,000,000 45 0 6, 48 400,000 6,000,000 0 78 0, 23 60 5 4, ,5 13 25 7, 60 ,3 4,000,000 38 0 3 ,1 96 300,000 9, 4 80 00 23 16 ,5 2, ,5 2, 8 80 4 80 59 44 2 ,8 1, 1, 1, 2 2,000,000 18 05 38 1, 08 1, ,6 94 71 56 26 2 0 6 92 4 54 ,5 ,7 ,0 ,1 ,0 1 200,000 ,7 7 47 ,8 1 8 ,9 76 66 52 ,3 75 11 30 5 87 94 58 7, 0 20 70 20 ,6 0 ,4 17 9 06 10 3, 35 1 75 16 0 100,000 ,4 ,8 6 60 78 ,9 70 57 ,6 -2,000,000 51 0 45 05 5 1 12 28 2 7 4 1 31 55 9, 73 71 24 33 ,8 5 ,5 4, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 3, 5 1 0 -4,000,000 et et .i d rg o om om m om m om m om m m m om om om m om nf co o co co co co .n .n co co l .o i .i .c .c .c .c .c .c .c .c .c un .c s. i f. a. s. . a. an a. t e i ta na sa ba eb al ti k tik rs ng as kt ca si ik ew w on di ik ys w de de te m zi er p ra sia ne ne ku an ad kh sa on bl at an o na m m ez sb og te pu ra a nu og i ty ko pa do a am jim gl ok ok ta in v iv ta d in bl bl is re in m or lin po si an ra aj ko ia ne nd .b m ed te de do m ai in di e m l—————Top  Indonesian  content  websites—————l  l—————Top  Indonesian  bloggers—————l   Figure  11  Distribution  of  Indonesian  online  media  a udiences  (visitors)83  PRODUCTION  AND  CONTENT  The  most  persistent  issue  in  the  production  and  content,  especially  i n  mainstream  media,  i s  the  lack  of  diversity.  Since  1998,  the  media  content  tends  to  predominantly  represent  the  political  elites  in  Jakarta   and   business   interests.   The   concentration   of   media   ownership   and   the   networked   media  business  model  (e.g.  a  small  number  of  production  houses  supply  most  of  the  programs)  lead  to  the  homogeneity  of  available  content.  Various  alternative  media  have  emerged—community  radios  and  televisions,   independent   online   content   providers,   individual   blogs,   however   they   are   still   a   long  way  from  f ar-­‐reaching.    TELEVISION:  DOMINATION   O F   U RBAN  ENTERTAINMENT  The   majority   of   the   content   on   national   commercial   televisions   stations   is   entertainment,   ranging  from  60%  to  80%,  in  the  forms  of  soap  operas,  movies,  infotainment  and  reality  shows.  Commercial  stations’  goal  is  generally  to  set  the  benchmarks  for  the  i ndustry  and  thus  frame  their  programs  for  the   entertainment-­‐seeking   urban   lower-­‐upper   and   upper-­‐middle   classes,   providing   access   to   the  lower  class  and  rural   population   to  consume  city-­‐based  culture  and  lifestyles   that  have  very  little  connection   with   their   daily   realities.   Popular   themes   mostly   revolve   around   urban   upper   class  lifestyles,  sex,  and  violence.  In  January  2011,  three  out  of  10  most  watched  programs  were  all  soap  operas.   These   programs   counted   for   only   10%   (602   hours)   of   the   total   broadcast   time   (6,072  hours).  However,  viewers  spent  most  of  their  watching  time  (29%  of  the  73  hours)  to  watch  them.84    Some  might  assume  that  the  choice  to  air  entertainment  in  a  dominant  fraction  is  audience  driven.  The   historical   record   of   ratings,   however,   does   not   reflect   that   assumption.   There   are   several  better-­‐quality  talk   shows   that  received  very   positive  responses.   For  instance,   a  satirical  talk   show  Republik   BBM   (Benar-­‐Benar   Mabok),   aired   by   Indosiar,   received   good   ratings   for   its   ability   to  provide   political   critique   through   jokes   and   satire.   Despite   its   enormous   popularity,   the   show  featuring   humorous   skits   with   politicians   look-­‐alike   and   sound-­‐alike   actors   was   cancelled   in   May  2008  by  the  station  under  the  ‘advice’  of  the  then  Vice  President  Y usuf  Kalla.     15  
  • 19. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    Several  national  TV  stations  devoted  to  news  deliver  well-­‐packaged  and  up-­‐to-­‐date  news  programs.  However,  news  programs  are,  b y  and  large,  tailored  with  an  inclination  to  sensationalize  the  events  rather  than  to  provide  accurate  information.  Frequently,  disaster  events  are  hijacked  by  prominent  figures—the   so-­‐called   ‘celebrities’—who   reap   individual   benefits   by   their   media   exposure.   For  example,   in   the   case   of   2004   Aceh   tsunami   disaster,   media   were   more   preoccupied   in   covering  ‘charitable’  trips  of  movie  stars  and  singers  to  the  area  rather  than  the  living  stories  of  the  victims.  Narratives  of  the  poor,  the  marginalized,  and  the  lower  class  are  often  ignored.  When  they  appear  on  the  screen,  they  are  treated  merely  as  objects.    RADIO:  PROMISE   O F  DIVERSITY  Due   to   its   relatively   diverse   ownership,   the   radio   sector   carries   more   diversity   in   content   and  targets   more   varied   audiences   than   television.   Commercial   radio   stations   populating   urban   areas  are   commonly   focused   on   entertainment   programs,   particularly   music.   A   survey   by   MARS   (2009)  reports   that   music   is   the   most   listened   to   program   (82%),   followed   by   news,   talk   shows,   expert  interviews,   and   traffic   reports.85   For   non-­‐entertainment   content,   there   are   a   number   of   news   and  public  journalism  radio  stations  in  Indonesia,  including  the  network  of  Radio  KBR68H  news  agency,  who  take  up  the  space  with  an  average  quality  better  than  those  of  television.  Journalists  and  non-­‐journalists  of  the  Radio   KBR68H  news  agency  have  received   no  fewer   than  21  awards  and   prizes,  including   the   King   Baudouin   International   Development   Prize   for   its   “contribution   to   the  sustainable   development   based   on   the   strengthening   of   democracy,   tolerance   and   citizen  participation.”86  Radio   has   always   been   a   vital   medium   in   providing   public   spheres   in   Indonesia.   Historically,  Indonesian   independence   fighters   used   the   radio   in   fighting   against   Dutch   colonialism.   The   very  same   medium   was   also   vital   in   building   people’s   resistance   against   the   Suharto   regime   and  facilitating   the   student   pro-­‐democracy   movement   in   1998.   Today,   the   radio,   too,   still   has   the  potential  to  play  a  role  as  a  constructive  agent  of  change.  Producing  and  delivering  content  close  to  the   realities   of   their   communities   using   a   participatory   model,   community   radios   are   on   the  forefront   of   this   change.   There   are   many   successful   stories   on   how   community   radios   allow  communities   to   be   more   involved   in   resolving   social,   economic,   and   political   issues.   Community  radios,  too,  can  be  a  space  where  local  and  alternative  cultures  emerge,  be  created  and  re-­‐invented  amidst  the  homogenous  urban  metropolis  culture  endorsed  by  mainstream  media.    PRINT:   V ARIED   B UT   N OT   P LURAL  Print  media  is  at  the  very  heart  of  Indonesian  content  landscape,  especially  in  news  production.  Sen  &   Hill   (2000)   argue   that   “despite   reaching   a   much   smaller   readership   than   electronic   media’s  audience,   it   is   still   the   press   which   largely   determines   what   is   news.”87   To   a   certain   degree   this  assumption  is  still  valid.  Yet,  in  the  age  of  social  media,  print  journalists  have  increasingly  relied  on  prominent  bloggers  and  tweeps  (Twitter  users)  as  the  source  of  their  stories.      Not  only  distribute  information,  print  media  also  provide  a  forum  for  the  exchange  of  discourses  on  social,  cultural,  political  and  economic  issues.   B eing  the  oldest  medium  for  the  ‘literate’  consumers,  print  has  an  ability  to  ‘set  the  political  agenda’  more  than  any  other  types  of  media  in  Indonesia.88  As   a   rule   of   thumb,   newspaper   readers   are   far   more   critical   and   more   active   politically   than   the  electronic   counterparts.   This   combination   of   readership   factors   and   the   domination   of   the  newspaper   industry   by   veteran   publishers   such   as   Kompas,   Jawa   Pos,   and   Tempo,   make   the  newspaper   content   in   Indonesia   of   much   higher   quality   than   other   media.   While   recognizing   the  downside   of   their   domination,   together   these   three   publishers   produce   adequate   information   on  national  and  provincial  levels,   as  well  as  in  investigative  journalism.  In  so   many   ways,   these  print  media   are   representative   of   the   Indonesian   press   in   general   in   three   ways,   including   “balanced  reporting”  (Kompas),  “aggressive  reporting”  (Jawa  P os)  and  “investigative  reporting”  (Tempo).    Post-­‐authoritarian  developments  i n  the  press  has  also  produced  a  variety  of  viewpoints,  something  that  did  not  exist  prior  to  1998.  I slamic  publishing  alone  represents  a  wide  spectrum  of  viewpoints.  While   the   Jakarta-­‐based   newspaper   Republika   is   assertively   modernist,   Media   Dakwah   (Islamic   16  
  • 20. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    ‘preaching’   media)   makes   it   clear   its   campaign   for   an   Islamic   state.   However,   viewpoints   of  marginalized   groups   are   not   represented.   These   groups   only   appear   when   they   were   involved   in  conflicts,   scandals,   or   other   ‘sensational’   events—often   with   inaccurate   portrayals.   The   minority  Islamic  group  Ahmadiyah,  for  example,  did  not  get  much  coverage  until  its  members  were  violently  attacked   by   Islamic   radicals.   Even,   then,   they   still   did   not   get   fair   coverage.   Media   also   rarely  recognizes   the   diversity   of   sexual   orientation—homosexuality   is   often   portrayed   negatively   as  sexual  abnormality  or  deviant  behavior.    ONLINE  MEDIA:  MANY   V OICES   B UT   W HO  ARE  HEARD?  With   the   proliferation   of   blogging,   Facebook   and   Twitter   in   Indonesia,   some   observers   say   that  social   media   is   furthering   democracy   and   freedom   of   speech,   and   is   a   trigger   for   social   change, 89  “the   fifth   estate   in   Indonesian’s   democracy,”90   and   democratizing   content.91   To   a   certain   degree,  these   statements  have  their  currency.  However,  they  are  only  valid   when  contextualized  in   select,  rare,  stories  such  as  the  victorious  online  movements  to  support  Prita  and  Bibit-­‐Chandra.92  Some  of  the   above   arguments   also   rely   on   the   fact   that   with   the   availability   of   new   technologies   and   the  freedom  to  produce,  content  production  is  no  longer  the  monopoly  of  the  powerful  elites.  Anybody  can   tweet,   blog,   and   post   on   Facebook.   The   content   of   the   online   Indonesia,   indeed,   is   rich   and  bountiful.  The  question  i s,  when  there  are  many  voices,  whom  are  heard?  As   illustrated   in   Figure   11,   the   distribution   of   audiences   in   the   Indonesian   online   environment   is  very  skewed,  which  makes  it  appropriate  to  quote  the  phrase:  “Never  have  so  many  people  written  so   much   to   be   read   by   so   few”93   to   describe   this   phenomenon.   Corporate   websites   aside,   the  distribution   of   weblinks   and   traffic   in   the   Indonesian   blogosphere   itself   is   heavily   skewed   with   a  small   number   of   bloggers   getting   most   of   the   attention.   Even   though   there   are   over   5   million  Indonesian   bloggers,   posting   approximately   1.2   million   new   items   daily,   the   average   blogger   has  almost  no  political  influence  as  measured  by  traffic  or  hyperlink.  Moreover,  as  described  previously  in   the   ‘access’   section,   social   media   usage   in   Indonesia   is   still   very   much   the   enterprise   of   urban  elites.   The   majority   of   content,   too,   thus,   resembles   and   represents   the   usage—opinions,  expressions,   and   stories   of   urban   middle   class   culture,   lifestyle   and   problems.   Among   539   known  Indonesian   Facebook   groups,   193   are   on   brands/products/services/companies,   188   on  media/entertainment/celebrities,   and   only   66   on   campaigns/movements/   activities/public  information—reflecting  urban  middle  class  preferences  and  choices.94     Figure  12  Trending  Topics  in  Indonesian  Twitter  (March  2 011)95      A  similar  tendency  is  also  f ound  on  Twitter.  As  the  3rd  largest  tweets  producer  after  Brazil  and  USA,  Indonesia  produces  around  15%  of  all  tweets  globally.   With  8.29  tweets  per  account,96  Indonesian  tweeps  produce  a  humongous  amount  of  content  and,  yet,  little  of  it  devoted   into  topics  other  than  those  reflecting  urban  lifestyles  and/or  driven  by  mainstream  media—as  reflected  in  these  Twitter  trending  topics  (Figure  12,  see  the  prevalence  of  English  terms  here).  Tweets  reflecting  true  social  and   political   concerns   are   present,   however   they   are   usually   issue   or   event-­‐driven   (propelled   by  mainstream  media)  and  short  lived.     17  
  • 21. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim     By  and  large,  the  s ubject  matter  of  Indonesian  online  media—including  small  independent  online  content   providers  a nd  online  citizen  journalism,  very  much  mimic  the  ‘taste’  and  the  biases  of  mainstream  media.  This  is   due  to  the  content  dependency,  where  mainstream  media  s teers  the  direction  of  discourses  in  other  media,   including  in  alternative  online  media.    Figure  13  illustrates  how  this  bias  is  reflected  in  the  blogosphere.  Among  80  blogs  with  social  and  political  concerns,  issues  on  marginalized  communities  such  as  Lapindo97  and  Ahmadiyah98  receive  minimum   coverage,   while   issues   closer   to   the   middle-­‐upper   class   interests—that   were   highly  propagated   by   mainstream   media—got   much   higher   coverage.   The   pornography   scandal   of  Indonesian   artists   Ariel   and   Luna   Maya   picked   up   ongoing   discussions   from   July   2009   to   March  2011  while  a  deadly  attack  on  Ahmadiyah  members  was  hardly  discussed.         Prita  Mulyasari     Ariel  /  Luna  Maya       Sri  Mulyani  /  Century     Ahmadiyah     Lapindo     Figure  13  Popularity  of  Issues  in  Top  80  Indonesian  Blogs99    Apart   from   these   overall   problems,   social   media   does   provide   a   space   for   Indonesians   to  communicate  and  express  themselves  in  a  way  unimaginable  before.  Social  media  also  encourages  a  participatory   type   of   content   production,   which   has   the   potential   to   contribute   to   enriching   the  diversity  of  content.   On  a  small   scale,   the  practice   of  producing  alternative  content  is  rampant.  In  the  last  couple  of  years,  there  is  an  emergence  of  community  blogs  focusing  around  real  issues  and  concerns   in   Indonesian   society   such   as   politikana.com,   obrolanlangsat.com,   savejkt.org,   and  akademiberbagi.org.   Despite   their   inherent   middle-­‐class   orientation,   the   formation   of   these  communities  can  be  seen  as  a  step  towards  building  diversity  and  pluralism  of  content  in  the  online  sphere  i n  Indonesia.     18  
  • 22. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    A DVANCING   H UMAN   R IGHTS   &   S OCIAL   J USTICE   T HROUGH  D IGITAL   C OMMUNICATIONS  In  the  midst  of  the  commercialization  of  media,  digital  media  and  communications  provide  a  novel  sphere  where  alternative  content  and  information  can  b e  created  and  disseminated.  The  availability  of  communication  technologies  have  presented  Indonesian  society  with  new  ways  to  become  more  conscious  about  human  rights  and  related  issues,  particularly  on  the  right  to  freedom  of  expression.  Digital   media   also   has   provided   human   rights   activists   with   new   tools   for   monitoring,   defending,  and  advancing  human  rights  and  social  justice.    WEB   1 .0   M OBILIZATION  Past   events   in   the   history   of   Indonesia   provide   ample   evidence   that   the   Internet   is   indeed   a  ‘convivial   medium’100   for   Indonesians   not   only   to   express   to   communicate   and   exchange   ideas, 101  but  also  to  provide  a  socio-­‐political  conditions  for  human  agency  to  flourish.  It  can  go  even  further  to   act   as   ‘cyber-­‐civic   space’102   in   which   civil   society   generates   collective   actions   online,   and,  moreover,   translate   these   online   actions   into   real-­‐world   movements.103   During   the   authoritarian  era  under  Suharto,  Internet  provided  a  much  more  democratic  media  environment  when  compared  to  other  media  such  as  television,  r adio,  and  print.  The  political  history  of  the  1990s  shows  how  the  substantially   unregulated   Internet   contributed   to   the   civil   society   movements   that   led   to   the  downfall   of   Suharto’s   New   Order.104   As   a   convivial   medium,   the   online   environment   is   not   only  conducive   to   educated,   democratizing,   fair,   and   empowering   usage   and   content,   but   also   cannot  weed   out   the   ‘bad’,   and   can   similarly   be   used   by   both   civil   and   uncivil   society   organizations   and  individuals.105  WEB   2 .0  MOBILIZATION  Today,  i n  the  more  open  political  climate,  the  Internet,  particularly  social  media,  continues  to  be  the  popular   medium   and   tool   for   Indonesian   urbanites   to   exercise   their   freedom   of   expression   and  their  rights  to  participate  in  political  decision-­‐making,  as  well  as  to  mobilize  themselves  in  claiming  their  rights,  challenging  the  perceived  injustices,  and  to  support  the  ‘weak’  members  of  society.  This  is  exemplified  by  the  use  of  blogs,  Facebook,  and  Twitter  to  mobilize  mass  movements,  such  as:  • “Coin   for   Prita”   (2009)   Through   an   online   campaign,   using   blogs   and   Facebook,   hundreds   of   thousands  of  Indonesians  were  mobilized  to  collect  500  Rupiah  (~6cent  US$)  coins  to  help  Prita   Mulyasari  to  pay  the  Rp.  204  million  (~US$22,000)  f ine  applied  by  the  court  for  a  defamation  suit   against  her.  This  suit  was  a  reaction  to  an  e-­‐mail  complaint  sent  by  Prita  Mulyasari,  a  32-­‐year-­‐old   mother   of   two,   to   her   friends   and   relatives   about   the   bad   service   she   received   at   a   private   hospital   where   the   hospital’s   lawyers   accused   her   of   violating   the   Information   and   Electronic   Transactions  Law.106    • “One   Million   Support  for  Bibit-­‐Chandra”  (2009).  Facebook   was   used   to   mobilize  public   protests   against   the   perceived   injustice   of   the   government   towards   Bibit   and   Chandra,   members   of   the   Corruption  Eradication  Commission  (KPK).107  • “Coin  Love  for  Bilqis”  (2010).  Modeled  after  the  “Coin  for  Prita,”  this  movement  was  intended  to   help  a  17-­‐month  old  Bilqis  Pasya  who  suffered  from  a  life-­‐threatening  liver  problem.  Using  social   media,   the   movement   successfully  collected  nearly   900   million  Rupiah  (~US$96,300)  to  finance   Bilqis’  liver  transplant.    THE  LIMITS  OF   O NLINE  MOBILIZATION  To   a   certain   degree   the   emergence   of   citizen   journalism   and   reporting   through   social   media   has  provided   a   mechanism   to   uncover   social   and   political   injustices   that   otherwise   would   not   be   19  
  • 23. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    revealed.  However,  the  success  of  such  mobilizations  is  biased  towards  certain  types  of  narratives  and   issues.   Besides,   while   these   movements   started   online,   they   only   became   very   popular   after  being   publicized   by   the   mainstream   media   (especially   television).   The   cases   of   Bibit-­‐Chandra   and  Prita  are  exemplary.  There  are  many  other  cases  that  failed  to  reach  a  critical  mobilization,  such  as:  • The   Lapindo   case   (2006-­‐present):   refers   to   the   Sidoarjo   mudflow   incident,   which   has   been   ongoing  since  May  2006  and  affected   more  than  10,000  people.  The  biggest   mud  volcano  in  the   world   was   created   by   the   blowout   of   a   natural   gas   well   drilled   by   PT   Lapindo   Brantas,   a   big   company   owned   by   a   well   known   Indonesian   conglomerate,   Aburizal   Bakrie.   While   Lapindo   represents   a   bigger   problem   and   impacted   more   victims   than   the   case   of   Prita,   attempts   to   mobilize  the  Lapindo  issue  i n  social  media  have  only  resulted  i n  modest  participation.    • The   Ahmadiyah   assault   (2011):   refers   to   the   murderous   attack   against   members   of   a   minority   Islamic   group   called   Ahmadiyah   by   a   militant   Islamist   group   in   January   2011.   Despite   the   availability   of   online   videos   of   the   assault,   there   is   a   lack   of   movement   mobilized   around   this   issue.    • There   are   many   other   “Coin”   movements   that   were   subsequently   initiated   online   (e.g.   Coin   for   Minah,  Coin  f or  Sumiyati)  but  never  b ecame  popular.      While  it  can  be  political,  social  media  is  mostly  social.  Successful  mobilization,  such  as  i n  the  case  of  Prita,  mostly  works  under  the  logic  of  popular  participatory  culture,  rather  than  civic  participation  of   informed   citizens.   Having   said   that,   however,   to   a   certain   degree   the   emergence   of   citizen  journalism   and   reporting   through   social   media   has   provided   a   mechanism   to   uncover   social   and  political  problems  and  injustices  that  otherwise  would  not  be  revealed.  While  never  really  making  any  big  wave  of  movements,  videos  of  the  victims  of  Lapindo  case  did  surface  in  the  limited  online  public  sphere  and  raised  concerns  of  some  segments  of  Indonesian  society.  Similarly,  the  assault  of  Ahmadiyah   members   by   a   group   of   militant   Islamists   has   been   made   public   by   the   online  availability   and   dissemination   of   various   user-­‐generated   videos   made   by   regular   persons.   These  videos   were   disseminated   through   social   media   and   made   their   way   into   the   hands   of   local   and  international  human  right  activists  and  institutions,  as  well  as  society  at  large.    ONLINE   V IDEO  ACTIVISM  The  more  organized  attempts  to  make  use  of  digital  media  to  communicate  human  rights  and  social  justice   related   issues   comes   from   media   and   human   rights   activists.   In   response   to   the   need   for  better,   relevant,   content,   media   activists   have   developed   various   media   networks   and   channels.  Among  them  are:   • Kampung   Halaman   (KH),108   a   non-­‐profit   organization   based   in   Yogyakarta,   whose   goal   is   to   foster   the   use   of   popular   audio-­‐visual   media   in   community-­‐based   programs   to   facilitate   the   marginal   youth   to   understand   their   roles   in   improving   the   conditions   of   their   communities. 109   Through  its  partnership  with  various  youth  communities,  KH  has  facilitated  the  production  and   dissemination   of   more   than   60   videos   covering   an   assortment   of   issues   that   are   dear   to   young   Indonesians’  heart  and  minds.     • EngageMedia,  a  media  activist  organization  based  in  Jakarta  and  Melbourne,  uses  “the  power  of   video,  the  internet  and  free  software  technologies  to  create  social  and  environmental  change” 110   and   works   with   independent   filmmakers   and   video   activities   to   generate   wider   audiences   and   challenge   the   capitalistic   model   of   video   distribution.   One   of   its   ongoing   video   projects   is   produced  around  the  issue  of  torture  and  human  rights  i n  West  Papua.  The  most  recent  video  on   this   issue   is   a   documentary   video   of   Tunaliwor   Kiwo   in   recounting   the   detailed   experiences   of   his  torture  by  Indonesian  soldiers  on  30  May  2010.111     • Kalyana   Shira   Foundation,   a   non-­‐profit   organization   established   in   2006   by   a   group   of   independent   film   professionals   who   are   concerned   with   the   lack   of   films   advocating   women’s   rights   issues   and   is   led   by   Nia   Dinata,   a   renowned   award-­‐winning   filmmaker   known   for   her   20  
  • 24. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim     feminist  values.112  Often  exploring  themes  that  are  deemed  controversial  and/or  taboo,  such  as   sexuality   and   reproductive   rights,   this   organization   produces   quality   documentary   films   to   spread  awareness  on  women  rights  issues  and  other  social  issues  that  have  been  marginalized  in   Indonesia.  One  of  their  productions  is  “At  Stake”,  an  anthology  documentary  film  of  four  stories   on  the  various  social  problems  faced  by  Indonesian  women  in  a  patriarchal  society.  It  tells  “four   fresh   and   powerful   stories   of   two   Indonesian   migrant   workers   in   Hong   Kong,   the   practice   of   female  genital  mutilation,  the  difficulty  of  finding  a  non-­‐judgmental  obstetrician-­‐gynecologists  i n   the   metropolitan   Jakarta,   and   the   daily   lives   of   women   who   become   sex   workers   in   a   Chinese   cemetery   complex.”113   Kalyana   Shira   draws   on   public   screenings   in   both   physical   and   virtual   space  (through  and  using  EngageMedia  online  video  platform)  to  disseminate  i ts  films.    Documentary   video/film   is   the   dominant   medium   used   for   advancing   human   rights   and   social  justice.  However,  it  is  important  to  note  that  many  of  these  activist  organizations  make  use  not  only  video   technology,   but   also   other   media   such   as   local   television   and   radio   networks,   the   Internet,  and  social  media  i n  their  content  production,  development,  and  distribution.    CHANNELING  SENSITIVE/INACCESSIBLE/FILTERED   I NFORMATION  While  the  number  is  very  small,  there  are  a  few  independent  organizations  that  utilize  digital  media  to  open  the  channels  of  information  for  politically  sensitive  issues.  Some  examples  i nclude:    • West  Papua   Media  Alerts,  a   non-­‐profit  initiative   providing  independent   news  from   West  Papua.   This  initiative  is  partly  in  response  to   the  constant  threats  experienced  by  journalists  reporting   on/from   the   area.   Through   its   online   portal,   this   initiative   is   focused   on   reporting   “Papuan   campaigns   to   end   human   rights   abuses   and   bring   these   unreported   Papuan   issues   to   the   front   page” 114.  • Kontras,  The  Commission  for  “the  Disappeared”  and  Victims  of  Violence,  provides  i nformation  on   and  support  for  victims  of  human  right  violence  through  its  online  portal.115  • Imparsial,  The  Indonesian  Human  Rights  Monitor,  makes  use  of  digital  networks  to  monitor  and   investigate  human  rights  violations  i n  Indonesia.116  • Kalyanamitra,   Women’s   Communication   and   Information   Centre,   utilizes   digital   networks   to   promote   awareness   about   women’s   rights,   to   fight   for   oppressed   women,   and   to   provide   an   information  and  knowledge  network  on  women-­‐related  issues.117  C ONTROLLING   M EDIA  AND   C OMMUNICATIONS  ‘Reformasi’   (Reformation)   has   ushered   Indonesian   society   to   encounter,   experience,   and  experiment   with   the   notion   of   freedom.   Freedom   House   Institute   classifies   Indonesia   as   a   ‘free’  country  with   good  scores  on  both  political  rights  and  civil   liberties.118  However,  when  it  comes   to  press  freedom  and  Internet  freedom,  Indonesia’s  status  is  classified  as  ‘partly  free’119—signaling  the  ongoing   struggle   of   the   Indonesian   media   to   remain   independent   and   credible   vis-­‐à-­‐vis   the  increasingly   corporatized   environment,   a   more   outspoken   public,   and   government’s   desire   to  regain  control  over  the  media.    POST  SUHARTO’S  EARLY  DEMOCRATIZATION  AND  THE  SET   B ACK  Claiming  the  right  to  information  and  communications,  new  f ound  freedom  of  expression  and  press  freedoms   take   many   forms.   The   first   step   taken   by   civil   society   organizations   in   1998   was   to  advocate  for  legal  reform  of  the  Press  Law  and  the  Broadcasting  Act.  They  formed  a  media  coalition  and  held  a  successful  campaign  to  endorse  a  new  Press  Law  no.  40  in  1999  and  Broadcasting  Act  no.  32  in  2002.  The  principle  of  press  freedom  is   enshrined  in  the   new  Press   Law.     The  Broadcasting  Act  of  2002,   stressing  media  decentralization  and  emphasizing  accountability  and  transparency  in  licensing   procedures   for   public   service   and   commercial   broadcasting   licenses,   was   meant   to   21  
  • 25. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    democratize  the  landscape  of  broadcast  media.  Central  to  this  i s  the  establishment  and  the  i nclusion  of   the   Indonesian   Broadcasting   Commission,   an   independent   regulatory   body   representing   the  public  interest,  and  in  particular  the  licensing  processes.  These  two  legal  products  are  the  symbol  of  civil   society’s   victory   in   promoting   free   and   independent   media   as   well   as   advancing   the   public  interest.    Following  2002,   however,   there  are   many  legal   products  that  have  become   more  of   a   set  back.  In  fact,  just  three  years  after  the  issuance  of  this  Broadcasting  Act,  in   2005  the   government  passed   a  series  of  administrative  regulations  on  private  and  community  broadcastings  that  ignore  the  spirit  of  the  2002  Act.  Under  the  2002  Act,  the  Indonesian  Broadcasting  Commission  has  the  right  to  issue  and   revoke   the   licenses   of   broadcasters.   These   2005   newer   regulations   on   foreign,   private,  community,   and   subscription-­‐based   broadcasters,   however,   grant   this   power   back   to   the   state   as  the  government  has  the  right  to  intervene.  THE  ABUSE   O F  CRIMINAL  DEFAMATION   C ODES   &   T HE   I NDONESIAN   C YBERLAW  While   official   censorship   has   become   rare   (except   within   the   film   sector),   criminal   defamation  codes   continue   to   raise   concerns   about   freedom   of   media   and   freedom   of   expression   in   general.  Although  in  the  past  few  years  the  Constitutional  Court  has  overturned  some  clauses  in  the  criminal  code  that  were  created  under  Suharto’s  regime,  such  as  two  regulations  that  criminalize  defamation  of   the   government   through   public   media,   public   officials   continue   to   use   other   articles   of   the  criminal   codes   for   their   interests.   The   Alliance   of   Independent   Journalists   in   Indonesia   reported  that  “most  charges  leveled  against  journalists  and  media  are  related  to  defamation.”120    In   2008,   the   government   passed   the   Electronic   Information   and   Transactions   (ITE)   Law   that   was  originally   designed   to   protect   electronic   business   transactions.   Its   vague   definition   of   defamation,  however,  lends  itself  to  be  used  against  individuals  and  groups  who  express  opinion  on  the  Internet  and   social   media.   There   were   six   individuals   prosecuted   in   2009,   including   Prita   Mulyasari,   who  was   arrested   and   charged   for   her   email   complaint   to   friends   and   relatives   about   the   service   she  received  at  the  hospital.121  Under  Article  27  (3)  on  the  transmission  of  electronic  information  with  libelous  content,  she  faced  up  to  six  years  in  prison  and  a  penalty  of  1  billion  rupiah  (US$85,000). 122  The   final   verdict   handed   her   a   204   million   rupiah   fine.   But   supporters   ran   an   online   campaign  through  Facebook  and  collected  donations  on  her  b ehalf.  At  the  same  time,  Prita  Mulyasari  was  also  charged  under  Article  310  of  the  Criminal  Code  on  defamation  and  Article  211  of  the  Criminal  Code  on  defamation  in  libelous  writing.  Later  the  hospital  dropped  the  lawsuit  on  Article  27  (3)  and  Prita  won  a  parallel  case  in  the  court.  B ut  two  years  after  her  acquittal,  in  July  2011,  the  panel  of  judges  at  the   Supreme   Court   sentence   Prita   to   one   year   of   probation   for   being   guilty   of   the   defamation  charge.123In   May   2009,   the   Press   Legal   Aid   Institute   (LBH   Pers)   and   the   Alliance   of   Independent  Journalists   (AJI)124   petitioned   for   a   judicial   review   of   the   Article   27   (3)   of   the   ITE   Law.125   The  Constitutional  Court,  however,  rejected  the  petition.    THE   RETURN   OF   STATE   CONTROL:   RULING   THE   PRESS,   PUBLIC   ACCESS   TO  INFORMATION  &   P UBLIC   M ORALITY  Along   with   the   ITE   Law,   three   other   new   laws   that   brought   new   threats   to   media   freedom   and  freedom   of  expression   were  issued.   First  was   the   2008   Election  Law   that  included  articles   stating  that   “print   mass   media   must   provide   a   fair   and   balanced   space   and   time   for   election   coverage,  interviews,   and   campaign   ads   for   election   candidates”   and   holding   the   Indonesian   Broadcasting  Commission  (KPI)  and   the  Press  Council  (Dewan  Pers)  accountable.   Critics   said  that  these  articles  undermine   the   press   and  broadcasting   laws  of  1999  and  2002  and  placed  an  unnecessary  burden  on  Broadcasting  Commission  and  Press  Council.126    Second   was   the   2008   Transparency   of   Public   Information   Law—Indonesia’s   freedom   of  information   law.   On   the   one   hand,   this   law   offers   new   legal   guarantees   for   public   access   to  information.  On  the  other  hand,  this  law  also  provides  a  one-­‐year  jail  term  for  anyone  who  ‘misuses’  that  information.127  The  vague  definition  of  ‘misuse’  opens  possibilities  of  the  misuse  and  abuse  of  this  law.     22  
  • 26. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    Lastly,   the   controversial   2008   Pornography   Law   that   criminalizes   any   sex-­‐related   materials  deemed   to   violate   public   morality.   The   law   also   embodies   public   discourses   on   content   in   the  “Asian”   and/or   even   “Muslim”   country   context   where   most   of   the   debates   around   content  regulation   are   framed   around   public   morality   and   the   regulation   of   the   “excesses”   of   the  information/networked  environment.  Under  this  law,  possessing  or  downloading  pornography  can  bear  a  four-­‐year  jail  term  and  a  sexually  attractive  performance  can  result  in  12-­‐years  jail.    Relying  on  a  vague  definition  of  pornography,  this  Law  also  invites  members  of  the  public  to  play  a  role  in  enforcing   it,   which   according   to   critics   gives   a   legal   basis   to   already   unruly   groups   of   Islamic  vigilantes   such   as   the   Islamic   Defenders   Front   (FPI).   This   law   has   particularly   upset   populations  outside  of  Java,  especially  in  the  predominantly  Hindu   population  of  the  island  of  Bali,  where  some  cultural   traditions   could   now   be   deemed   pornographic.   The   law   is   perceived   as   limiting   the  freedom  of  expression  of  journalists,  media,  and  the  public  i n  general,  especially  those  dealing  with  creative  visual  work,  such  as  filmmakers  and  video  artists/journalists.    The  desire  to  regulate  online  content  i s  particularly  pronounced  in  the  proposed  Ministerial  Decree  on   Multimedia   Content   (RPM   Konten   Multimedia).   While   failed   to   make   it   into   a   formal   legal  framework,  the  proposed  decree  was,  nevertheless,  evidence  of  government’s  attempts  to  regulate  online  content.    FUTURE   C RIME,   C ONVERGENCE,  AND   I NTELLIGENCE   B ILLS  In   the   coming   years,   there   will   be   three   media   related   bills   to   keep   an   eye   on.   First   is   the  Informational   Technology   Crime   bill   (TIPITI).   AJI   considers   the   bill   as   even   more   repressive   and  vague  than  the  controversial  2008  ITE  Law.  Media  observers  are  concerned  that  the  TIPITI  bill  are  “overly  aggressive  and  not  emphasizing  the  investigation  of  digital  evidence  enough” 128  and  carries  heavier  penalties  for  online  offenses.  Second  is  the  Media  Convergence  bill  (RUU  Konvergensi).  While  the  bill  is  meant  to  consolidate  and  organize   Indonesia’s   Broadcasting   Act,   ITE   and   Telecommunications   laws,   it   also   will   merge   the  Broadcasting   Commission,   the   Information   Commission,   and   the   Indonesian   Telecommunications  Regulatory   Body   into   a   single   commission.   The   merging   of   various   institutions   into   a   single   body  might  lead  to  the  creation  of  ‘a  super-­‐body  armed  with  penal  provisions  that  will  have  the  mandate  of  regulating  and  monitoring  the  press,  broadcast  and  new  media,  and  various  telecommunications  platforms.’129  Third  is  the  Intelligence  bill   (RUU  Inteligen),  a  controversial  bill  defining  the  role  and  functions  of  Indonesian  intelligence  agencies.  The  controversy  centers  around  three  issues:  “whether  the  State  Intelligence   Agency   (Badan   Intelijen   Negara,   BIN)   should   have   arrest   and   detention   powers;  whether   wire-­‐tapping   and   other   intercepts   should   require   a   court   order;   and   how   to   ensure  oversight  and  accountability   mechanisms  consistent  with   democratic  governance.”130  The  concern  around  the  bill  includes  its  vague  language,  its  lack  of  human  right  principles,  and  its  threat  to  the  2009   freedom   of   information   act   (Keterbukaan   Informasi   Publik,   KIP)   because   of   an   article   that  could  override  the  state’s  responsibility  to  divulge  particular  classifications  of  information.131    CORRUPTION,  INTIMIDATION,  AND  SELF-­‐CENSORSHIP  In   addition   to   problems   around   control   over   media   and   information   originated   from   regulatory  framework,  there  are  some  other  problems  that  are  more  political  and/or  cultural.  Corruption  and  bribery   in   journalism   still   persists.   Even   though   state-­‐violence   is   no   longer   practiced,   since   1998  journalists  and   media   continue  to   suffer  violence  and  intimidation   when   they  cover   corruption  or  other   sensitive   topics   involving   high   rank   government   officials,   top   politicians,   and   prominent  business  persons.  In  2010  alone,  AJI  recorded  63  cases  of  violence  against  journalists  and  media.132  Meanwhile,   as   described   by   Ignatius   Haryanto,   journalism   practices   have   been   influenced   by  political  and  commercial  interests  of  the  media  owners.  Haryanto’s  findings  show  that  a  new  form  of  internal  censorship  from  media  owners  has  become  the  norm.  133       23  
  • 27. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    C ONCLUDING   R EMARKS  SUMMARY   O F   C URRENT   S ITUATION  • In  the  last  decade,  there  has  been  a  significant  improvement  in  media  access  and  accessibility  in   Indonesia.  Television  is  accessible  to  more  than  90%  of  the  population  and  access  to  other  media   has  generally  increased.  The  Internet  and  social  media  have  witnessed  tremendous  growth.    • There   are,   however,   some   persistent   access/accessibility   issues.   Uneven   distribution   of   the   infrastructure   continues   to   be   one   of   the   major   issues.   Public   infrastructure   of   media   and   communication   technologies   is   very   limited   and,   when   available,   is   mostly   concentrated   in   cosmopolitan   areas.   Urban-­‐rural   divides   continue   to   persist   and   even   widen   the   gap   between   urban  areas  of  Java  and  the  r est  of  I ndonesia.    • While   the   Indonesian   media   landscape   has   undergone   democratization   processes,   media   ownership   is   increasingly   concentrated   in   the   hands   of   the   few.   A   small   number   of   conglomerates—some   of   whom   have   obvious   political   connections—dominate   the   media   environment,   leading   to   a   disproportional   political   control   by   the   media,   public’s   decreasing   access  to  important  i nformation,  and  under-­‐representation  of  certain  groups  i n  the  media.    • This   concentration   of   media   ownership   and   the   networked   media   business   model,   as   expected,   leads  to  the  lack  of  diversity  in  the  production  and  content,  especially  in  mainstream  Indonesian   media.  Issues  and  interests  closer   to   the   middle-­‐upper  class  interests   dominate   while  issues  on   marginalized  communities  get  no  or  minimum  coverage.    • Alternative   sources   of   information   have   been   made   available   through   the   emergence   of   community  radios  and  televisions,  independent  online  content  providers  and  social  media  based   citizen   journalism.   However,   they   are   still   marginal,   their   amount   of   information   is   miniscule   if   compared  to  the  mainstream  information,  and,  some  suffer  from  the  content  dependency  where   mainstream  media  steers  the  direction  of  information/conversations  in  other  media.  In  terms  of   production  and  content,  another  problem  i s  the  supremacy  of  the  online  global  players.    • Currently  Indonesian   media  operates  under  a  relatively  free  environment.  In  the   last  ten   years,   however,   some   newly   created   regulations   have   hindered   Indonesian   media   from   continuing   its   democratization   processes.   While   official   censorship   has   become   exceptional,   criminal   defamation   codes   continue   to   raise   concerns   about   freedom   of   the   media   and   freedom   of   expression  in  general.  Some  political  and/or  cultural  practices  such  as  violence  and  intimidation   against  journalists   and   media,  the  practices  of  bribery,  and  self/internal   censorship  continue  to   persist.    CIVIL  SOCIETY  ENGAGEMENT—OPPORTUNITIES  • Despite   these   identified   issues,   the   Indonesian   media   landscape   is   vibrant   and   dynamic.   Historically,  Indonesian  media  has  always  been  rife  with  innovative  technologies  providing  easy   and  affordable  access  solutions.    • Various   small   independent   initiatives   to   address   the   internal   digital   divide   are   present   and,   observably,  will  continue  to  grow.    • Indonesia   witnesses   the   expansion   of   independent   media   and   soaring   potential   on   the   production  of  rich  alternative  content.    • Community  radios,  in  particular,  demonstrate  a  promising  prospect  in  local  content  production.  • Digital   media,   particularly   social   media   and   online   video,   has   become   an   effective   medium   for   activists  in  mobilizing  social  movements  and  advancing  human  rights  and  social  justice.     24  
  • 28. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    REGULATORY  AND  POLICY   I SSUES  • Telecom  policies  and  regulatory  frameworks  in  general  need  reform.  The  PSTN  duopoly  must  be   terminated,   a   conducive   and   more   competitive   investment   policy   is   needed,   and   the   licensing   body  needs  greater  independence  and  professionalism.    • Spectrum   licensing   environment   needs   to   be   more   transparent.   The   government   should   make   information  on  spectrum  allocation  accessible  and  understandable  by  the  public.    • Recent   developments   in   digital   communications   related   regulatory   frameworks   have   raised   the   possibility   of   increased   censorship   and   tend   to   be   ‘vague’,   leading   to   abuse   and   misuse.   Future   regulation   should   be   made   in   accordance   with   the   recommendations   of   the   Special   Rapporteur   on  Freedom  of  Expression  and  Opinion  in  the  Human  Rights  Council.  • Discourses   on   content   regulatory   framework   has   been   hijacked   by   the   ‘public   morality’   and   ‘excesses’   debates   over-­‐focusing   on   ‘negative   content.’   There   is   an   urgent   need   to   shift   the   debates  from  ‘morality’  and  ‘excess’  to  ones  of  ‘access’  and  ‘diversity’.  SYMPATHETIC  STAKEHOLDERS  AND  ALLIES  • Indonesia   has   many   independent   organizations,   especially   media   activists,   which   are   apparent   partners,  sympathetic   stakeholders  and  allies,   to  work  with  in  addressing  a  range  of  challenges   and   problems.   There   are   very   few,   however,   who   work   specifically   on   media   rights   in   terms   of   pressuring   and/or   lobbying   for   a   more   open   regulatory   sector.   As   revealed   previously,   back   in   late   1990s   to   early   2000s   there   was   a   strong   civil   society   movement   that   brought   about   the   media  law  reforms.  However,  many  of  the  coalitions  who  fought  for  these  reforms  are  no  longer   active.    • There  is  an  apparent  lack  of  systematic  efforts  to  actively   monitor  of  the  development  of   media   related  draft  laws.  There  is  only  a  handful  organizations  focusing  on  this  issue,  such  as  Satu  Dunia   (One   World),134   AJI,   and   ICT   Watch,   and   a   few   individuals   such   as   Anggara.135   136Furthermore,   there   is   a   lack   of   technical   expertise   among   the   CSO   to   offer   viable   policy   alternatives   vis-­‐à-­‐vis   government’s   push   for   the   proposed   new   laws   (such   as   in   the   cases   of   the   Media   Convergence   and  the  Informational  Technology  Criminal  Laws).    • Corporations  might  not  be  natural  allies  in  contesting  regulatory  framework  or  changing  policies.   However,   as   some   companies   do   take   consumers’   interests   seriously,   yet   they   often   operate   in   grey  spaces  where  they  do  not  seem   to  fully  adhere  to  government  regulations.  For  example,  in   the   case   of   censoring   ‘porn’   (Pornography   Law),   the   association   of   Internet   service   providers,   APJII,   and   some   of   the   Internet   providers   chose   not   to   block   the   content   but   came   up   with   an   option  for   subscriber-­‐based  filtering  services  if  they  wanted  them.  By   employing   strategies  that   emphasize  consumers’  interest,  the  corporate  sector,  particularly  the  Internet  service  providers,   “could  be  ‘invited’  to  protect  the  public  i nterest  (which  also  helps  their  business).” 137    • The   establishment   of   an   Indonesian   Internet   Governance   Forum   (ID-­‐IGF)   is   perhaps   one   of   the   most   hopeful   scenarios   for   the   more   sustainable   advancement   of   internet   access   and   rights   in   Indonesia.   Currently   the   chairman   of   APJII   is   very   active   in   establishing   the   ID-­‐IGF   which   is   a   multi-­‐stakeholder   forum   for   policy   dialogues   on   issues   of   Internet   government,   particularly   to   protect   an   open   Internet.   In   its   establishment,   ID-­‐IGF   has   effectively   involved   representatives   from  the  private  sector  and  civil  society  as  well  as  some  low  ranking  officials  from  the  Ministry  of   Communication   and   Information.138   To   ensure   that   the   ID-­‐IGF   continues   to   advocate   for   the   public  i nterest  and  allows  f or  citizen  participation  is  a  crucial  end  to  follow  through.    • The   Indonesian   public   is   enthusiastic   in   embracing   participatory   culture,   especially   through   social  media.  How  to  take  advantage  of  this  mass  popular  participatory  culture  and  transform  its   energy  into  meaningful  civic  engagement  is  a  task  at  hand.     25  
  • 29. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim      STRATEGIES   F OR  INTERVENTIONS  &   C HANGES    • Indonesian   CSOs   can   really   benefit   from   insights   and   initiatives   on   pressuring   and/or   lobbying   for   a   more   open   regulatory   sector   elsewhere   in   the   world;   international   organizations   focusing   on  similar/related  issues  can  extend  a  valuable  assistance.    • Diverting  from  the  “lobbying”  approach  and  using  the  “back-­‐door”  approach—which  has  resulted   in   some   successful   regulatory   interventions   is   worth   consideration.   This   strategy   refers   to   the   collective  effort  to  put  (local,  national  and  international)  pressure  on  the  government  to  change   or   amend   regulations.   One   of   the   glaring   examples   is   Onno   Purbo’s   (and   his   group)   struggle   to   liberate   the   2.4GHz   broadband.   As   part   of   his   strategy,   Purbo   spread   the   knowledge   and   the   access   (of   2.4   GHz   band)   all   over   Indonesia   to   reach   the   point   where   it   was   impossible   to   regulate.  Purbo  also  brought  the  international  partners,  such  as  IDRC  and  CERN,  into  play  to  put   pressure  on  the  Indonesian  government.  This  approach  was  a  success,  resulting  in  the  signing  of   the   Ministry   Act   liberating   2.4GHz   in   Indonesia   on   5   January   2005.139   Purbo   recommended   a   similar   approach  in  responding   to   other  regulatory  frameworks.  In  responding   to   the  proposed   Convergence   bill,  he  suggested  to  “flood   the   space   with   local  content”  to   make  it  impossible  for   the  government  to  administer  taxes  as  proposed  through  the  bill.140  Along  this  line  of  approach,   some   have   proposed   to   put   pressure   on   the   government   to   employ   USO   (Universal   Service   Obligation)  accordingly,  by  using  it  to  develop  infrastructure  and  extend  access  rather   than  just   to  negotiate  i ts  own  contracts  (often  unrelated  to  extending  access).141  • There   is   a   pressing   need   to   engage   the   public   (communities)   in   initiatives   concerning   media   diversity,  ethics   and  equitable  access  through  activities  such  as  trainings,  capacity-­‐building,  and   networking.   One   of   the   known   strategic   initiatives   focusing   on   this   issue   is   the   Cipta   Media   Bersama   (CMB)   project,   launched   by   the   Ford   Foundation   Indonesia   in   collaboration   with   ICT   Watch,142  the  Alliance  of  Independent  Journalists  (AJI),  and  Wikimedia  Indonesia.  CMB  i s  an  open   request   for   proposals   to   engage   communities   in   pursuing   (a)   media   pluralism   and   content   diversity,  (b)  equitable  and  just  media  access,  (c)  media  freedom  and  ethical  media  practices.   143   One  of  the  goals  of  CMB  is  to  not  just  to  produce  new  initiatives  and  approaches  but  also  a  new   generation  of  people  concerned  about  these  issues,  especially  i n  the  citizen  sphere.  By  i nstilling  a   good   amount   of   public   education   and   capacity   building   components   to   this   RFP   initiative,   this   endeavor  might  yield  a  more  coordinated  networked  sphere  with  new  approaches  to  promoting   media   diversity,   ethics   and   equity.144   The   CMB   is   one   of   the   rare   initiatives   that   particularly   responds  to  this  challenge.  Yet,  there  is  still  much  work  to  b e  done.    • For  Indonesians  to  participate  and  be  engaged  in  the  global  dialogues  and  initiatives  around  the   Internet  and  media  governance,  there  is  an  immediate  need  to  develop  local  capacity.  Local  and   international  institutions  can  provide  meaningful  support,  not  only  by  influencing  the  discourses,   assisting  resources/skills  development,  and  supporting  infrastructure  expansion  locally,  but  also   by  intentionally   directing  global   discourses  and  initiatives   towards   the   needs  of   the  people  and   the  conditions  of  media  environments  in  the  countries  of  the  Global  South  such  as  I ndonesia.    A CKNOWLEDGEMENT  The   author   gratefully   acknowledges   the   support   provided   by   the   Ford   Foundation   under   the  Advancing  Public  Media  I nterest  in  I ndonesia  project  and,  especially,  Heidi  Arbuckle  for  her  helpful  insights,  comments,  and  suggestions.         26  
  • 30. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim    N OTES                                                                                                                            1     A  much  shorter  v ersion  o f  this  essay  w ill  be  published  as  part  o f  the  global  report  on  media  access  and   rights  (Ford  Foundation  and  Global  Partners,  2011).    2       Source:  C IA   The  W orld   Fact  Book  (5  July  2011),  Indonesia,  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-­‐ world-­‐factbook/geos/id.html  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].    3     Indonesian,  t ranslated  as  reformation.   It  r efers  to  a  period  of  t ransition  (to  d emocracy)  that   began  w ith  the   fall  of  Suharto  in  1998.    4     Source:  B PS  ( Badan  Pusat   Statistik)  or   Statistics   Indonesia  (2010),   Indikator  Sosial  Budaya  (population   sampling:  Indonesians  over  10  years  old),   http://www.bps.go.id/tab_sub/view.php?tabel=1&daftar=1&id_subyek=27&notab=36  [last  accessed  28   July  2011].    5     Source:  InterMedia,  2010.   Base:   n=3000,  April  2009;  n=3012,  D ecember  2007;  n=3013,   November  2 006.  6     IRI  (International   Republican   Institute)  (2009),  Survey  o f  Indonesian   Public  Opinion,  p.  65,   cited   in   Wagstaff,  J.  (2010),  Southeast  Asian  Media:  Patterns  of  Production  and  Consumption,   http://www.soros.org/initiatives/media/articles_publications/publications/production-­‐consumption-­‐ 20100126/production-­‐consumption-­‐20100212.pdf  [last  accessed  28  July  2 011],  p.  38.  7     Source:   Yahoo!   Indonesia  Nex  Index   Study,  in   The  Jakarta   Post  (27  July  2 011),   Internet  use  now  second   after  TV:  Yahoo!,  http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/07/27/internet-­‐use-­‐now-­‐second-­‐after-­‐tv-­‐ yahoo.html  [Accessed  28  July  2011].  The  study  covers  only  large  cities  in  Indonesia:  Jakarta,  Bogor,   Tangerang,  Bekasi,  Surabaya,  Bandung,  Medan,  Semarang,  Palembang,  Makassar,  Yogyakarta  and   Denpasar  8     World   Bank  (2009),   World  Development  Indicators   database,  http://devdata.worldbank.org   [last  accessed   28  July  2011].  9     InterMedia  (2010),  Indonesia   Media   Market,  http://www.audiencescapes.org/country-­‐ profiles/indonesia/communication-­‐habits-­‐demographic-­‐groups/urban-­‐rural/urban-­‐rural-­‐138  [Accessed   28  July  2011].  10     InterMedia  (2010).  11     InterMedia  (2010).  12     InterMedia  (2010).  13     InterMedia  (2010).  14     InterMedia  (2010).  15     Source:  InterMedia  (2010).  Base:  n=3000,  April   2009,   data  present  percentage  o f  t imes  a  source   was  c ited   as  “the  most  important”.      16   AGB  N ielsen  (2009),  N ielsen   Media  Index,  c ited   in    H ans  ( 16  July  2009),   Survey  N ielsen:   Pembaca   Media   Cetak  Makin  Turun,  http://www.nttonlinenews.com/ntt/index.php?view=article%3B&catid=52%3Alain-­‐ lain&id=4045%3Asurvei-­‐nielsen-­‐pembaca-­‐media-­‐cetak-­‐makin-­‐turun  [Accessed  28  July  2011].  17     Source:  InterMedia  (2010).  RCTI,  SCTV,   Indosiar,   MetroTV,   TV  One,   TVRI,   Trans   TV  a nd  TPI  are  a ll   television  stations.    18   This  o bservation   is   based  on  the  statement  o f   Tosca   Santoso,  d irector  o f  K BR68H,  O ctober  2009,   as  c ited   in   Wagstaff,  2010.    19     Marsono,  G .  (11   September  2009),   RRI,  (R)evitalisasi  ( R)asa  Ke  ( I)ndonesiaan?,   http://www.disperindagkop.pemda-­‐diy.go.id/index.php/direktori/210-­‐rri-­‐revitalisasi-­‐rasa-­‐ke-­‐ indonesiaan  [last  accessed  2 8  July  2011].  20     MARS  Indonesia  (2009),   Pendengar   Setia   Radio  Capai  37%,   http://marsnewsletter.wordpress.com/2010/01/13/pendengar-­‐setia-­‐radio-­‐capai-­‐37  [last  accessed  28   July  2011].  21     These   include:   Semarang,  Palembang,  Surabaya,   Bandung  and  Jakarta.  22     The   most   favorite  time   to  l isten   to  radio   is  6-­‐8am  a nd  8-­‐10pm  ( Mars  Indonesia,  2009).    23     Usodo,  B owo,  the   former  Chairman  of   Indonesian   Community   Radio   Network  (JRKI)  (2  January  2006),   cited  in  Birowo,  M.  (2006),  Community  radio  movement  in  Indonesia:  a  case  study  of  Jaringan  Radio   27  
  • 31. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Komunitas  Yogyakarta  ( Yogyakarta  Community  Radio  Networks),   http://mediaasiaconference.humanities.curtin.edu.au/pdf/Mario%20Antonius%20Birowo.pdf  [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].  24     AJI  (2010),  Ancaman  Itu   Datang  dari   Dalam,  a nnual  report  of  Alliance  o f  Independent  Journalists,  p.  51.    25     AJI  (2010),  p .  52.    26     Sources:  Serikat   Penerbit   Suratkabar  (SPS),  2011,   Sejarah  SPS  (2009  and  2010  data  only)  and  Piper,   T.,   (November  2009),  Don’t  Shoot  the  Messenger:  Policy  Challenges  Facing  the  Indonesian  Media,  p.3.  The   original  table  in  Piper,  2009  includes  two  d ifferent  numbers  for  2006,  2007,  and  2007  originated  from  the   Press  Council  and  SPS.    Piper  explains  that  “the  discrepancy  between  the  figures  provided  by  SPS  and  the   Press  Council  […]  is  due  to  the  use  of  different  determinants  of  eligibility  for  inclusion,  with  the  Press   Council  maintaining  more  rigid  criteria.  This  included  requirements  that  media  were  publishing  regularly   for  s ix  months  prior  to  their  surveys  being  conducted  and  the  exclusion  o f  government  owned   publications.”  Here,  only  SPS  d ata  on  2006,  2007,  and  2008  are  being  used,  to  provide  a  consistency  (there   was  no  Press  Council  data  for  2009  and  2010).    27     Suryadhi,  Ardhi  (9  June  2010),   Pengguna   Internet  Indonesia  C apai  45  Juta,   Detikinet,   http://us.detikinet.com/read/2010/06/09/121652/1374756/398/pengguna-­‐Internet-­‐indonesia-­‐capai-­‐ 45-­‐juta  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  28     The  w orld   is  still   a  long   way   from  a greeing  upon  a  common  set  o f   information  society   access  indicators   with  extensive  and  detailed  coverage.  In  cases  where  data  does  exist,  they  are  sometimes  u nreliable,   incomplete,  out  o f  d ate  o r  not  internationally  comparable.  They  are  also  often  d ifficult  to  locate  and   compile.  The  problem  is  particularly  acute  for  developing  nations,  some  of  which  lack  the  technical   expertise  or  resources  to  collect,  compile  and  d isseminate  ICT  statistics.  ITU  numbers  for  Indonesian   Internet  users  are  stagnant  at  30  millions  in  all  2008,  2009,  and  2010.  APJII  d ata,  however,  cited  2 5   millions  for  2008.    29     ITU  ( International   Telecommunication  U nion),   ICT   Statistics  2000—Internet,  http://www.itu.int/ITU-­‐ D/icteye/  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  30     BuddeComm  (2007),  Asia—Telecoms,   Mobile  a nd  B roadband  in  Indonesia   and   Timor  Leste,   http://www.budde.com.au/Research/2007-­‐Asia-­‐Telecoms-­‐Mobile-­‐and-­‐Broadband-­‐in-­‐Indonesia-­‐and-­‐ Timor-­‐Leste.html  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  31     Mahayana,   Dimitri  c ited   in   Detik  (24   November  2009),   Tarif  Broadband  Ideal   Rp  50   Ribu  p er   Bulan,   http://didiksetiyadi.com/?pilih=news&mod=yes&aksi=lihat&id=49  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  32     BPS  Jakarta  (1  July  2011),   Berita   Resmi   Statistik  Provinsi   DKI  J akarta  No.  28/07/31/Th.   XIII,   http://jakarta.bps.go.id/fileupload/brs/Miskin_2011.pdf  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  33     HR  Centro  (3   December  2010),  U MR/UMK  Propinsi   DKI  J akarta,  Non  Sektor  p ada  t ahun  2011   http://www.hrcentro.com/umr/dki_jakarta/non_kab/non_sektor/2011  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  34     Compiled   by  L im  from  v arious  sources:  ITU,  APJII,  B MI,   C onsumerLab   Infocom.    35     Source:  InterMedia  (2010),  Base:  n=226   [use   Internet  at   l east  once  a  month],  April  2 009.    36     Interview  w ith  Onno  Purbo  (2006).    37     Source:  Google   Trend  (8  June  2 011),   http://trends.google.com/websites?q=detik.com%2C+tempointeraktif.com%2C+republika.co.id&geo=ID &date=all&sort=0  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  38     Alexa  (8  July  2011),  http://www.alexa.com/topsites/countries;0/ID,  [last  a ccessed  28  July  2 011].    39     Source  o f  raw  data:  Alexa  (8  June  2011),  http://www.alexa.com/topsites/countries;0/ID  [last   accessed  28   July  2011]..  In  bold  =  Indonesian  websites/portals.    40     http://www.indosound.com/v2/  [last  a ccessed  28  July   2 011].    41     http://www.radioguide.fm/internet_radio_indonesia  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  42     Alexa  (2011).  43     Junaidi,  A .  (10  January  2008),  Jakarta  t o  host   blogger   bash  in  O ctober,  The   Jakarta  Post,   http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2007/10/01/jakarta-­‐host-­‐blogger-­‐bash-­‐october.html  [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].    44     Saling   Silang  Engine  (2011)  http://salingsilang.com   [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].  45     Compiled   by  L im  from  v arious  datasets  at  http://www.socialbakers.com  (dated  1  July   2008,   1  July  2009,  1   July  2010,  and  8  September  2011).     28  
  • 32. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            46     ComScore  (11  August  2010).  Indonesia,  B razil  a nd  Venezuela   Lead   Global   Surge   in   Twitter  Usage,   http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2010/8/Indonesia_Brazil_and_Venezuela_Lead _Global_Surge_in_Twitter_Usage  [Accessed  28  July  2011].  47     Source:   Saling  Silang  Engine  (2011)   Indonesian   Twitter  U sers  Q1  2011,  http://salingsilang.com.    48     Sources:  Various,  compiled  by  Lim.    49     InMobi  (7  October  2009),  B lackberry  B eating  iPhone  in  Indonesia   by   Mobile  Ad  Requests,   http://www.inmobi.com/press-­‐releases/2009/10/07/blackberry-­‐beating-­‐iphone-­‐in-­‐indonesia-­‐by-­‐ mobile-­‐ad-­‐requests/  [Accessed  28  July  2011].  50     Source:   Socialbakers.com  (2011)  http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-­‐statistics/indonesia   [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].  51     Source:   Socialbakers.com  (2011).    52     Intermedia  (2010).    53     Intermedia  (2010).  54     Chanuka   Wattegama,  Juni   Soehardjo,  and  N ilusha  K apugama,  18   March  2008,   Telecom   Regulatory  a nd   Policy  Environment  in  Indonesia:  Results  and  Analysis  of  the  2008  TRE  Survey,   http://www.lirneasia.net/wp-­‐  content/uploads/2009/07/  TRE_Indonesia_2009Mar18.pdf  [last  accessed   28  July  2011].,  p.  8.  55     The  Jakarta   Post  (27  July  2011).    56     SalingSilang.com  (2011),   Indonesia  Social   Media  Landscape  Q1  2011.   http://www.slideshare.net/salingsilang/indonesia-­‐social-­‐media-­‐landscape-­‐q1-­‐2011-­‐2nd-­‐ salingsilangcom-­‐report  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  57     Widiyanto,   Yudo  (24  February  2009),  D emam  Facebook   Dongrak   Penjualan  B lackberry,   Kontan,   http://info-­‐pulsa.blogspot.com/2009/02/demam-­‐facebook-­‐dongkrak-­‐penjualan.html  [last  accessed  28   July  2011].  58     Source:  D itjen   Postel,  2010.    59     Iqbal,   T.  and  Purbo,  O .W.  (2009),  G eektivism.   In   R.   Samarajiva  and  A .  Z ainudeen,   ICT   Infrastructure   in   Emerging  Asia:  Policy  and  Regulatory  Roadblocks.  Sage  India  &  IDRC,  pp.103-­‐115,   http://www.idrc.org/en/ev-­‐118605-­‐201-­‐1-­‐DO_TOPIC.html#ch4en13  [Accessed  28  July  2011].  60     AntaraNews  (17  July  2010),19   million  households  have  n o  electricity:  President,   http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/1280239905/19-­‐million-­‐households-­‐have-­‐no-­‐electricity-­‐ president  [Accessed  28  July  2011].  61     Source:  W ismadi,  A .  and  Townsend,   D.N.  (9  September  2 009),  Project  on   Rural   ICT   Policy  Advocacy,   Knowledge  and  Capacity  Building:  Country  Case  Study  Indonesia,  http://www.itu.int/ITU-­‐ D/asp/CMS/Events/2011/ITU-­‐ADB/Indonesia/ITU-­‐ADB_Interrim_Indonesia_Country_Report.pdf   [Accessed  28  July  2011].  62     Rasyid,  A.  (2005),  Indonesia:  Liberalization  at  the  Crossroad  Impact  on  Sector  Performance,   Teledensity   and  Productivity,  Communications  and  Strategies,  58(2),  pp.61-­‐80,  http://mpra.ub.uni-­‐ muenchen.de/2452/  [Accessed  28  July  2011].  63     Tempo   Interaktif  (11  A pril  2011),  Tahun   ini  D esa   Berdering  dan  Internet  K ecamatan   Rampung,   http://bbppki-­‐mks.blogspot.com/2011/04/tahun-­‐ini-­‐desa-­‐berdering-­‐dan-­‐internet.html  [last  accessed  28   July  2011].  64     Rasyid  (2005),  p.74.  65     Rasyid  (2005),  p.72.  66     Sen,  K .  and  H ill,   D.T.  (2000),   Media,  Culture   and   Politics  in  Indonesia,  p .  59.    67     http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surya_Paloh   [last   accessed   28  July  2011].  68     http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aburizal_Bakrie   [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  69     BusinessWeek   Online  (15  July  2002),  Jakarta’s  New  Titans,   http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/02_28/b3791135.htm  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].    70     Bagdikian,  B en   H.,  1997,   The   Media   Monopoly,   Boston:   Beacon   Press,  p .  11,  90-­‐99.    71     Bagdikian,  1997,  p .  44-­‐47.    72     Data  is   compiled   from  various  sources,  including:  L im’s  r esearch  (informant   based  data);   Tifa  Foundation   (2010),  iTifa’s  Notes  on  Indonesia,  p.  4 .;  Haryanto,  I.  (2010),  Media  Ownership  and  Its  Implication  for   Journalists  and  Journalism  in  Indonesia,  in  Krishna  Sen  and  David  Hill  (eds.),  Politics  and  the  New  Media  in   29  
  • 33. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             21st  Century  Indonesia,  p.  107;  http://id.wikipedia.org,  http://www.mncgroup.com/,   http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=22353221,   http://www.bakrie-­‐brothers.com/,  http://www.transcorp.co.id/,  http://www.feminagroup.com/  [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].  73     Source:  W ikipedia  Indonesia  (31   May  2011),   http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_stasiun_televisi_di_Indonesia  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  74     Modified  from   an  original  source—Clarity   Research  (2007),  Indonesia   in   a  view:  A   CASBAA  m arket   report   on  the  pay-­‐TV  industry  in  the  Republic  o f  Indonesia—using  data  from  Lim’s  research  (+  =noted  changes).    75   AGB  N ielsen  (29  A pril  2011),  N ielsen  N ewsletter,  Edition   16,   http://www.agbnielsen.com/Uploads/Indonesia/Nielsen_Newsletter_Apr_2011-­‐eng.pdf  [last  accessed  28   July  2011].  76     Marsono,  2009.    77     “Penyampaian,  p enyebarluasan   informasi,  juga   mendidik,  menghibur  m asyarakat  a gar   bangsa   Indonesia   tidak  kehilangan  jati  diri’  d an  ‘tetap  komit  dalam  menjaga  persatuan-­‐kesatuan  dan  keutuhan  NKRI,”  in   Marsono,  2009.    78     KBR68H  (5   May  2011),  Jaringan  Dalam  N egeri,  http://www.kbr68h.com/jaringan/297-­‐indonesia/5889-­‐ jaringan-­‐dalam-­‐negeri  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  79     Piper,  T.  (November  2009),  D on’t   Shoot   the   Messenger:   Policy  Challenges   Facing  the  Indonesian   Media,   p.3.    80     SPS  ( Serikat   Penerbit  Suratkabar),  2011.    81     Compiled  from  various  sources,  including:  http://kompas.co.id,  http://id.wikipedia.org.    82     Anderson,  B enedict,  ‘ Rewinding   “back   to  the   future”:   The   left  and   constitutional  democracy’  in  David   Bourchier  and  John  Legge  (eds.)  (1994),  Democracy  in  Indonesia:  1950s  and  1990s,  Center  for  Southeast   Asian  Studies,  Monash  U niversity,  p.  140.    83     Source:  L im’s  research  (data  from  8  July  2011).  The   figure  includes  top  10   Indonesian   content   websites/portals  (excluding  subsidiaries  o f  detik.com  such  as  detikhot.com,  d etiknews.com,  and   detiksport.com)  and  10  top  Indonesian  bloggers  (excluding  those  who  use  blogspot.com  and   wordpress.com).    84   AGB  N ielsen  (31  J anuary  2011),   Nielsen  Newsletter.    85     MARS  Indonesia,  2009,  Perilaku   Belanja   Konsumen   Indonesia.    86     Messakh,   Matheos  V iktor  (30  June  2009),  KBR   68H   centers  on  radio  j ournalism,  The  Jakarta  Post,   http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/06/30/kbr-­‐68h-­‐centers-­‐radio-­‐journalism.html  [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].  87     Sen   and   Hill  (2000),  p .  51.    88     Sen   and   Hill  (2000),  p .  51.    89     Nugroho,   Yanuar  (2011),  C itizens  in   @ction,   Hivos   and   Manchester  Business   School,   research   report,   http://audentis.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/citizens-­‐in-­‐action-­‐mioir-­‐hivos-­‐final_report-­‐en.pdf  [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].  90     According  to   blogger  Enda  N asution,   cited   in  Lutfia,  Ismira  (6  August  2 010),  Journalist,  Bloggers   Weigh   In   on  Role  of  New  Media,  Jakarta  Globe,  http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/journalists-­‐bloggers-­‐weigh-­‐ in-­‐on-­‐role-­‐of-­‐new-­‐media/389727  [last  accessed  28  July  2 011].  91     Sutadi,  Heru  (12  F ebruary  2011),   Social   Media   dan   Demokrasi  2 .0  d i  Indonesia,   http://politik.kompasiana.com/2011/02/12/social-­‐media-­‐dan-­‐demokrasi-­‐20-­‐di-­‐indonesia/  [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].  92     These  t wo  c ases  a re  the  most  prominent   cases—and,  t o  a   certain  d egree,  a re  overused  to  justify  the   democratization  effect  of  social  media  in  Indonesia—in  w hich  Facebook  and  other  social  networking   platforms  were  used  to  mobilize  support  for  the  perceived  victims.  See   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prita_Mulyasari  for  the  story  of  Prita  and  see   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_Eradication_Commission  for  the  story  o f  Bibit-­‐Chandra.  93     Hafner,  K atie  (27   May  2004),   For  some,  the  blogging  never  stops,  New   York  Times.    94     SalingSilang.com  (2011).    95     Source:   SalingSilang.com  (2011).      96     Data  of   March   2011,   cited   in   SalingSilang.com  (2011).     30  
  • 34. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            97     See  h ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidoarjo_mud_flow   [last  accessed  28  July  2011]  for  m ore  d escription  o n   the  Lapindo  case.    98     See  h ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmadiyya_in_Indonesia   [last   accessed  28  July  2011]   for   more   explanation  on  the  Ahmadiyah  and  its  persecution  in  Indonesia.    99     Source:  L im’s  B logtrackers  research,  2011.      100     Lim,  M.  (2003),  The  Internet,  Social  Network  and  Reform  in  Indonesia  in  N.  Couldry  and  J.  Curran  (eds.),   Contesting  Media  P ower:  Alternative  Media  in  A  Networked  World,  Rowan  &  Littlefield,  pp.  2 73-­‐288.  101  Lim,   M.  (2004),   The   Polarization  o f  Identity  through  the  Internet  and  the   Struggle   for   Democracy   in   Indonesia,  Electronic  Journal  of  Communication,  Vol.  14  (3-­‐4).  102  Lim,   M.  (2002),  CyberCivic   Space  in  Indonesia:   From   Panopticon  to   Pandemonium“,  International   Development  and  Planning  Review,  Vol.  2 4  No.  4 ,  pp.  383-­‐400.  103     Lim,  M.  (2006),  Cyber-­‐Urban  A ctivism  and  Political  Change  in  Indonesia,  Eastbound  Journal,  2006/1,  pp  1-­‐ 19.  104     Lim  (2002).  105     Before  the  fall  of  Suharto,  it  was  used  to  mobilize  pro-­‐democracy  movements  against  the  authoritarian   regime.  Radical  Islamist  and  Christian  groups  in  the  Moluccan  conflict,  however,  also  used  the  very  s ame   medium  to  spread  the  message  o f  hatred  and  prolong  the  conflict  (Lim,  M.  (2008),  Bundling  Meta-­‐ Narratives  on  the  Internet:  Conflict  in  Maluku,  in  Shyam  Tekwani  ( ed.),  Media  and  Conflict  in  Asia,  Marshall   Cavendish  Academic).    106     See  h ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prita_Mulyasari  [last  accessed  28  July  2011]  for  the  detailed  story  of   Prita.    107     See  h ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_Eradication_Commission  [last  accessed  28  July  2011]  for   the  story  o f  Bibit-­‐Chandra.  108     Website  of  Kampung  Halaman:  http://www.kampunghalaman.org  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  109     Interview  w ith  Zamzam  Zaunafi,  Director  o f  Kampung  Halaman  (20  July  2010).    110     Website  of  E ngageMedia:  http://www.engagemedia.org  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  111     Trailer  is  available  here:  http://www.engagemedia.org/Members/toysatellite/videos/Victim-­‐ Testimonial-­‐Tunaliwor-­‐Kiwo/view  [last  accessed  2 8  July  2011].  112  http://www.kalyanashira.com/pertaruhan/en/tentang-­‐kalyana.php   [last  a ccessed  28  July  2011].  113  http://www.hivos.nl/english/community/partner/50008484  [last  a ccessed  28  July  2011].  114  http://westpapuamedia.info/  [last  a ccessed  28  July   2011].  115  http://www.kontras.org/  [last  a ccessed  28  July  2011].  116  http://www.imparsial.org/  [last   accessed  28  July  2011].  117  http://kalyanamitra.or.id/   [last  a ccessed  28  July  2011].  118  Freedom   House  (2011),   Freedom  of  the  N et  2011  –  Indonesia,   http://www.freedomhouse.org/images/File/FotN/Indonesia2011.pdf  [Accessed  28  July  2011].  119  Freedom   House  (2010),   Freedom  of  the  p ress  –  Indonesia,   http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=251&year=2010&country=7841  [Accessed  28  July   2011].  120  Article  19  and  AJI  (2005),  Freedom  o f  Expression  and  the  Media   in  Indonesia,  L ondon   and  Jakarta,   www.article19.org/pdfs/publications/indonesia-­‐baseline-­‐study.pdf  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  121  Freedom   House  (2010).  122  Freedom   House  (2010).  123  The  Jakarta   Post  (12  July  2011),  L awmakers  d rum  u p  support   for   Prita   http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/07/12/lawmakers-­‐drum-­‐support-­‐prita.html  [last  accessed   28  July  2011].  124  About  AJI,  s ee:  http://www.ajiindonesia.org/   [last   accessed  28  July  2011].  125  Freedom   House  (2010).  126  Freedom   House  (2010).  127  Freedom   House  (2010).  128  Lutfia,  I.  (25   December  2009),  Indonesian  Cyber  Crime   B ill  t o  Spark   Debate.   Jakarta  Globe,   http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/national/indonesian-­‐cyber-­‐crime-­‐bill-­‐to-­‐spark-­‐debate/349320  [last   accessed  28  July  2 011].   31  
  • 35. @crossroads:  Democratization  and  Corporatization  of  Media  in  Indonesia   Merlyna  Lim                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            129  SEAPA  (22  January  2010),  Indonesian  journalists  prepare  for  more  l egislative  battles,   http://www.seapabkk.org/alerts/6-­‐news-­‐a-­‐features/16-­‐indonesian-­‐journalists-­‐prepare-­‐for-­‐more-­‐ legislative-­‐battles.html  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  130  International  C risis  Group  (2011),  Update  B riefing,  Asia   Briefing  No   124,  Jakarta/Brussel,  12  July  2011,   http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-­‐east-­‐asia/indonesia/B124  Indonesia  -­‐-­‐  Debate   over  a  New  Intelligence  Bill.pdf  [last  accessed  7  October  2 011].  131  Sihite,  E .  &  H aryanto,  U .  (1  O ctober   2011),   Intelligence  B ill  ‘ Still  V ague  in  Parts’.  Jakarta   Globe,   http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/intelligence-­‐bill-­‐still-­‐vague-­‐in-­‐parts/468891  [last  accessed  7   October  2011].    132  AJI  (2010).    133  Haryanto  (2010),  p .  104-­‐118.    134  About   Satu  Dunia,  see:  http://www.satudunia.net   [last  a ccessed   28  July  2011].  135  About  A nggara,  s ee:  http://www.anggara.org  [last   accessed  28  July  2011].  136  Information  on  approaches  and  strategies   is  gathered   m ainly  from   the  d iscussions  and  exchanges  w ith   Heidi  A rbuckle  ( Ford  Foundation  Program  Officer  of  Indonesian  o ffice)  in  July  2011,  cited  later  as:   Arbuckle  (2011).    137  Arbuckle  (2011).  138  Arbuckle  (2011).  139  Purbo,  Onno  (2005),  People’s  Power   on   The   Liberation  o f  2.4GHz  Band,   http://opensource.telkomspeedy.com/wiki/index.php/Peoples_Power_on_The_Liberation_of_2.4GHz_ban d  [last  accessed  28  July  2011].  140  As  recorded   in  the  discussions  between   Purbo,  AJI,  and   o ther  m edia  a ctors  (Arbuckle,  2011).    141  Among  the   proponents  o f  this  idea   is   Megi   Margiono   from  AJI  (Arbuckle,  2011).    142  About   ICT   Watch,  see:  http://ictwatch.com/id/   [last  a ccessed  28  July  2011].  143  For   further  information  on   Cipta   Media  Bersama,  s ee:  http://www.ciptamedia.org/   [last   accessed  28  July   2011].  144  Arbuckle  (2011).   32