Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. MOTIVATION
  2. 2. MOTIVATION – PROCESS THAT ACCOUNTS FOR AN INDIVIUAL’S INTENSITY, DIRECTION AND PERSISTENCE OF EFFORTS TOWARDS ATTAINING A GOAL
  3. 3. THE WILLINGNESS TO EXERT HIGH LEVELS OF EFFORT TO REACH ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS. CONDITIONED BY EFFORTS, ABILITY TO SATISFY SOME INDIVIDUAL NEEDS.
  4. 4. NEED – SOME INTERNAL STATE THAT MAKES CERTAIN OUTCOMES APPEAR ATTRACTIVE. DRIVE – AN UNSATISFIED NEED CREATES TENSION THAT STIMULATES DRIVES WITHIN AN INDIVIUAL.
  5. 5. MOTIVATION PROCESS UNSATISFIED NEED TENSION DRIVES SEARCH BEHAVIOR SATISFIED NEED REDUCTION OF TENSION
  6. 6. MOTIVATION – EARLY THEORIES
  7. 7. MASLOW’S HIEARCHY OF NEEDS Self Actualization ( Self Fulfillment ) Esteem Needs or Ego Needs ( Prestige, status, self respect ) Social Needs ( Affection, friendship, belonging ) Safety and security Needs ( Protection, order, stability ) Physiological Needs ( Food, water air, shelter )
  8. 8. SELF ACTUALISATION PERSONAL GROWTH REALISATION OF POTENTIAL ESTEEM NEEDS TITLES, STATUS SYMBOLS, PROMOTION AFFILIATION OR ACCEPTANCE NEEDS FORMAL & INFORMAL WORK GROUPS SECURITY OR SAFETY NEEDS SENOIRITY BASED PROMOTIONS, MEDICAL INSURANCE, PENSION BASIC NEEDS PAY & CASH BENEFITS
  9. 9. MC GREGORS THEORY X AND THEORY Y
  10. 10. THEORY X – NEGATIVE VIEW • EMPLOYEES INHERENTLY DISLIKE WORK AND WHENEVER POSSIBLE ATTEMPT TO AVOID • EMPLOYEES MUST BE COERCED TO WORK • EMPLOYEES AVOID RESPONSIBILITY • MOST WORKERS PLACE SECURITY ABOVE ALL
  11. 11. THEORY Y – POSITIVE VIEW • EMPLOYEES CAN VIEW WORK AS BEING NATURAL • WILL EXERCISE SELF DIRECTION AND SELF CONTROL • AVERAGE PERSON CAN ACCEPT AND EVEN SEEK RESPONSIBILITY • ABILITY TO TAKE INNOVATIVE DECISIONS IS WIDELY DISPERSED
  12. 12. HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY (MOTIVATIONAL- HYGIENE THEORY)
  13. 13. DISSATISFACTION FACTORS • SUPERVISION • RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPERIORS • WORK CONDITIONS • SALARY • RELATIONSHIP WITH PEERS • RELATIONSHIP WITH SUBORDINATES
  14. 14. SATISFACTION FACTORS • ACHEIVEMENT • RECOGNITION • WORK ITSELF • RESONSIBILITY • ADVANCEMENT
  15. 15. CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  16. 16. Three Needs Theory David C McClelland   • Need for achievement (n Ach)     • Need for Power (n Pow)   • Need for Affiliation (n Aff)
  17. 17. n ARCH – DRIVE TO EXCEL TO ACHIEVE IN RELATION OF SET STANDARDS. STRIVE TO SUCCEED PERSONAL RESPONSIBILTY FEEDBACK MODERATE RISK
  18. 18. n POW – TO HAVE IMPACT, TO BE INFLUENTIAL AND CONTROL OTHERS. ENJOY BEING IN CHARGE TO BE PLACED IN COMPETITIVE SITUATION STATUS ORIENTED CONCERNED WITH PRESTIGE
  19. 19. n AFF – DERSIRE FOR FRIENDLY AND CLOSE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP CO-OPERATION TEAMWORK
  20. 20. GOAL SETTING THEORY
  21. 21. • SPECIFIC GOAL PRODUCES BETTER RESULTS THAN A GENERALISED ONE • ARE PEOPLE MOTIVATED BY DIFFICULT GOAL? • FEEDBACK IMPORTANT • PARTICIPATION IN GOAL SETTING • GOAL SETTING THEORY IS CULTURE BOUND
  22. 22. MBO PROGRAMS
  23. 23. REINFORCEMENT THEORY “ BEHAVIOUR IS THE FUNCTION OF ITS CONSEQUENCES”   REINFORCERS – ANY CONSEQUENCE IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING A RESPONSE THAT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY THAT THE BEHAVIOUR WILL BE REPEATED.
  24. 24. EQUITY THEORY EQUITY THEORY – “A THEORY THAT INDIVIUALS COMPARE THEIR JOB INPUTS AND OUTCOMES WITH THOSE OF OTHERS AND THEN RESPOND TO ELIMINATE ANY INEQUITIES”
  25. 25. EMPLOYEE REFERENT • SELF INSIDE • SELF OUTSIDE • OTHER INSIDE • OTHER OUTSIDE
  26. 26. WHAT IS EQUITY AND FAIRNESS? - CONCEPT OF ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE
  27. 27. ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE • DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE • PROCEDURAL JUSTICE • INTERACTIONAL JUSTICE
  28. 28. EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION ----Victor H Vroom  AN INDIVIUAL TENDS TO ACT IN CERTAIN WAY BASED ON EXPECTATION THAT THE ACT WILL BE FOLLOWED BY A GIVEN OUTCOME AND ON THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE OUTCOME
  29. 29. THREE VARIABLES OF EXPECTANCY THEORY • EXPECTANCY – EFFORT – PERFOMANCE LINKAGE • INSTRUMENTALITY – PERFORMANCE – REWARD LINKAGE • VALENCE – ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE REWARD
  30. 30. MONEY AS A MOTIVATING FACTOR
  31. 31. DESIGNING MOTIVATING JOBS
  32. 32. JOB ROTATION, ENLARGEMENT AND ENRICHMENT
  33. 33. ALTERNATIVE WORK ARRANGEMENTS • FLEXTIME • JOB SHARING • TELECOMMUNICATING
  34. 34. THEORY TO PRACTICE • • • • • • • • RECOGNISE INDIVIUAL DIFFERENCES MATCH PEOPLE TO JOBS USE GOALS GOALS SHOULD BE PERCEIVED ATTAINABLE INDIVIDUALISE REWARDS REWARDS LINKED TO PERFORMANCE EQUITY DONOT IGNORE MONEY !!

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