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Myanmar encyclopaedia-2012 ျမန္မာ့စြယ္စံုက်မ္း ႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ၂၀၁၂
 

Myanmar encyclopaedia-2012 ျမန္မာ့စြယ္စံုက်မ္း ႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ၂၀၁၂

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ျမန္မာ့စြယ္စံုက်မ္း ႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ၂၀၁၂

ျမန္မာ့စြယ္စံုက်မ္း ႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ၂၀၁၂

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    Myanmar encyclopaedia-2012 ျမန္မာ့စြယ္စံုက်မ္း ႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ၂၀၁၂ Myanmar encyclopaedia-2012 ျမန္မာ့စြယ္စံုက်မ္း ႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ၂၀၁၂ Document Transcript

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    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S Zefe0g&Dv kfH 3 Ediiawmfat;csr;f om,ma&; ESizUHG NzdK;a&;aumifptwGi; a&;rSL; fh D f (1) jrefrmEdiiynma&;aumfrwD k f H Ouú| oD[ol&OD;wifatmifjrihfOD; onf aejynfawmfaZ,smoD&dNrdKU trSwf (1) tajccHynmtxuf wef ; ausmif ; ü usif ; yonh f 2010-2011 ynmoifEpf ynm S a&;pHknDyGJawmf tcrf;tem;okdY wufa&mufí trSmpum;ajymMum; NyD; qkrsm;ukd ay;tyfcsD;jr§ihfonf/ 4 jynf a xmif p k j ref r mEd k i f i H awmf EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,m a&;ES i f h z G H U Nzd K ;a&;aumif p D O uú | wyfrawmf umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&TESihfZeD; a':BudKifBudKifwYdk u wnfcif;{nfcH h onf(63)ESpajrmufvGwfvyfa&; h f aeYtxdrf;trSwf{nfhcHyGJESifh npm pm;yGtcrf;tem;ukd aejynfawmf&dS J NrdKUawmfcef;rüusif;yonf/ 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S 11 Ed k i f i H a wmf 0 ef B uD ; csKyf OD;ode;pdeonf {&m0wDwi; a'o f f dk f Bu;&Sd trSwf (5) "mwfajrMoZm D puf½kH (ykor) zGiytcrf;tem;ESifh d f fh JG ykodrf- rHk&Gm uwå&mvrf;rBuD; zGihfyGJ tcrf;tem;okdY wufa&muf csD;jr§ifhonf/ &Srf;jynfe,f (awmifydkif;) tufptufpat-tufpf (0rfoe;) f f d f tzGJUrS vufeufESihfNidrf;csrf;a&; vJv,0ifa&mufjcif; tcrf;tem; S f ukd vGdKifvifNrdKUtm;upm;uGif;ü usif;yonf/ tmz*ef e pö w ef j yef v nf wnfaqmufa&;qdi&m tar&duef kf txl;ppfaq;a&;rSL;csKyf tmEd;zD;pf k onf &mxl ; rS E k w f x G u f o G m ; aMumif; tar&duefor®w tdrfjzL awmfu aMunmonf/ 12 jrefrmEkdifiHtif*sifeD,mt oif; tmqD,tif*sife,mqdi&m H D k f bGJUwHqdyfrsm;ay;tyfyGJ? ESpfywf vnftoif;om;pHknD nDvmcHESihf tvSL&Sifrsm;tm; *kPfjyKvTmay; tyfyGJtcrf;tem;ukd jrefrmEkdifiH tif * sif e D , mtoif ; Function T f d f H 9 tar&dueftxufvwawmf Hall üusif;y&m Ekiiawmf 0efBuD; trsd K ;orD ; trwf w pf O D ; jzpf o l csKyf OD;odef;pdef wufa&mufcsD;jr§ihf *gb&DvD*pfzdkY'fonf t&DZdk;em; NyD; trSmpum; ajymMum;onf/ jynfe,f wlqefNrdKUü jynfolrsm; ESifh awGYqHkyGJwpf&yf jyKvkyfpOf 14 qdkrmvD0efBuD;csKyf rdk[m aoewform;wpfOD; ypfcwfrI ruftAÁ'lvmrdk[mrufu qdkrm aMumifh aoqHk;oGm;aMumif; t&D vDEdkifiHü rdk;acgifa&&Sm;rIaMumihf Zkd;em;jynfe,f &JwyfzGJYu ajym &du©mjywfvwfrIESihf BuHKae&aom Mum;onf/ jynfol 2 'or 5 oef;eD;yg; 1 twGuf EdkifiHwumrS ta&;ay: tultnDrsm;ay;&ef arwåm&yfcH onf/ 17 trSwf (1) vQyfppfpGrf;tm; 0efBuD;Xme a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHa&; OD;pD;XmeESihf pGr;tm;opftatppf f dk zGHYNzdK;wkd;wufrI ukrÜPDvDrdwuf wkdYu B.O.T pepfjzifh taumif txnfazmfaqmif&urnfh txuf G f bD v l ; acsmif ; a&tm;vQyf p pf pDrHudef;twGuf y#dnmOfpmcsKyf ESifhobm0pGrf;tifvIdif;ukrÜPD vD r d w uf E S i f h B.O.T pepf j zif h taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Guf rnf h t nmzsm; a&tm;vQyf p pf pDrHudef;twGuf y#dnmOfpmcsKyf vufrSwfa&;xkd;yGJ tcrf;tem;ukd aejynfawmf&dS trSwf (1) vQyfppf 0efBu;Xme&J&mcef;rü usi;f yonf/ D G f f 18 w½kwor®w[lusiaxmif; onfEdkifiHawmfc&D;pOftjzpf tar &duefEdkifiH 0g&SifwefNrdKUokdYa&muf &SdNyD; xdkaeYnwGif tdrfjzLawmfokdY oGm;a&mufí or®wbm;&uftdk bm;rm;ESihftwl npmoHk;aqmif onf/ 19 ukdvHbD,mEdkifiH blum&m ref * gNrd K UwG i f aq;ajcmuf E S i f h ukduif;rsm;ukd ausmbufwGif okd 0SufcsnfaESmifí tusOf;axmif twGif;okdY o,faqmifvmaom ckdiSufwpfaumifuk d zrf ; qD ; &rd aMumif; &JwyfzYJGu ajymMum;onf/
    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S EdkifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf OD;odef;pdef wufa&mufí trSmpum;ajym Mum;NyD; urÜnf;armfuGef;ausmuf pmwkiudk pufcvkwEyí zGivpf d f f dS f hf S ay;onf/ awmifay:tyef;ajzpcef; a'AkdYpfü usif;yonfh (41) Budrfajrmuf urÇmh pD;yGm;a&;zkd&rf tzGifhrdefYcGef; wGif xnfhoGif;ajymMum;onf/ jynf a xmif p k j ref r mEd k i f i H awmf b@ma&;ES i f h tcG e f 0 ef BuD;XmeESifh w½kwfjynfolYor®w EdkifiH E_IM Bank of China wkdY tMum; acs;aiGpmcsKyrsm; vufrwf f S a&;xkd;yGJtcrf;tem;ukd aejynf awmf j rwf a wmf 0 if [ k d w ,f ü usif;yonf/ EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,m a&;ESifh zGHYNzdK;a&;aumifpDu Oya' trSwf (8^2011)jzifh jrefrmtxl; pD;yGm;a&; ZkefOya'ukd xkwfjyef jy|mef;onf/ kd f H 27 tD&efEiiu EsLuvD;,m; vufeufxkwfvkyf&ef BudK;yrf; aeonf[k tar&duefOD;aqmif NyD; pGyfpGJaejcif;rSm tajctjrpf r&SdaMumif; ½k&Sm;or®w'DrDx&D ruf A D ' uf u qG p f Z mvef E d k i f i H 28 ½k & S m ;uk e f w if tmum o,mOf y½kd*&uf trf-09 trfukd EdkifiHwumtmumo,mOf (ISS) okdY csdwfquf&efvTwfwifvkduf aMumif; ½k&Sm;tmumo xdef;csKyf a&;pcef;u aMunmonf/ w½kwfor®w[lusifaxmif;ESihf tar&duefor®wtdkbm;rm;wdkY tdrfjzLawmfü awGUqHkpOf 21 tar&duefEdkifiHu owif; qufoG,fa&; N*dK[fwkwpfvHk;ukd o,faqmifonfh tBuD;qHk;'Hk;ysH 'Jvfwm-4 [JAD;ukd u,fvDzkd; eD;,m;jynfe,f Aef'ifbwfav wyfpcef;rS vTwfwifonf/ 22 jrefrmEdkifiHu Ouú|tjzpf BuD ; rS L ;usif ; yonf h (13)Bud r f ajrmuf bif;rfpwuf EdiijH cm;a&; k f 0ef B uD ; tqif h t pnf ; ta0;ES i f h (15)Budrfajrmuf bif;rfpwuf tqifhjrifht&m&SdBuD;rsm; tpnf; ta0; zGiytcrf;tem;ukd aejynf hf JG awmf&Sd jrefrmtjynfjynfqkdif&m uGefAif;&Sif;A[kdXme (MICC) ü usif;y&m EdkifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf OD;odef;pdefwufa&mufí tzGifh trSmpum;ajymMum;onf/ 23 wmydef(1) a&tm;vQyfppf "mwftm;ay;puf½Hk zGifhyGJtcrf; tem;ukd ucsifjynfe,f rkd;armuf NrdKUe,f&Sd tqkdygpuf½Hküusif;y&m wmydef (1) a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hk 2
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    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S ESihf xkwvyrtay:cGa0cHpm;a&; f k f I J pmcsKyf t & &ck d i f u rf ; vG e f v k y f uGuftrSwf A-1 ESifh A-3 wkdY wGif a&eH E S i f h o bm0"mwf a iG Y & S m azG ? wl;azmf? xkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief; rsm; aqmif & G u f a eonf h a '0l ; tifwmae&Sife,faumfykda&;&Sif; onf 2013 ckESpfwGif a&TpDrH udef;rS obm0"mwfaiGYrsm; pwif xkwfvkyfoGm;rnfjzpf&m pDrHudef; yxrtqifh zGYHNzdK;a&;wGif;jzpf onfh jr(ajrmuf) zGHYNzdK;a&;wGif; trS w f ( bD ) pwif w l ; azmf j cif ; tcrf ; tem;usif ; yonf h &ck d i f urf;vGef vkyfuGuftrSwf A-3 &Sd wGi;f wl;puf Hakuryu-5 okYd pGrf;tif 0efBuD;Xme0efBuD; OD;vGef;oDESifh a'0l;ukrPrS wm0ef&Sdolrsm;wuf Ü D a&mufonf/ ppfukdif;wkdif;a'oBuD; a&Tbkdc½kdif uefYbvlNrdKU r[m a&TpnfBuD;apwDawmf {um'or tBudrf Ak'¨ylZed,yGJawmfESifh qGrf; qefpdrf;avmif;vSLyGJtvSLawmf r*Fvm tcrf;tem;usif;yonfh r[ma&TpnfBuD; apwDawmfokdY 'kwd,AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; armifat; ESihf ZeD;a':jrjrpef;wkYd wufa&muf MunfndKMuNyD; q&mawmfoHCm awmft&Sifoljrwfrsm;tm; qGrf; qefawmfESifh vSLzG,fypönf;rsm; qufuyfvSL'gef;Muonf/ 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;armifat;ESihfZeD;wkdYu r[ma&TpnfBuD;apwDawmf Ak'¨½kyfyGm;awmftm; qGrf;? opfoD;? a&csrf;? yef;wdkYukd qufuyfvSL'gef;pOf k teuf 2 rdiccefYudk A[kjd yKía'o ojzifh aoqH;oGm;aMumif; tD&wf k f JG pHawmfcsef 12 em&D 51 rdepfwif vHkNcHKa&;wyfzGJUuaMunmonf/ d G tiftm; &pfcswmpau; 6 'or f 3 &Stiftm;jyif;ivsivycwfc&m d f If hJ rwfv ivsivyNf yD;csewif aoqH;ol 65 f I df G k OD;ausm&onf/ f dS 3 tjynfjynfqkdif&m jrefrm avaMumif; (MAI) &efukefkd f k f f f 25 e,l;ZDvefEiiH c½duccswcsf uGrusKd ;c&D;pOfopf pwifysoef;jcif; f H NrdKUwGif vIyfcwfcJhaom ivsif tcrf ; tem;uk d &ef u k e ftjynf aMumifhaoqHk;ol 113 OD;? aysmuf jynfqi&mavqdyü usif;yonf/ dk f f qHk;aeol 228 OD;ESifh'Pf&m&ol 2500 &SdaMumif; qif[Gmowif; 4 ukdvHbD,mEkdifiH taemuf XmerSaMunmonf/ awmifykdif;&Sd umvkdwkdNrdKU bPfukd &[wf,mOfwpfpif;jzifh pD;eif; f dk f 26 t,fvci'gtzGUJ ppfa&; wkdufckdufrIjzpfyGm;&m bPfvHkNcHK 22 e,l;ZDvefEdkifiH? c½dkufcf acgif;aqmifwpfOD;jzpfol t,fem a&;&Jt&m&Sd av;OD;ESifh t&yfom; cswfcsfNrdKU ta&SUawmifbuf qmvD'iftvmtblqavrefonf ESpO;aoqH;cJNh yD; EkiitBuD;qH; f D k d f H k 6'or 2rkdiftuGm? ajratmuf tD&wfvHkNcHKa&;wyfzGJUuwkdufckduf tMurf;zuf orm;tkyfpkjzpfonfh 4
    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S (FARCS) vufcsuf[k,lq& a&;rSL;(1)oD[ol& OD;wifatmif aMumif; &JwyfzGJYtBuD;tuJ atmf jrif h O D ; onf wm0ef & S d o l r sm; pum em&ef*sdKuajymMum;onf/ vkdufygvsuf oDaygNrdKU trSwf (2) tajccH y nmtxuf w ef ; S f ¾ d 5 2009 ckEptwGuf yk*vu ausmif;ESifh oDaygNrdKUckwif (100) k ]xGef;azmifa';&Sif;pmayqk} qk qHh jynfoYlaq;½HoYdkvnf; aumif;? &&S d o l r sm; trnf p m&if ; uk d trSwf (1) tajccHynm txuf wef ; ausmif ; ok d Y vnf ; aumif ; xkwfjyefaMunmonf/ ygupöwefEdkifiH u&mcsdNrdKU vS n f h v nf M unf h ½ I p pf a q;um S awmifykdif; &JwyfzGJUavhusifha&; tvSLaiGrsm;ay;tyfvL'gef;onf/ Xmeod k Y qk d i f u ,f p D ; aoewf xkdrSwpfqifh abmfBudKaus;&Gm&Sd orm;rsm; 0ifa&mufwkdufckdufrI ork d i f ; 0if a bmf B ud K rk a |mapwD aMumifh &JwyfzGJU0ifig;OD;aoqHk; awmfokdYa&muf&Sdum Ak'¨½kyfyGm; NyD; ESpfOD;'Pf&m &&SdcJhaMumif;? awmfjrwftm; yef;? a&csrf;wkdYjzifh l rnf o nf h t zG J Y t pnf ; wk d u f qufuyfz;ajrmfMunfnKd NyD; apwD ck d u f r I j zpf o nf u k d rod & ao; awmfy&d0kPftwGif;&Sd omoedu aMumif; owif;xkwfjyefonf/ taqmufttHkrsm; jyKjyifrGrf;rH xm;rIukd Munfh½Ippfaq;onf/ 6 aejynfawmfc½kdif v,fa0; xkdYaemuf twGif;a&;rSL; (1) ESifh NrdKUe,f ckwif (100) qHh jynfolY wm0ef&Sdolrsm;onf ausmufrJNrdKU aq;½kHzGifhyGJtcrf;tem;ukd aq;½Hk tajccHynm txufwef;ausmif; Oypmüusi;y&m Ediiawmf0efBuD; cGJodkY a&muf&Sdppfaq;um ausmif; f kfH csKyf OD;odef;pdef wufa&mufcs;jr§ihf D onf/ EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,m a&;ESifhzGHYNzdK;a&;aumifpD twGif; a&;rSL;(1)oD[ol& OD;wifatmif jrifhOD;onf &Srf;jynfe,f (ajrmuf yki;f ) oDaygNrKd Ue,f&dS oDaygwHwm; d opfziytcrf;tem;odYk wufa&muf G hf JG csD ; jr§ i f h t rS m pum;ajymMum;NyD ; urÜ n f ; armf u G e f ; ausmuf p muk d pufcvkwfESdyfzGifhvSpfay;onf/ 7 EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,m a&;ESifhzGHYNzdK;a&;aumifpDtwGif; twGuf tvSLaiGrsm;ukd ay;tyf vSL'gef;onf/ 8 Junction Centre Nay Pyi Taw wdk;csJYzGifhvSpfjcif; zGifhyGJtcrf; tem;ukd wkd;csJUaqmifrsufESmpm wGif usif;yonf/ 9 aejynfawmfc½kdif ykAÁoD&d NrdKUe,f NrdKUe,faq;½Hk trSw(2) f zGiytcrf;tem;ukd aq;½HOypmü hf JG k usif;y&m Ed k i f i H a wmf a t;csrf ; om,ma&;ESifh zGHYNzdK;a&;aumifpD twG i f ; a&;rS L ;(1) oD [ ol & OD;wifatmifjrifhOD; wufa&muf um aq;½Hqi;bkwudk pufcvkwf k dk f f ESyf zGivpay;onf/ d hf S f wmvDbefwkdYtm;ESpfcsDí qefYusifwkdufckdufcJhonfh ygupö wef E d k i f i H t aemuf a jrmuf y k d i f ; 'uf'DZkdifa'o&Sd &Gmi,fwpf&Gm ema&;wpfckütaocHAHk; aygufuGJ oDaygwHwm; 5
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    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S OD;odef;pdefonf tdE´d,or®w Ed k i f i H j ynf y a&;&m0ef B uD ; H.E. Mr.S.M Krishna OD;aqmifaom ud,pm;vS,tzGUJ tm; aejynfawmf k f f &Sd EdkifiHawmf or®w½Hk;{nhfcef;rü vufcHawGUqHkonf/ Ouú| ol&OD;a&Tref;onf &efukef wdi;a'oBuD;twGi;&Sd vTwawmf k f f f udk,fpm;vS,frsm;? jynfaxmifpk or®wjrefrmEdkifiH ukefonfrsm; ESihf pufrIvufrIvkyfief;&Sifrsm; toif;csKyfrS wm0ef&Sdolrsm;tm; yl ; aygif ; aqmif & G u f a &;qd k i f & m wwd , tBud r f a qG ; aEG ; yG J z G i h f y G J tcrf;tem;ukd aejynfawmf&dS jrefrm tjynfjynfqdkif&m uG e f A if ; &S i f ; A[kdXmeüusif;y&m jynfaxmifpk or®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmf 'kwd, 'kwd,or®w oD[ol&OD;wifatmifjrihfOD; jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrmEkdifiHawmftpkd;&ESihf tdE´d,jrefrmpufrIoifwef;ausmif; (jrif;NcH)xlaxmifa&;qdkif&m em;vnfrIpmcRefvTmvufrSwfa&;xdk;yGJokdY wufa&mufcsD;jr§ihfpOf 'kwd,or®w a'gufwm pd k i f ; armuf c rf ; ES i h f ZeD ; a':eef ; a&T r I e f w d k Y onf jynf axmifpk 0efBuD;rsm;? Xmeqdkif&m tBuD ; tuJ r sm; vd k u f y gvsuf &S r f ; jynf e ,f o k d Y oG m ;a&muf í ivsif'Pfoihf wmavNrdKU aus; vufa'o zGHUNzdK;a&;vkyfief;rsm;? tif ; av;uef a &&S n f w nf w H h a&;ESihfpdrf;vef;pkdjynfa&;vkyfief; rsm;ESihf p0fpHxGef;aq;½HkBuD; vkyf ief;aqmif&urI tajctaersm;ukd G f vSnhfvnf Munhf½Ippfaq;onf/ 24-26 &efukefNrdKUjynfvrf;&Sd &efukef wdkif;a'oBuD; vTwfawmftpnf; ta0;cef;rüawGUqHkonf/ ½k&m;tmumo ukewif,mOf S f y½dk *&uf trf-11 trfonf EdkifiH wumtmumo,mOf p cef ; ES i h f atmifjrifpm csdwqufrcaMumif; G f d hJ ½k&m;tmumo,mOfc&D;pOf uGyfuJ S a&;t&m&S d r sm;u ajymMum; onf/ 27 trsKd;om;qefpyg;rl0g' rsm;wdk;wufaumif;rGefNyD; a'o wGif;pm;eyf&du©mvHkNcHKpdwfcsa&; 24 jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrm twGuf pdefac:rIrsm;ESifhtcGihft Ed k i f i H a wmf jynf o l Y vT w f a wmf vrf;rsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;í zGHUNzdK;rI 20 or®w a'gufwmpdkif;armufcrf; wufa&mufí trSmpum;ajymMum; onf/ 28 jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrm Ed k i f i H a wmf Ed k i f i H a wmf or® w OD ; od e f ; pd e f o nf 2011 ck E S p f ausmufpdrf;? ausmufrsufESihfykvJ txl;a&mif;csyGJtBudK cif;usif; jyoxm;rIrsm;ukd Munhf½Ippfaq; onf/ EdkifiHawmfrS trsKd;om;'Drdk ua&pDtzGUJ csKyfudk w&m;Oya'rsm; ESihf nDñGwfpGmEdkifiHa&;ygwDtjzpf y,fzsuNf y;D jzpfaomfvnf; ¤if;onf vdkufemrIr&SdbJ XmecsKyf½Hk;? wdkif;
    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S ½Hk;? e,f½Hk;rsm; qufvufzGifhvSpf jcif;? qdkif;bkwfpdkufxljcif;? ygwD tvHvTihfxljcif;? ygwDaMunm csufrsm;xkwfjyefjcif;? pmtkyfpm apmifrsm;ESifh AD',acGrsm;xkwjf yef D kd jcif;? EdkifiHjcm;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESihf awGUqHkjcif;? tpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf tcrf;tem;rsm; jyKvkyfjcif;rsm; vkyfaqmifaeonfjzpfojzihf ¤if; wdYkonf Oya'ukd wrifazmufzsuf jcif ; rsm;jzpf a eygaomaMumih f trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJUcsKyfrS OD; atmifa&TEifh a':atmifqef;pkMunf S wkdYukd Oya'ESihftnD vdkufem aqmif&Guf&ef jynfxJa&;0efBuD; Xmeu taMumif;Mum;pmay;ydYonf/ k tD&wfEdkifiHjynfe,ftcsKdU &Sd tar&duefwyfpcef;rsm;ukd OD; wnfvsufruf'DwyfzGJU0ifrsm;u pdefajymif;rsm;? uuf,l&Sm'kH;usnf rsm;jzihf 10 Budrfru wdkufcdkuf cJhaMumif; aMunmonf/ 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S wufa&muftm;ay;csD;jr§ihfonf/ jynfaxmifpk or®wjrefrm EdkifiHawmftpkd;& b@ma&;ESihf tcGef0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;½Hk;rS EdkifiHh 0efxrf;rsm; yifpifvpmrsm;ukd wdk;jr§ihfowfrSwfjcif; trdefYaMumf jimpmtrSwf (106^2011) xkwf jyefaMunmonf/ jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrm EkdifiHawmftpkd;& b@ma&;ESifh tcGef0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;½Hk;rS EdkifiH a&;yifpifvpmrsm;ukd wdk;jr§ihfowf rSwfjcif; trdefYaMumfjimpmtrSwf (107^2011) xkwjfyefaMunmonf/ w½kwfEdkifiHta&SUydkif; &Sef a'gif;jynfe,fausmufusKUd yifv,f atmfwGif 36 'or 48 uDvdkrD wm&SnfNyD; usif;awmifNrdKUESifh [Grfawmifc½dkifwdkYtMum; quf oG , f x m;aomurÇ m h t &S n f q H k ; yif v ,f j zwf u l ; wH w m;BuD ; uk d zGihfvSpfvdkufNyDjzpfaMumif; wm0ef &Sdolrsm;u ajymMum;onf/ 29 aejynfawmf pnfyifom ,ma&;aumfrwDrS wnfaqmuf Zlv dkifv NyD ; pD ; oG m ;aom yef ; Nrd K if v ,f O,smOf zGiytcrf;tem;ukd tqdyg fh JG k O,smOfr*FvmrkcO;ü usif;yonf/ 1 fD jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrm Ed k i f i H a wmf Ed k i f i H a wmf o r® w 30 2011 ckESpf ausmufpdrf;? OD ; od e f ; pd e f o nf MopaMw;vs ausmufrsuEiyvtxl;a&mif;csyGJ Ek d i f i H Ed k i f i H j cm;a&;0efBuD;Xme f S fh k J zGihfyGJtcrf;tem;ukd aejynfawmf 0efBuD; The Honourable Kevin &Sd rPd&wemausmufpdrf;cef;r Rudd MP OD;aqmifaom udk,fpm; a&S U üusif ; y&m jynf a xmif p k vS , f t zG J U uk d aejynf a wmf & S d or®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmf 'kwd, EdkifiHawmf or®w½Hk; {nhfcef;rü or®woD[ol&OD;wifatmifjrihO; vufcHawGUqHkonf/ fD 21 3 xk d i f ; Ed k i f i H w pf 0 ef ; vH k ; ü usif;yjyKvkyaom taxGaxG a&G; f aumufyü rpöpf&ifvyf&Sifem0yfu JG tEd k i f & &S d a Mumif ; attuf z f y D owif;Xmeu azmfjyonf/ w½kwfEdkifiH uGrfpDa'orS 4 rdkif;wGif;wpfwGif;ESihf uDGusKdUjynf e,frS rdi;wGi;wpfwi;ü a&vTrf; kf f Gf rIaMumihf rdkif;vkyfom; 40 ausmf ydwfrdvsuf&SdaMumif; w½kwfrD'D ,mrsm;u azmfjyonf/ jynfaxmifpk or®w jrefrm 6 Ediiawmf 'kw,or®w a'gufwm kfH d pdkif;armufcrf;onf usef;rma&; 0efBuD;XmerS Xmeqdi&mtBuD;tuJ kf rsm;tm; aejynfawmf&Sd usef;rm a&;0efBuD;Xme trsKd;om;usef;rm a&;aumfrwD tpnf;ta0;cef;rü awGUqHí trSmpum;ajymMum;onf/ k b&mZD;EdkifiH trsKd;om; vufeufzsuor;a&;vIy&m;rIwGif f df fS vufeufrsKd;pHk 9160 ESihf usnqef? f cJ,rf; 30900 ukd ESpfvtwGif; odrf;qnf;EdkifcJhaMumif; w&m;a&; 0efBuD;Xmeu ajymMum;onf / w½kwfEdkifiHta&SUydkif; &Sef 7 wkefjynfe,fwGif ausmufrD;aoG; wGif;wpfwGif; rD;avmifrIjzpfyGm; &m rdi;vkyom; 36 OD; ajratmuf k f f ü ydwfrdaeaMumif; w½kwfEdkifiH tvkyform;rsm; vHkNcHKrIpDrHcefYcGJ a&;Xmeu owif ; xk w f j yef onf/
    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S 8 (27) Budrfajrmuf ta&SU awmiftm&S tm;upm;NydKiyusi;y f JG f a&; BudKwifjyifqifrI OD;aqmif aumfrwD 'kwd,tBudrf tpnf; ta0;ukd aejynfawmf&Sd jrefrm tjynfjynfqi&m uGeAif;&Si;A[kd kd f f f Xme (MICC) tpnf;ta0;cef;rü usif;y&m (27) Budrajrmuf ta&SU f awmiftm&S tm;upm;NydKifyGJ BudK yÍörtBudrfaejynfawmf 0efBuD; Xmeaygif;pHk abmvHk;NydKifyGJ zGihfyGJ tcrf;tem;ukd aejynfawmf&Sd trSwf (1) aejynfawmftm;upm; uGif;üusif;y&m jynfaxmifpk or®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmf 'kwd, or®w a'gufwmpdkif;armufcrf; wuf a &muf tm;ay;csD ; jr§ i h f onf / 0efBuD;csKyf rpöwm oGefqif;orm aAmifO;aqmifaom cspfMunfa&; D udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJUonf aejynf awmfyAo&Nd rdKUe,f&dS odyenf;us k Á D HÜ aygifpepfjzihf ysKd;axmifxm;aom txl;txGufwdk;pyg;rsKd; okaw oepdkufcif;okdY a&muf&SdMu&m v,f,mpduysK;a&;ESifh qnfajrmif; k f d 0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; EdkifiHawmfor®wOD;odef;pdefESihf vmtdk0efBuD;csKyf rpöwmoGefqif;ormaAmifwdkY awGUqHkaqG;aEG;pOf wifjyifqifrI OD;aqmifaumfrwD em,u 'kw, or®w a'gufwm d pdi;armufcrf;wufa&mufí trSm k f pum;ajymMum;onf/ e,l;ZDvef awmf0ifavwyf rS bdk;&if;-575 av,mOfwpfpif; onf ysHoef;aepOf rdk;BudK;xdrSef ojzihf e,l;ZDvefEiiH atmhuvef kd f NrdKUavqdyoYdk ta&;ay:qif;ouf f cJh&aMumif; e,l;ZDveftoHvTihf XmerS owif;xkwfjyefonf/ 11 EdkifiHawmfor®w OD;ode;f pdef onf jynfaxmifpor®w jrefrm k EdiioYdk cspMf unfa&;c&D;vnfywf k f H &efa&muf&aeaom vmtdkjynfolY dS 'Dru&ufwpfor®wEdii0efBuD;csKyf kd kfH rpöwm oGefqif;ormaAmifESihf awGUqHkaqG;aEG;yGJukd aejynfawmf &Sd EdkifiHawmfor®w½Hk; taqmuf ttH k a qG ; aEG ; yG J c ef ; rü usif ; y onf/ OD;jrihfvIdif? 'kwd,0efBuD;rsm;ESihf Xmeqdkif&m tBuD;tuJrsm;u BudK qdkMuonf/ 13 qdkrmvDEdkifiHü rdk;acgifrI ESpEpqufwuf BuKH ae&Ny; jynfol fSf kd D wdkYpm;eyf&du©mjywfvyfrI BuHKae& ojzihf axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom jynfolrsm; NrdKUawmfrdk*g'pf½SL;rS 'ku©onfpcef;rsm;qDokdY xGufcGm aeMuNyDjzpfaMumif; tifwmeuf 12 jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrm owif;ü azmfjyonf/ tm;upm;0efBuD;XmeESifh EdkifiHawmfü cspfMunfa&;c&D; t 9 l kd f H jrefrmEdkifiHabmvHk;tzGJUcsKyfwdkY yl; vnftywfa&muf&Sdaeonhf vm 14 awmifq'efEiionf ukv D kd kf aygif;pDpOfusi;yonhf 2011 ckESpf tdjk ynfoYl'ru&ufwpfor®wEdiiH or*¾ 193 EdkifiHajrmuftzGJU0if f 22
    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S EdkifiHjzpfvmNyD;aemuf ukvor*¾ wm azoufcifwufa&muf tzGifh ü awmifql'efEdkifiHtvHvTihfwif trSmpum;ajymMum;onf/ yGJtcrf;tem;ukd usif;yonf/ e,l;ZDvefEkdifiH 'kwd, tBuD;qHk;NrdKUjzpfonhf c&pfcswfcsf d´ f hJ 15 tdE,tmumo okawoe NrdKUwGif vGeconhf pufwifbmv tzGUJ u qufo,a&;N*dK[fwopf uwnf;u ,aeYtxd ivsift G f k wpfvHk;ukd tdE´d,EdkifiHawmifydkif; Bud r f a ygif ; 7500 vI y f c J h & m q&D[m&Dukdwm N*dK[fwkvTwfwif wpfaeYysrf;rQtBudrf 20 cefYvIyfcJh a&;pcef;rS atmifjrifpm vTwwif aMumif; e,l;ZDvefivsifynm&Sif G f vdkufaMumif; tdE´d,t&m&Sdrsm;u rsm;u ajymMum;onf/ ajymMum;onf/ 19 oD&dvuFmEdkifiH&Sd opfawm f kd f 16 w½k w f u rf ; ½d k ; wef ; wpf rsm;twGi; awmqif½i;aumifa& avQmuf tBuD;rm;qH; a&eH,zwf rnf r Qaexd k i f u suf p m;onf u k d k kd d rIBu;jzpfym;vsu&&m pifumylEiiH od&SdEdkif&ef yxrqHk; tBudrfppf D G f dS kd f t&G,tpm;ajcmufqrQ us,f wrf;aumuf,lrnfjzpfaMumif; f 0ef;aMumif;EdkifiHydkif rD'D,mrsm;u awm½dkif;wd&pämefxdef;odrf;a&; aMunmonf/ tqdyg a&eH,dkzdwf XmetBuD ; tuJ u ajymMum; k rIrSm tar&duefukrÜPDESihf w½kwf onf/ EkdifiHydkif a&eHukrÜPDwdkY a&eH wl;pifrsm;rS ,dkzdwfjcif;jzpfNyD; 20 jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrm a&eH , d k z d w f o nh f a &jyif B uD ; rS m EkdifiHawmf 'kwd,or®w a'guf pwk&ef;rdiaygif; 1650 us,f0ef; wmpdkif;armufcrf;onf usef;rm k f aMumif; tpkd;&owif; xkwfjyef a&;0efBuD;Xme wdkif;&if;aq;ynm csufwGif azmfjyonf/ OD;pD;Xme aejynfawmf trsKd;om; y&aq;O,smOfoYdk oGm;a&mufMunhf 18 a&m*gBuD;oHk;rsKd;wdkufzsuf ½Ippfaq;NyD; vdktyfonfrsm;ukd a&;vkyfief;rsm; atmifjrifa&;t rSmMum;onf/ wGuf aejynfawmf&Sd usef;rma&; ESpf 50 ausmfumvtwGi; f 0efBuD;Xme tpnf;ta0;cef;rü tqdk;&Gm;qHk;rdk;acgifa&&Sm; uyf usif;yonhf (11) Budrfajrmuf M- ab;ESihf&ifqdkifae&onhfqdkrmvD kd f fk CCM tpnf;ta0; (11th Myanmar ,mawmifyi;&Sd a'oESpcudk tiwf Country Coordination Mechanism ab;usa&muf&ma'orsm;tjzpf Meeting) zGihfyGJtcrf;tem;ü M- uk v or*¾ u aMunmvd k u f CCM Ouú| usef;rma&;0efBuD; aMumif; owif;rsm;wGifazmfj y Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;a'guf onf/ 23 21 jynf a xmif p k v T w f a wmf em,u OD ; cif a tmif j rih f o nf ukvor*¾uav;rsm; &efyHkaiGtzGJU (UNICEF) Xmae udk,fpm;vS,f Dr.Ramesh M.Shrestha ukdaejynf awmf&Sd vTwfawmf½Hk; em,u {nfhcef;rü vufcHawGUqHkonf/ twåvEÅpfvGef;jyef,mOf aemufqHk;tmumoc&D;pOf tqHk;owfNyD;aemuf EdkifiHwum tmumopcef; (tditufptufp) k f f f okYd tmumo,mOfrL;rsm;ukd ½k&Sm; S tmumo,mOfrsm;u ydkYaqmif ay;Ediawmhrnfjzpf&m ,aeYumv kf onf ]]qd k , k Z f t mumo,mOf acwf}} (The Era of the Soyuz) a&mufNyDjzpfaMumif; ½k&Sm;EdkifiHu aMunmvdkufonf/ 22 yvlwNkd *dK[udk vSnywfae f fh aom pwkw ajrmufN*dK[f&vwpf ¬ H pif;tm; eu©wåaA'ynm&Sifrsm; u &SmazGawGU&ScNhJ yD; ,if;N*dK[f&v d H ukd trnfay;&mwGif pD;bm;&yfpf (Ceberus) [laom trnfukd vl BudKufrsm;vsuf&SdaMumif; owif; rsm;wGif azmfjyonf/ 23 jynfaxmifpk or®wjrefrm Ed k i f i H a wmf Ek d i f i H a wmf o r® w OD;ode;pdeonf pufrvyief;zGUH NzdK; f f I k f wdk;wufa&;aumfrwDu BuD;rSL; usif;yvsuf&Sdonhf jrefrmhpufrI xkwfukefjyyGJ 2011 ü cif;usif;jy oxm;aom jrefrmhpufrIxkwfukef ypön;f rsm;ukd Munhf½Itm;ay;onf/
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    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S 23 jynf o l U vT w f a wmf O uú | ol& OD;a&Tref;onf eHeuf 9 em&D wGif aejynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmf taqmufttHk jynfoUl vTwawmf f {nfhcef;rü vlYtcGifhta&; tajc 24 vlYtcGifhta&;tajctae qki&m txl;tpD&ifcpm wifoi; d f H G f ol rpöwmaomrwftkda[;uGif wm;em;ESifhtzGJUonf eHeuf 8 em&D 15 rdepfwGif &efukefNrdKU ½k&Sm;or®wrufAD'ufESifh awGUqHkcJhaom ajrmufukd&D;,m; acgif;aqmif uif*sKHtDu ajcmuf EdiiaqG;aEG;yGJ jyefvnfpwifygu k f H ajrmufukd&D;,m;onf EsL;uvD; ,m;prf;oyfrIrsm;ukd pGefYvTwf&ef toifh&SdaMumif; ajymMum;cJhonf [k ½k & S m ;rD ' D , mrsm;u azmf j y onf/ 25 wyf r awmf u muG , f a &; OD;pD;csKyf AkdvfcsKyfBuD; rif;atmif vd I i f o nf td E ´ d , or® w Ed k i f i H tdE´d,a&wyfOD;pD;csKyf Admiral Nirmal Verma, PVSM, AVSM, OD;aqmifaom cspfMunfa&; ajrmufudk&D;,m;acgif;aqmif uif*sKHtDESihf ½k&Sm;or®w rufAD'uf ukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJYtm; aejynf taeqkdkif&m wifoGif;ol rpöwm tif;pdef tusOf;axmifü tusOf; awmf&Sd aZ,smoD&dAdrmefü vufcH aomrwftkda[;uGifwm;em;ESifh om;ESifh tcsKyfom;ajcmufOD;ESifh awGUqHkonf/ tzGJUtm; vufcHawGUqHkonf/ tusOf ; ol w pf O D ; uk d awG U qH k í rpöwmaomrwftkd a[;uGiwm; tif;pdetusO;axmiftwGi; vSnfh 26 jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrm f f f f em;ESitzGUJ onf eHeuf 10 em&Dwif vnfMunfh½Ionf/ nae 3 em&D Ed k i f i H a wmf Ed k i f i H a wmf o r® w hf G trsd K ;om;vT w f a wmf Ouú | wGif a':atmifqef;pkMunfESitzGUJ OD;odef;pdefonf tdE´d,or®w fh OD;cifatmifjrifhxH oGm;a&muf tm; ¤if;aetdrüawGYqo nf / EdkifiH tdE´d,wyfrawmf ppfOD;pD; f kH awGYqHkonf/ EkdifiHwumtmumo,mOf csKyfrsm; aumfrwDOuú| a&wyf vlUtcGifhta&; tajctae pcef;okdY a&muf&Sdaeaom½k&Sm; OD ; pD ; csKyf Chairman, Chiefs of qkdif&m txl;tpD&ifcHpmwifoGif; EdiirS y½k*&ufpf M-1M tmum Staff Committee and Chief of Nak f H d ol rpöwmaomrwftkda[;uGif o,mOfonf Mo*kwv 23 &ufu val Staff Admiral Nirmal Verma, f wm;em;ESifhtzGJYonf nae 3 EdkifiHwum tmumo,mOfpcef; PVSM, AVSM, ADC OD;aqmif em&DwGif aejynfawmf&Sd jynfxJ ESifh csdwfqufxm;rIukd jzKwfvkduf aom cspfMunfa&;ukd,fpm;vS,f a&;0ef B uD ; Xme {nf h c ef ; rü NyD; urÇmywfvrf;aMumif; twGif; tzGJYtm; aejynfawmf&Sd EdkifiHawmf zGifhvSpfvsuf&Sdonfh jrefrmEdkifiH odkY jyefvnfxGufcGmvmNyDjzpf or®w½Hk;{nhfcef;rü vufcHawGY vlYtcGifhta&;wkd;jr§ifha&;ESifh um aMumif; armfpukdNrdKUtjyifbuf qHkonf/ uG,fa&;qkdif&moifwef; (2011) tmumo,mOfc&D;pOf xdef;csKyf jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrm odkY oGm;a&mufMunfh½Ia vh v m a&;Xmeu owif ; xk w f j yef Ekiiawmf 'kw,or®w oD[ol& dfH d onf/ onf/ OD;wifatmifjrifhOD;onf yJcl;wkdif; ADC 28
    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S a'oBuD; awmifilNrdKU ta&SU buf 14 rkdiftuGm aomufa& cyfacsmif;ay:wGif wnfaqmuf taumiftxnfazmfvsuf&Sdonfh aomufa&cyf(2) a&tm;vQyfppf pDrue;odYk a&muf&ppfaq;onf/ H df dS pufwifbmv 1 autkdifattzGJY A[kdXme csKyf vk d i f Z mü tpnf ; ta0; wpf&yfjyKvkyf&mrS Nidrf;csrf;a&;ukd vkdvm;onfhautdkifat(ucsif) ppfrIxrf;a[mif;tzGJYESifh ppfvkd vm;ol autdkifatacgif;aqmif rsm;tMum; y#d y u© j zpf y G m ;NyD ; tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSefypfcwfrI aMumifh wpfO;D aoqH;k Ny;D autdiat kf acgif;aqmifwpfO;D 'Pf&m&&Sonf/ d 2 wpfurÇmvHk; EsLuvD;,m; vufeuftEÅ&m,frS uif;a0;ap &ef wpfckwnf;aom tmrcHcsuf tjzpf EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm; vHk;0zsufodrf;&ef ukvor*¾qkdif &m tD&efoHtrwf tvD[mbpf u ukvor*¾taxGaxGnDvmcH wGif awmif;qkdvkdufonf/ 3 w½kwfjynfolYor®wEdkifiH omoema&;AsL½kdrS ñTefMum;a&; rS L ;csKyf r pö w m&S L ,G i f u s,f OD ; aqmifonfha&SUajy;avhvma&; uk d , f p m;vS , f t zG J U onf jynf 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S axmifpkor®wjrefrmEdkifiH om oema&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk 0efBuD; ol&OD;jrifharmifxHodkY vm a&mufawGUqHkí w½kwfjynfolY or®wEdkifiHrS Ak'¨jrwfpG,fawmf yif h a qmif y l a Zmf E d k i f & ef t wG u f vkdtyfonfhtpDtrHrsm;ESifh aqmif &Guf&rnfhudpö&yfrsm;ukd u@ tvkduf aqG;aEG;n§dEdIif;onf/ v,f , mpk d u f y sd K ;a&;ES i f h qnf a jrmif ; 0ef B uD ; Xme jynf axmifpk0efBuD; OD;jrifhvIdifonf aejynfawmf 'u©dPoD&dNrdKUe,f csKd i;aus;&Gm bdeBD uD;uGi;[ufwm f k f 20 pufrIv,f,mpepf ajr,m azmfxwaerIvyief;cGiudk Munfh½I k f kf f ppfaq;onf/ OD;wifatmifjrifhOD;onf [kdyHk;NrdKU cef;rü usif;yaom awGUqHkyGJü ytkd0f;ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& a'o OD;pD;tzGJY0ifrsm;? NrdKYe,f tqifh Xmeqk d i f & mwm0ef & S d o l r sm;? vlrIa&;toif;tzGJY0ifrsm;? NrdKUrd Nrd K Uzrsm;? &yf u G u f ^ aus;&G m tkycsKyfa&;rSL;rsm;ESihf &if;ES;cifrif f D pGm awGUqHkonf/ 6 yxrtBudrfjynfaxmifpk vTwfawmf 'kwd,ykHrSeftpnf; ta0; oabmwlnDcsuft& EkdifiHawmfor®w½Hk;u trddefYaMumf jimpmtrSwf (83^2011) jzifh opfawma&;&m0efBuD;Xme (Ministry of Forestry) ukd ywf0ef;usif xdef;odrf;a&;ESifh opfawma&;&m 4 jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrm 0efBuD;Xme (Ministry of EnvironEkdifiHawmf 'kwd,or®w oD[ mental Conservation and Forol & OD ; wif a tmif j rif h O D ; onf estry) tjzpf trnf a jymif ; vJ &Sr;jynfe,f tpk;&tzGUJ ½H; tpnf; owfrSwfvkdufonf/ f d k 'k w d , or® w oD [ ol & ta0;cef;rü usif;yonfh &Srf; jynf e ,f E S i f h u,m;jynf e ,f OD;wifatmifjrifhOD;onf enf; &oH;rSe;ajcaiGpm&if;a&;qGa&;ESihf ynmwuúokdvf (awmifBuD;) okdY k f J hI a'ozGHYNzdK;a&;qkdif&m vkyfief;nd§ oGm;a&mufí Munf½ppfaq;onf/ EIdif;tpnf;ta0;odkY wufa&muf 7 'k w d , or® w oD [ ol & trSmpum;ajymMum;onf/ OD;wifatmifjrifhOD;onf yif;w, 5 jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrm NrdKU "Ekukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&a'o EdkifiHawmf jynfaxmifpktpkd;&tzGJY OD;pD;tzGJY½Hk; tpnf;ta0;cef;rü u trdefYaMumfjimpmtrSwf (34^ usif;yaom awGYqHkyGJtcrf;tem; 2011) jzifh tzGUJ 0if 15 OD; yg0ifaom okdY wufa&mufonf/ jrefrmEdiitrsKd ;om;vlYtcGifhta&; kfH aumfr&Sifukd zGJYpnf;vkdufonf/ 8 'kwd,or®w a'gufwm 'k w d , or® w oD [ ol & pkdif;armufcrf;onf aejynfawmf 29
    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S &S d jref r mtjynf j ynf q k d i f & m uGeAif;&Si;pifwm (MICC) tpnf; f f ta0;cef;rü usif;yonfh 2011 ckEpf Ekiiwumpmwwfajrmufa&; S dfH aeYtxdrf;trSwftcrf;tem;okdY wufa&mufí rdefYcGef;ajymMum; NyD; qk&&SdMuolrsm;tm; qkrsm;ukd ay;tyfcsD;jr§ifhonf/ xk d i f ; Ek d i f i H t ajccH O ya' qki&m txufvwawmf tNrJwrf; df T f aumfrwDOuú| Mr. Jittipot Viriyaroj ESifhtzGJUonf jynfaxmifpkvTwf awmf em,u OD;cifatmifjrifxoYkd h H aejynf a wmf & S d vT w f a wmf t aqmuf t tH k trsd K ;om;vT w f awmfcef;rü vma&mufawGYqHkNyD; vT w f a wmf t csif ; csif ; yl ; aygif ; aqmif&ujf cif;jzifh Ediitcsif;csif; G k f H qufqHrI ykdrkdwkd;jr§ifha&;udpö&yf rsm;ukd tjrifcsi;zvS,cMhJ uonf/ f f 9 jynf x J a &;0ef B uD ; Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; 'kwd,Akdvf csKyfBuD;ukdukdonf aejynfawmf&Sd jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme tpnf; ta0;cef;rü usif;yonfh rl;,pf aq;0g;ESifh pdwfukdajymif;vJap aom aq;0g;rsm;tEÅ & m,f wm;qD;umuG,fa&; A[kdtzGJY tpnf ; ta0; (1^2011) ok d Y wufa&mufí trSmpum;ajym Mum;onf/ tar&dueftpkd;& jrefrm EdkifiHqkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f ESifh rl0g'a&;&m nd§EIdif;a&;rSL; Mr. Derek Mitchell ES i f h tzG J Y o nf eHeuf 11 em&DwGif vTwfawmf taqmufttHk jynfolYvTwfawmf {nfhcef;rü jynfolYvTwfawmf Ouú| ol&OD;a&Tref;xHokdY vm a&mufawGYqHkNyD; xki;f Ediitxuf d kfH vTwawmfpr;tif aumfrwDOuú| f G f Mr. Suradet Jiratiticharoen ES i f h tzG J Y onf jynf o l Y vT w f a wmf Ouú| ol&OD;a&Tref;xHokdY nae 3 em&DwGif vma&mufawGUqHkí pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ukefoG,fvkyfief; zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufa&;qkdif&mudpö&yf rsm;? &if;ES;jr§KyfErEihf pufrvufrI D HS I S I zGHYNzdK;wkd;wufa&;qkdif&mudpö&yf rsm;ES i f h obm0ywf 0 ef ; usif xdef;odrf;a&;qkdif&m udpö&yfrsm; ukd aqG;aEG;Muonf/ jynf a xmif p k v T w f a wmf em,u OD;cifatmifjriftm; tar h &dueftpkd;& jrefrmEdkifiHqkdif&m txl;uk,pm;vS,Eifh rl0g'a&;&m d f fS nd§EIdif;a&;rSL; Mr. Derek Mitchell ES i f h tzG J Y o nf aejynf a wmf & S d vTwfawmftaqmufttHk trsdK; om;vTwfawmf{nhfcef;rü vm a&mufawGYqHkonf/ 10 b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD; Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;vS xGef;onf aejynfawmf&Sd ¤if; 0efBuD;Xme pkaygif;cef;rü usif;y onfh EdiiyibPfrsm;ESihf yk*vu k f H kd f ¾ d bPfrsm;twGuf aiGaMu;c0gcsrI ESifh tMurf;zufaiGaMu;axmufyHh rI wkuzsufa&;todtjrif wk;jr§ihf d f d a&;qkdif&m tvkyf½HkaqG;aEG;yGJ 30 (AML/CFT Awareness Enhan- okdY wufa&muf í trSmpum;ajymMum;onf/ cing Workshop) 12 tar&dueftpkd;& jrefrm EdkifiHqkdif&m txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f ESifh rl0g'a&;&mnd§EdIif;a&;rSL; Mr. Derek Mitchell ESifh tzGJU0ifrsm; onf a':atmifqef;pkMunfESifh tzGYJ0ifrsm;xHoYdk vma&mufawGYqHk onf/ 13 'kwd,or®w a'gufwm pdkif;armufcrf;onf aejynfawmf &Sd trsdK;om;pDrHudef;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; zGYH NzdK;wk;wufr0efBuD;Xme tpnf; d I ta0;cef;rü usif;yonhf (18) Budrfajrmuf jrefrmh½kd;&m,Ofaus; rI tqkd? tu? ta&;? twD;NydKifyGJ b@maiG&SmazGa&;? qkcsD;jr§ifha&; ESifh qkcsD;jr§ifhyGJusif;ya&;qyf aumfrwDokdY yxrtBudrf tvSL aiGay;tyfyGJtcrf;tem;ukd wuf a&mufí tzGifhtrSmpum; ajym Mum;um tvSLaiGrsm;ukd vufcH onf/ xkdif;EdkifiH AefaumufNrdKU&Sd ukvor*¾'ku©onfrsm;qkdif&m r[mrif ; BuD ; ½H k ; (UNHCR) rS ta&S U awmif t m&S a 'oqk d i f & m nd § E I d i f ; a&;rS L ; Mr.Jean Noel Wetterwald ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHXmae uk,pm;vS,f Mr.Bhairaja Panday d f wkYdonf jynfoYl vwawmf 'kwd, T f Ouú | OD ; eE´ a usmf p G m xH o k d Y aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmf
    • 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S 2011 ckEpf jzpf&yfrsm; S rsm;ESifh jynfytajcpkdufowif; XmetcsdKUrS owif;axmufrsm; tm; vTwfawmftaqmufttHk ZrÁ L oD & d c ef ; raqmif ü vuf c H awGYqHkonf/ 16 'k w d , or® w oD [ ol & OD;wifatmifjrifhOD;onf w½kwf jynfolUor®wEdkifiH China Railway Engineering Corporation Ouú| Mr. Zhao Deyi OD;aqmifonfh ukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJY ukd EdkifiHawmfor®w½Hk;{nfhcef;rü vufcHawGYqHkNyD; ESpfEkdifiH rD;&xm; vkyfief;rsm;? tusdK;wlyl;aygif; aqmif&Gufa&;qkdif&m udp&yfrsm; ö ukd aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/ trSw(1) pufr0efBuD;Xme f I ESifh trSwf(2) pufrI0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;pkd;odef;ukd *syefEiiH *syefp;yGm;a&;aumfrwD kd f D tm&SESifh ypdzdwfork'´&mqkdif&m pDrHudef;Xme Ouú| Mr.Takashi (CREC) 'kwd,or®wa'gufwmpdkif;armufcrf; EdkifiHwumpmwwfajrmufa&;aeY txdrf;trSwf tvGwfwef;aqmif;yg;NydKifyGJwGif qk&&SdolwpfOD;ukd qkay;tyfcsD;jr§ihfpOf trSwf(1) {nfhcef;rü vma&muf aumf r wD O uú | jynf o l Y vT w f awmf u k d , f p m;vS , f OD ; aX;OD ; awGUqHkonf/ OD ; aqmif a om ygwD a ygif ; pH k r S 14 wyf r awmf u muG , f a &; wkdif;&if;om; vTwfawmfukd,fpm; OD;pD;csKyf AkdvfcsKyfBuD; rif;atmif vS,frsm;onf jynfwGif;tajc vIdifonf xkdif;EkdifiH xdkif;bk&ihf pk d u f jynf y owif ; Xmersm;rS Munf ; wyf O D ; pD ; csKyf General owif;axmufrsm;? jynfwGif; Prayut Chan-o-Cha OD ; aqmif pme,fZif;rsm;rS owif;axmuf aom cspfMunfa&;ukd,fpm;vS,f tzGJYukd aejynfawmf&Sd aZ,smoD&d Adrmef{nfhcef;rü vufcHawGYqHk NyD ; ES p f E d k i f i H w yf r awmf r sm; cspf M unf & if ; ES D ; rI j r§ i f h w if a &;? e,fpyfa'ownfNidrfat;csrf;rI &Sdapa&;ESifh ESpfEdkifiH wyfrawmf ES p f & yf M um;oabmxm;rsm;uk d &if;ES;yGivif;pGm aqG;aEG;Muonf/ D hf 15 tjynf j ynf q k d i f & m 'D r k d jrefrmEdkifiHwGif yxrqHk;tBudrfusif;yaom tjynfjynfqdkif&m ua&pDaeY 2011 txdrf;trSwf 'Drdkua&pDaeYtxdrf;trSwftcrf;tem;ü jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,u tcrf ; tem;usif ; ya&; A[k d OD;cifatmifjrifh trSmpum;ajymMum;pOf 31
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    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG rJqE´e,frS OD;e,fvqif (c) OD;aqmifqudk ykPm;uRe; f D Ö f rJqE´e,frS OD;xGe;atmifausmu trnfpm&if;wifoi; f f Gf NyD; aygufawmrJqE´e,frS OD;atmifausmZu axmufcH fH ívnf;aumif;? yef;waemf rJqE´e,frS OD;ref;armifarmif ÓPfukd rd;rdwrqE´e,frS OD;ausmjf rihf (c) OD;zd;wkwu k f J k f trnfpm&if;wifoi;NyD; aemifcsKrqE´e,frS OD;ausmjf rihf Gf dJ uaxmufcHívnf;aumif; toD;oD;wifoGif;Mu&m trnfpm&if;wifoGif;cH&onhf 'kwd,Ouú|avmif;rSm pkpkaygif; 3 OD;jzpfonf/ okdYjzpfaomaMumifh udk,fpm; vS,frsm;u vQKdU0SufqE´rJay;Muonf/ OD;eE´ausmfpGmu 368 rJ? OD;e,fvfqif (c) aqmifqu 45 rJ? OD;ref;armifarmifÓPfu 15 rJ &&Sd D ojzihf obmywdu OD;eE´ausmfpGmtm; 'kwd,Ouú| tjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr§mufonf/ ¤if;aemufa&G;aumufcH Ouú|ESifh 'kw,Ouú|rsm; d onf obmywda&SUarSmufwGif uwdopömjyKMuNyD; vTwfawmfa&SUarSmufü vufrSwfa&;xdk;Muonf/ xdYkaemuf obmywd OD;aX;OD;u Ouú| ol&OD;a&Tref;tm; wm0efvTJtyfonf/ qufvufí jynfolYvTwfawmf Ouú| ol&OD;a&Tref;u EIwce;qufpum;ajymMum;onf/ fGf EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&; aumifpDuac:,laom yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwf awmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;ukd Zefe0g&Dv 31 &ufwGif aejynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmftaqmufttHk trsKd;om; vTwfawmfcef;rü pwifusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;okdY wdi;a'oBuD;ESijhf ynfe,frsm;rS a&G;aumufcH trsK;om; k f d vT w f a wmf u d k , f p m;vS , f r sm;ES i f h wyf r awmf o m; trsKd;om;vTwawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm; wufa&mufMu f k f f onf/ a&S;OD;pGm wufa&mufvmMuonhf trsKd;om; vTwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm;u obmywdwifajr§mufMu f kd f f &m ucsifjynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (1) rS OD;cufxdef eefudk trnfpm&if;wifoi;ojzihf trsK;om;vTwawmf G f d f udk,fpm;vS,f OD;cufxdefeeftm; trsKd;om;vTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; obmywdtjzpf a&G;cs,fwif ajr§mufMuonf/ xdkYaemuf OD;cufxdefeefu obmywdtjzpf ae&m,l N yD ; EI w f c G e f ; quf p um;ajymMum;onf / qufvufí obmywdu yxrtBudrf trsKd;om; vTwawmf a&SUarSmufwif obmywdtjzpf uwdopöm f G jyKNyD; uwdopömjyKvTmay:wGif vufrSwfa&;xdk;onf/ ,if;aemuf trsK;om;vTwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm;onf d f kd f f obmywda&SUarSmufü uwdopömjyKMuNyD; uwdopömjyK vTmay:wGif vufrSwfa&;xdk;Muonf/ tpD t pOf t & trsKd ; om;vT w f a wmf O uú | a&G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif;ukd aqmif&Guf&mwGif rEÅav;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (8) rS OD;cifatmifjrihfukd rEÅav;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (5) rS trsKd;om;vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f OD;aZmfjrihfazu trnfpm&if;wifoi;NyD; {&m0wDwi; Gf kd f a'oBu;D rJqE´e,ftrSwf (6) rS OD;cifarmif&uaxmufcí D H wifoi;f onf/ G trnfpm&if;wifoGif;cH&onhf Ouú|avmif;rSm OD;cifatmifjrifh wpfOD;wnf;jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumihf obmywdu OD;cifatmifjrihfukd trsKd;om;vTwfawmf Ouú|tjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr§mufaMumif;aMunm onf/ tpDtpOft& 'kwd,Ouú| a&G;aumufwif ajr§mufjcif;udkvnf; vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;ESihftnD quf vufaqmif&Guf &m rGejf ynfe,frqE´e,f trSwf (7) J rS OD;Anm;atmifr;udk u&ifjynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf kd (10) rS OD;rif;rsK;wihviu trnfpm&if;wifoGif;NyD; d f Gf rGefjynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (4) rS OD;ausmfodef;u axmufcívnf;aumif;? rGejf ynfe,frqE´e,f trSwf H J (7) rS OD;Anm;atmifr;dk udk &cdijf ynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf k (3) rS OD;cifarmifu trnfpm&if;wifoi;NyD; &cdijf ynf G f k e,frqE´e,f trSwf (4) rS OD;armifapmjzLu axmufcH J ívnf;aumif;? rGefjynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (7) rS OD;Anm;atmifr;dk udk &Srf;jynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (2) rS OD;pdkif;ausmfaZmoef;u trnfpm&if;wifoGif;NyD; &Srf;jynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (4) rS OD;pdkif;oefYZif u axmufcívnf;aumif;? rGejf ynfe,frqE´e,f trSwf H J 50
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG EkdifiHawmfor®w OD;odef;pdef (7) rS OD;Anm;atmifr;dk udk &efukefwdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´ e,ftrSwf (4) rS a'gufwm jrwfÓPpkd;u trnf pm&if;wifoGif;NyD; &efukefwdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (3) rS OD;zke;f jrihatmifu axmufcívnf;aumif;? f H &efukefwdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (7) rS OD;jrndr; f ukd yJcl;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (1) rS OD;apmarmfxe;u trnfpm&if; wifoi;NyD; &Sr;jynfe,f Gf Gf f rJqE´ e,ftrSwf (1) rS OD;ÓPfvif;u axmufcHí vnf;aumif; toD;oD;wifoi;Mu&m trnfpm&if;wif Gf oGi;cH&onhf 'kw,Ouú|avmif;rSm ESpfOD;jzpfonf/ f d okdYjzpfaomaMumihf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u vQKdU0SufqE´rJ ay;Muonf/ OD;Anm;atmifrdk;u 32 rJ? OD;jrndrf;u 191 rJ &&Sojzihf obmywdu OD;jrndr;ukd 'kw, Ouú|tjzpf d f d a&G;aumufwifajr§mufonf/ ¤if;aemufa&G;aumufcH Ouú|ESifh 'kw,Ouú|rsm; d onf obmywda&SUarSmufwGif uwdopömjyKMuNyD; vTwfawmfa&SUarSmufü vufrSwfa&;xdk;Muonf/ xdkYaemuf obmywd OD;cufxdefeefu Ouú| OD;cif atmifjrifxH wm0efvtyfonf/ qufvufí trsK;om; h JT d vTwawmfOuú| OD;cifatmifjrihfu EIwfcGef;qufpum; f ajymMum;onf/ EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESihf zGHUNzdK;a&; aumifp oabmwlncsujf zifh jynfaxmifpvwawmf D D k T f em,u zdwMf um;csut& yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpk f vTwawmfyretpnf;ta0;ukd Zefe0g&Dv 31 &ufwif f kH S f G aejynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmftaqmufttHk jynfaxmifpk vTwawmfcef;rü pwifusi;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif f f jynfaxmifpvwawmf em,utjzpf OD;cifatmifjrihu k T f f aqmif&uonf/ G f a&S;OD;pGm jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,uu EIwfcGef;quf pum;ajymMum;onf/ qufvufí em,uu EdkifiHawmfor®wa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufa&; tzGJUwGifyg0ifaom a&G;aumufcHjynfolYvTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tpktzGJU? a&G;aumufcH trsKd;om; vTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJUESihf jynfolY vTwfawmfESihf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf wdkYwGifyg0ifaom wyfrawmfom;vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJU wdkYu tpktzGJUtvdkuf 'kwd,or®wrsm; a&G;cs,fwif ajr§muf&eftwGuf tpktzGJUtpnf;ta0;rsm;ukd azazmf 0g&Dv 1 &ufwGif usif;y&ef owfrSwfaMunmonf/ tpktzGUJ tvduf 'kw,or®wrsm; a&G;cs,fwifajr§muf k d NyD;ygu a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufcH&onhf 'kwd,or®w avmif;wpfOD;pD trnfpm&if;ukd EdkifiHawmfor®w 51
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG t&nftcsif;pdppfa&;tzGJUwGifyg0ifaom jynfaxmifpk vTwfawmf em,uxHwifjy&efESihf Oya'ESihftnD Ediiawmfor®wukd a&G;cs,wifajr§muf&eftwGuf jynf k f H f axmifpvwawmf tpnf;ta0;ukd &yfem;xm;rnfjzpf k T f aMumif; aMunmonf/ jynf o l Y vT w f a wmf yH k r S e f t pnf ; ta0; 'kw,aeYtjzpf or®w a&G;cs,wifajr§mufa&;tzGUJ wGif d f yg0ifaom a&G;aumufcHjynfolY vTwfawmfudk,fpm; vS,frsm; tpktzGJUtpnf;ta0;ukd aejynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmftaqmufttHk jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusi;yonf/ a&G;aumufcH jynfoYlvwawmf f T f ud,pm;vS,rsm;u 'kw,or®wavmif; tqdjk yKjcif;? k f f d axmufcjH cif;ESihf tqdjk yKvmukd tcrf;tem;rSL;rSwpfqifh T jynfolYvTwfawmfOuú|ukd wifjyjcif;rsm; qufvuf aqmif&uMf uonf/ G ,if;aemuf a&G;aumufcH jynfolYvTwfawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm;u Ediiawmfor®wtwGuf owfrwf k f f k f H S xm;aom t&nftcsi;rsm;ESifh jynfpjkH cif;&Sr&Sd pdppfEi&ef f h d kd f pdppfa&;tzGUJ wGiyg0ifonhf jynfoYlvwawmf ud,pm; f T f k f vS,wpfOD;udk a&G;cs,fMuonf/ xdkokdYa&G;cs,f&mwGif f ausmufqnfrJqE´e,frS OD;aomif;ukd [oFmwrJqE´ e,frS OD;aX;OD;u tqdkwifoi;NyD; awmifirqE´e,frS Gf lJ OD;atmifrif;u axmufcHívnf;aumif;? ausmufrJ rJqE´e,frS OD;e,fvqif (c) OD;aqmifqDukd tvHk f rJqE´e,frS OD;cifarmif&nf (c) cdkifarmif&nfu tqkd wifoGif;NyD; uGef[def;rJqE´e,frS a':eef;0gEku axmufcHí vnf;aumif; wifjyMuonf/ trnfpm&if; wifoi;cH&olEpO;&SonhtwGuf G f S f D d f rJcGJqHk;jzwf&m OD;aomif;u axmufcHrJ 280 rJ? OD;e,fvqif (c) OD;aqmifqDu 44 rJ&&SdMuojzihf f OD;aomif;ukd Ediiawmfor®w t&nftcsi;ESifh jynhpr&dS kfH f f kH I r&Sd pdppfa&;tzGUJ tzGUJ 0iftjzpf a&G;cs,aMumif;aMunmonf/ f xdtzGUJ ü jynfaxmifpk vTwawmfwif yg0ifaom k f G vTwfawmfESpf&yf Ouú|rsm;ESihf 'kwd,Ouú | rsm;? a&G;aumufcH jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;? a&G;aumufcH trsK;om;vTwawmfu,pm;vS,wpfO;ESihf d f kd f f D wyfrawmfom; vTwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm;tpktzGUJ u f kd f f a&G;cs,fay;aom wyfrawmfom;vTwfawmfudk,fpm; vS,wpfO;wkYd yg0ifrnfjzpfonf/ f D ,if;aemuf tqdjk yKvTmrsm;ukd jynfoYlvwawmf T f Ouú|ESihf 'kwd,Ouú|wdkYu pdppfEdkif&efESifh 'kwd, or®wavmif;rsm;trnfpm&if;ukd jyKpkEdkif&ef tpnf; ta0;ukd wpf&uf&yfem;rnfjzpfaMumif; aMunmonf/ trsKd;om;vTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 'kw,aeYtjzpf or®wa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufa&;tzGUJ wGif d yg0ifaom a&G;aumufcHtrsKd;om;vTwfawmfudk,fpm; vS,frsm; tpktzGJUtpnf;ta0;ukd aejynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmftaqmufttHk trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ xdkYaemuf a&G;aumufcHtrsKd;om;vTwfawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm;u 'kw,or®wavmif; tqdjk yKjcif;? k f f d axmufcjH cif;ESitqdjk yKvmukd tcrf; tem;rSL;rSwpfqifh hf T trsKd;om;vTwawmfOuú|udk wifjyjcif;rsm; qufvuf f aqmif&uMf uonf/ G ,if;aemuf a&G;aumufcHtrsKd;om;vTwfawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm;u Ediiawmfor®wtwGuf owfrwf k f f k f H S xm;aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynfhpHkjcif; &Sr&Sd pdppfEif d kd &ef pdppfa&;tzGJUwGifyg0ifonhf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;tm; a&G;cs,fMuonf/ xdkokdYa&G;cs,f&mwGif rEÅav;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (6) rS OD;rsKd;jrihfukd a&G;aumufcH trsKd;om;vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJUu oabmwlonhftwGuf OD;rsKd;jrihfukd EdkifiHawmfor®w t&nftcsi;ESijfh ynhprI &Sr&Sd pdppfa&;tzGUJ tzGUJ 0iftjzpf f f kH d a&G;cs,faMumif; aMunmonf/ ,if;aemuf tqdkjyKvTmrsm;ukd trsKd;om; vTwfawmfOuú|ESihf 'kwd, Ouú|wdkYu pdppfEdkif&efESifh 'kwd,or®wavmif;rsm;trnfpm&if;ukd jyKpkEdkif&ef tpnf;ta0;ukd wpf&uf&yfem;rnfjzpfaMumif; aMunm onf/ yxrtBudrfvTwfawmfyHkrSeftpnf;ta0;rsm; usif;yvsuf&Sd&m 'kwd,aeYtjzpf or®wa&G;cs,f 52
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG EdkifiHawmfor®wOD;odef;pdef? 'kwd,or®wrsm;jzpfMuaom oD[ol&OD;wifatmifjrihfOD;ESifh a'gufwmpdkif;armufcrf; wifajr§mufa&;tzGJUwGifyg0ifaom wyfrawmf om; vTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJUtpnf;ta0;ukd azazmf0g&Dv 1 &ufwGif aejynfawmf&Sd taemf&xm cef;rü qufvufusif;y&m wyfrawmf umuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyfESifh wyfrawmft&m&SdBuD;rsm;? wyfrawmfom; vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&mufMuonf/ wyfrawmfom; vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJU taejzihf 'kwd,or®wa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;tm; aqmif&uonf/ G f or®wa&G;cs,wifajr§mufa&;tzGUJ wGif yg0ifaom f a&G;aumufcH jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; tpktzGJU 'kwd,aeYtpnf;ta0;ukd azazmf0g&Dv 3 &uf jynfolYvTwf awmfcef;rüusif;y&m vTwfawmf Ouú| ol&OD;a&Tref;ESihf wdi;a'oBuD; ESifh jynfe,frsm;rS k f a&G;aumufcH jynfolvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&mufMuonf/ xdYk aemuf vTwawmfOuú|u jynfoYl vwawmf f T f udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tpktzGJUtpnf;ta0; yxraeY 12-2011 ü ud,pm;vS,rsm; tqdk wifoi;xm;onhf k f f G f 'kw,or®w avmif;ESpO; trnfpm&if;ukd aMunm d f D onf/ qufvufí vT w f a wmf O uú | u tqd k y g 'kwd,or®wavmif;ESpfOD;tm; EdkifiHawmfor®wESifh 'kwd,or®wrsm;twGuf owf rSwfxm;onhf t&nf tcsif;rsm;ESihf jynhfpHkjcif;&Sd^r&Sd pdppfa&;tzGJUu pdppf &mwGif jynhpr&onfudk awGU&S&aMumif; aMunmonf/ f kH I dS d ,if;aemuf a&G;aumufcHjynfolYvTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf 'kwd,or®wavmif;tjzpf trnfpm&if;wifoGif;cH&ol ESpfOD;teuf wpfOD;ukd 'kw,or®wtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufEi&ef vQKdU0Suf d kd f qE´rJay;Muonf/ xdkwGif vTwfawmfOuú|ESihf 'kwd, Ouú|rsm;vnf; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESihftwl qE´rJay; Muonf/ qE´ray;NyD;aemuf qE´ry;rsm;ukd ud,pm;vS,f J J kH k f rsm;a&SUarSmufwGif zGihfvSpfNyD; oufqkdif&menf; Oya' rsm;ESitnD pdppfa&wGuonf/ fh f xdkYaemuf 'kwd,or®wavmif;rsm;&&Sdonhf axmufcHqE´rJ trsm;tenf;tvdkuf trnfpm&if;ukd vT w f a wmf O uú | xH wif j ytwnf j yKcsuf & ,l N yD ; vufrSwfa&;xdk; rSwfwrf;wifonf/ quf v uf í jynf o l Y vT w f a wmf O uú | u OD;odef;pdefukd 'kwd,or®wtjzpf a&G;cs,faMumif; aMunmum OD;ode;pde trnfpm&if;ukd jynfaxmifpk f f vT w f a wmf e m,uxH wif j yoG m ;rnf j zpf a Mumif ; aMunmonf/ 53
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG or®wa&G;cs,wifajr§mufa&;tzGUJ wGif yg0ifaom f a&G;aumufcH trsKd;om;vTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tpktzGJU 'kwd,aeYtpnf;ta0;ukd azazmf0g&Dv 3 &uf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rüusif;y&m vTwfawmf Ouú| OD;cifatmifjrihEihf wdi;a'oBuD;ESifh jynfe,frsm;rS fS kf a&G;aumufcHjynfolYvTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&mufMuonf/ vT w f a wmf O uú | u trsKd ; om;vT w f a wmf ud,pm;vS,rsm; tpktzGUJ tpnf;ta0; yxraeY (1k f f 2-2011)ü udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tqdkwifoGif;xm;onhf 'kw,or®wavmif;ESpO; trnfpm&if;ukd aMunm d f D onf / quf v uf í vT w f a wmf O uú | u tqd k y g 'kwd,or®wavmif;ESpfOD;ukd EdkifiHawmfor®wESifh 'kwd,or®wrsm;twGuf owfrSwfxm;onhf t&nf tcsif;rsm;ESifh jynhpjkH cif;&S^r&Sd pdppfa&;tzGUJ u pdppf&m f d wGif jynhfpHkrI&Sdonfukd awGU&Sd&aMumif; aMunmonf/ ,if;aemuf a&G;aumufcHtrsKd;om;vTwfawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm;onf 'kw,or®wavmif;tjzpf trnf k f f d pm&if;wifoGif;cH&ol ESpfOD;teuf wpfOD;ukd 'kwd, or®wtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufEdkif&ef vQKdU0SufqE´rJ ay;Muonf/ xdkwGif vTwfawmfOuú|ESihf 'kwd,Ouú| rsm;vnf; ud,pm;vS,rsm;ESitwl qE´ray;Muonf/ k f f fh J qE´ray;NyD;aemuf qE´ry;rsm;ukd a&G;aumufcH J J kH trsKd;om; vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;a&SUarSmufwGif wm0ef&dS vTwawmf½; 0efxrf;uzGivpNf yD; oufqi&m f kH fh S dk f enf;Oya'rsm;ESitnD pdppfa&wGuonf/ fh f xdkYaemuf 'kwd,or®wavmif;rsm;&&Sdonhf axmufcqE´rJ trsm;tenf;tvduf trnfpm&if;ukd H k vT w f a wmf O uú | xH w if j y twnf j yKcsuf & ,l N yD ; vufrwa&;xd;rSwwrf;wifonf/ S f k f quf v uf í trsKd ; om;vT w f a wmf O uú | u a'gufwm pdkif;armufcrf;(c) armiftkef;ukd 'kwd, or®wtjzpf a&G;cs,faMumif;aMunmum a'gufwm pdkif;armufcrf;(c) armiftkef; trnfpm&if;ukd jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,uxH wifjyoGm;rnfjzpf aMumif; aMunmonf/ or®wa&G;cs,wifajr§mufa&;tzGUJ wGif yg0ifaom f wyfrawmfom;vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; tpktzGJU onf aejynfawmf&Sd taemf&xmcef;rü azazmf0g&Dv 3 &ufwGif tpnf;ta0;usif;yí 'kwd,or®wa&G; cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;ukd aqmif&GufcJh&m 'kwd,or®w tjzpf oD[ol&OD;wifatmifjrihfOD;tm; udk,fpm; vS,ftm;vHk;u a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufonf/ jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f tm;vHk; yg0ifaom or®wa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufa&;tzGJUtpnf; ta0;ukd azazmf0g&Dv 4 &ufwGif jynfaxmifpk vTwfawmfcef;rüusif;y&m jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf em,u OD;cifatmifjrihf? jynfolYvTwfawmfOuú| ol&OD;a&Tref;ESihf jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;? trsKd;om; vTwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm; wufa&mufMu f kd f f onf/ xdkYaemuf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf em,uu tpktzGJUtoD;oD;u a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufay;cJhonhf 'kw,or®wrsm;tm; Ekiiawmfor®w t&nftcsi;ESifh d d f H f jynhprI &S^r&Sd pdppfa&;tzGUJ u pdppf&mjynhprI &Sonfudk f kH d f kH d awGU&S&aMumif; aMunmonf/ d ¤if;aemuf or®wa&G;cs,wifajr§mufa&; tzGUJ 0if f rsm;onf EkdifiHawmfor®wavmif;rsm;jzpfMuaom 'kwd,or®w 3 OD;teuf wpfOD;tm; EdkifiHawmfor®w tjzpf a&G;cs,wifajr§mufEi&ef jynfaxmifpvwawmf f kd f k T f em,utygt0if or®wa&G;cs,wifajr§mufa&; tzGUJ 0if f rsm;a&SUarSmufü qE´rvufrwjf zifh vQKUd 0SuqE´ray;Mu J S f J onf/ xdkokdY qE´rJay;&mwGif jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf em,uESifh 'kwd,em,uwdkYonfvnf; or®wa&G; cs,fwifajr§mufa&;tzGJU0ifrsm;ESifhtwl qE´rJay;Mu onf/ qE´ray;NyD;aemuf qE´ry;Hk rsm;ukd or®wa&G;cs,f J J wifajr§mufa&;tzGJU0ifrsm;a&SUarSmufü zGihfvSpfNyD; oufqi&menf;Oya'rsm;ESihf tnD pdppfa&wGuonf/ kd f f xdkYaemuf 'kwd,or®wrsm;&&Sdonhf axmufcH qE´rJ trsm;tenf;tvdkuf trnfpm&if;ukd pdppfa&; tzGJU0iftm;vHk;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;rSwfwrf;wifNyD; 54
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG jynfolYvTwfawmf Ouú| ol&OD;a&Tref; jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,uu twnfjyKvufrSwf a&;xd;onf/ k ,if;aemuf vTwawmfem,uu or®wavmif; f wpfO;csi;&&Sonhf axmufcqE´rtrsm;tenf;tvduf D f d H J k trnfpm&if;ukd aMunmonf/ jynfaxmifpvwawmfem,uu OD;ode;pdetm; k T f f f EkdifiHawmfor®wtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufaMumif; aMunmonf/ qufvufí oD[ol&OD;wifatmifjrifO; hD ESifh a'gufwmpdi;armufcrf; (c) armiftkef;wdkYtm; k f 'kwd,or®wrsm;jzpfaMumif; aMunmonf/ yxrtBud r f jynf a xmif p k v T w f a wmf y H k r S e f tpnf;ta0; 'kwd,aeYukd azazmf0g&Dv 8 &ufwGif jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfcef;rüusif;y&m jynfaxmifpk vT w f a wmf em,u? jynf o l Y v T w f a wmf O uú | ES i f h jynfolYvTwfawmfESifh trsKd;om;vTwfawmf udk,fpm; vS,rsm; wufa&mufMuonf/ f tpDtpOft& Ediiawmfor®wtjzpf a&G;cs,fwif kfH ajr§mufcHxm;&olu jynfaxmifpktpkd;&0efBuD; Xme ta&twGufukd 34 Xmejzihf owfrwEia&;twGuf S f kd f jynf a xmif p k v T w f a wmf e m,uu jynf a xmif p k vTwfawmfokdY wifjyonf/ qufvufí jynfaxmifpk 0efBuD;OD;a&ukd 30 owfrwa&;twGuf jynfaxmifpvwawmf em,uu S f k T f jynfaxmifpvwawmfokdY wifjyonf/ ¤if;ESihfywfouf k T f í aqG;aEG;&ef&Sdygu azazmf0g&D v 9 &uf tpnf; ta0;wGif aqG;aEG;EdkifaMumif; em,uu owfrSwf aMunmonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpvwawmf yHretpnf; k T f kSf ta0;wwd,aeYukd azazmf0g&Dv 9 &ufwGif jynf axmifpvwawmfcef;rüusi;yonf/ k T f f tpDtpOft& EdkifiHawmfor®wtjzpf a&G;cs,f wifajrmufcxm;&olu jynfaxmifpvwawmfoYdk wifjy § H k T f cJhonfh jynfaxmifpk tpkd;&0efBuD;Xmeta&twGufESihf pyfvsO;í jynfaxmifpvwawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm;u f k T f k f f aqG;aEG;Mu&ef vTwfawmfem,uu zdwfac:onf/ xdYkaemuf aqG;aEG;&ef trnfpm&if;wifoi;xm; Gf onhf &efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;? rJqE´e,f trSwf (4) rS trsKd;om;vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f a'gufwmjrwf ÓPpk;? ppfui;wdi;a'oBuD;? ykvNJ rdKUe,f rJqE´e,frS d kd f k f jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f OD;ausmfqef;ESifh EdkifiHawmfor®wtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufcHxm;&ol OD;ode;pdewYdk u aqG;aEG;Muonf/ f f 55
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    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf em,uESihf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf Ouú| OD;cifatmifjrifh tpnf;ta0;wGif jynfaxmifpka&SUaecsKyftjzpf cefYtyfwm0efay;oihfonhf yk*¾dKvftrnfpm&if;udk jynfaxmifpvwawmf oabmwlncsuf&,lonf/ k T f D qufvufí jynfaxmifpkpm&if;ppfcsKyftjzpf cefYtyf wm0efay;oihfonhf yk*¾dKvftrnfpm&if;ukd jynf axmifpvwawmfoYdk wifjyonf/ k T f yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpvwawmf yHretpnf; k T f kSf ta0; 11 &uf ajrmufaeYukd azazmf0g&Dv 22&ufwGif jynfaxmifpvwawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ k T f tpnf;ta0;wGif jynfaxmifpkpm&if;ppfcsKyf tjzpf cefYtyfwm0efay;oihonhy*Kd¾ vf trnfpm&if; f f k ukd jynfaxmifpvwawmf oabmwlncsu&,lonf/ k T f D f quf v uf í jynf a xmif p k w &m;vT w f a wmf c sKyf w&m;olBuD;rsm;tjzpf cefYtyfwm0efay;oihfonhf yk*Kd¾ vfrsm; trnfpm&if;ukd jynfaxmifpvwawmfoYdk k T f wifjyonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpvwawmf yHretpnf; k T f kSf ta0; 12 &ufajrmufaeYukd azazmf0g&Dv 24 &ufwGif jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfcef;rüusif;yonf/ tpnf; ta0;wG i f jynf a xmif p k w &m;vT w f a wmf c sKyf w&m;olBuD;rsm;tjzpf cefYtyfwm0efay;oihfonhf yk*Kd¾ vfrsm; trnfpm&if;ukd jynfaxmifpvwawmf k T f oabmwlncsuf&,lonf/ qufvufí jynfaxmifpk D a&G;aumufyGJ aumfr&SiftzGJU0ifrsm;tjzpf cefYtyf wm0efay;oihfonhf yk*¾dKvfrsm;trnfpm&if;ukd jynfaxmifpvwawmfoYdk wifjyonf/ k T f yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpvwawmf yHretpnf; k T f kSf ta0; 13 &ufajrmufaeYukd azazmf0g&Dv 25 &ufwGif jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfcef;rüusif;y&m jynfaxmifpk vTwawmfem,u? jynfoYl vwawmf Ouú|ESifh jynfoYl f T f vTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;? trsKd;om;vTwfawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm; wufa&mufMuonf/ k f f tpnf;ta0;wGif jynfaxmifpk a&G ; aumuf y G J aumfr&Sif tzGUJ 0ifrsm;tjzpf cefYtyfwm0efay;oihonhf f yk*Kd¾ vfrsm; trnfpm&if;ukd jynfaxmifpvwawmf k T f oabmwlncsuf&,lonf/ qufvufí jynfoYl vwf D T awmfEifh trsK;om;vTwawmfwYkdwif vTwawmftvduf S d f G f k aumfrwDrsm;zGJUpnf;&efESihf vTwfawmfvkyfief;rsm; aqmif&uEi&ef jynfoYl vwawmfEihf trsKd;om;vTwf G f kd f T f S awmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ukd 2011 ckEpf rwfv 1 &ufwif S G qufvufusi;yoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; jynfaxmifpvwf f k T awmfu qHk;jzwfonf/ yxrtBurf jynfoYvwawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; d l T f 'kwd,aeYukd rwfv 1 &ufaeYwGif jynfolYvTwfawmf cef;rü usi;yonf/ jynfoYlvwawmf Ouú|u jynfoYl f T f vTwfawmfOya'Murf;aumfrwD zGJUpnf;Edkif&eftwGuf yg0ifoihonhtzGUJ 0ifO;a&? tzGUJ 0ifrsm;trnfpm&if;? f f D aumfrwDOuú|ESifh twGi;a&;rSL;wdYk trnfpm&if;udk f jynfolYvTwfawmfokdY wifjyonf/ yxrtBudrftrsKd;om;vTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf; ta0; 'kwd,aeYukd rwfv 1 &ufwGif trsKd;om; vTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;okdY 57
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|ESihf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&mufMuonf/ tpDtpOft& trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|u Oya'Murf;aumfrwD zGUJ pnf;a&;ESipyfvsOf;í &Si;vif; fh f ajymMum;NyD; trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,Ouú|u Oya'Murf;aumfrwDwm0ef? vkyyici?fh &ydicirEifh f kd f G k f G fh J S pyfvsOf;í &Sif;vif;ajymMum;onf/ qufvufí trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|u trsKd;om;vTwfawmf Oya' Murf;aumfrwDzUJG pnf;Edi&eftwGuf yg0ifoihonhf kf f tzGUJ 0ifO;a&? tzGUJ 0ifrsm; trnfpm&if;? aumfrwD D Ouú|ESifh twGi;a&;rSL;wdYktrnfpm&if;ukd trsK;om; f d vTwfawmfokdY wifjyonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfoYlvwawmfyretpnf;ta0; T f kH S f wwd,aeYukd rwfv 3 &ufwGif aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ tpDtpOft& jynfoYl vwawmf Ouú|u jynfoYl aiGpm&if; aumfrwD T f zGJUpnf;a&;ESihfpyfvsOf;í &Sif;vif;ajymMum;onf/ xdYkaemuf jynfoYlaiGpm&if; aumfrwDwiyg0ifrnhf tzGUJ 0if Gf 11 OD; trnfpm&if;ukd jynfolYvTwfawmfokdY wifjy onf/ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u twnfjyKonhftwGuf jynfolYvTwfawmfu twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf; ta0;wwd,aeYukd rwfv 3 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd trsK;om;vTwawmfcef;rü usi;yonf/ tpDtpOft& d f f trsK;om;vTwawmf Ouú|u jynfoYlaiGpm&if;aumfrwD d f zGJUpnf;a&;ESihfpyfvsOf;í &Sif;vif;ajymMum;onf/ xdkaumfrwDwGif tzGJU0if 15 OD;ESihf zGJUpnf;&efESihf xdk tzGUJ 0ifrsm; trnfpm&if;ukd vTwawmfoYdk wifjyum f twnf j yKcsuf&,lonf/ trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu twnfjyKay;onftwGuf jynfoYlaiGpm&if;aumfrwDudk h zGUJ pnf;onf/ yxrtBurf jynfoYvwawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; d l T f pwkw¬aeYukd rwfv 4 &ufwGif jynfolYvTwfawmf cef;rü usif;yonf/ tpD t pOf t & jynf o l Y vT w f a wmf O uú | u vTwfawmftcGihfta&;aumfrwDzGJUpnf;a&;ESihf pyfvsOf; í &Sif;vif;ajymMum;onf/ xkYdaemuf jynfoYlvwawmf T f Ouú|onf vTwfawmftcGihfta&;aumfrwDü yg0if oihfonhftzGJU0ifOD;a&? tzGJU0iftjzpfyg0ifoifhonhf vT w f a wmf ud k , f p m;vS , f r sm; trnf p m&if ; ? aumfrwDukd wm0ef,lOD;aqmifrnhf aumfrwDOuú|ESihf twGif;a&;rSL;wdkY trnfpm&if;rsm;ukd vTwfawmfokdY wifjyí vTwfawmf twnfjyKcsu&,l&m vTwfawmf f u twnfjyKojzihf vTwawmftcGihfta&;aumfrwDukd f zGUJ pnf;onf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf; ta0;pwkw¬aeYukd rwfv 4 &ufwGif trsKd;om; vTwawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ f a&S;OD;pGm trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|u jynfolY aiGpm&if;aumfrwDwGif tzGJU0iftjzpf wm0efay;tyf xm;aom yJcl;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqeE´e,ftrSwf (7) rS a':csKE,O;onf arG;zGm;pOfu zcifjzpform Ekiiom; d G f D l S d f H r[kwfaMumif; vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESihf jynfolYtif tm;0efBuD;XmerS taMumif;Mum;vmojzihf trsK;om; d vTwfawmfa&G;aumufyGJ Oya'yk'fr 11 (p) t& a':csKdEG,fOD;onf trsK;om;vTwawmf ud,pm;vS,f d f k f tjzpf qufvuf&yfwnfyicir&Sawmhygojzihf jynfoYl kd f G fh d aiGpm&if;aumfrwDwGif tzGJU0iftjzpfwm0efay;tyf xm;aom a':csKE,O;tpm; yJc;wdi;a'oBu; rJqE´e,f dG fD l kf D trSwf (8) rS OD;cifarmifav;tm; tpm;xdk;a&G;cs,f wm0efay;tyfrnfjzpfaMumif; trsKd;om;vTwfawmfokdY wifjyonf/ trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu oabmwlonhf twGuf jynfoYl aiGpm&if;aumfrwDwif OD;cifarmifav; G tm; tzGJU0iftjzpf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu twnfjyK aMumif; aMunmonf/ tpDtpOft& trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|u vTwawmftcGita&;aumfrwD zGUJ pnf;a&;ESipyfvsO;í f fh fh f &Si;vif;ajymMum;onf/ xdYkaemuf trsK;om;vTwawmf f d f Ouú|onf vTwfawmftcGihfta&;aumfrwDü yg0if oihfonhftzGJU0ifOD;a&? tzGJU0iftjzpf yg0ifoihfonhf vTwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm; trnfpm&if;? aumfrwD f kd f f uk d wm0ef , l O D ; aqmif o nh f aumf r wD O uú | ES i h f 58
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG twGif;a&;rSL;wdkY trnfpm&if;rsm;ukd vTwfawmf okdYwifjyí vTwfawmf twnfjyKcsuf&,lonf/ ¤if;ESihfywfoufí jynfolYvTwfawmfu twnfjyK ojzihf vTwawmftcGita&;aumfrwDudk zGUJ pnf;onf/ f fh yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf; ta0;yÍöraeYukd rwfv 7 &ufwGif jynfolYvTwf awmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ tpD t pOf t & jynf o l Y vT w f a wmf O uú | u tpdk;& tmrcHcsufrsm;uwdrsm;ESihf wm0efcHcsufrsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwDzUJG pnf; a&;ESipyfvsO;í &Si;vif;ajym fh f f Mum;onf/ xdkYaemuf tpkd;& tmrcHcsufrsm;? uwdrsm;ESihf wm0efcHcsufrsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwDukd 15 OD;xufrydkonhf vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf zGJUpnf;&rnfjzpfNyD; aumfrwDwGif yg0ifonhf tzGJU0if OD;a&? tzGJU0iftjzpfyg0ifoihfonhf vTwfawmfudk,f pm;vS,frsm; trnfpm&if;? aumfrwDudk wm0ef,l OD;aqmifonhf aumfrwDOuú|ESihf twGif;a&;rSL;wdkY trnfpm&if;rsm;ukd vTwfawmfokdYwifjy&m jynfolY vTwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm;u twnfjyKonhtwGuf f kd f f f jynfolYvTwfawmfu twnfjyKaMumif;aMunmonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfyHkrSeftpnf; ta0; yÍöraeYukd rwfv 7 &ufwGif trsKd;om; vTwawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ f tpDtpOft& trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|u tpd;& tmrcHcsufrsm;? uwdrsm;ESiwm0efccsufrsm; k fh H pdppfa&;aumfrwDzUJG pnf;a&;ESifh pyfvsO;í &Si;vif;ajym f f Mum;onf/ xdkYaemuf tpkd;& tmrcHcsufrsm;? uwdrsm;ESihf wm0efcHcsufrsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwDukd 15 OD;xufrydkonhf vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf zGUJ pnf;&rnfjzpfNyD; aumfrwDwiyg0ifonhf tzGUJ 0ifO;a&? Gf D tzGUJ 0iftjzpfyg0ifoihonhf vTwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm; f f kd f f trnfpm&if;? aumfrwDukd wm0ef,lOD;aqmifrnhf aumfrwDOuú|ESifh twGi;a&;rSL;wdYk trnfpm&if;rsm; f ukd vTwfawmfokdY wifjyonf/ trsKd;om;vTwfawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm;u twnfjyKonhtwGuf trsKd;om; k f f f vTwfawmfu twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfyHkrSeftpnf; ta0;rsm; yÍöraeYwif aumfrwDtoD;oD;ukd zGUJ pnf; G EdkifcJhonf/ tpnf;ta0; q|raeYwGif ar;cGef;rsm; ar;jref;jcif;? ajzMum;jcif;? tqdkwifoGif;jcif;ESihf vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef oihf? roihfukd jynfolYvTwfawmf tqH;tjzwf&,ljcif;vkyief;rsm;tm; jynfoYlvwawmf k f T f yHpwpf&yftaejzihf pwifvyaqmifconf/ k H k f hJ xduoYdyif yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmfyref k hJ k d f kH S tpnf;ta0;rsm; yÍöraeYwif aumfrwDtoD;oD;ukd G zGUJ pnf;Ediconf/ tpnf;ta0; q|raeYwif ar;cGe; k f hJ G f rsm;ar;jref;jcif;? ajzMum;jcif;? tqdkwifoGif;jcif;ESihf vufcaqG;aEG;&ef oif?h roifudk trsK;om;vTwawmf H h d f tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif;vkyfief;rsm;tm; trsKd;om; vTwfawmfyHkpHwpf&yftaejzihf pwifvkyfaqmifvmcJh onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfoYlvwawmfyretpnf;ta0; T f kH S f q|raeYudk rwfv 9 &ufwif aejynfawmf&dS vTwawmf G f taqmufttHk jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ tpDtpOft& jynfolYvTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f rsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhf ar;cGef;rsm;teuf pdppfcGifh jyKoihfonhf Mu,fyGihfjyar;cGef;rsm;ukd oufqdkif&m jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u ar;jref;jcif;ESihf oufqdkif&mjynfaxmifpktqihf tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;u ajymMum;jcif;rsm; aqmif&GufMuonf/ ajrmufOD;rJqE´e,frS OD;atmifxGef;om ar;jref ; csuf u k d ,Of a us;rI 0 ef B uD ; Xme 0ef B uD ; OD;cifatmifjrifuvnf;aumif;? ykZeawmifrqE´e,frS h Gf J OD;atmifZifESihf oDaygrJqE´e,frS OD;&JxGef; (c) OD;rif;xGef;wdkY ar;jref;csufrsm;ukd v,f,mpdkufysKd; a&;ESihf qnfajrmif;0efBuD;Xme0efBuD; OD;aX;OD;u vnf;aumif; ajzMum;onf/ tqdwifoi;jcif;rsm;ESiywfoufí ajryHrqE´ k G f fh k J e,frS OD;azoef;tqdudk trf;rJqE´e,frS OD;ode;aqG k f u axmuf c H í vnf ; aumif ; ? erfhcrf;rJqE´e,frS a'gufwmpdi;ausmfte;tqkudk zvrf; rJqE´e,frS k f k f d OD;cGefvdef;uaxmufcHívnf;aumif;? wefY,ef;rJqE´ 59
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG e,frS OD;xGe;qm (c) pdi;xGe;0if; tqkudk oDaygrJ f k f f d qE´e,frS OD;&JxGef; (c) OD;rif;xGef;u axmufcHí vnf;aumif;? [m;cg;rJqE´e,frS OD;aiGarmif; tqdudk k odEDérJqE´e,frS OD;pdkif;0if;cdkifu axmufcHívnf; aumif; tqdkwifoGif;Muonf/ ,if;tqdkrsm;ukd jynfolYvTwfawmfu vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef oihf? roifh vTwfawmfqE´ukd&,l&m vTwfawmfu vufcHaqG; aEG;&ef oihaMumif;wifjyojzihf vufcaqG;aEG;&efaeY&uf f H rsm;ukd csdef;qdkonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfyHkrSeftpnf; ta0; q|raeYukd rwfv 9 &ufwGif aejynfawmf&Sd vTwawmftaqmufttHk trsK;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü f d usif;yonf/ xdkYaemuf tqdkwifoGif;jcif;ESihfywfoufí csi;jynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (4) rS OD;pwDAifombdwf f tqdudk &efuewi;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (4) k k f kd f rS OD;zkef;jrihfatmifu axmufcHívnf;aumif;? csif; jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (9) rS OD;ay:vQvitqdudk H Gf k csif;jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (3) rS OD;aygxefxi;u kd f axmufcívnf;aumif;? csi;jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf H f (4) rS OD;pwDAifombdwftqdkukd ucsifjynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (2) rS OD;*rfqdkif;u axmufcHívnf; aumif ; ? csif ; jynf e ,f rJ q E´ e ,f t rS w f (9) rS OD;ay:vQHvGiftqdkukd rGefjynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (7) rS a'gufwm Anm;atmifrdk;u axmufcHívnf; aumif; tqdkrsm;wifoGif;Muonf/ ,if;tqkdrsm;ukd tpkd;&tzGJU tzGJU0ifrsm; usrf;usdefpOf tpDtpOft& vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhfar;cGef;rsm;teuf pdppfcGihfjyKoihf onh f Mu,fyGihfjyar;cGef; rsm;ukd oufqi&mtrsK;d om; dk f vTwawmf u d k , f p m;vS , f r sm;u ar;jref ; jcif ; ES i h f f oufqdkif&mjynfaxmifpk tqihftzGJUtpnf;0ifu ajzMum;jcif;rsm; aqmif&GufMuonf/ &efukefwdkif; a'oBuD;? rJqE´e,f trSwf (4) rS a'gufwmjrwfÓPpd;k ? ucsifjynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (11) rS OD;pHxGef;ESihf csi;jynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (3) rS OD;aygvfxefxi; f kd f wdkY ar;jref;csufrsm;ukd qufoG,fa&;?pmwdkufESihf aMu;eef;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;odef;aZmfu ajzMum; onf/ vTwfawmfu vufcHaqG;aEG;wifoGif;&ef oihf? roihf trsK;d om;vTwawmfqE´u&,l&ef vTwawmfuoabmwl f dk f onhtwGuf vufcaqG;aEG;&ef aeY&ufrsm;ukcse;f qdonf/ f H d d k rwfv 10 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmf taqmufttHk jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonfh yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; owåraeYwif jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;XmeESifh oufqiaom G kd f ar;cG e f ; rsm;uk d jyef M um;a&;0ef B uD ; Xme 0ef B uD ; OD;ausmqef;u vnf;aumif;? b@ma&;ESifh tcGe0efBuD; f f XmeESioufqiaomar;cGe;rsm;ukd b@ma&;ESitcGef fh kd f f fh 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD OD;vSxe;u vnf;aumif; jyefvnf G f ajzMum;ay;onf/ 60
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG tqdwifoi;jcif;rsm;ESiywfoufí oufqi&m k Gf fh kd f ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; tqkdESihfar;jref;csufrsm;ukd vlr0efxrf;? u,fq,fa&;ESifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&; I 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;armifarmifaqGESifh usef;rma&; 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; a'gufwmausmfjrifhwdkYu jyefvnf &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ f xkaeYwiyif trsKd;om;vTwawmfcef;rüusif;y d G f f onfh yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfyHkrSef tpnf; ta0;owåraeYwif v,f,mpduysK;a&;ESihf qnfajrmif; G k f d 0efBuD;XmeESihf ywfoufaomar;cGe;rsm;tm; v,f,m f pduysK;a&;ESihf qnfajrmif;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;aX;OD;u k f d vnf;aumif;? owåKwGi;0efBuD;XmeESihf ywfoufaom f ar;cGe;rsm;ukd owåKwGi;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;tke;jrifh f f f uvnf;aumif; jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ xkdYaemuf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfokdY wifoGif;xm;onfhtqkdrsm;udk trsK;d om;vTwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm;u aqG;aEG;Muonf/ f kd f f rwfv 11 &ufu jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rwGif usi;yaom yxrtBudrjf ynfoYlvwawmfyref tpnf; f T f kH S ta0;t|raeYwif use;rma&; 0efBuD;XmeESihf ywfouf G f aomar;cGe;rsm;twGuf usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; f OD;ausmjf rifuvnf;aumif;? qufo,a&;? pmwduEihf h G f k f S aMu;eef;0efBuD;XmeESifh oufqkdifaomar;cGef;rsm; twGuf qufo,a&; pmwduEiaMu;eef;0efBuD;Xme G f k f S hf 0efBuD; OD;odef;aZmfuvnf;aumif;? Oya'a&;&mESifh ywfoufí a&SUaecsKyf OD;at;armifuvnf;aumif;? trSwf (1) pufrI0efBuD;XmeESifhywfoufonfhar;cGef; rsm;tm; trSwf (1) pufrI0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;atmif aomif;uvnf;aumif;? pD;yGm;a&;ESifhul;oef;a&mif; 0,fa&;0efBuD;XmeESifh ywfoufaomar;cGef;rsm;tm; pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;wifEioe;uvnf;aumif;? jynfxa&;0efBuD;XmeESihf kd f d f J ywfoufaomar;cGef;rsm;tm; jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;armifOD;uvnf;aumif;? aqmufvkyfa&; 0efBuD;XmeESifh ywfoufaomar;cGef;twGuf aqmuf vkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrifhuvnf; aumif; jyefvnf&i;vif;ajzMum;onf/ S f xkaeYwiyif trsKd;om;vTwawmfcef;rüusif;y d G f f onfh yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwawmf yHkrSeftpnf; f ta0;t|raeYu vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm; ar;jref;csuftm; jynfaxmifpk0if tzGJUtpnf;rsm;u ajzMum;jcif;rsm;jyKvky&mü ynma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; f a'gufwmcsrf;Nidrf;? ykdYaqmifa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;odef;aqGwkdYu jyefvnfajzMum;um trsKd;om;vTwf awmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;uvnf; 0ifa&mufaqG;aEG; Muonf/ xkdYaemuf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf ukd,fpm; vS,rsm;u tqkrsm;wifoi;jcif;? tqktm; axmufcH f d G f d jcif ; trsKd ; om;vT w f a wmf u vuf c H a qG ; aEG ; &ef trsKd ; om;vT w f a wmf o k d Y wif j yjcif ; ? trsKd ; om; vTwfawmfrS twnfjyKaomtcg vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef aeY&ufukd csdef;qdkjcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&Gufonf/ rwfv 14 &ufu jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonhf yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; e0raeYwGif jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm; vS,frsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhf ar;cGef;rsm;teuf Mu,f y G i h f j yar;cG e f ; rsm;jzpf a om &G m iH r J q E´ e ,f r S OD;atmifodef; NrdKUBuD;qnfrSxGuf&Sdaom vQyfppf "mwftm;tcsKdUukd "Eka'ookdY jzefYa0ay;&eftpDtpOf &Sd^r&SdESihf pyfvsOf;onhfar;cGef;ESihf uif;wm;a&avSmif wrHrS &GmiHNrdKUay:okYd jzefYa0ay;xm;onhf vQyfppf"mwf tm;vdkif;ukd wdk;csJUjzefYjzL;ay;&ef tpDtpOf&Sd^r&SdESihf pyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGe;? oHwrqE´e,frS OD;&Jxe; f JG J G f &cdijf ynfe,frjS ynforsm; cHpm;ae&aom vQyfppf"mwf k l tm; oH;pGcEIe;xm;ESifh pyfvsO;onhf ar;cGe;? ausmufrJ k J f f f rJqE´e,frS OD;e,fvqif (c) pdi;aqmifq Mum;jzwf f kf D a&G;cs,wifajr§mufyrsm;ukd rnfoYdkjyifqifxm;onfEifh f JG S pyfvsO;onhf ar;cGe;? yvuf0rJqE´e,frS OD;ykuvif; f f d f csif;jynfe,f yvuf0NrdKUrS ajrmufbuf 29 rdituGm&Sd k f ukvm;wefjrpfwpfae&mwGif awmifNydKNyD; a&vrf; ydwfqdkYrIESihfpyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk tqihf tzGUJ tpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom trSwf (2) vQyppf f pGrf;tm;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrifh? a&G; aumufyGJaumfr&SifOuú| OD;odef;pdk;ESihf ydkYaqmifa&; 61
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;ode;aqGwYkd u jyefvnfajzMum; f onf/ qufvufí jynfoYvwawmfuvufcHaqG;aEG; l T f &efoabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonhf tqdkrsm;ESihfpyfvsOf;í jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u aqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifpktqihf tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom [dw,fEic&D; oGm;vma&;vkyief; 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; k S hf f OD;pkd;EdkifESihf e,fpyfa'oESihf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; zGUH NzdK;wd;k wufa&;ESifh pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;odef;ñGefYwdkYu jyefvnf&Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ xdkYaemuf rdkif;yefrJqE´e,frS OD;xGef;jrihfOD;tqdkESihf tvHkrJqE´e,frS OD;cifarmif&nf (c) cdiarmif&nf k f tqdkrsm;ukd wifoGif;jcif;ESihf jynfolYvTwfawmfu vufcaqG;aEG;&ef oih^roifh tqH;tjzwf &,ljcif;rsm; H f k ukd aqmif&Gufonf/ rwfv 14 &ufu trsK;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü d usif;yonhf yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; e0raeYwif trsK;om;vTwawmfu,pm; G d f kd f vS,frsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhf ar;cGef;rsm;teuf pdppfcGihfjyKoihfonhf Mu,fyGihfjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom &cdkifjynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (9) rS OD;armifat;xGe; f puúLaysmzwfpuf½Eifh pyfvsO;f onhar;cGe;f ? bdvyfajr h kH S f xkwfvkyfjcif;ESihfqdkifonhfar;cGef;? csif;jynfe,f rJqE´ e,ftrSwf (3) rS OD;aygvfxefxdkif; urÇmvSnhf c&D;onfrsm;qdkif&mar;cGef;? &efukefwdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (4) rS a'gufwmjrwfÓPpdk; NrdKUywf&xm;qdkif&mar;cGef;? ucsifjynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (1) rS OD;cufxdefeef rD;&xm;vrf;aMumif; qdkif&mar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpktzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm; jzpfMuaom trSwf (1) pufrI0efBuD;Xme 0ef B uD ; OD;atmifaomif;? [kdw,fESihfc&D;oGm;vma&;vkyfief; 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;OD;pk;EkiEifh &xm;ydYkaqmifa&; 0efBuD; d d f S Xme 0efBuD;OD;atmifrif;wdYk u jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ qufvufí trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu vufcH aqG;aEG;&ef oabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonhf csif;jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (9) rS OD;ay:vQHviftqdkESihf csif; G jynfe,frqE´e,ftrSwf (1) rS OD;uRece; tqdrsm; J fJf k ESihfpyfvsOf; í jynfaxmifpktqihftzGJUtpnf;0if aqmufvya&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrihu jyef kf f vnf ajzMum;onf/ rwfv 15 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmf cef;rü usif;yonhf yxrtBudrfjynfolYvTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 'oraeYwGif jynfolYvTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhfar;cGef;rsm; teuf Mu,fyGihfjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom rmefatmif rJqE´e,frS OD;atmifpdef pufrIvkyfief;oifwef; ausmif;ESifh pyfvsOf;onhar;cGe;? rd;armuf rJqE´e,frS f f k OD;aZmfxGef; wdkif;&if;om;pmay oifMum;a&;Oya' ESihfpyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGef;? ajrmufOD; rJ q E´ e ,f r S OD;atmifxGef;om tajccHynmtv,fwef;ausmif; zGivpa&;ESifh pyfvsOf;onhar;cGe;? rmefatmif rJqE´ fh S f f f e,frS OD;atmifpdef tajccHynmausmif;xdef;odrf; a&;ESifh pyfvsO;onhar;cGe;ESifh wuúovf (okYd r[kw) f f f dk f aumvdyfwpfckzGihf vSpfa&;ESihfpyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGef; rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpktqihf tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMu aom odyEienf;ynm0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;aomif;ESifh HÜ S fh ynma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; a'gufwmcsrf;Nidr;wdkYu f jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ qufvufí jynfolYvTwfawmfu vufcHaqG; aEG;&ef oabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonhfrdkif;yef rJqE´e,frS OD;xGef;jrihfOD; oef;acgifpm&if; aumuf,&ef tqdEifh l kS tvHrqE´e,frS OD;cifarmif&nf (c) cdkifarmif&nf k J pmwwfajrmufa&; oif½;ñTe;wrf;qdi&mtqdrsm;ESifh kd f k f k pyfvsOf;í jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u aqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifpk tqihftzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm; jzpfMuaom vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESihf jynfolYtiftm; 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;armifOD;ESihf ynma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; a'gufwmcsrf;Nidr;wdYk u jyefvnf&i;vif;aqG; f S f aEG;jcif;ESihf jynfoYl vwawmf tqH;tjzwf&,ljcif; T f k rsm;ukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ xdkYaemuf prf;acsmif;rJqE´e,frS OD;pkd;0if; yifpifvpmESifh pyfvsO;onhtqd?k ykZeawmif rJqE´e,f f f Gf 62
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG rS OD;atmifZif awmifov,form;qdi&mtqdrsm; l k f k wifoi;jcif;ESifh jynfoYlvwawmfu vufcaqG;aEG;&ef Gf T f H oihroihf tqH;tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm;tm; aqmif&uMf u f k G onf/ rwfv 15 &uf u aejynfawmf& S d vT w f a wmf taqmufttHk trsK;om;vTwawmfcef;rüusi;yonhf d f f yxrtBudrtrsK;om;vTwawmfyretpnf;ta0; 'or f d f kH S f aeYwGif trsKd;om;vTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhfar;cGef;rsm;teuf Mu,fyGihfjyar;cGef; rsm;jzpfaom &cdkifjynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (8) rS OD;armifomcif &cdkifjynfe,f armfawmfum;vrf; rsm;qdkif&mar;cGef;? csif;jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (2) rS OD;ZkefvS,fxef csif;jynfe,f e,fpyfukefoG,f vrf ; rBuD ; rsm;qd k i f & mES i h f pyf v sOf ; onh f a r;cG e f ; ? csif;jynfe,frJqE´e,ftrSwf (3) rS OD;aygvfxxi; H kd f zGUH NzdK;a&;txl;a'oBuD; 24 ckqdkif&m ar;cGef; rsm;ukd jynf a xmif p k t qih f tzG J U tpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfaom aqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrihfESihf EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESihfzGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpD½Hk;rS ñTefMum;a&;rSL;csKyf OD;ausmfausmf0if;wdkYu jyefvnf ajzMum;onf/ qufvufí trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu vufcH aqG;aEG;&ef oabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonhf csif;jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (1) rS OD;uRece; vpmaiGw;jr§iay; fJf kd fh &ef tqdEipyfvsO;í &Sr;jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (5) k S fh f f rS OD;pdkif;0if;armifu aqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifpktqihf tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfaom b@ma&;ESihf tcGef0efBuD; Xme 0efBuD; OD;vSxe;u jyefvnf&i;vif;aqG;aEG;jcif; G f S f ESihf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif;ukd aqmif&uonf/ G f rwfv 16 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmf cef;rüusif;yaom yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 11 &ufajrmufaeYwGif jynfolY vTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhf ar;cGef;rsm;teuf Mu,fyGifhjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom &GmiHrJqE´e,frS OD;atmifodef; vrf;tqihfjr§ihfjyif qifay;&efEifh pyfvsO;onhar;cGe;? rd;n§i;rJqE´e,frS S f f f k f OD;ausmfpkd;av; jynfaxmifpum;vrf;rBuD; tqihf k jr§ihfwifjcif;ESihf pyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGe;? rHprqE´e,frS f D J OD;xGef;xGef; armfawmfum;vrf; xdef;odrf;jcif;? tqihjf r§iwifjcif;ESipyfvsO;onhar;cGe;? ylwmtdrqE´ fh fh f f f kJ e,frS OD;a,m'Da'GU armfawmfum;vrf; qdi&mar;cGe;ESifh kf f odErqE´e,frS pdi;0if;cdi oD;ESrsm;pduysK;xkwvyf Dé J k f k f H k f d f k a&mif;csciEifh pyfvsO;onhar;cGe;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk G hf S f f f tqihftzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom aqmufvkyfa&; 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrihf? v,f,mpdkufysKd; a&;ESihf qnfajrmif;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;aX;OD;wdkYu jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ qufvufí jynfolYvTwfawmfu vuf c H aqG;aEG;&efoabmwl xm;NyD;jzpfonhf prf;acsmif;rJqE´ e,frS OD;pkd;0if; yifpifvpmaiG tqdkESihf ykZGefawmif rJqE´e,frS OD;atmifZif xGufukefoD;ESHqdkif&m tqdkrsm;ESihfpyfvsOf;í jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm; vS , f r sm;u aqG ; aEG ; jcif ; ? jynf a xmif p k t qih f tzGUJ tpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom b@ma&;ESitcGe0efBuD; fh f Xme 0efBuD; OD;vSxe;? pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,f G f a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;wifEdkifodef;wdkYu jyef vnf&Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;jcif;ESihf jynfolYvTwfawmf tqHk;tjzwf &,ljcif;rsm;aqmif&GufMuonf/ xdkYaemuf ppfawGrJqE´e,frS OD;armifndK vQyfppf"mwftm; vdkif;? vQyfppfrDwmcqdkif&mtqdkEifh S r&rf;uke;rJqE´e,frS OD;yGiqef; vlrIzlvHka&;Oya' f fh qdkif&mtqdrsm;ukdwifoGif;jcif;ESihf jynfolYvTwfawmf k uvufcHaqG;aEG;&ef oihfroihftqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif; rsm;ukd aqmif&Gufonf/ rwfv 16 &ufu aejynfawmf&SdtrsKd;om; vTwfawmfcef;rüusif;yaom yxrtBudrf trsKd;om; vTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 11 &ufajrmufaeYwGif trsKd;om;vTwawmf ud,pm;vS,rsm;u ar;jref;xm; f k f f onhar;cGe;rsm;teuf Mu,fyifh jy ar;cGe;rsm;jzpfaom f f G f csif;jynfe,frJqE´e,ftrSwf (2) rS OD;ZkefvS,fxef; e,fpyf*wrsm;rS EkiijH cm;om;rsm; 0ifxuom;vmrIEifh d f df G f G S 63
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG pyfvsOf;onhar;cGe;? ucsifjynfe,frqE´e,f trSwf f f J (10) rS OD;pdkif;jrwfarmif EkdifiHom;pdppfa&;uwfjym; ESihfpyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGef;? &efukefwdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´ e,ftrSwf (4) rS a'gufwm jrwfÓPpd; pufo;qD k kH jzefYjzL;a&mif;csjcif;ESihfpyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpktqihf tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESihf jynfolYtiftm;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;OD;armifOD;ESihf pGrf;tif0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;vGef;oDwdkYu jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ vTwfawmftaqmufttHk t0ifrkcfOD; qufvufí trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu vufcH aqG;aEG;&ef oabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonhf csif;jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (4) rS OD;pwDAifombdw use;rma&; f f qdkif&mtqkdESihf csif;jynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (9) rS OD;ay:vQvi q&m0efrsm;ESiywfoufaom tqdrsm; H Gf fh k ESihfpyfvsOf;í jynfaxmifpktqihf tzGJUtpnf;0ifjzpf aom use;rma&;0efBuD;Xme0efBuD; a'gufwmausmjf rihf f u jyefvnf&i;f vif;aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh trsK;d om;vTwawmf S f tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&Gufonf/ xdkYaemuf csif;jynfe,frJ qE´e,ftrSwf (9) rS OD;ay:vQHvGif NrdKUe,ftqihfwdk;jr§ihfay;&eftqkdukd vTwawmfoYdk wifjy&efjzpfaomfvnf; oufqi&mtqdk f dk f &Sifu tqdkukdar;cGef;tjzpfajymif;vJay;yg&ef jyifqif wifjyonf/ rwfv 21 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolY vTwawmfcef;rü usi;yaom yxrtBudrjf ynfoYlvwf f f T awmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 12 &uf ajrmufaeYwGif jynfoYlvwawmfu,pm;vS,rsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhf T f kd f f ar;cGef;rsm;teuf Mu,fyGihfjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom tvHkrJqE´e,frS OD;cdkifarmif&nf (c) cdkifarmif&nf ynmawmfoifausmif;om;rsm; tcG i h f t a&;rsm; ynmoifqk tul tnDrsm;ESihfpyfvsOf;onhfar;cGef;? bl ; oD ; awmif rJ q E´ e ,f r S OD ; a&T a rmif (c) OD;t'la&mfZuf tajccHynmtxufwef;pmar;yGJESihf pyfvsO;onhar;cGe;ESifh armifawmc½diynm&nfjrihrm; f f f kf f a&;ES i h f p yf v sOf ; onh f a r;cG e f ; ? vIdif;bGJrJqE´e,frS OD;apmode;atmif u&ifjynfe,frS jynfolwdkY f vdkvm;awmihfwcsufESihf pyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGef;ESihf u&if j ynf e ,f t wG i f ; rS ppf a jy;'k u © o nf r sm;ES i h f pyf v sOf ; onh f a r;cG e f ; rsm;uk d jynfaxmifpktqihf tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom ynma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; a'gufwmcsrf;Nidr;ESifh jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme f 0efBuD; OD;ausmfqef;wdkYu jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ quf v uf í jynf o l Y v T w f a wmf u vuf c H aqG ; aEG ; &ef oabmwl x m;NyD ; jzpf o nh f ppf a wG rJqE´e,frS OD;armifndK vQyfppf"mwftm;qdkif&m tqdkESihfpyfvsOf;í jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f rsm;u aqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifpk tqihftzGJUtpnf; 0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom trSwf (2) vQyfppfpGrf;tm; 0efBuD; Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrifEifh tvkyorm;0efBuD;Xme h S f 0ef B uD ; OD ; atmif M unf w d k Y u jyef v nf & S i f ; vif ; aqG;aEG;jcif;ESihf jynfolYvTwfawmf tqHk;tjzwf &,ljcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ xdYkaemuf r*Fvm'HrqE´ e,frS OD;wifarmif0if;u kJ tvkyorm; Oya'ESiywfoufonhf tqdudk wifoi; f fh k G f jcif;ESifh jynfoYlvwawmfu vufcaqG;aEG;&ef oihroihf T f H f tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm; aqmif&GufMuonf/ rwfv 21 &ufu aejynfawmf&SdvTwfawmf taqmufttHk trsK;om;vTwawmfcef;rüusi;yonhf d f f yxrtBudrtrsKd;om;vTwawmfyretpnf;ta0; 12 f f kH S f 64
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG &ufajrmufaeYwGif trsKd;om;vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f rsm;u ar;jref;xm;onhf ar;cGef;rsm;teuf pdppfcGifhjyK oifonhf Mu,fyijfh yar;cGe;rsm;jzpfaom ucsijf ynfe,f h G f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (4) rS OD;pckefwdefY,def; {&m0wD jrpfqEifh arcrvdcjrpf0r;wpfavQmuf a&tm;vQyfppf kH S S f pDrue;rsm;ESipyfvsO;onhar;cGe;? csi;jynfe,frqE´ H d f fh f f f f J e,ftrSwf (2) rS OD;ZkefvS,fxef; csif;jynfe,f r[m"mwftm;vdi;oG,wef;jzefYa0ay;a&;ESifh pyfvsO; k f f f onhf ar;cGef;? &efukefwdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (4) rS a'gufwm jrwfÓPpd; ydYkueoi;ukevyief; k k f G f f k f ESihf tcGeftcrsm;ESihf pyfvsOf;onhf ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifptqihf tzGUJ tpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom trSwf k (1) vQyppfpGrf;tm;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;aZmfrif; trSwf f (2) vQyppfpr;f tm; 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;OD;cifarmifjrihEihf f G f S b@ma&;ESihf tcGef0efBuD;Xme0efBuD; OD;vSxGef;wdkYu jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ xdkYaemuf csif;jynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (9) rS OD;ay:vQvi bkwvma&wHceEipyfvsOf;onhtqdk H Gf H G f S fh f ukd wifoGif;jcif;ESihf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu vufcH aqG;aEG;&efoihf^roifh tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif; aqmif &Guonf/ f rwfv 22 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolY vTwfawmfcef;rüusif;yaom yxrtBudrf jynfolY vTwfawmfyHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 13 &ufajrmufaeYwGif jynfolYvTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u ar;jref;xm; onfhar;cGef;rsm; Mu,fyGifhjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom armif a wmrJ q E´ e ,f r S OD ; aZmf u d & f t mrwf (c) OD;atmifaZmf0if; ,m,DoufaocHvufrSwfESifh Ekiiom;pdppfa&;uwfjym;vJv,a&;ESihf pyfvsO;onfh d f H S f f ar;cGef;? vIdif;bGJrJqE´e,frS OD;apmodef;atmif avmif;upm;rIEihf pyfvsO;onfh ar;cGe;? vif;ac;rJqE´ S f f e,frS OD;pdkif;vSausmf vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhESifh pyfvsOf;onfar;cGe;? oefvsifrqE´e,frS OD;vGiO; h f J f D zGJUpnf;jzpfay:vmrnfh &yfuGuf^ aus;&Gmtkyfpk tkyfcsKyfa&;ESihfpyfvsOf;onfh ar;cGef;? aygufawm rJqE´e,frS OD;atmifausmfZH &yfuGuf^aus;&Gmtkyfpk tkycsKya&;yk*K¾ vf cefYtyfwm0efay;a&;ESihf pyfvsO;onfh f f d f ar;cGef;ESifh ykZGefawmifrJqE´e,frS OD;atmifZif trawmfaMu; wkd;jr§ifhay;a&;tpDtpOfESifh pyfvsOf; onfhar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpktqifh tzGJUtpnf; 0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESifh jynfolY tiftm;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;ESifh jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;armifO;ESihf v,f,mpduysK;a&;ESihf qnfajrmif; D k f d 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;aX;OD;wdYk u jyefvnf ajzMum;Mu onf/ qufvufí jynfoYlvwawmfu vufcaqG;aEG; T f H &ef oabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonfh r*Fvm'HkrJqE´e,frS OD;wifarmif0if; tvkyftukdiftcGifhtvrf;wdk; wufa&;? vkyief;cGiom,ma&;ESihf tvkyorm;rsm; f f f uRr;usirI zGUH NzKd;wd;wufa&;wdYktwGuf Oya' (rlMurf;) f f k wpf&yfukd'kwd,tBudrf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;rsm;okdY wifoi;aqG;aEG;Edia&;twGuf pDpOfaqmif&uay;yg&ef Gf kf G f tqkEipyfvsO;í jynfoYlvwawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; d S hf f T f uaqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifptqifh tzGUJ tpnf;0ifjzpf k aom tvkyorm;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;atmifMunfu f jyefvnf&i;vif;aqG;aEG;jcif;ESihf jynfoYl vwawmf S f T f tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm; aqmif&GufMuonf/ xkdYaemuf prf;acsmif;rJqE´e,frS OD;pkd;0if;u tao;pm;? tvwfpm; pufrvyief;rsm;ukd b@ma&; I k f qkdif&mtaxmuftyHhay;a&;tqkdukd wifoGif;jcif;ESifh jynfolYvTwfawmfuvufcHaqG;aEG;&ef oifh^roifh tqH;tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm; aqmif&GufMuonf/ k rwfv 22 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd trsK;om; d vTwawmfcef;rüusif;yaom yxrtBudrf trsKd;om; f vTwawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 13 &ufajrmufaeYwGif f trsKd;om;vTwawmf uk,pm;vS,rsm;u ar;jref;xm; f d f f onfhar;cGef;rsm;teuf Mu,fyGifhjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom ucsijf ynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (4)rS OD;pckeweYf ,e; f d d f Oya'jyifyü vufeufpuivsuf Ekiiawmf tpk;&ukd JG dk f dfH d qefYusifvsuf&onfh tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ESipyfvsOf;onfh dS hf ar;cG e f ; ? &S r f ; jynf e ,f rJ q E´ e ,f t rS w f (10)rS OD;xGef;ausmf &Srf;jynfe,f (ajrmufykdif;)odkY qef 65
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG o,f,lykdYaqmifa&;udpöESifh pyfvsOf;onfhar;cGef;? &efuewi;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (4)rS a'gufwm k f dk f jrwfÓPpd; 2000 pDpatmuf tdro;armfawmf,mOf k D f kH i,frsm; wifoi;cGiEipyfvsO;onfar;cGe;ESihf rGejf ynf G f hf S hf f h f e,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (7)rS a'gufwm Anm;atmifr; dk yifv,furf;ajcwGif ig;zrf;Muaoma'ocHrsm; BuD;av; onfh taumuftcGefrsm;ay;aqmifae&jcif;ESifhpyf vsOf;onfh ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpktqifh tzGJU tpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom Ediiawmftpk;& ajyma&;qkcihf kfH d dG tmPmykdif tzGJUacgif;aqmif jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;ausmfqef;? pD;yGm;a&;ESifhul;oef;a&mif;0,f a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;wifEdkifodef;ESifh arG;jrLa&; ES i f h a&vkyfief;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;armifarmifor; d f wdkYu jyefvnfajzMum;Muonf/ qufvufí trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu vufcH aqG;aEG;&ef oabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonfh csif;jynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (9)rS OD;ay:vQHvGif bHkwvm a&wHcGefwGif tBuD;pm;vQyfppf"mwftm;xkwfvkyfa&; puf½Hk wnfaqmufay;&eftqkdESifhpyf vsOf;í csif; jynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (3)rS OD;aygvfxefxkdif;u aqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifptqifh tzGUJ tpnf;0ifjzpfaom k trS w f (1) vQyf p pf p G r f ; tm;0ef B uD ; Xme 0ef B uD ; OD;aZmfrif;u jyefvnf&Sif; vif;aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh trsKd;om;vTwfawmf tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&Guf onf/ xkdYaemuf rGefjynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (7)rS a'guf w m Anm;atmifrkd; awmifolv,form; rsm; pdkufysKd;xkwfvkyfaeonfh aumufyJoD;ESHrsm; oifhwifhonfh wefzkd;&&Sda&;twGuf EdkifiHawmfu ul n D a qmif & G u f a y;&ef t qk d u k d wifoGif;jcif;ESifh trsK;om;vTwawmfu vufcHaqG;aEG;&efoifhroifh d f tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif; aqmif&Gufonf/ rwfv 23 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfoYl vwawmf T f cef;rüusif;yaom yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 14 &ufajrmufaeYwGif jynfolY vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;uar;jref;xm;onfh ar;cGef;rsm;teuf Mu,fyGifhjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom ppfawGrqE´e,frS OD;armifnKd ppfawGNrKdU aomufo; J kH a& ay;a&;pDrue;ESipyfvsOf;onfar;cGe;? rcsrf;abm H d f fh h f rJqE´e,frS OD;tifzkefqef; (c)OD;tifxkzkefqef; wkd;wufzGHUNzKd;rIenf;yg;onfha'orsm;ESifhpyfvsOf; onfhar;cGef;ESifh xmcacsmif;a&wHcGefrS a&tm;vQyfppf "mwftm; xkwfvkyfa&;ESifhpyfvsOf;onfh ar;cGef;? Munfjh rifwirqE´e,frS OD;oef;pde trsKd;om;ynm dk f J f &nf jrifhrm;a&;ESifhpyfvsOf;onfhar;cGef;ESifh a'gyHkrJqE´ e,frS OD;vSjrif &efueNf rKUd wGi;vrf;rsm; tqifjh r§iwif h k f hf a&;ESipyfvsOf;onfh ar;cGe;rsm;udk jynfaxmifptqifh hf f k tzGUJ tpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom e,fpyfa'oESihf wki;&if; df om;vlrsKd;rsm; zGUH NzKd;wd;wufa&;ESihf pnfyifom,ma&; k 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;odef;ñGefY? trSwf (1) vQyfppf pGr;tm;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;aZmfrif;? ynma&;0efBuD; f Xme 0efBuD; a'gufwmcsr;Nidr;ESihf &efueNf rKUd awmfpnfyif f f k om,ma&;aumfrwDOuú| NrKUd awmf0ef OD;atmifoe;vif; df wdkYu jyefvnfajzMum;Muonf/ quf v uf í jynf o l Y v T w f a wmf u vuf c H aqG;aEG;&ef oabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonfh prf;acsmif;rJqE´ e,frS OD;pkd;0if; tao;pm;? tvwfpm;pufrI vkyfief;rsm;ukd b@ma&;qkdif&m axmufyHha&;tqkdESifh pyfvsOf;í jynfolYvTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u aqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifptqifh tzGUJ tpnf;0ifjzpfaom k b@ma&;ESifh tcGef0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;vSxGef;u jyefvnf&i;vif;aqG;aEG;jcif;ESihf jynfoYl vTwawmf S f f tqH;tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm; aqmif&uMf uonf/ xkYdaemuf k G jynfolYvTwfawmfOuú|xHokdY jynfyEkdifiH vTwfawmf tBuD;tuJrsm;xHrSay;ykdYaom 0rf;ajrmufaMumif; o0PfvTmrsm;ukd od&SdrSwfwrf;wifEkdifa&;twGuf vTwfawmfodkYwifjyNyD; vTwfawmfqE´ukd&,l&m vTwfawmfuoabmwlnDonfhtwGuf rSwfwrf;wif aMumif; aMunmonf/ qufvufí jynfolYvTwfawmfOuú|u Oya' jyKa&;? tkyfcsKyfa&;? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;ta&;? pD;yGm;a&;? b@ma&;? vlrIa&;? EdkifiHa&;wdkYtjyif 66
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG tjcm;a&;&mud p ö & yf r sm;uk d avh v mwif j yap&ef vTwfawmfaumfrwDrsm;? yl;aygif;aumfrwDrsm;zGJUpnf; a&;ESifhpyfvsOf;í wifjyaqG;aEG;NyD; vTwfawmf oabmwlncsursm;uk&,l&m vTwawmfu oabmwl D f d f onfhtwGuf twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ xkYdaemuf jynfoYlvwawmfOuú|u yxrtBudrf T f jynfoYl vTwawmf 'kw,tpnf;ta0;rSpí vTwawmf f d f ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwDwGifyg0ifrnfh aumfrwDOuú|? twGif;a&;rSL;ESifh aumffrwD0ifrsm; trnfpm&if;ukd jynfolYvTwfawmfodkY wifjyonf/ tqkdyg trnfpm&if;udk jynfolYvTwfawmfu oabmwlonfhtwGuf vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwDukd zGJUpnf;wm0efay;tyfaMumif; aMunmonf/ xkYdaemuf jynfoYlvwawmfOuú|u yxrtBudrf T f jynfolYvTwfawmfyHkrSeftpnf;ta0;wGif aqmif&GufcJh aom a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;? zGJUpnf;twnfjyKjcif;? ar;cGe;rsm;ar;jref;jcif;? tqkrsm;aqG;aEG;jcif;wdYk Eipyf f d S hf vsOf;í tusOf;csKyf &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ quf v uf í jynf o l Y vT w f a wmf O uú | txl;cGifhjyKcsufjzifh rif;vSrJqE´e,frS OD;armifwkd; d hf f jrefrmEdii tcGe&aiGEihf GDP tcsK;ESipyfvsO;onfh k f H f S ar;cGe;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifptqifh tzGUJ tpnf;0ifjzpfaom f k b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;vSxGef;u jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ xkYdaemuf jynfoYlvwawmfOuú|u yxrtBudrf T f jynfoYlvwawmfyretpnf;ta0; atmifjrifpm usi;y T f kH S f G f NyD;pD;aMumif; aMunmonf/ rwfv 23 &ufu aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om; vTwfawmfcef;rüusif;yonfh yxrtBudrf trsKd;om; vTwfawmfyHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 14 &ufajrmufaeYwGif trsK;om;vTwawmf uk,pm;vS,rsm;u ar;jref;xm; d f d f f onfhar;cGef;rsm;teuf Mu,fyGifhjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom csif;jynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (9)rS OD;ay:vQHvGif csi;jynfe,f&dS a&ZGmNrKUd e,fcudk NrKUd e,ftqifoYdk wk;jr§ihf f JG h d ay;&efEipyfvsOf;onfar;cGe;ESihf rauG;wdi;a'oBuD; S hf h f k f rJqE´e,f trSwf (12)rS OD;vSaqG *efYa*gc½kdifrS &efueNf rKUd ESihf rEÅav;NrKUd rsm;okYd qufo,aomarmfawmf k G f um;vrf;jyKjyifwnfaqmufay;a&;ESifhpyfvsOf;onfh ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpktqifh tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm; jzpfMuaom jynfxa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;armifO;ESihf J D aqmufvyf a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrifwYkdu k h jyef v nf a jzMum;onf / quf v uf í trsKd ; om; vTwfawmfOuú|xHodkY jynfyvTwfawmftBuD;tuJrsm; xHrSay;ykdYaom 0rf;ajrmufaMumif;o0PfvTmrsm;ukd od&rwwrf;wifEia&;twGuf vTwawmfoYdk wifjyNyD; dS S f dk f f vTwfawmf qE´ukd&,l&m vTwfawmfuoabmwl onfhtwGuf rSwfwrf;wifaMumif; aMunmonf/ xkdYaemuf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|u Oya' jyKa&;? tkyfcsKyfa&;? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;ta&;? pD;yGm;a&;? b@ma&;? vlrIa&;? EkdifiHjcm;a&;wdkYtjyif tjcm;a&;&mudprsm;ukd avhvmwifjyap&ef aumfrwD ö rsm; yl;aygif;aumfrwDrsm;zGJUpnf;a&;ESifhpyfvsOf;í vTwawmfoabmwlncsuf&,lonf/ f D qufvufí trsK;om;vTwawmfOuú|u yxr d f tBudrf trsKd;om;vTwawmf 'kw,tpnf;ta0;rSpí f d vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm;pdppfEdkif&ef vTwfawmf uk,pm;vS,rsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwDwif yg0ifrnfh Ouú|? d f f G twGif;a&;rSL;ESifh aumfrwD0ifrsm;trnfpm&if;ukd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfokdY wifjyonf/ tqkyg trnfpm&if;udk trsK;om;vTwawmfu d d f oabmwlonfhtwGuf vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwDukd zGJUpnf;wm0efay;tyfaMumif; aMunmonf/ xkdYaemuf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfu vufcH aqG;aEG;&efoabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonfh rGefjynfe,frJ qE´e,f trSwf (7)rS a'gufwm Anm;atmifrkd; awmif o l v ,f o rm;rsm; pk d u f y sKd ; xk w f v k y f o nf h aumufyo;ESHrsm; oifhwifhonfhwefzkd;&&Sda&;twGuf J D Ediiawmfu ulnaqmif&uay;&ef tqdEipyfvsOf;í k f H D G f k S hf vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f 4 OD;uaqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifptqifh tzGUJ tpnf;0ifjzpfaom pD;yGm;a&;ESihf k 67
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    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG jynfaxmifpvwawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ k T f tpnf ; ta0;wG i f jynf a xmif p k v T w f a wmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;uar;jref;xm;onfh ar;cGef;rsm; teuf Mu,fyijhf yar;cGe;rsm;jzpfaom xef;wyif rJqE´ G f e,frS OD;ode;&D xef;wyifNrKdUe,f wufopfuRef;ESihf f abmv,fuRef;qufoG,frnfh jrpful;wHwm;wnf aqmufrnftpDtpOf ESipyfvsOf;onfar;cGe;ESihf xef; h hf h f wyifNrKdUe,f vrkwef;av;aus;&GmESihf usLawmaus;&Gm tkypk ajrom;vrf;tm; ausmufacsmcif;&efEihf pyfvsO; f S f onfhar;cGef;? atmifajromZHNrKdUe,frS OD;ukdBuD; aps;upm;jc,fvS,frIESifh pD;yGm;a&;vuf0g;BuD;tkyfrI tajctaewd k Y u k d vuf & S d O ya'jzif h v nf ; aumif ; ? Oya'vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;topf jy|mef;jcif;jzifhvnf; aumif; umuG,wm;qD;xde;odr;a&;ESipyfvsO;onfh f f f hf f ar;cGef;? rEÅav;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (12) rS OD;aX;armif trsKd;om;ynma&; tMum;tvyfr&Sd zGHUNzKd;wdk;wufrI&Sdatmif EdkifiHawmfu rnfokdYpDrHxm; aMumif;? tcrJhynmoifMum;a&;? aemifvmrnfhynm a&;pepfwif yk*vutcef;u@rS aygif;pyfEirI &S^r&Sd G ¾ d kd f d rnfonfhtqifhxd cGifhjyKrnfESifhpyfvsOf;onfhar;cGef;? rEÅav;wki;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (2)rS OD;0if;armif df t*Fvypm Reading, Writing, Listening and Speakd f ing paom 4 Skills uRrf;usifa&;ESifh pyfvsOf;onfh ar;cGef;ESifh wmarGrJqE´e,frS a':vJhvJh0if;aqG ukefaps;EIef;rsm;wnfNidrfrI&SdatmifESifh qufvufxdef; odrf;xm;Edkifa&;ESifh pyfvsOf;onfhar;cGef;rsm;udk jynfaxmifpktqifh tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom aqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrifh? e,fpyfa'oESihf wki;&if;om;vlrsK;rsm; zGUH NzK;wk;wufa&; df d d d ESifh pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;odef;ñGefY? pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;wifEdkifodef;? ynma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; a'gufwm csrf;Nidrf;ESifh trSwf (1) pufrI0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;atmifaomif;wkdYu jyefvnfajzMum;Muonf/ qufvufí jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfu vufcH aqG;aEG;&ef oabmwlxm;NyD;jzpfonfh [oFmwrJqE´ e,frS OD;aX;OD; jrefrmEdkifiHtay: pD;yGm;a&;t& ydwfqkdYrIrsm;ukd þvTwfawmfu uefYuGufaMumif; tqkdESifhpyfvsOf;í jynfolYvTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f rsm;u aqG;aEG;jcif;? jynfaxmifpktqifh tzGJUtpnf; 0ifjzpfaom b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;vSxe;u jyefvnf&i;vif;aqG;aEG;jcif;ESihf jynfoYl G f S f vTwfawmf tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm; aqmif&GufMu onf/ xkdYaemuf rwfv 24 &uf n 8 em&DcGJcefYu jrefrmEdkifiHta&SUykdif; wmcsDvdwf? wmava'oukd A[kjd yKí &pfcsfwmpau; 7 tqifxd ajrivsifvycwf h I f oGm;rIaMumifh xdcdkufqHk;½HI;rIrsm;twGuf vTwfawmfrS vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; 69
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    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG a&m*gjzpfyGm;jcif;aMumifh Muuf^bJrsm;tm; okwfoif &Si;vif;&onftcg arG;jrLa&;orm; Ediiom;vkyief; f h k f H f &Sifrsm; repfemap&eftwGuf avsmfaMu; okdYr[kwf axmufyHhaiGay;&efESifh jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;vkyfief; rsm;twGuf txl;acs;aiGxkwfacs;ay;&ef EdkifiHawmf tpkd;&tm; wdkufwGef;aMumif;tqkdrsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u aqG;aEG; jcif;? jynfaxmifptqifh tzGUJ tpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom k tvkyorm;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;atmifMunfEihf arG;jrL f S a&;ESihf a&vkyief;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;armifarmifor; f d f wdkYu jyefvnf&Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh jynfaxmifpk vTwawmf tqH;k tjzwf&,ljcif;rsm;aqmif&uMf uonf/ f G xkdYaemuf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,uu tmqD,HygvDreftrwfrsm; nDvmcHokdY jynfaxmifpk vTwfawmfu wif;jynfhtzGJU0iftjzpfyg0if&ef jynf axmif p k v T w f a wmf oabmxm;uk d &,l o nf / vT w f a wmf u oabmwl n D o nf h t wG u f tmqD , H ygvDreftrwfrsm;nDvmcHoYdk wif;jynftzGUJ 0iftjzpfyg h 0if&ef jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfu oabmwlaMumif; aMunmonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 17 &uf ajrmufaeYukd rwfv 29 &ufu jynfaxmifpvwawmfcef;rüusi;yonf/ k T f f tpnf ; ta0;wG i f jynf a xmif p k v T w f a wmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u ar;jref;xm;onfhar;cGef;rsm; teuf Mu,fyGifhjyar;cGef;rsm;jzpfaom rEÅav;wkdif; a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (11)rS OD;pkd;atmif awmiforsm;pkuysKd;onfo;ESrsm;twGuf yk;owfaq; l d f h D H d oHk;pGJrIESifh pyfvsOf;onfhar;cGef;? &GmiHrJqE´e,frS OD;atmifodef; &yfuGuf okdYr[kwf aus;&Gmtkyfpk tkyfcsKyfa&;twGuf Oya'ESifhtnD cefYtyfwm0ef ay;a&;ESifhpyfvsOf;onfhar;cGef;? r,fpJhrJqE´e,frS OD;ausmci0if; r,fpNhJ rKdUe,fwif Ediiawmfrw&m;0if f dk f G k f H S e,fpyfukefoG,fa&;pcef; zGifhvSpfay;a&;ESifh pyfvsOf; onfar;cGe;? weoFm&Dwi;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf h f dk f (8) rS OD;usm;armif Nrdwfc½kdif armawmifa'owGif e,fpyfueo,a&;pcef; zGivpay;a&;ESipyfvsO;onfh kf G f hf S f hf f ar;cGef;? &Srf;jynfe,frJqE´e,ftrSwf (11)rS OD;qkdif aygif;eyf [dyefa'ovrf;yef;qufo,raumif;rGef h k G f I a&;ESihf pyfvsOf;onfar;cGe;ESihf ]0}a'ozGUH NzKd; wk;wuf h f d a&;ESifhpyfvsOf;onfhar;cGef;rsm;udk jynfaxmifpktqifh tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;ESifh qnfajrmif; 0efBuD;Xme0efBuD; OD;aX;OD;? jynfxJa&; 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;armifOD;? pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ul;oef; a&mif;0,fa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;wifEdkifodef;? aqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;cifarmifjrifhESifh jynfolYvTwfawmf tpnf;ta0;usif;ypOf 71
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG e,fpyfa'oESihf wki;&if;om;vlrsK;rsm; zGUH NzK;wd;wufa&; df d d k ESihf pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;ode;ñGeYfwYkd f u jyefvnfajzMum;Muonf/ {&m0wDwdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (4)rS OD;ñGeYf vi jrefrmhv,f,mzGUH NzKd;a&;bPfrS xkway; dI f f aom pkuysKd;p&dwEihf pyfvsOf;onfar;cGe;ukd ar;jref; d f f S h f &efjzpfaomfvnf; um,uH&Sifukd,fwkdifu tqkdyg ar;cGef;onf rwfv 22 &ufu usif;ycJhonfh jynfolY vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;wGif ykZGefawmifrJqE´e,frS OD;atmifZifar;jref;cJhonfh ar;cGef;ESifhwpfoabm wnf;jzpfNyD; taMumif;t&mrsm;ukd v,f,mpkuysK;a&; d f d ESifh qnfajrmif;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;u jynfhpHkpGm jyefvnf&Sif;vif;ajzMum;cJhNyD;jzpfojzifh ar;cGef;ukd jyefvnf ½kyfodrf;onf/ xkYd aemuf Ediiawmfor®wESihf 'kw,or®wrsm; k f H d xHokdY EdkifiHwumrSay;ydkYonfh 0rf;ajrmufaMumif; o0PfvTmrsm;ukd jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfokdYwifjyNyD; rSwfwrf;wifEdkifa&;twGuf qE´&,l&m vTwfawmfu oabmwlonfhtwGuf tqkdygo0PfvTmrsm;ukd jynf axmifpvwawmfu oabmwlaMumif;aMunmonf/ k T f qufvufí jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfokdY jynf axmifpkBuHhckdif a&;ESifh zGHUNzKd;a&;ygwDrSay;ykdYonfh *kPf,l0rf;ajrmufaMumif;o0PfvTmukd zwfMum; wifjyNyD; rSwfwrf;wifEdkifa&;twGuf qE´&,l&m vTwfawmfuoabmwlonfhtwGuf tqkdyg*kPf,l 0rf;ajrmufaMumif;o0Pfvmukd jynfaxmifpvwawmf T k T f u rSwfwrf;wifaMumif; aMunmonf/ xkYdaemuf &efuewi;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf k f kd f (4)rS a'gufwm jrwfÓPpdk;u vTwfawmfBuD;oHk;&yf ay:xGef;vmonfESifhtwl 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;wus a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufcH&onfh jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf em,u? 'kwd,em,u? jynfolYvTwfawmfOuú|? 'kwd,Ouú|wdkYu Oya'jyKa&;vkyfief;&yftwGuf OD;aqmifvrf;ñTeum wm0efxrf;aqmifaeMuonfudk f txl;yif0rf;ajrmufaMumif;tqkd? EdkifiHawmfor®wESifh 'kwd,or®wukd wnDwñGwfwnf; qE´jyKa&G;cs,f wifajr§mufchJNyD; EkdifiHawmftkyfcsKyfa&; vkyfief;rsm; twGuf jynfojl ynfom;taygif;tm; apmifa&Smufom; h G rnfukd txl;0rf;ajrmufaMumif;tqkdESifh jynfaxmifpk vT w f a wmf t pnf ; ta0; atmif j rif p G m usif ; y EkdifcJhjcif;ukd txl;yif0rf;omaMumif;tqkdrsm;ukd wifoGif;&m rSwfwrf;wifEkdifa&;twGuf jynfaxmifpk vTwfawmf tqHk;tjzwf&,lonf/ a'gufwm jrwfÓPpk;wifoi;onfh tqdo;Hk &yftay: vTwawmf d Gf k f u oabmwlonfhtwGuf tqkdrsm;tm; jynfaxmifpk vTwfawmfu rSwfwrf;wifaMumif; aMunmonf/ qufvufí [oFmwrJqE´e,frS OD;aX;OD;u EdkifiHawmf at;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzKd;a&;aumifpDukd txl;aus;Zl;wif &SaMumif;ESihf Ediiawmfor®wBuD;ESihf d k f H jynfaxmifpktpkd;& tzGJU0ifrsm; pGrf;aqmifrIjzifh at;csr;om,mNyD; acwfrzUHG NzK;wd;wufaom pnf;urf; f D d k jynf h 0 onf h ygwD p H k ' D r k d u a&pD E d k i f i H a wmf o pf B uD ; wnfaqmufom;Edionf[k ,HMk unfygaMumif; tqkudk G kf d wifoGif;&m rSwfwrf;wifEkdifa&;twGuf jynfaxmifpk vTwawmf tqH;tjzwf&,lonf/ OD;aX;OD;wifoi; f k G f onfhtqkdtay: vTwfawmfuoabmwlonfhtwGuf tqkdtm; jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfu rSwfwrf;wif aMumif; aMunmonf/ xkdYaemuf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,uu Oya'Murf;yl;aygif;a&;aumfrwD zGUJ pnf;a&;ESipyfvsO;í fh f jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf oabmwlnDcsufukd&,l onf/ vTwawmfuoabmwlonftwGuf Oya'Murf; f h yl;aygif;zGUJ pnf;onf/ xkdYaemuf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,uu jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm; pdppfa&; aumf r wD z G J U pnf ; wm0ef a y;tyf a &;ES i f h p yf v sOf ; í jynfaxmifpvwawmfoabmwlncsufudk &,lonf/ k T f D vTwfawmfuoabmwlonfhtwGuf jynfaxmifpk vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwDukd zGUJ pnf;wm0efay;tyfonf/ 72
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG yxrtBud r f jynfolYvTwfawmf? trsKd;om;vTwfawmfESihf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;rsm; yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;yxraeYukd Mo*kwfv 22 &uf eHeuf 10 em&DwGif aejynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmftaqmufttHk jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rüpwifusif;y&m jynfolY vTwfawmfOuú| ol&OD;a&Tref;u EIwfcGef;qufpum; ajymMum;onf/ xkYdaemuf yxryHretpnf;ta0;ESifh 'kw,yHref kSf d kS tpnf;ta0;Mum;umvtwGif; jynfolYvTwfawmf Ouú|ESifh vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm; aqmif&Guf csufrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;í jynfolYvTwfawmfokdY wifjyjcif; ESihf rSwwrf;wifjcif;wdYk udk aqmif&uonf/ f G f qufvufí yxryHkrSeftpnf;ta0;ü zGJUpnf; cJhaom vTwfawmfaumfrwDrsm;tjyif aumfrwDESifh aumfr&Sirsm; wk;csUJ zGUJ pnf;jcif;ESihf aumfrwDEihf aumfr&Sif f d S Ouú | rsm;uk d y g wpf y gwnf ; vsmxm;owf r S w f wm0efay;tyfjcif;wkYd udk aqmif&uonf/ G f yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef pnf;ta0; yxraeYukd Mo*kwfv 22 &ufwGif aejynf awmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü pwifusif;y&m trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú| OD;cifatmifjrifhu EIwfcGef; qufpum;ajymMum;onf/ xkYd aemuf vTwawmfaumfrwDrsm;ukd vTwawmf f f uk,pm;vS,rsm;jzifh umvowfrwí zGUJ pnf;Ekijf cif; d f f S f d owfrSwfcsufESifhtnD aumfrwDrsm;udk wkd;csJUzGJUpnf; onf/ xkdYaemuf jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJ aumfr&Sif Oya'ukd jyifqifonfhOya'Murf;tm; trsKd;om; vTwawmfu aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;&eftqkudk jynfaxmifpk f d a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&SiftzGJU0if OD;jrifhckdifu trsKd;om; vT w f a wmf o k d Y wif o G i f ; NyD ; vT w f a wmf oabm wlnDcsufukd &,lonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpvwawmf 'kw,yHref k T f d kS tpnf;ta0; yxraeYukd Mo*kwfv 22 &ufwGif aejynfawmf&Sd jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfcef;rüusif;y onf/ a&S;OD;pGmjynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrmEdkifiHawmf Ediiawmfor®w OD;ode;pdeu jynfaxmifpvwawmfoYdk kfH f f k T f rdefYcGef;ajymMum;onf/ xkdYaemuf EdkifiHawmfor®w rdeYfce;ukd jynfaxmifpvwawmfu rSwwrf;wifonf/ Gf k T f f qufvufí jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,u OD;cifatmifjrifhu EIwfcGef;qufpum;ajymMum;onf/ xkdYaemuf jynfaxmifpktpkd;&tzGJU b@ma&;ESifh tcGef0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;vSxGef;u 73
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG tjrwfceOya'ukd ½kyor;onfh Oya'Murf;? jrefrmEdiiH Gf f df kf wHqdyfacgif;tufOya'ukd jyifqifonfh Oya'Murf;? ukeo,vyief;cGeOya'ukd jyifqifonfh Oya'Murf;? f G f k f f 0ifaiG cGeOya'ukd jyifqifonfh Oya'Murf;? ½H;k cGeOya'ukd f f jyifqifonfh Oya'Murf;wkYdtm; jynfaxmifpk vTwawmf f ok d Y wif o G i f ; &m vT w f a wmf u k d , f p m;vS , f r sm;u axmufcHMuojzifh vTwfawmfu aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;&ef qH;jzwfonf/ k yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;'kwd,aeYukd Mo*kwfv 23 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwfawmfu,pm;vS,o;OD;wkYd dk f f kH ynmu@qkdif&m ar;cGef;av;ck? ukd,fpm;vS,f av;OD;wdkY vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;u@qdkif&m ar;cGef;ig;ckwdkYukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom qufvufí vomrJqE´e,frS OD;Munfjrifhu tqkEpcEihf A[ef;rJqE´e,frS a'gufwmarmifarmif0if; dSfkS u tqkdESpfckwkdYukd wifoGif;Muonf/ xkYdaemuf b@ma&;ESihf tcGe0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; f OD;vSxe;u jrefrmEkiitao;pm;aiGa&;aMu;a&;vkyief; Gf dfH f Oya'Murf;ukd jynfoYl vwawmfoYdkwifoi;&m tqdyg T f G f k Oya'Murf;ESipyfvsOf;í jynfoYl vwawmfOya'Murf; hf T f aumfrwD tpD&ifcpmukd aumfrwDtzGUJ 0if a'gufwm H pdk;rdk;atmifu zwfMum;&Sif;vif;onf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 'kwd,aeYukd Mo*kwfv 23 &ufwGif qufvufusi;y&m vTwawmfu,pm;vS,EpO;wdYk f f dk f fSfD ar;cGef;ESpfckukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom a'gufwmazoufcifEihf OD;0if;xGe;f wdYu ajzMum;Muonf/ S k vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpnf;ta0;wufa&mufpOf a'gufwmjrat;ESifh OD;cifatmifjrifhwkdYukd ajymMum;Mu onf/ xkdYaemuf jynfolYvTwfawmf jynfolYaiGpm&if; aumfrwD tpD&ifcHpmukd aumfrwDtwGif;a&;rSL; OD;armifw;uvnf;aumif;? jynfoYlvwawmftpk;& dk T f d tmrcHcsufrsm;? uwdrsm;ESifh wm0efcHrsm; pdppfa&; aumfrwD tpD&ifcpmukd aumfrwDOuú| OD;0if;pdeu H f vnf;aumif; wifjyonf/ xkdYaemuf ppfukdif;wkdif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (6)rS OD;xGef;jrifhu tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&m vTwawmfu tqkudk vufcaqG;aEG;&ef qH;jzwfonf/ f d H k qufvufí &efukefwkdif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (11)rS OD;wif,ku vTwfawmf½Hk; Oya'Murf;ukd vnf;aumif;? jynfaxmifpk tpkd;&tzGJUukd,fpm; ynma&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; a'gufwm jrat;u ukd,fykdifausmif;rSwfyHkwifOya'Murf;ukd 74
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG vnf;aumif; aqG;aEG;pnf;a0;&ef tqkwifoi;MuNyD; d G f Oya'Murf;rsm;udk zwfMum;Muonf/ tqdkyg Oya' Murf;rsm;ukd aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;&ef vTwawmfu oabmwl f onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;wwd,aeYukd Mo*kwfv 24 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f 11 OD;wdkYar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpf Muaom 'kwd,AkdvfcsKyfBuD;odef;aX;? OD;atmifrif;? OD;ÓPfxGef;atmif? OD;cifarmifjrifh? OD;vSxGef;ESifh a'gufwmjrat;? jynfaxmifpka&SUaecsKyf a'gufwm xGef;&SifwdkYu ajzMum;Muonf/ xkYd aemuf Mo*kwv 23 &ufu wifjycJaom f h jynfoYlvwawmftpk;& tmrcHcsursm;? uwdrsm;ESihf T f d f wm0efcHcsufrsm; pdppfa&;aumfrwD tpD&ifcHpmukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fajcmufOD;u aqG;aEG;MuNyD; tqdkyg tpD&ifcHpmukd aumfrwDOuú| OD;0if;pdefu tqdkwifoGif;&m vTwfawmfu twnfjyKonf/ qufvufí Mo*kwfv 23 &ufu wifoGif;cJh onfh vomrJqE´e,frS OD;Munfjrif tqkEpcudk h d S f k vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fajcmufOD;u aqG;aEG;MuNyD; b@ma&;ESifh tcGef0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;vSxGef;u &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ xkdYaemuf tqkd&Sif OD;Munfjrifhu tqkdrsm;ukd jyefvnf½kyfodrf;vkdaMumif;wifjy&m vTwfawmfu oabmwlaMumif; twnfjyKqH;jzwfonf/ k qufvufí Mo*kwfv 23 &ufu wifoGif;cJh onfh A[ef;rJqE´e,frS a'gufwmarmifarmif0ifh tqdkESpfckukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fajcmufOD;u aqG;aEG;MuNyD; usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk 0efBuD; a'gufwmazoufcifu &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ f xkdYaemuf tqkd&Sif a'gufwmarmifarmif0ifh tqkdrsm;ukd vTwfawmfu oabmwlaMumif;twnfjyK qH;jzwfonf/ k quf v uf í awmif O uú v myrJ q E´ e ,f r S OD ; atmif o d e f ; vif ; ES i f h oCF e f ; uRef ; rJ q E´ e ,f r S OD;odef;ñGefYwkdYu tqkdwpfckpDwifoGif;Mu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;wwd,aeYukd Mo*kwfv 24 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|u 'kwd,yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;yxraeYu EkdifiHawmfor®w ajymMum;cJhonfhrdefYcGef;ESihfpyfvsOf;í aqG;aEG;vkdygu trnf pm&if;wifoGif;EkdifaMumif; aMunmonf/ xkYd aemuf vTwawmfu,pm;vS,av;OD;wdYk f dk f f ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;cifarmifp;ESihf OD;0if;xGe;wdYk u ajzMum;Muonf/ dk f qufvufí &efukefwkdif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (8)rS a'gufwmjrifMh unf? rEÅav;wdi;a'oBuD; k f rJqE´e,f trSwf (2)rS OD;0if;armif? yJc;wdi;a'oBuD; l k f rJqE´e,f trSwf (9)rS a'gufwmjrOD;wkYdu tqkav;ck d ukd wifoGif;Muonf/ tqkdrsm;ukd vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwlonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;pwkw¬aeYukd Mo*kwfv 25 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwawmfu,pm;vS,ajcmufO; f dk f f D wdYkar;cGe;ckepfcukd jynfaxmifp0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom f k k OD;ausmfqef;ESihf 'kw,AkvcsKyfBuD;ukuwYdk u ajzMum; d d f d dk Muonf/ xkYd aemuf Mo*kwv 24 &ufu wifoi;cJonfh f G f h oCFef;uRef; rJqE´e,frS OD;odef;ñGefYtqdkukd vT w f a wmf u k d , f p m;vS , f o H k ; OD ; u aqG ; aEG ; MuNyD ; jynfaxmifpka&SUaecsKyf a'gufwmxGef;&Sifu &Sif;vif; aqG;aEG;onf/ qufvufí OD;odef;ñGefYtqkdESifhpyfvsOf;í vTwfawmf tqHk;tjzwf&,l&m uefYuGufonfh ukd,fpm;vS,fOD;a&u rsm;onfhtwGuf vTwfawmfu twnfrjyKaMumif;qH;jzwfonf/ k xkYd aemuf OD;ode;ñGeYf u tqkEpcudk wifoi; f d S f k G f &m vTwfawmfu vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef qHk;jzwfonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; pwkw¬aeYukd Mo*kwfv 25 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fokH;OD; 75
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG ar;cGef;oHk;ckukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;wifqef;ESihf OD;ÓPfxe;atmifwYdu ajzMum;Muonf/ h Gf k xkdYaemuf yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf 'kwd,tBudrf yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;yxraeYu EkdifiHawmf or®wajymMum;cJonfreYf ce;ESipyfvsOf;í vTwawmf h h d G f fh f ukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u axmufcHaqG;aEG;onf/ qufvufí Mo*kwfv 24 u vTwfawmf uk,pm;vS,f a'gufwmjrifMh unfwifoi;f xm;onftqkd d f G h ukd vTwawmfu,pm;vS,o;OD;wkYd u aqG;aEG; MuNyD; f dk f f kH tqkukd vTwawmfu twnfjyKaMumif;aMunmonf/ d f xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 24 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;0if;arifwifoGif;xm;onfhtqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,foHk;OD;wkdYu aqG;aEG;MuNyD; tqkudk vTwawmfu twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ d f qufvufí Mo*kwfv 24 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f a'gufwmjrOD;wifoGif;xm;onfh tqkd ESpfckukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,foHk;OD;wkdYu aqG;aEG; MuNyD; vTwfawmfutwnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ xkdYaemuf &Srf;jynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf(8)rS OD;½Iarmif? rGef jynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (1)rS a':&D&Djrifh? ucsifjynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSwf (1)rS OD;cufxeeefwYku tqkwpfcpwifoi;Mu&m vTwawmf df d d kD Gf f uk,pm;vS,wpfO;pDu axmufconftwGuf tqkrsm; d f f D H h d ukd vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwlonf/ qufvufí vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f a':&D&jD rifh f dk f u tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&m qufoG,fa&;?pmwdkufESifh aMu;eef;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifp0efBuD; OD;ode;xGe;u k f f &S i f ; vif ; aqG ; aEG ; NyD ; tqk d u k d vuf c H a qG ; aEG ; &ef vTwfawmfu oabmwlonf/ xkdYaemuf jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif tzGJU0if OD;jrifhckdifu trsKd;om;vTwfawmfa&G;aumufyGJ Oya'ukd jyifqifonfhOya'Murf;ESifh wkdif;a'oBuD; vTwawmf okYd r[kwf jynfe,fvwawmf a&G;aumuf f T f yGJOya'ukd jyifqifonfhOya'Murf;wkdYukd wifoGif;&m tqk d y g Oya'Murf ; rsm;tm; aqG ; aEG ; pOf ; pm;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwlonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;yOöraeYukd Mo*kwfv 26 &ufwGif quf vufusi;y&m vTwawmfu,pm;vS,EpO;ar;cGe; f f dk f f S f D f ckepfcudk jynfaxmifp0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;oef;aX;? k k OD;atmifMunf? OD;0if;jrif?h OD;cif&?D a'gufwmazoufcif ESifh jynfaxmifpkw&m;olBuD;csKyf OD;xGef;xGef;OD;wkdYu ajzMum;Mu onf/ xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 23 &ufu wifjycJhaom jynfoYl aiGpm&if; aumfrwDtpD&ifcpmukd vTwawmf H f uk d , f p m;vS , f a v;OD ; u aqG ; aEG ; MuNyD ; tqk d y g tpD&ifcpmukd aumfrwDOuú| OD;ol&eaZmfu tqkwif H d f d oGif;&m vTwfawmfu twnfjyKonf/ qufvufí jynfolYvTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f rsm;ESifh wyfrawmfom; jynfolYvTwfawmfukd,fpm; vS,frsm;u taxGaxGvGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh xkwfjyef cGijhf yKay;&ef wifjyMuonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; yOöraeYukd Mo*kwfv 26 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fckepfOD; wkYd ar;cGe;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifp0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom f k OD;0if;xGef;? OD;ÓPfxGef;atmifESihf a'gufwmjrat; wkdYu ajzMum;Muonf/ xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 25 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;½IarmifwifoGif;onfhtqkdukd vTwf awmfukd,fpm;vS,foHk;OD;u aqG;aEG;MuNyD; tqdkukd vTwfawmfu twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ qufvufí Mo*kwfv 25 &ufu vTwf awmfu,pm;vS,f a':&D&jD rifwifoi;onfh yxrtqkd dk f h Gf ukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u aqG;aEG;onf/ xkdYaemuf tqdkESifhpyfvsOf;í pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,f a&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifp0efBuD; k OD;0if;jrifu &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;NyD; tqdudk vTwawmfu h f k f twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ qufvufí a':&D&jD rifwifoi;onfh 'kw, h G f d tqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u aqG;aEG; onf/ 76
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG xkdYaemuf tqdkESifhpyfvsOf;í qufoG,fa&;? pmwkdufESifh aMu;eef;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;ode;xGe;u &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;NyD; tqkudk vTwawmf f f f d f u twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ qufvufí Mo*kwfv 25 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;cufxdefeefwifoGif;onfhtqkdukd vTwawmfu,pm;vS,EpO;wdYk u aqG;aEG;Muonf/ f dk f f S f D xkYdaemuf tqdEipyfvsO;f í owåKwi;f 0efBu;D Xme k S hf G jynfaxmifpk 0efBuD; OD;ode;xkuu &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;NyD; f d f f tqkudk vTwawmfu twnfjyKaMumif;aMunmonf/ d f qufvufí &Sr;jynfe,f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (8)rS f OD;½Iarmifu tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&mtqkdukd vufcH aqG;aEG;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwlonf/ xkdYaemuf {&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (6)rS OD;cifarmif&Du tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&m tqkEipyfvsO;í ykYdaqmifa&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk d S hf f 0efBuD; OD;ÓPfxGef;atmifu &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;NyD; tqkdukd vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwl onf/ qufvufí ppfukdif;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (9)rS OD;odef;0if;u tqdkwpfckwifoGif;&m tqkdukd vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwl onf/ xkYdaemuf &efuewi;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf k f dk f (9)rS a'gufwmcifa&Tu tqkwpfcwifoi;&m tqkudk d k Gf d vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwlonf/ qufvufí jynfaxmifpktpkd;&tzGJUukd,fpm; tvk y f o rm;0ef B uD ; Xme jynf a xmif p k 0 ef B uD ; OD;atmifMunfu tvkyform;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; Oya' Murf;ukdwifoGif;&m tqkdyg Oya'Murf;tm; aqG;aEG; pOf;pm;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwlonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; q|raeYukd Mo*kwfv 29 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f 10 OD;ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMu aom a'gufwmazoufcif? OD;vSxGef;? 'kwd, AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ukdukd? OD;wifhqef;ESifh jynfaxmifpka&G; aumufyGJaumfr&SiftzGJU0if OD;jrifhckdifwdkYu ajzMum;Mu onf/ xkdYaemuf vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 23 OD;u pkaygif;vufrSwfa&;xkd;í Mo*kwfv 8 &ufjzifh xkwfjyefcJhonfh jynfolYukd,fpm;vS,frsm;? wkdif;&if; trsKd;om;vTwfawmf tpnf;ta0;usif;ypOf 77
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG om;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; Nidrf;csrf;a&;vkdvm;olrsm; twGuf tdwfzGifhay;pmtm; jynfolYvTwfawmf Oya' Murf;aumfrwD tzGUJ 0ifO;pwDrefu vTwawmfoYdwifjy&m D f k vTwawmfuoabmwlonfhtwGuf rSwfwrf;wifjcif; f aqmif&uonf/ G f qufvufí Mo*kwfv 25 &ufu wifoGif;cJh aom vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f OD;ode;ñGeYftqkonf f dk f f d qufvufaqmif&u&ef rvkawmhaomtqkjd zpfaMumif; G f d vTwfawmfu oabmwlqHk;jzwfonf/ qufvufí Mo*kwfv 23 &ufu wifoGif;cJh aom b@ma&;ESihf tcGe0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifp0efBuD; f k OD;vSxGef;tqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fESpfOD;u axmufcHaqG;aEG;MuNyD; vTwfawmfu oabmwlonfh twGuf twnfjyKaMumif; qHk;jzwfonf/ xkYdaemuf oCFe;uRe;rJqE´e,frS OD;ode;ñGeYfu f f f tqkwpfck wifoi;&m vTwawmfu vufcaqG;aEG;&ef d G f f H qH;jzwfonf/ k qufvufí jynfxa&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk J 0efBuD; 'kw, AkvcsKyfBuD;ukuu &yfuuf okYd r[kwf d d f d dk G aus;&Gmtkyfpk tkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'Murf;ukd vTwfawmfodkY wifoGif;&m tqkdygOya'Murf;ESifhpyfvsOf;í jynfolY vTwfawmf Oya'Murf;aumfrwD tpD&ifcHpmukd aumfrwD Ouú| OD;wDcejf rwfu zwfMum;&Si;vif;onf/ G f xkdYaemuf tqdkyg Oya'Murf;ESifhpyfvsOf;í oufqkdif&m0efBuD;Xmeu jyefvnfa&;qGJwifjy&ef vTwfawmfOuú|u qHk;jzwfonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;q|raeYukd Mo*kwfv 29 &ufwGif quf v uf u sif ; y&m vT w f a wmf uk d , f p m;vS , f ajcmufO;ar;cGe;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifp0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMu D f k aom OD;0if;jrif?h OD;wifEioe;? OD;cif&Eihf jynfaxmifpk dk f d f D S w&m;olBuD; csKyf OD;xGe;xGe;OD;wdYku ajzMum;Muonf/ f f xkdYaemuf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOya'Murf; aumfrwD Ouú| OD;jrndr;u jynfaxmifpa&G;aumufyJG f k aumfr&Sif Oya'ukd jyifqifonfh Oya'Murf;tay: trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOya'Murf;aumfrwD pdppfcsuf tpD&ifcpmtm;wifjyNyD; Oya'rlMurf;ESipyfvsOf;onfh H hf vuf&jdS y|mef;csu?f jyifqifrnfjh y|mef;csuEihf trsK;om; fS d vTwfawmf Oya'Murf;aumfrwD pdppftBuHjyKcsuf wkdYukd zwfMum;onf/ qufvufí tqkygOya'Murf;ukd twnfjyK&ef d jynfaxmifpa&G;aumufyaumfr&SitzGUJ 0if OD;atmifjrifh k JG f u tqkwifoi;&m vTwawmfu,pm;vS,wpfO;u d G f f dk f f D axmufconf/ H xkdYaemuf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOuú|u vTwf awmf tqH;tjzwfu&,l&m Oya'Murf;aumfrwD k dk pdppfwifjycsufrsm;twkdif; Oya'Murf;ukd twnfjyK aMumif; vTwfawmfu qHk;jzwfonf/ qufvufí trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOya'Murf; aumfrwD twGif;a&;rSL; OD;pHxGef;u tvkyform;tzGJU tpnf;Oya'Murf;ESipyfvsO;í Oya'Murf;aumfrwD hf f tpD&ifcpmukd zwfMum;&Si;vif;NyD; tvkyorm;0efBuD; H f f Xme jynfaxmifp0efBuD; OD;atmifMunfu tqkyg Oya' k d Murf;uktwnfjyK&ef tqdwifoi;&mtqkudk vTwawmf d k Gf d f uk,pm;vS,wpfOD;u axmufcHonf/ d f f xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 26 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;½IarmifwifoGif;xm;onfhtqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fig;OD;u aqG;aEG;Muonf/ qufvufí tqdkESifhpyfvsOf;í opfawm a&;&m0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;0if;xGef;u &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ f xkdYaemuf tqkdukd vTwfawmfu twnfjyK aMumif; aMunmonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; owåraeYukd Mo*kwfv 30 &ufwGif qufvufusi;y&m vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f ckepfO; f f dk f D ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;atmifrif;? OD;cifarmifjrifh? a'gufwmjrat;wdkYu ajzMum;Muonf/ xkYdaemuf Mo*kwv 30 &ufu wifoi;cJaom f G f h OD;ode;ñGeYf tqkudk vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f av;OD; f d f dk f u aqG;aEG;MuNyD; jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk 78
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG 0efBuD; 'kwd,AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ukdukdu &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG; onf/ qufvufí OD;odef;ñGefYtqkdESifhpyfvsOf;í tqH;tjzwf& ,l&m uefYuuonfu,pm;vS,O;D a&u k G f h dk f f rsm;onfhtwGuf vTwfawmfu twnfjyKaMumif; qH;jzwfonf/ k xkdYaemuf wGHaw;rJqE´e,frS OD;pkd;omESifh c&rf;rJqE´e,frS OD;armifarmifodrf;wdkYu tqdkwpfckpD wifoi;Muonf/ G f qufvufí ysO;rem;rJqE´e,frS OD;vSjrifO; f h D ar;cGe;udk jynfaxmifp&mxl;0eftzGUJ Ouú| OD;ausmou f k f l ajzMum;onf/ xkYdaemuf [oFmwrJqE´e,frS OD;aX;OD;u 2011 ckEpf v,f,majrOya'Murf;ukwifoi;&m vTwawmf S d G f f ukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u axmufcHaqG;aEG;onf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;owåraeYukd Mo*kwfv 30 &ufwGif qufvufusi;y&m vTwawmf uk,pm;vS,ajcmufO; f f d f f D ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMu aom OD;jrifvi?f OD;cifarmifp;? 'kw,AkvcsKyfBuD;ukuwYdk u h dI dk d d f d dk ajzMum;Muonf/ xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 29 &ufuwifoGif;xm; onfh vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f OD;cifarmif&Dtqdkukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u aqG;aEG;onf/ qufvufí tqdkESifhpyfvsOf;í ykdYaqmifa&; 0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;ÓPfxGef;atmifu &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ f xdkYaemuf Mo*kwfv 29 &ufu wifoGif;xm; onfh vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f OD;odef;0if;tqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u aqG;aEG;onf/ qufvufí tqkdESifhpyfvsOf;í b@ma&;ESifh tcGef0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;vSxGef;u &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;NyD; tqkdukd vTwfawmfu twnfjyK aMumif; aMunmonf/ xkdYaemuf ppfukdif;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (9) rS OD;odef;0if;? ucsifjynfe,frJqE´e,f trSwf (9) rS OD;xGef;vGifESifh rEÅav;wkdif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (3)rS OD;wifarmif0if;wkYdu tqkwpfcpD d k wifoGif;Mu&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f wpfOD;pDu axmufcaqG;aEG;MuNyD; tqkrsm;ukd vufcaqG;aEG;&ef H d H vTwfawmfu oabmwlaMumif; aMunmonf/ qufvufí ppfukdif;wkdif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf(9)rS OD;odef;0if;u tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&m v,f , mpk d u f y sKd ; a&;ES i f h qnf a jrmif ; 0ef B uD ; Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;jrifhvIdifu &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;NyD; tqkdukd vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwl aMumif; aMunmonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; t|raeYukd Mo*kwfv 31 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwawmf uk,pm;vS,u;OD; f d f f dk ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMu aom OD;jrifhvIdif? OD;cifarmifpkd;? OD;wifEkdifodef;wkdYu ajzMum;Muonf/ xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 30 &ufu wifoGif;xm;onfh wGHaw; rJqE´e,frS OD;pdk;om tqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fckepfOD;wkdYu aqG;aEG; Muonf/ qufvufí tqkdESifhpyfvsOf;í b@ma&;ESifh tcGe0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;OD;vSxe;u jyefvnf&i;vif; f Gf Sf aqG;aEG;onf/ xkdYaemuf OD;pdk;omtqkdukd vTwfawmfu oabmwlrSwfwrf; wif twnfjyKonf/ qufvufí xD;csKdifhrJqE´e,frS OD;pkd;pdk;ESifh csazGrqE´e,frS OD;ZH;wdeYfwYdku tqkwpfcpD wifoi;Mu D J k d k Gf onf/ xkYdaemuf jynfoYlvwawmf a&G;aumufyOya'ukd T f JG jyifqifonfh Oya'Murf;ukd jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJ aumfr&Sif tzGUJ 0if OD;jrifciu vTwawmfoYdkwifoi;&m h dk f f G f Oya'Murf;ESipyfvsOaf;í jynfoYlvwawmf Oya'Murf; hf T f aumfrwD pdppfawGU&SrI tpD&ifcpmukd aumfrwDtzGUJ 0if d H OD;odef;xGef;OD;u zwfMum;&Sif;vif;onf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; t|raeYudk Mo*kwv 31 &ufwif quf f G 79
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; usif;ypOf vufusif;y&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fckepfOD; ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom a'gufwmazoufcifEihf a'gufwmjrat;wkYdu ajzMum; S Muonf/ xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 30 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;odef;0if;wifoGif;xm;onfhtqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fav;OD;u aqG;aEG;Muonf/ qufvufí tqkdESifhpyfvsOf;í b@ma&;ESifh tcGe0efBuD;Xme 'kw,0efBuD; OD;0if;oef;u jyefvnf f d &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ f xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 30 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;xGef;vGifwifoGif;onfhtqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f 12 OD;u aqG;aEG;Muonf/ qufvufí OD;xGe;vGitqkudk vTwawmfu f f d f twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ xkdYaemuf rEÅav;wkdif;'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf(3)rS OD;wifarmif0if;u tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&m jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; 'kwd, AkvcsKyfBuD;ukuu &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ d f d dk f quf v uf í OD ; wif a rmif 0 if ; tqk d u k d jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;u &Sif;vif;NyD;jzpfojzifh tqkdukd ar;cGef;tjzpfajymif;vJNyD;tajzudk rSwfwrf;wifxm; rnfjzpfaMumif; vTwfawmfOuú|u aMunmonf/ xkdYaemuf ppfukdif;wkdif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf (9)rS OD;odef;0if;u tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&m trsKd;om;pDrHudef;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;zGHUNzKd;wdk;wufrI 0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifp0efBuD; OD;wifEioe;u tqkd k dk f d f ukd oabmwlaxmufcHaMumif; &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;NyD; tqkudk vTwawmfu vufcaqG;aEG;&ef qH;jzwfonf/ d f H k qufvufí yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,f trSwf(10)rS OD;jrifhxGef;u tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&m jynfaxmifpka&SUaecsKyf a'gufwmxGef;&Sifu jyefvnf aqG;aEG;NyD; vTwfawmfu vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef qHkjzwf onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;e0raeYukd pufwifbmv 1 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f&SpfOD; ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;jrifhvIdif? a'gufwmjrat;? OD;cif&DwdkYu jyefvnf ajzMum;Muonf/ xkYdaemuf Mo*kwv 31 &ufu csazGrqE´e,frS f D J OD;ZHk;wdefY wifoGif;onfhtqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm; vS,foHk;OD;u aqG;aEG;Muonf/ qufvufí OD;ZHk;wdefYtqdkESifhpyfvsOf;í v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;ESifh qnfajrmif;0efBuD;Xme jynf axmifp0efBuD; OD;jrifviu &Si;vif;aqG;aEG;onf/ k h dI f f xkdYaemuf OD;ZHk;wdefYtqdkukd vTwfawmfu oabmwlrSwfwrf;wif twnfjyKonf/ qufvufí v[,frJqE´e,frS OD;om;rlESifh wyfukef;rJqE´e,frS OD;armifOD;wkdYu tqdkwpfckpD wifoi;Muonf/ G f yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef 80
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG tpnf;ta0; e0raeYukd pufwifbm 1 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwfawmfu,pm;vS,&pO; dk f f S f D ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom 'kw,AkvcsKyfBuD;vSrif;? OD;cifarmifjrifwYkdu ajzMum; d d f h Muonf/ xkdYaemuf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOya'Murf; aumfrwDtzGJU0if a'gufwmjrwfÓPpdk;u trsKd;om; vTwfawmfa&G;aumufyGJOya'ukd jyifqifonfhOya' Murf;ESifh pyfvsOf;í Oya'Murf;aumfrwD tpD&if cHpmukd zwfMum;&Sif;vif;onf/ jynfaxmifpka&G; aumufyGJaumfr&SiftzGJU0if OD;jrifhckdifu tqkdyg Oya' Murf;ukd twnfjyK&ef tqkdwifoGif;&m vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u axmufcHNyD; Oya'Murf;ukd vTwfawmfu twnfjyKaMumif; qHk;jzwfonf/ qufvufí &Sr;jynfe,frqE´e,f trSwf (1)rS f J OD;ÓPfvif;u trsKd;om;vTwfawmfqkdif&m Oya' jyifqifonfhOya'Murf;ukd zwfMum;wifoGif;&m aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;&ef vTwfawmfu oabmwlonf/ xkdYaemuf Mo*kwfv 31 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;odef;0if;wifoGif;onfhtqkdukd vTwfawmfu twnfjyKaMumif; qHk;jzwfonf/ qufvufí Mo*kwfv 31 &ufu vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;jrifhxGef;wifoGif;onfhtqkdukd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fav;OD;u axmufcHaqG; aEG;onf/ xkdYaemuf 'kwd,a&SUaecsKyf OD;xGef;xGef;OD;u jyefvnf&i;vif;NyD; OD;jrifxe;tqkudk vTwawmfu S f h G f d f twnfjyKaMumif; aMunmonf/ qufvufí &Sr;jynfe,f rJqE´e,f trSw(9)rS f f OD;ae0if;xGef;ESifh yJcl;wdkif;a'oBuD; rJqE´e,ftrSwf (10)rS OD;jrifhxGef;wdkYu tqkdwpfckpD wifoGif;Mu&m vTwfawmfu vufcHaqG;aEG;&ef oabmwlonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 'oraeYukd pufwifbmv 2 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,foHk;OD; ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;vSxGef;? OD;wifEkdifodef;? OD;0if;jrifhwkdYu jyefvnf ajzMum;onf/ xkYdaemuf bl;oD;awmifrqE´e,frS OD;a&Tarmif(c) J OD;t'la&mfZufu tqkdwpfckwifoGif;&m vTwfawmfu vufcaqG;aEG;&ef qH;jzwfonf/ H k qufvufí vTwfawmfaumfrwDtzGJU0if jznfh wif;jcif;? aumf rwDw;csJUzGUJ pnf;jcif;? aumfrwDtrnf dk jznfpujf yifqifjcif;? aumfrwD 19 ckwiyg0ifonftzGUJ hG Gf h 0ifO;a&? trnfpm&if;? twGi;a&;rSL; trnfpm&if;? D f wm0ef? vkyfykdifcGifh? &ykdifcGifh? oufwrf;wdkYukd &Sif;vif; wifjyMuonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 'oraeYukd pufwifbmv 2 &ufwGif qufvufusif;y&m vTwawmfu,pm;vS,cepfO; f dk f f k D ar;cGef;rsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom 'kwd,AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ukdukd? OD;ausmfqef;? OD;jrifhvIdif? OD;wifEioe;wdYk u &Si;vif;ajzMum;Muonf/ dk f d f f xdkYaemuf trsKd;om;vTwfawmfOya'Murf; aumfrwDtzGJU0if OD;aZmfjrifhazu ukd,fykdifausmif; rS w f y H k w if O ya'Murf ; ES i h f p yf v sOf ; í Oya'Murf ; aumfrwD tpD&ifcHpmukd zwfMum;&Sif;vif;&m vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fav;OD;u axmufcHaqG;aEG; MuNyD ; Oya'Murf ; aumf r wD u xyf r H M um;em&ef qH;jzwfonf/ k qufvufí trsKd;om;vTwfawmf Oya'Murf; aumf r wD t zG J U 0if a':eef ; eD e D a t;u trsKd ; om; vTwawmf½; Oya'Murf;ESipyfvsO;í Oya'Murf;aumf f kH hf f rwDtpD&ifcHpmukd zwfMum;&Sif;vif;&m vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u twnfjyK&ef tqkdwifoGif;í vTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;u axmufcHojzifh Oya'Murf;ukd vTwawmfu twnfjyKaMumif; qH;jzwf f k onf/ ee3yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpvwawmf 'kw, k T f d yHkrSeftpnf;ta0; 'kwd,aeYukd pufwifbmv 5 &ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvuf usif;yonf/ xkdtpnf;ta0;wGif jynfaxmifpk 81
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0;wifoGif;cJhaom Oya'Murf; 5 cktm; twnfjyKNyD; opfawma&;&m 0efBuD;Xmetm; ywf0ef;usixe;odr;a&;ESihf opfawm f d f f a&;&m0efBuD;Xme[k ajymif;vJowfrwonf/ S f yxrtBudrfjynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 12 &ufajrmufaeYukd pufwifbmv 12 &ufwif aejynfawmf&dS jynfoYlvwawmfcef;rüusi;y G T f f onf/ xkdtpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; 10 ckar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;? jynfoYl vwawmf? tqkEpcaqG;aEG;jcif; T f d S f k ESifh tqkd topf 3 ckwifoGif;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&Guf onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (12) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ xkdtpnf;ta0;ü vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f 4 OD; wdkYu aqmufvkyfa&;qkdif&mar;cGef;rsm;ukd ar;jref;Mu&m aqmuf v k y f a &;0ef B uD ; Xme jynf a xmif p k 0 ef B uD ; OD;cifarmifjrifu jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ h yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (14) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfoYlvwawmfcef;rü usi;yonf/ xktpnf;ta0;ü T f f d ar;cGef; (9)ckar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;? Oya' Murf;wpfck wifoGif;jcif;? tqkdESpfckaqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh tqkopfwpfctm; rSwwrf;wifay;Ediyg&ef wifjyjcif; d k f kf wkdYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (13)&ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzqkdjcif; rsm;ukd aqmif&Gufonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 14 &ufajrmufaeYukd pufwifbmv 8 &ufaeYwGif aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; 7 ck ar;jref;jcif;ESifhajzMum;jcif;? tqkdtopfESpfckwif oGif;jcif;? tqkd 1 ck aqG;aEG;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; 14 &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGe;rsm;ar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum;jcif; f rsm;ukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 15 &ufajrmufaeYudk aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (9)ckar;jref;jcif;? ajzMum;jcif;? tqdkwpfck aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh tqkdtopf 2 ckwifoGif;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; 15 &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;okdY wufa&mufvmMuaom vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; 82
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG NrKd U awmf c ef ; rüusif ; yonf / tpnf ; ta0;wG i f vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f 4 OD;wdYku ar;jref;jcif;ESihf ouf f dk f qkdif&m0efBuD;wdkYu ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 16 &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü tqdwpfcudk *kPjf yKrSwwrf;wifjcif;? k k f ar;cGef; (9)ckar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;? tqkd 2 ckar;jref;jcif;ESifh tqkdopfESpfck ajzMum;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ tqkd 1 ck *kPfjyKrSwfwrf; wifjcif;rSm &Srf;jynfe,ftpdk;&tzGJUESifh ]0} txl;a'o 2 rS tzGUJ rsm;? &Sr;jynfe,ftpk;&tzGUJ ESihf rki;vm;txl; f d d f a'o 4 rS tzGJUrsm; yPmrNidrf;csrf;a&; oabmwlnD csuf r sm;&&S d í ouf q k d i f & me,f a jra'orsm;ES i f h qufpyfe,fajrrsm; wnfNidrfat;csrf;a&;ESifh zGHUNzKd; wd;wufa&;rsm; yl;aygif;aqmif&u&eftwGuf yPmr k G f oabmwlnDcsufrsm;udk vufrSwfa&;xkd;EkdifcJhjcif;jzpf onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; 16 &ufajrmufaeYukd pufwifbmv 11 &ufaeYwGif aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmf cef;rüusi;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif vTwawmf uk,f f f d pm;vS,f 4 OD;wdkYu usef;rma&;u@qkdif&m ar;cGef; rsm;uk d ar;jref ; Mu&m usef ; rma&;0ef B uD ; Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; a'gufwmazoufcifu jyefvnf ajzMum;onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 18 &ufajrmufaeYukd pufwifbmv 14 &ufaeYwGif aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (7) ck ar;jref;jcif;ESiajzMum;jcif;? tqkd (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;ESihf hf Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;wkdYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; 18 &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsK;om;vTwawmfcef;rü usi;yonf/ tpnf;ta0; d f f ü vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f 2 OD;wdYku odyEihf enf;ynm f dk f HÜ S qdkif&mar;cGef;rsm;ukdar;jref;Mu&m odyÜHESifhenf;ynm 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;at;jrifhu ajzMum;onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfoYl vwawmf 'kw,yHref T f d k S tpnf;ta0; (19) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rüusif;y&m jynfoYl vwawmf T f Ouú| ol&OD;a&Tref;ESihf jynfoYl vwawmfu,pm;vS,f T f dk f 385 OD; wufa&mufonf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; 19 &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f (5)OD;wdYku v,f,mu@qki&mar;cGe;rsm;ukd ar;jref; d f f Mu&m v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;ESifh qnfajrmif;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;jrifhvIdifu jyefvnfajzMum; onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (20) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGe;ajcmufck ar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum; f jcif;? tqdkwpfck aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh Oya'Murf;wpfck twnfjyKjcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (20)&ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f oH;OD;wdYk u f dk f k vQyppfu@qki&mar;cGe;rsm;ukd ar;jref;Mu&m trSwf f d f f (2) vQyfppfpGrf;tm;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;cifarmifp;u jyefvnf ajzMum;onf/ dk yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (21) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvuf usif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGe;ajcmufcar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum; f k jcif;? tqkdtopfESpfckwifoGif;jcif;ESifh ,refaeYu aqG;aEG;twnfjyKcJhaomOya'Murf;udk qufvuf 83
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG twnfjyKjcif;rsm;tm; aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd, yHretpnf;ta0; (21)&ufajrmufaeYudk aejynfawmf&dS k S f trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u ar;jref;jcif; rsm;ukd oufqi&mjynfaxmifp0efBuD;rsm;u jyefvnf dk f k ajzMum;onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (22)&ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGe; (6) ckar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum; f jcif;? Oya'Murf; (1)ckwifoGif;jcif;? tqdk (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh tqkdtopf (1) wifoGif;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&uMf uonf/ G yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd, yHretpnf;ta0; (22)&ufajrmufaeYudk aejynfawmf&dS k S f trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ tpnf; ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd quf vufaqmif&uonf/ G f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (23) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGe; (6)ckar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum; f jcif;? Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;? tqkd (2)ckaqG; aEG;jcif;ESihf tqktopf (2)ck wifoi;jcif;wdYkudk aqmif d G f &GuMf uonf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (23)&ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGef;rsm;ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajz Mum;jcif;rsm;ukd qufvufaqmif&Gufonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (24) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGe; (7)ckar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum;jcif;? f tqdk (1)ckaqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh tqkdtopf (2)ck wifoGif; jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd,yHk rSeftpnf;ta0; (24)&ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd qufvufusif;yonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (25) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (6)ck ar;jref;jcif;ESifhajzMum; jcif;? tqkd (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;? Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;ESihf Oya'Murf; (1) ck wifoi;jcif;wdYk udk G f aqmif&uMf uonf/ G yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (25)&ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd qufvufaqmif&uMf uonf/ G yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (26) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (7)ck ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum; jcif;? tqkd (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;? tqkdtopf (1) ck wifoGif;jcif;? tqdktopf (1)ck rSwfwrf;wifjcif;ESifh Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (26)&ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd qufvufjyKvkyonf/ f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (27) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (5)ck ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum; jcif;? tqdk (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh ,refaeYu aqG;aEG; 84
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG twnfjyKcaom Oya'Murf;ukd qufvuftwnfjyKjcif; hJ rsm;tm; aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf 'kwd, yHretpnf;ta0; (28) &ufajrmufaeYudk aejynfawmf&dS k S f jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (7)ck ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum; jcif;? tqdk (1) ck aqG;aEG;jcif;? vTwfawmfqdkif&m aumfrwD (2)ck trnfjznfhpGufjyifqifjcif;? tqdk topf (2)ckwifoGif;jcif;ESifh Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd, yHretpnf;ta0; (27) &ufajrmufaeYudk aejynfawmf&dS k S f trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd qufvufjyKvkyonf/ f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (29) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü EkdifiHawmfor®wo0PfvTmtm; rSwwrf;wiftwnfjyKjcif;? ar;cGe; (9)ck ar;jref;jcif;ESihf f f ajzMum;jcif;? tqkdtopf (1)ck wifoGif;jcif;? ta&; BuD;tqkwpfck twnfjyK axmufcrwwrf;wifjcif;ESihf d H S f tqkd (2)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&Guf Muonf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (27) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif jynfaxmifpor®w jrefrm Ediiawmf k k f H Ediiawmfor®w OD;ode;pdeu trsK;om;vTwawmfOuú| kfH f f d f xHoYdk pufwifbmv (29) &ufpjJG zifay;ykYdaom o0Pfvm h T ukd trsK;om; vTwfawmfOuú|uzwfMum;um ar;jref; d jcif;ESiajzqkjd cif;rsm;ukd qufvufaqmif&uonf/ hf G f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (30) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (6)ck ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum; jcif;ESifh Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;wdkYukd aqmif &GuMf uonf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (29)&ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd qufvufaqmif&uonf/ G f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (31) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvuf usif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGe; (9)ckar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum; f jcif;ESihf tqktopf (1)ck wifoi;jcif;wdYkudk aqmif&uf d Gf G Muonf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (30) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd qufvufaqmif&uonf/ G f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (32) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGe; (12)ck ar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum; f jcif;? tqkd(1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh tqkdtopf (1) ck wifoi;jcif;wdYk udk aqmif&uMf uonf/ G f G yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (31) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f (3)OD;wkYd u f dk f use;rma&;qki&mu@rsm;ukd ar;jref;Mu&m use;rma&; f df f 0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifp0efBuD; a'gufwmazoufcifu k jyefvnf ajzMum;Muonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (32) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGe; (12)ck ar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum; f jcif;? tqkd (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;wkYdudk aqmif&uMf uonf/ G yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf 'kwd, 85
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG yHretpnf;ta0; (32) &ufajrmufaeYudk aejynfawmf&dS k S f trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f (2)OD;wdkYu &xm;ykdYaqmifa&;qkdif&m ar;cGef;rsm;ukdar;jref;Mu&m &xm;ykdYaqmifa&;0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD; ol& OD;aomif;vGiu jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (34) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü Mo*kwf (29)&ufaeYu aqG;aEG;twnf jyKcJhNyD; trsKd;om;vTwfawmfokdYay;ykdYxm;onfh jrefrm Ekiiawmf tao;pm;aiGa&;aMu;a&;vkyief; Oya'Murf; dfH f ukd atmufwdkbmv (5)&ufwGif trsKd;om;vTwfawmf u jyifqifcsufrsm;jzifh jyefvnfay;ydkYcJh&m trsKd;om; vTwawmf jyifqifcsursm;tay: jyifqifcsutay: f f f jyif qifcsuftqkdwifoGif;aqG;aEG;vdkolrsm;taejzifh tyk'?f tyk'cJG tvku?f taMumif;t&m wduspmazmfjyí d d f d G atmufwbm (13)&uf nae (4)em&Daemufq;xm;NyD; kd kH trnfpm&if;ay;ykYd Mu&ef aqG;aEG;onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (33) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;rsm;ESihf ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd qufvufaqmif&uonf/ G f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (35) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ta&;BuD;udpwpf&yftjzpf tqkwif ö d oGi; rSwwrf;wifjcif;? ar;cGe; (7)ck ar;jref;ajzMum; f f f jcif;ESifh tqkd (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (34) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f (2)OD;u ar;jref;onfh ywf0ef;usifxdef;odrf;a&;ESifh opfawm qkdif&m ar;cGef;rsm;udk ywf0ef;usifxdef;odrf;a&;ESifh opf a wma&;&m0ef B uD ; Xme jynf a xmif p k 0 ef B uD ; OD;0if;xGe;u jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ f yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (36) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGe; (3)ck ar;jref;ajzMum;jcif;wdYk udk f aqmif&uonf/ G f yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (35) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f (5)OD;u e,fpyfa'ozGUH NzK;a&;qki&m ar;cGe;rsm;udk e,fpyfa&;&m d df f 0efBuD;XmeESifh jrefrmhpufrIzGHUNzKd;a&;0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; 'kwd,AkdvfcsKyfBuD;odef;aX;u jyefvnfajzMum;onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (37) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (9)ck ar;jref;ajzMum;jcif;ESifh Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (36) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;rsm;ESifh ajzMum;jcif;rsm; ukd qufvufaqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (38) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGef; (10)ck ar;jref;ajzMum;jcif;ESifh Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (37) &ufajrmufaeYukd aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ 86
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif;ESihf ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&uMf uonf/ G yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (39) &ufajrmufaeYukd atmufwdkbmv (21)&ufaeYwif aejynfawmf&dS jynfoYlvwawmfcef;rü G T f qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGef; (10)ck ar;jref;ajzMum;jcif;ESifh tqkdtopf (1)ck wifoi;aqG;aEG;jcif;wdYk udk aqmif&uMf uonf/ G f G yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (38) &ufajrmufaeYudk atmufwbmv kd (21)&ufaeYwif aejynfawmf&dS trsK;om;vTwawmfcef;rü G d f qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif; ESihf ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef &uf (40) ajrmufaeYudk atmufwbmv (24) &ufwif dk G aejynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmftaqmufttHk jynfolYvTwf awmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGef; (9) ck ar;jrefajzMum;jcif;wkdYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf trsKd ;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref f d kS &uf (39) ajrmufaeYudk atmufwbmv (24) &ufwif dk G aejynfawmf&dS vTwawmftaqmufttHk trsKd ;om;vTwf f awmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGef;rsm; ar;jrefajzMum;jcif;wkdYukd aqmif&GufMu onf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (41) &ufajrmufaeYudk atmufwbmv kd (25)&ufu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif EdkifiHawmf or®w rauG;wdi;a'oBuD;twGi; a&ab;oifa'o kf f h okYd oGm;a&mufonfc&D;pOfü jynfoYlvwawmf uk,pm; h T f d f vTwawmf'w,Ouú| OD;eE´ausmpmESihf aygufrqE´e,f f k d fG J rS OD;cifarmifnKdwYdk vkuygoGm;aMumif;? xkYd jyif jynfol d f rsm;tay: pmemaxmufxm;onfhtaejzifh tcuftcJ rsm;twGuf ulnDaqmif&Gufay;Edkif&ef oabmwl qHk;jzwfí jynfolYvTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm; wpf&ufwm aeYwup&dwudk pkaygif;um aiGusyf (39 G f f 'or 5) ode; vSL'gef;jcif;twGuf rSwwrf;wifonf/ f f tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGe; (12)ck ar;jrefajzMum;jcif;wdYkudk f aqmif&uMf uonf/ G yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; &uf (40)ajrmufaeYudk atmufwbmv kd (25)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&dS trsK;om;vTwawmfcef;rü d f qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif; ESihf ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; (42) &ufajrmufaeYudk atmufwbmv kd (27)&ufaeYwif aejynfawmf&dS jynfoYlvwawmfcef;rü G T f qufvufusi;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;cGe; (7)ck f f ar;jref;ajzMum;jcif;? tqdtopf (1)ck wifoi;aqG;aEG; k Gf jcif;? Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;ESifh Oya'Murf; (1)ck pdppfrudk ,m,Dqi;iHaMumif; qH;jzwfjcif;rsm;tm; I dk f h k aqmif&uMf uonf/ G yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (41) &ufajrmufaeYudk atmufwbmv kd (27)&ufaeYwif aejynfawmf&dS trsK;om;vTwawmfcef;r G d f ü qufvufusi;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ar;jref;jcif; f ESihf ajzMum;jcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf 'kwd, yHretpnf;ta0; wwd,aeYudk atmufwbmv (28) k S f kd &ufaeYwif aejynfawmf&dS jynfaxmifpvwawmfcef;rü G k T f usif ; yonf / tpnf ; ta0;ü tqk d t opf (2)ck wifoi;jcif;? Oya'Murf; (1)ckEipyfvsOf;í &Si;vif; G f S hf f wifjyjcif;? jynfoYlvwawmfEihf trsK;om;vTwawmfwYdk T f S d f u twnfjyKcJhonfh Oya'Murf; (7)ckukd rSwfwrf; wifjcif;? ppfui;wdi;a'oBuD; twGi;ü&Saom aus;&Gm? dk f k f f d tkyfpkrsm; jyifqifjcif;? zGJUpnf;jcif; okdYr[kwf trnf ajymif;vJjcif;wdYkudk rSwwrf;wifjcif;? EkiiawmfzUJG pnf;ykH f dfH zGUJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'qkdif&mcHk½Hk;u pdppfay;a&;ESifh pyfvsOf;í qHk;jzwfjcif;rsm; aqmif&GufMuonf/ yxrtBudrf trsK;om;vTwawmf 'kw,yHref d f d kS tpnf;ta0; (42) &ufajrmufaeYudk atmufwbmv kd 87
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG (28)&ufaeYwGif aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;om;vTwfawmf cef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif trsKd ; om;vT w f a wmf O ya'Murf ; aumf r wD t zG J U 0if OD;jrifhxGef;u jynfolYvTwfawmfu jyifqifcsufjzifh twnfjyKay;ykdYvmaom jynfolYvTwfawmfqkdif&m Oya'Murf;ESifh jynfolYvTwfawmfu jyifqifcsufjzifh twnfjyKNyD; ay;ydkYvmaom wkdif;a'oBuD; okdYr[kwf jynfe,f vTwawmfqi&m Oya'Murf;wdYkudk trsK;om; f dk f d vTwawmfu aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;&ef Oya'Murf;aumfrwD f tpD&ifcpmrsm;ESitwl tqkwifoi;onf/ qufvuf H hf d G f í tqdwifoi;rIrsm;ESiywfoufí aqG;aEG;Muonf/ k G f hf jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (43)&uf ajrmuf a eYuk d atmuf w d k b mv (31)&uf a eYu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvuf usif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü ar;cGe; (3)ck ar;jref;ajz f Mum;jcif;? Oya'Murf; (3)ckESifhpyfvsOf;í aqG;aEG;&ef trnfpm&if; wifoGif;EdkifaMumif; today;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&uMf uonf/ G jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (44)&uf ajrmufaeYudk Ek0ifbmv (1)&ufaeYwif aejynfawmf&dS d G jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif ta&;BuD;tqkd (1)ck wifoGif; qG;aEG;jcif;ESihf ar;cGe; (9)ck ar;jref;ajzMum;jcif;wdYk udk f aqmif&uMf uonf/ G trsKd;om;vTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (43)&uf ajrmufaeYudk Ek0ifbmv (1)&ufaeYwif aejynfawmf&dS d G trsKd;om;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif tqkd (1)ck qufvufaqG; aEG;jcif;ESihf Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;wdYkudk aqmif&uMf uonf/ G trsKd;om;vTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (44)&uf ajrmufaeYukd Ekd0ifbmv (2)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&Sd trsK;om;vTwawmfcef;rü quf vufaqmif&uonf/ d f G f tpnf;ta0;ü vTwfawmftwnfjyKcsufjzifh tqdk (1)ck wifoGif;aqG;aEG;jcif;? Oya'Murf; (2)ck twnf jyKjcif;? enf;Oya'rsm;? trdeYfaMumfjimpmrsm; jzefYa0xm; jcif;ESipyfvsO;í vTwawmfoYdktwnfay;jcif;? 'kw, hf f f d yHretpnf;ta0;wGif wifoi;f cJonfar;cGe;f rsm;tqkrsm; kSf G h h d Oya'Murf;rsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;í vTwfawmf aqmif&Guf csufrsm;tm; &Sif;vif;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (45)&uf ajrmufaeYukd Ekd0ifbmv (3)&ufu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü tqdtopf (1)ck wifoi; aqG;aEG;jcif; k G f ESihf Oya'Murf;ESipyfvsOf;í vTwawmftqH;tjzwf hf f k &,ljcif;wdYk udk aqmif&uMf uonf/ G jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (46)&uf ajrmufaeYukd Ekd0ifbmv (4)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü Oya'Murf;rsm;ESipyfvsO;í vTwawmf hf f f tqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ trsKd;om;vTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (45)&uf ajrmufaeYukd Ekd0ifbmv (4)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&Sd trsK;vTwawmfcef;rü qufvufusi;yonf/ tpnf; d f f ta0;ü tqdk(1)ck wifoGif;jcif;ESifh Oya'Murf; (1)ck wifoi;jcif;wdYk udk aqmif&uMf uonf/ G f G jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (47)&uf ajrmufaeYudk Ek0ifbmv (14)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&dS d jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif tqdkwifoGif;jcif;qkdif&mrsm;ukd aqG;aEG;onf/ trsKd;om;vTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (46)&uf ajrmufaeYukd Ekd0ifbmv (4)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&Sd trsKd;vTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (48)&uf ajrmufaeYudk Ek0ifbmv (16)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&dS d jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü tqkd (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;? trnfpm&if; wifoi;EdiaMumif; wifoi;jcif;? aumfr&Sijf yifqifzUJG G f k f G f pnf;rIESifhpyfvsOf;onfh wifjyjcif;ESifh Oya'Murf; (1)ckESifhpyfvsOf;í vTwfawmftqHk;tjzwf&,ljcif; wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ trsKd;om;vTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (47)&uf 88
    • vTwawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;ESihf Ediiawmfopfzpnf;jcif; f fk f H UJG ajrmufaeYudk Ek0ifbmv (16)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&dS d trsKd ; vT w f a wmf c ef ; rü quf v uf u sif ; yonf / tpnf;ta0;ü Oya'Murf; (1)ck tqH;tjzwf &,ljcif; k ESifh tqkd (1)ck aqG;aEG;jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ jynf a xmif p k v T w f a wmf t pnf ; ta0; pwkwaeYudk Ek0ifbmv (18)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&dS ¬ d jynfaxmifpvwawmfcef;rü quf vufusi;yonf/ k T f f tpnf;ta0;ü Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;? trnfpm&if;wifoi;EdiaMumif; today;jcif;? yl;aygif; Gf kf aumfrwD0if tpm;xk;wm0efay;tyfjcif;ESihf Oya'Murf; d (1)cktm; rSwwrf;wifjcif; wdYk udk aqmif&uMf uonf/ f G jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (49)&uf ajrmufaeYukd Ekd0ifbmv (21)&ufwGif aejynfawmf&Sd jynfolYvTwfawmfcef;rü qufvufusif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü Oya'Murf; (1)ck ESifhpyfvsOf;í today;jcif;? Oya'Murf;aumfrwD tpD&ifcHpm wifoi;jcif;? Oya'Murf;wpfctm; qufvufaqG;aEG; G f k twnfjyKjcif;wkdYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ jynfaxmifpvwawmftpnf;ta0; yOöraeY k T f ukd Ek0ifbmv (22)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&dS jynfaxmifpk d vT w f a wmf c ef ; rü usif ; yonf / tpnf ; ta0;ü Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;? yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf avhvmawGU&Sdcsuf tpD&ifcHpmESifhywfoufí today; jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; &uf (50) ajrmufaeYukd Ekd0ifbmv (23) &ufwGif jynfolYvTwf awmfcef;rü qufvufusif;y&m trsdK;om;vTwfawmf u twnfjyKcsufjzifh ay;ydkYaom ajrvGwf ajrvwfESifh ajr½ki;rsm; pDrcefYca&;Oya'Murf;ESipyfvsOí aqG;aEG; d f H JG hf f twnfjyKjcif;rsm;ukd aqmif&Gufonf/ jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; (51) &uf ajrmufaeYukd Ekd0ifbm (24) &ufaeYwGif jynfolYvTwf awmfcef;rü qufvufusif;y&m Oya'Murf;ESpfck aqG;aEG;qH;jzwfjcif;? vTwawmfa&;&mrsm; &Si;vif;jcif; k f f wkdYukd aqmif&Gufonf/ jynfaxmifpvwawmftpnf;ta0; q|raeY k T f ukd Ek0ifbmv (25)&ufaeYu aejynfawmf&dS jynfaxmif d pkvTwfawmfcef;rü usif;yonf/ tpnf;ta0;ü EdkifiHawmfor®wo0PfvTmrsm;tm; zwfMum;wifjy jcif;? EdkifiHawmfor®w oabmxm;rSwfcsufrsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í Oya'Murf; (1)ck twnfjyKjcif;? yl;aygif; aumfrwD0if tpm;xkd;cefYtyfjcif;ESifh tpnf;ta0; aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;í &Sif;vif;ajymMum; jcif;wdkYukd aqmif&GufMuonf/ EdkifiHawmfor®w t&nftcsif;ESihfjynfhpHkrI&Sd? r&Sd pdppfa&;tzGJU pOf trnf wm0ef 1 2 3 4 5 6 ol&OD;a&Tref; OD;cifatmifjrihf OD;eE´ausmfpGm OD;jrndrf; OD;aomif; OD;rsKd;jrihf Ouú| Ouú| 'kwd,Ouú| 'kwd,Ouú| udk,fpm;vS,f udk,fpm;vS,f 7 wyfrawmfom;udk,fpm;vS,f wpfOD; udk,fpm;vS,f 89 vTwfawmf^rJqE´e,f jynfolYvTwfawmf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf jynfolYvTwfawmf trsKd;om;vTwfawmf ausmufqnfrJqE´e,f rEÅav;wdkif;a'oBuD;rJqE´e,f trSwf (6) wyfrawmfom;vTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJU
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    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay orm;rsm;rSm ukvm;rsm; jzpfaeouJhodkU vlvwf wef;pm;rsm;vnf; ukvm;rsm;yif jzpfaeMuonf/ jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;qHk;½IH;NyD;aemuf tdE´d,EdkifiH jynfe,fwpfcktjzpf usa&mufonfrSpí jrefrm EdkifiHa&muf tdE´d,vlrsdK;rsm;udk Oya'½Iaxmifht& jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;[k rqdkEdkifawmhay/ odkUaomf jrefrmwdkU ½Iaxmifht&rl tdE´d,vlrsdK;rsm; tvH;t&if;ESihf a&mufvmjcif;ESihf ae&mwumtdE, k d´ vlrsdK;rsm; vTrf;rdk;aejcif;u jrefrmwdkUtm; ajcmuf vSefUaeonhf udpöwpf&yfjzpfaeayonf/ xdkodkU ynmoifMum;EdicjhJ cif; jzpfonf/ 18 ESpom;t&G,f k f f &mbifj'mewfw*dk;tm; csrf;om<u,f0aom zcif jzpfolu vef'efodkUapvTwfNyD; ynmoifMum;apcJh / w*dk;u vef'efwGif wpfESpfrQ aexdkifcJhpOf oli,fcsif;rdwfaqGrsm;pGm &&SdcJhaomfvnf; ausmif; oifynma&;pepfudk usOf;usyfonf[k cH,lxm;ol jzpfí rnfonhbUJG udrQ r&&Scay/ xdUk aemuf t*Fvef f k d hJ odkY aemufwpfzef jyefvmNyD; Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;odkY tBudrfBudrfoGm;a&mufvnfywfcJhonf/ wpfcsdef wnf;rSmyif touf 20 t½G,f cefYupí w*dk;onf pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;ESihf r[wår*E¨D tdE´d,vlrsdK;rsm;jym;pGm jrefrmjynfokdU0ifa&mufvm jcif;ukd jrefrmwdkYu txdwfwvefYapmifhMunhf vsuf&SdNyD; wpfcsdefcsdefwGif jrefrmwdkYvufwGif; jyefvnftmPm&vmygu tdE´d,om;wdkYudk xdef; odrf;csKyfudkif&efvnf; qE´&SdaeMuonf/}} tqdk;xJrStaumif;&Sm&vQif jrefrmESifh tdE´d,ESpfEdkifiHpvHk; t*FvdyfvufatmufcH udkvdkeD b0a&muf&SdcJhpOfu xl;cRefxufjrufonhf jrefrmESifh tdE´d,EkdifiHom;tcsdKUonf t*FvefodkUoGm;a&muf pmpwif a &;om;vmum arS ; rS d e f a ysmuf u G , f p jyKaeonhf b*FgvDpmayudk jr§ifhwifay;NyD; pmzwf y&dowfa&SUarSmufodkY jyefa&mufvmap&ef OD;aqmif OD;&GufjyKcJhonf/ w*dk; yxrtBudrf jrefrmEdkifiHc&D;pOf(1816) pma&;q&mwpfa,muftjzpf touf 20 ausmfuyif ausmfMum;vmNyD; t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh *swef*if udk a&;om;xkwa0NyD;aomtcg urÇmausmf D f 134
    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay pmayqdkif&mEdkb,fvfqkudk touf 52 ESpft&G,f 1913 ckEpü qGwc;&&Sconf/ touf 55 ESpwif S f f l d hJ f G a'oEÅ& A[kokwavhvm&SmrSD;&efESifh trsdK;om; a&;qdkif&m? ynma&;qdkif&m? yk*vdu vGwfvyfcGifh ¾ qdkif&m tawG;tjrifrsm;ukd ta&SUtm&SwdkufodkY jzefYjzL;&ef &nf&G,fvsuf *syefEdkifiHudktoGm; ta&SU wkdif;EdkifiH tcsdKUodkY ajcqefY&ef w*dk;qHk;jzwfcJhonf/ xdktcsdefu EdkifiH&yfjcm;rsm;odkU c&D;&Snf oGm;&mwGif yifv,fukd jzwfvsuf a&aMumif;c&D;jzifh oGm;Mu&aomaMumifh &efukefwGif c&D;wpfaxmuf em;&onf/ &efukefum; w*dk; ZmwdNrdKUawmf uvuwåm;rS ta&SUawmifbufoYkd xGufcGmvmonhf oabFmrsm; yxrOD;qHk;qdkufuyf&rnfh qdyfurf; NrdKUBuD;jzpfonf/ 1916 ckESpf arv 3 &ufaeYwif G w*d;ESihf oli,fcsi;oH;a,muf yifv,fu;oabFmpD; k f k l vsuf twlwuG c&D;xGufcJhMuonf/ w*dk;ESifhtwl ygvmolrsm;rSm 0DvsH'AvsL yD,mqif (William. W. Pearson)? pD tuf(zf) tif'½l;(pf) (C.F.Andrews) ESifh zl;yGifhp yef;csDq&m rkukvf'D (Mukul Dey) wdkYjzpfMu onf/ w*d;ESihf oli,fcsif;rsm; OD;wnf&mc&D;rSm k *syefEdkifiHjzpfonhftwGuf *syefoabFmtuf(pf) tuf(pf) wdkqmrm½l (S.S.Tosa Maru) ay:wGif pD;eif; vduygvmMuonf/ oabFm xGucmvmNyD; 2 &ufcefY k f f G tMum b*Fvm;yifv,fatmfudk jzwfvmNyD;aemuf yxrqHk; awGU&onfhajronf jrefrmEdkifiHjzpfonf/ w*d; pdwu;tm½kwif ykazmfawG;jrifrrS yxrqH; k f l H G H I k ay:vmonfrSm jyefYjyL;ajyvGifNyD; ajrqDMoZm aumif;aom {&m0wDjrpf0uRef;ay:a'oESifh xdk ae&mwGif vkyfudkifaeMuonfh tdE´d,om;tvkyf orm;rsm;jzpfMuonf/ tvkyform;trsm;pkrSm b*FgvDvlrsdK;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ 1916 ckESpf arv 5 &ufaeUwGif &efukefjrpf wpfavQmuf rdkif 20 cefU ajrmufbufodkU ckwfarmif;vmNyD; naebufü w*dk; wdkUtzGJU &efukefqdyfurf;wGif qdkufuyfMuonf/ w*dk;OD;pGmawGUvdkuf&onhf jrifuGif;rsm;rSm vlol qlnH ysm;yef;cyfoGm;vmaeMuonhf &efukefqdyf urf;? cHnm;xnf0gonhf udveacwftaqmufttHk h k kd D BuD;rsm;jzpfonhf taumufcGef½Hk;? qdyfurf;aumfr&Sif em½Hk;? BuD;rm;vSonfh &efukefpmwdkufBuD;wdkUtjyif px&if;vrf;rBuD; (,ck urf;em;vrf;)? qdyfcHabm wHwm;rsm;ESifh qmuDtmrDeD,efnDaemif (Sarkies k f hJ Armenian Brothers) wdYk aqmufvycaom wifhw,f crf;em;NyD; tjzLa&mifawmufaeonfh px&if; [dkw,fwdkU jzpfMuonf/ NAdwdoQudkvdkeD qdyfurf; NrdKU ESpfxyf? oHk;xyfjrifhonhf ukefoG,fa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&m taqmufttHrsm;ESihf wifw,f k h aom &efueqyurf;odUk oabFmqdkufuyfNyD;aemuf kf df a&Tw*apwDawmfBuD;ukd zl;awGUvdu&onf/ aemuf d kH k f wpfaeUwGif w*d;onf a&Twd*HkapwDawmfBuD;ukd oGm; k a&muf z l ; ajrmf M unf n d K onf / umvMumjrif h p G m awmifwcJonhf a&Tw*apwDawmfBuD;udk zl;ajrmfci& h h d kH G hf csdefwGif pdwfat;csrf;NidrfoufrIudk cHpm;cJh&aMumif; w*dk;a&;om;cJhonf/ jrefrmjynf tvSESifhat;csrf;rI udk a&Twd*Hkbk&m;ay:a&muf½Sd zl;ajrmf&rSom w*d; k trSefwu,fo&onf[k a&;om;cJhonf/ d xdktcsdeftcgu &efukefNrdKUudk pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,frI A[dkXmetjzpf awGU&ojzifh jrefrmh,Ofaus;rI "avhx;pHrsm;udk od&p;prf;vdonhf kH dS l k w*d;tzdUk &efueNf rdKUudk b0ifrusEiay/ oDaygbk&if k k kd f eef;usNyD; jrefrmwpfEiiv; t*FvyvufatmufoUkd kd f H kH d f usa&mufcJh&aomfvnf; w*dk;vma&mufonhf 1916 ckESpfwdkif wpfcsdefu rif;aejynfawmf jzpfcJhonhf rEÅav;NrdKUonf ax&0g'Ak'bmom pnfyifxGef;um; ¨ onhfNrdKU? a&S;jrefrmhvufrIynmt&yf&yf? tEkynm? obifynm? a&T? aiG? aMu;? opf? ausmufwdkUtm; trsKd ;rsKd ;tzHzkH xGi;xkEionhf vufrynm? &ufuef; k f kd f I ynmpojzifh jrefrmh,Ofaus;rI tarGtESpfaygif;pHk &SioefaeqJNrdKU jzpfonf/ pifppf rEÅav;NrdKUodUk w*d; f k oGm;a&mufavhvmoifaomfvnf; zGHUjzdK;wdk;wufae h onhf *syefEiiuoYkd tm&SEiic&D;udk OD;wnfvmjcif; kd f H hJ kd f H jzpfaomaMumifh rEÅav;NrdKUodkU oGm;a&muf&ef tcsdef r&Scay/ jrefrmh,Ofaus;rI "avhx;pHrsm;tm; jrifawGU d hJ kH 135
    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay 1924 ckESpf &efukefNrdKU ukefonfvrf; GUARDIAN HOUSE wG i f w*d k ; wnf ; cd k o G m ;onh f trSwfw&ausmufpm Edkifonhf rEÅav;? yk*H? tif;0 ponhf a&S;a[mif; NrdKUawmfrsm;odkU w*dk;roGm;a&mufEdkifcJhay/ w*dk; tjrifwif &efueNf rdKU a&ajrobm0tvSonf yifudk G k obm0t& vSpf[cGifhr&bJ NAdwdoQe,fcsJUwdkU zefw;azmfaqmifrrsm;u &efueNf rdKU tvSukd puf½kH D I k rD;cdk;aiGUrsm;atmufwGif ydwfqdkUzsufqD;aeMuonf [k a&;om;rSwfcsufcscJhonf/ jrifhjrwfonhf od*Fkwå&ukef;ajrjrifhay:½Sd a½Ta&mifw0if;0if;jzihf wifhw,foyÜm,fvSaom a½Twd*HkapwDawmfjrwfMuD;udkrl w*dk;oGm;a&mufzl; ajrmfMunfndKcGifh&cJhonf/ a&Twd*HkonfAk'¨bmom 0if jrefrmwdkU ,HkMunfrIESifh,Ofaus;rIjy,k*f oauFwvnf; jzpfonf/ 1916 ckESpf arv 8 &uf wevFmaeUeHeufyi;wGif a&Tw*apwDawmfudk w*d;zl; kd f d kH k ajrmf&NyD; ESpfaxmif;tm;& vGefpGmjzpf&onf[k qkdonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHodkY aemufwpfBudrf &uf&Snf vma&mufvdkonfhqE´? at;csrf;Nidrfoufonhf jrefrmAk'¨bmom bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm;ukd oGm; a&mufavhvmvdonfEitrQ jrefrmwdUk ,Ofaus;rI k S hf ud;uG,,MkH unfrEihf aeUpOfvrb0rsm;tm; avhvm k f I S l I vdkonhfqE´ w*dk;wGif&Sdonf/ jrefrmwdkY ouf0if ,HkMunfaeonhf Ak'¨bmomonf tdE´d,,Ofaus;rI udktajccHvsuf tdE´d,EdkifiHwGif pwifxGef;um;cJh onhf omoem0ifjzpfojzifh tdE´d,trdajray:wGif Ak'¨,Ofaus;rItm; wzefjyefvnfjzpfxGef;apvdk onhfqE´w*dk;wGif&Sdonf/ pmayrsm;a&;om;jcif;? a[majymydkUcsjcif;? ynmoifMum;ay;jcif; ponhftvkyfrsm;jzifh tvkyf rsm;vSonhf w*dk;onf rdrdta&SUwdkif;c&D;pOfrsm; twGif; &efukefNrdKUodkY acwåcPc&D;wpfaxmuf 0if a&muf em;cGirty rdrarQmvifcovdk umv&uf&nf hf S d f h hJ S xyfrvma&mufvnfywfavhvmEkijf cif; r&Schay/ H d d J w*dk;twGuf yxrtBudrfjrefrmjynf c&D; pOfü trSwfxifxifjzpf&onfrSm NAdwdoQudkvdkeD vufatmufcHjzpfaeonfh &efukefNrdKU½Sd *sLAvD cef;rBuD;ü olYtm; *kPfjyK{nfhcHyGJudk crf;em;BuD; us,fpm usif;yay;jcif;yif jzpfonf/ {nfcyJG usif;y G h H ay;onfhaeYonf touf 55 ESpfajrmuf arG;aeYESifh wdkufqdkifaeonf/ w*kd;twGuf {nfhcHyGJudk arG;aeY jyD;aemuf wpf&uf 1916 ckEpf arv 8 &uf wevFm S aeYnOD;ydkif;wGif usif;yay;cJhonf/ w*d;*kPjf yKBudKqda&;twGuf OD;pD;OD;aqmif k k jyKay;cJholrSm qmt'l&rfum*smrm;vf (Sir Abdul Karim Jamal) jzpfjyD; jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd tdEd´,EdkifiHom; rsm;toif; acgif;aqmifvnf;jzpfonf/ b*FgvD toif; BudKqdkEIwfcGef;qufpum;udk a&SUaeMuD; eD r m;vf c sef ' ½d k q ef ( Nirmal Chandro Sen) u zwfMum;cJhNyD; jrefrmrsm;udk,fpm; EIwfcGef;quf pum;udk a&SUaeOD;bodef;u ajymMum;cJhonf/ b*FgvDbmomjzifh EIwce;qufpum;udk ½S&wfcsef' f G f &m cswfwm*sDu a&;om;ay;cJhjcif; jzpfonf/ &S&wfonf b*FgvDbmomjzifha&;aom emrnfBuD; 136
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    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay xdkpOfu jrefrmEdkifiHukd tkyfcsKyfaeonfh NAdwdoQudkvdkeDtpdk;&onf 'kwd,tBudrf w*dk; jrefrmEdkifiHc&D;pOftay: 1916 ckESpf yxrc&D;pOfudk rodusdK;EGuRefjyKcJonfenf;wl vspfvsL½Ií r&awmh H h h ay/ 1916 ckESpfwGif w*dk;vma&mufpOfu t*Fvdyf tpdk;&ydkif;u w&m;0ifBudKqdkrI rjyKaomfvnf; ,ck 'kw,tBudrajrmuf c&D;pOfürl jrefrmEdiibk&ifcH d f k f H qm[mukwbwåvm (Sir Harcourt Butler) u tpdk;& f tdrfawmfodkY w*dk;ESifh tqifhjrifht&m&SdBuD;rsm;tm; zdwfac:vsuf aeYv,fpmjzifh *kPfjyK{nfhcHcJhonf/ 1924 ck E S p f rwf v 24 &uf a eYwG i f &efukefNrdKUodkY w*dk;a&mufvmonfhtcsdefESifh udkufnD pGm b*FgvDpmaynDvmcHudk usif;ycJhjcif;rSmvnf; w*dk; 'kwd,c&D;pOfü xl;jcm;rIwpf&yfjzpfonf/ w*d;yxrtBudrf vma&mufpOfuuJoYkd yif k h *sLAvDa[mü w*dk;tm; BuD;us,fcrf;em;pGm BudKqdkyGJ usif;ypOftwGif; b*FgvDbmom? jrefrmbmom ESprsKd ;jzifh w*d;tm; Mobmpmrsm;jzifh EIwce;qufo f k f G f cJhMuonf/ þodkY jrefrm? b*FgvDESpfbmomjzifh w*d;tm;BudKqdcaMumif; a&;om;xm;onfh rSwfwrf; k k hJ rSwf&mrsm; rawGU&Sd&ao;aomfvnf; xdkpOfu &efukefNrdKUodkYa&mufump pma&;q&mBuD;aZ,s jzpfvmrnfh OD;a,mu udk,fwdkifjrifawGU&yHkudk rSwf wrf ; wif x m;onf / q&maZ,s (OD ; a,m) u *sLAvDa[mxJodkU rdrdESifh oli,fcsif;rsm; a&muf&SdcJh &mwGif tdE´d,vlrsdK;rsm;jzifh jynfhusyfaeonfudk awGU&NyD; xdkvltkyfxü w½kwEihf t*FvyvrsKd; 20 J f S d f l rS 30 cefYom yg0ifaMumif; awGU&Sd&onf[k azmfjy onf/ *sLAvDcef;r atmufxyfwGif jrefrmtenf; tusOf ; &S d a eMuNyD ; q&maZ,sESifh oli,fcsif; ESpa,mufonf Ak'bmom bke;awmfBuD; 15 yg;cefY f ¨ f ESifhtwltay:xyfodkY wufa&muf Munfh½IMuonf/ w*dk; ‘'kwd,c&D;pOfwGif ygarmu© u&S wDrdk[efqif; (Prof. Kshiti Mohan Sen)? ygarmu© vnf;jzpf yef;csDq&mvnf;jzpfol eE´vmbdkY(pf) (Nandalal Bose)? vD,dkewftrf;[mh(pf) (Leonard Elmherst)? rpö*&de;f (Miss Green)ESihf umvD'wf(pf)emh (Kalidas Nag) wdkY vdkufygvmMuonf/ w*dk; jrefrmEdii?H w½kwEihf *syefEiirsm;odYk oGm;a&muf k f f S kd f H onfh c&D;pOftwGuf &S&D*sL*gvfuD&SmbDvm (Sri Jugal Kishor Birla) u aiGaMu; ukefuscHcJhonf/ w*dk; 'kwd,c&D;pOfwGif tdrf&Siftjzpf {nfccol a'gufwmbwåmcsm&D&m (Dr. Bhatta Charya) h H hJ uvnf; w*dk;ESifhywfoufonfh tcsuftvufrsm; udk uRefawmfwdkYtm; twnfjyKay;cJhonf/ olonf tifpDbifem*sD (N.C. Banerji) NyD;vQif tdE´d, trsdK;om;uGe*&uf (Indian National Congress) ukd f axmufyHhrItay;qHk; jyKaeoljzpfNyD; tdE´d,om; rsm;u jrefrmEdiiwif vma&mufwnfaxmif xkwa0 kfH G f aeonfh &efukefar;vf (The Rangoon Mail) aeYpOf owif;pm t,f'Dwmtjzpf 1924 ckeSpfrS 1927 ckEptwGi; wm0efay;tyfcxm;&olvnf;jzpfonf/ S f f H 'kwd,c&D;pOfwGif w*dk;ESifhtwlvdkufyg vmol umvD'wf(pf)emhuvnf; xdyuwufa&mufchJ k JG kd NyD; w*dk;tm; *kPfjyK{nfhcHyGJwGif tdrfeD;csif;jrefrmESifh tdE´d,ESpfEdkifiHrS pmayynm&Sifrsm;? tawG;tac: ynm&Sifrsm; twlwuG qHkqnf;cGifh&cJhMuonf[k a&;om;cJ h o nf / ]]jref r m-td E ´ d , quf q H a &;? b*FgvDjynfe,fEihf jrefrmEdiiqufpyfr?I Ak'bmom S k f H ¨ 0ifwYkd pdwaepdwxm;? tawG;tac:ESihf ,HMk unfrI f f rsm;taMumif; aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf}} [k qufvuf a&;om;xm;onf/ w*dk;wnf;cdkaeonfh tdrf&SiftifefpDbm em*sD (N. C. Banerji) u OD;aqmifvsuf b*FgvD toif;u w*dk;tm; *kPfjyK{nfhcHyGJudk ‘'kwd,tBudrf tjzpf &efueNf rdKU&Sd qGee,efcef;r (Sooneran Hall)ü k f D xyfrHusif;ycJhonf/ xdk'kwd,ajrmuf{nfhcHyGJudk b*FgvDwuúodkvf tBuD;tuJrsm; jzpfMuonfh emrnfBuD; tdE´d,pmayynm&Sif pl'&Dcsef'&mudk'l&D (Sudhir Chandra Choudhury) ESifh rdk[pf ulrD rlcdkyg 'a&; (Mohit Kume Mukhopadhyay) wdkYu pDpOf ñTefMum;ay;cJhMuonf/ 140
    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay 1924 ckESpf rwfv w*dk; c&D;pOfwGif w½k w f t oif ; u w*d k ; twG u f wwd , ajrmuf *kPfjyK{nhfcHyGJudk &efukefwdkif; MunhfjrifwdkifNrdKUe,f&Sd w½kwfpmoifausmif;BuD;wGif usif;yay;cJhonf/ xd{nfcyukd vif;(rf)idcRef; (Lim Ngo Chiong) u k h H JG k OD ; aqmif c J h o nf / þausmif ; ud k &ef u k e f N rd K U&S d w½kwoaX;BuD;wpfO;jzpfaom csefrmzD (Chan Mah f l D Phee) u pmcsKyfpmwrf;jzifh tarG&xm;jcif;jzpf onf/ w½kwfESifhtdE´d,ESpfEdkifiHonf tm&Swdkufü tus,f0ef;qHk;ESifh tapmqHk;,Ofaus;rIxGef;um;cJh onhf tdrfeD;csif;rdwfaqG EdkifiHrsm;jzpfojzifh w*dk; onf tm½Swdkufom;rsm; aoG;pnf;nDñGwfa&; twGuf a[majymydUk csjcif;? pmayrsm; a&;om;jcif;wdUk jyKvkyfcJhonf/ ZmwdarG;&yfajr tdE´d,EdkifiHwGif &&Sxm;onhatmifjrifre;yg;yif w½kwEiiwivnf; d f ID f kd f H G f w*d;onf vlorsm;atmifjrifausmMf um;oljzpfonf/ k d pifppf w*d;pmrsm;um; wpfurÇmvH;&Sd vlom;rsm; k k twGufyif jzpfonf/ xdkUaMumifh 1924 ckESpf rwfv 26 &ufaeYu &efukefNrdKUwGif w½kwftoif;u usif;ycJhonhf w*dk; *kPfjyKBudKqdkyGJum; rarhEdkifp&m yGwpfyjJG zpfonf/ w*d;{nfcywif OD;pD;OD;aqmifolrsm; J k h H JG G teuf yg0ifcJhol rpöwmvif;'lcsef (Lin Du Chin) onf aemufyi;wGif w*d; &Seweauwefausmif; kd f k f d d (Shantiniketan)ü w½kwfpmayqdkif&m ygarmu© tjzpf oGm;a&mufaexdkif oifMum;ydkUcsay;cJhonf/ &Sefwdedauwef t"du&nf&G,fcsufrsm;teuf wpfckrSm tm&SEdkifiHtoD;oD;rS ynmvma&muf oifMum;olrsm;tm; Ak'¨t,l0g'? [dE´L bmomESifh tjcm;udk;uG,f,HkMunfolrsm;jym;onhf bmom t,l0g'rsm;ukd oifhjrwfrI&Sdap&ef oifMum;ay; Ekdifonhf wuúodkvftjzpf &yfwnfvdkjcif;jzpfonf/ jref r mvl r sd K ;xJ r S ,pf r sd K ;rif ; BuD ; tjzpf yxrqHk;cefUtyfcH&aom &cdkiftrsdK;om; Ak'¨bmom uRrf;usifynm&SifOD;a&TZHatmifonf w*dk;BudKqdk {nfhcHa&;aumfrwDtzGJUwGif tzGJU0ifwpfOD;tjzpf yg0ifaqmif&GufcJhonf/ w*dk; wwd,tBudrf jrefrmEdkifiHc&D;pOf(1927) 1927 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 22 &ufrS 24 &ufaeYxd &efukefNrdKUwGif w*dk;c&D;wpfaxmuf &yfem;cJhaMumif; jrefrmynm&Sifrsm;? jrefrmpma&; q&mrsm; odc[efrwlay/ 1927 ckEpf w*d;c&D;pOf hJ S k qdkif&m tcsuftvufrsm;udk ygarmu©qGmyem bwå m csm&m (csmu&mabmfwD) [Prof. Swapna Bhattacharya (Chakraborti) xHrS&&SdcJhonf/ 1927 ckESpf Zlvdkif 14 &ufaeYrSpí w*dk; onf ta&SUawmiftm&S udk;EdkifiHodkY c&D;vSnfhvnf cJNh yD; jrefrmEdiioYkd aemufq;0ifa&mufconf/ ol k f H kH hJ ta&SUawmiftm&S udk;EdkifiHc&D;pOftwGif; pumyl? uGmvmvrfyl? yDeefESifh rmvuúm;tp&Sdonhf NrdKUrsm; wGif acwå&yfem;cJonf/ tif'e;&Sm;EdiiH *smumwm h kd D k f NrdKUodkY a&muf&SdaepOf *smAm;ESifh bmvDuRef;rsm;odkY oGm;a&mufvnfywfcJhonf/ tjyefc&D;wGif befaumufodkY 0ifa&muf &yfem;NyD; rav;&Sm;rS &efukefodkU c&D;qufcJhonf/ oHk;vMumc&D;pOfü w*dk;ESifhtwl emrnfausmf bmomaA'ynm&Sif pleDwDulrm cswåm*sD (Suniti D S Kumar Chatterji)? yef;csynm&Sif 'D&if;u&pf&ema'h(Af) bmrif (Dhiren Krishna Dev Barman)? tmEd;bvdwf k (Arnold Blake) ESifh tm&ef&mcrf (Aryanyakam) wdkUtwlvdkufygvmMuonf/ tdE,Ediiwif [dEL d´ k f H G ´ t,l0g'ESihf Ak'bmomt,l0g'ESpfrsdK; pwifxGef; ¨ um;cJhNyD; xdk0g'ESpfrsdK; a&maxG;yg0ifaeonhf t,l 0g'rluGJudk a&S;acwftdE´d,a'ocHwdkif;&if;om; rsm;u udk;uG,f,HkMunfcJhrItay: w*dk;tpOfwpdkuf pdwf0ifpm;cJhonf/ bwåmcsm&D&mu ]]*smAm;uRef;u aq;vef; j'm; bk&ifrif;quf (Sailendra Dynasty) ESifh Ak'¨bmomxGef;um;&m tcsuftcsmevE´mwdkU onf a&S;umvu qufE,ywfoufcrI&SdcJhonf[l G f hJ onhf tawG;um;w*dk;pdwfwGif pdk;rdk;aernfjzpf aMumif;}} tcdkiftrmajymqdka&;om;cJhonf/ ta&SUawmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;wGif OD;pGmyxr w*dk;awGU&onfrSm rdrdarG;&yfajr tdE´d,uJhodkUyif 141
    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay þEkdifiHrsm;&Sd a'ocHwdkif;&if;om;rsm; ½dk;&m "avhx;kH pHrsm;wGif [dEL0g'ESihf Ak'bmomt,l0g'rsm; ´ ¨ a&maESmaeaMumif;yif jzpfonf/ ,cifc&D;pOfESpf&yf oGm;a&mufpOfuuJhodkU yif &efueNf rdKUwGif c&D;wpfaxmufem;aecduf w*dk;ESifh k k jrefrmwcsdKU awGUqHkcJhonf/ w*dk;onf b*FgvD rdwfaqGwcsdKUESifh twlaexdkifNyD; jyifyodkU oGm; a&mufrIenf;yg;ojzifh awGUqHkvdkonhftdE´d,EdkifiH om;rsm;u w*dk;xHvma&mufMu&mwGif *l*sm&m wpf(pf) (Gujaratis)? yef*smbpf(pf) (Punjabis)ESifh w,fvD*wf(pf)vlrsdK;rsm; yg0ifawGUqHkMuonf/ ¤if;wdkUxJwGif &mrme'gcswåmyufa&; (Ramanada Chattapadhyay) om;rufESifh ZeD; oDwma'0D (Sita Devi)wdkUvnf; yg0ifMuonf/ 1927 ckESpf atmufwdkbm23&ufaeUwGif td E ´ d , -jref r mtEk y nmtoif ; ( Indo-Burma Federation of Fine Arts ) u OD;pD;í w*dk;*kPfjyK {nhcyusif;ycJonf/ xif&m;ausmfMum;onhf uAsm f H JG h S q&mBuD;w*dk;udk MunfndKaom *l*sm&mwDvlrsdK; a'gufwm trfat&zf (Dr.M.A.Rauf) u EIwfcGef; qufpum; >rufMum;onf/ uuf(pf)[wf cseE´m&m qif; (Keshah Chaidra Sen) orD;vnf;jzpf yDpDqif; orD;acR;rvnf;jzpfol okZmwm a'0D (Sujata Devi) vnf; {nfhcHyGJokdUwufa&mufcJhonf/ yxrtBudrf w*dk;vma&mufpOfu yDpDqif;xHü wnf;cdkcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ &efukefNrdKUonf w*dk; wwd,c&D;pOfü c&D;qHk;&yfem;&mt&yfjzpfonf/ ta&SUawmiftm&SwpfcioUkd oH;vMum vSnvnfom; Gf k hf G a&mufcJhonhftwGuf &efukefNrdKUü 0ifa&mufem;ae onfhtckdufw*dk;yifyef;EGrf;e,fae/ at;csrf;Nidrf oufonhf &Sefwdedauwefausmif;ESifh umvuwåm; odkU jyefvkdpdwfrsm; w*dk;wGif jzpfay:ae[efwlonf/ atmufwbmv 24 &ufonf [dEL"avhx;kH pHr;xGe; kd ´ D f yGawmf a'yg0vDaeUvnf;jzpfaeav&m xdkaeYrSmyif J arG;&yfajrodkY w*dk;jyefvnf xGufcGmonf/ þum; jrefrmha&ajrudw*d;aemufq;EIwqufcjhJ cif;jzpfonf/ k k kH f jrefrmbmomjyef w*dk;pmayrsm; Edb,fvq& w*d;uAsmrsm;? 0w¬Kwkdrsm; k f k k udk q&maZmf*sD (1907-1990)? q&mrif;ok0Pf (1909-2004) wdkUu jrefrmbmomodkU pwifjyef qdkcJhjcif;aMumifh jrefrmwpfEdkifiHvHk;½Sd pmzwfy&dowf rsm;u uHaumif;axmufrpGm w*dk;pmrsm;ukd jrefrm bmomjzifh avhvmzwf½IcGifh &&SdcJhMuonf/ 20&mpk yxrq,f p k E S p f r sm;twG i f ; pmwwfynmwwfjrefrmrsm;u t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh a&;om;xm;onhf w*dk;pmrsm;udk wpfckwfw& ESpoufzwf½vmMuaomfvnf; 1930jynhEp0ef;usif f I fSf a&mufrSom w*dk; uAsm? 0w¬K? jrefrmbmom jyefrsm;udk &efukefwGif tajcpdkufxkwfa0aeonhf r*¾Zif;rsm;ü us,fus,fjyefUjyefUazmfjyvmMuonf/ w*dk;taMumif; jrefrmpmzwfy&dowfESifh pwifa&;om;rdwfqufay;olrsm;teuf q&maZmf*sD u OD;aqmifoltjzpf yg0ifcJhonf/ 1929 ckESpfwGif 18&mpk jrefrmpmaytaMumif; q&maZmf*sD a[majym &mü w*dk;taMumif; xnfhoGif;a[majymcJhonf/ 1935 ckESpf0ef;usifü w*dk;pmayrsm;tm; jrefrm bmomokYd jyefqcaMumif; oufaotaxmuftxm; kd hJ jzifh OD;oef;xGwf (uavmiftrnf wdkufpdk;) u q&maZmf*sDa&;om;cJhonhf w*dk;taMumif;ESifh tapm qHk; bmomjyefcJhonhf *DwOÆvD (Gitanjali) uAsmpk ESifh qef;paomfwmuAsmpk (The Crescent Moon)rS uAsmtcsdKUudk axmufjycJhonf/ q&m OD;oef;xGwf onf &efukefwuúodkvf pmMunfhwkdufü q&maZmf*sD 'kwd,pmMunfhwdkufrSL;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif cJhzl;onf/ jrefrmpmayavmuwGif 21&mpk yxr q,fpkESpfxdwdkif w*dk;pmrsm;udk jrefrmbmomodkY jyefqaeMuqJjzpfygonf/ jrefrmbmomodUk tapmqH; kd k jyefqdkcJhonhf w*dk;uAsm 3 yk'fudk OD;vS t,f'Dwm tjzpf wm0ef,lxkwfa0cJhonfh BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; 1935 ckESpf Mo*kwfvESifh pufwifbmvxkwfwGif azmfjycJhonf/ azmfjyyg BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;rsm;ü q&maZmf*sD a&;om;onhf ]]tdE,EdiiH vli,frsm;ESihf d´ k f 142
    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay acwf o pf td E ´ d , pmay ta&;awmf y H k } } ( The uAsmrsm;udk OD;cefY t,f'Dwmtjzpf wm0ef,l Revolutionary Movement in Modern Indian xkwfa0onhf pmqdkawmfr*¾Zif;wGif azmfjycJhonf/ Literature and Indian Youth) aqmif;yg;vnf; yg0if xdkr*¾Zif;wGif q&mrif;ok0Pf bmomjyefonhf onf/ xdkaqmif;yg;udk t"dutm;jzifh w*dk; w*dk; uAsmESpfyk'fudk q&maZmf*sDu rdwfquf pmrsm;tay: tajccHvsuf a&;om;cJhaomfvnf; trSmpma&;om;ay;cJhonf/ xdkuAsmESpfyk'fpvHk;udk rGwqvifpma&;q&m rd[m ruftbm (Mahammet rlvqef;paomfwmuAsmpkrS a&G;xkwfxm;jcif; f k D f D k Iqbal) ESifh bifupfcsE´&m cswå&m*sD&D;wdkU pmay jzpfonf/ rdwquftrSmpmwGif q&maZmf*su w*d; vuf&mrsm;udkvnf; rSDjirf;jyKcJhonf/ b0tusOf;csKyEihf rl&if;w*d; uAsmpktrnf (The fS k xdkpOfu acwfynmwwfvli,ftrsm;pkudk Crescent Moon) udk ]] qef;paomfwm}} [k uAsm t*Fvdyf uAsm? jyZmwf? 0w¬KESifh 0w¬Kwdkrsm;u qefqefvSypGm jyefqdkay;cJhonf/ q&maZmf*sD MoZmvTrf;rdk; oufa&mufonf/ udwfpf(Keats)? &Sif;vif;a&;om;csufu w*dk;ESifh oluAsmrsm; ½S,fvD(Shelley) ESifh 0yf(pf)0ghof (Wordsworth)wdkU tay: jrefrmpmzwfy&dowfu ydkrdkem;vnfcHpm; a&;om;onfh tcspfbGJU? obm0bGJUrsm;udk vdkvm; EdkifrIudk ay;pGrf;Muonf/ ESpfouf zwf½IMuonf/ 1920 jynhfESpfvGefumv w*dk; qef;paomfwmuAsmpkrS uAsmrsm; jrefrmEkdifiHodkU w*dk;wwd,tBudrfa&mufvmNyD; udk q&mrif;ok0Pfu qufvufbmomjyefqdkum aemufydkif;wGifrS t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh a&;om;xm; pmqdkawmf r*¾Zif;wGif xnfhoGif;azmfjycJhonf/ onhf w*dk; pmayrsm;udk pwifzwf½IvmMuonf/ 1935 ckESpf0ef;usifwGif xkduAsm pkpkaygif; 14 yk'f w*dk; pmrsm;um; pmzwfoltm; cHpm;rI& &SdNyD; jrefrmpmzwfy&dowfu BudKufESpfoufpGm otjynfht0 ay;pGrf;Ekdifojzifh w*dk;pmrsm;u zwf½IcJhMuonf/ jrefrmpmzwf y&dowfMum;wGif euf½Idif;xda&mufpGm xdkYaemuf q&mrif;ok0Pfonf w*dk; ae&m,lEdkifcJhonf/ Ak'¨bmom0if jrefrmpmzwf ]]t,f'wm }}trnf&dS 0w¬Kwdukd jrefrmbmomjyefNyD; D k y&dowfu w*d;pmrsm;udzwf½jI yD; w*d;pmrsm;wGif 1935 ckESpf Edk0ifbmvxkwf BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;wGif k k k xdawGU&onhf w*d; rsKd ;csppw?f trsKd ;om;a&;pdw?f azmfjycJhonf/ xdkESpfrSmyif q&mrif;ok0Pfatmuf k f d BuD;rm;us,fjyefUonfh vlom;0g'rsm;onf onf;cH pzdUk 'foUkd ynmawmfoif oGm;&ojzifw*d; uAsmESihf h k EdkifpGrf;ESifh tv,ftvwfvrf;pOfudk oifMum; pmrsm;tm; bmomjyefqdkrI &yfqdkif;oGm;onf/ a[mjyojzifh Ak'¨w&m;ESifh eD;pyfonf[k cHpm;Mu& qef;paomfwmuAsmpkrS tjcm;uAsmrsm;udk onf/ w½kwf-jrefrm ujym;pma&;q&m armifjzL;u xdktcsdefumvonf jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyf qufvuf bmomjyefcJhonf/ uavmiftrnf a&;BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufrIrsm; tpysdK;vm&mrS Edk;Mum; armifjzL; (1905-1970) trnf&if;rSm rpöwm wuf<uonhf tqifhodkU ul;ajymif;aecsdefvnf; wef*Grfavsmif (OD;*Grfavsmif) jzpfonf/ q&m jzpfayonf/ w*dk; emrnfausmf *DwÍÆvDuAsmpkrS armifjzL;ESifh ZeD;onf &Sefwdedauwefausmif;odkUyif ]]'dkYtdE´d,}}trnf½SduAsmudk q&maZmf*sDu jrefrm ppf B ud K acwf u oG m ;a&muf a vh v mcJ h M uonf / vef ' ef w uú o d k v f r S ynmoif M um;a&;qd k i f & m bmomodkU jyefqdkcJhonf/ q&mrif;ok0Pfonfvnf; q&maZmf*sD 'DyvdkrmbGJU&cJhol armifjzL;uw*dk;ausmif;wGif ESihftwl 1929 ckESpf 0ef;usifrSpí w*dk;uAsmrsm;udk ausmif; om;? ausmif;olrsm;tm; pepfopfenf;jzifh jrefrmbmomodkY jyefqdkcJhMuonf/ xdk bmomjyef oifMum; ydkYcsay;aeonfudk awGUjrifcJhMu&onf/ 143
    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay q&marmifjzL;onf w*dk;ESifh udk,fwdkifudk,fus awGU cG i f h & onh f &S m ;&S m ;yg;yg; jref r mpma&;q&m wpfa,mufjzpfonf/ armifjzL;u ¤if;wdUk pdw0if f pm;zG,f awGUqHkrItaMumif;udk aqmif;yg;tjzpf jyefvnfa&;om;cJhonf/ 1942 ckESpf jrefrmEdkifiHodkU *syefrsm;0if a&mufvmNyD;aemuf *syefacwfwpfavQmuf w*dk; pmrsm;udk jrefrmbmomodkU jyefqdkjcif;&yfqdkif;oGm; onf/ 1946 ckESpf 0ef;usifrSpí 1948 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYwGif jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&; &NyD;aemufydkif; bmomjyefpmayrsm; rsm;jym;pGm jyefvnfay:xGufvmcJhonf/ uavmiftrnf yg&*l «trnf&if; OD;vSBudKif (1921-2011)» onf ppfNyD; acwftwGif; w*dk; pmrsm;udk bmomjyefolrsm; teuf taumif;qHk; jyefqdkEkdifcJholjzpfonf/ q&m yg&*lonf tdE,EdkifiHwif 1947 ckEprS 1952 ckEpf d´ G S f S txd ig;ESpfwdkifwdkif [if'DpmayESifh,Ofaus;rIudk avhvmoif,lcJhNyD; 1986 ckESpfwGif &Sefwdedauwef odkU oGm;a&mufcJhonf/ q&myg&*lu w*dk; emrnfausmf uAsmrsm; udkomru 0w¬Kwdk 39 yk'f? 0w¬Kvwf? 0w¬K&SnfESifh jyZmwfwcsdKUudkyg bmom jyefqdkcJhonf/ w*dk; pmayvuf&mrsm;? tawG; tac:rsm;ESihf w*d; taMumif;udvnf; q&myg&*lu k k aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;cJhonf/ q&myg&*lonf ygVd? ouúwESifh [if'Dbmomrsm;udk wwfuRrf; aomaMumifh w*dk;wcsdKUpmrsm;udk [if'DbmomrS wdkuf½dkufjyefqdkcJhonf/ w*d;a&;om;onfpmrsm;ukd [if'bmomESifh k h D b*FgvDbmomrsm;jzifh wdkufqdkifppfaq;í jrefrm bmomodkY jyefqdka&;om;cJhol jrefrmpma&;q&m wpfOD;rSm OD;aomfZif(1913-1990) jzpfonf/ q&mBuD;OD;aomfZifu *DwOÆvD uAsmpkukd [if'rEihf D l S omru b*FgvDrlESifhyg wdkufqdkifppfaq;vsuf 1972 ckESpfwGif jrefrmbmomjyefqdkcJhonf/ þwGif q&mOD;aomfZifu jrefrm[efESifheD;pyfrIxuf rlv b*FgvDrl ay:vGif apa&;udk OD;pm;ay; a&;om;cJonf/ h &nf½,csuum; jrefrmwdYktwGuf b*FgvD,Ofaus;rI G f f ESifhtawG;tac:rsm;ukd uRrf;0ifEkdifap&efjzpfonf/ uavmiftrnf '*kefwm&m (trnf&if; OD;aX;NrdKif) onf 1946 ckESpf 0ef;usifwGif emrnf xif&Sm;ausmfMum;cJhonhf vli,fpma&;q&mjzpfNyD; w*dk; uAsmwcsdKUudkvnf; bmomjyefqdkcJhonf/ xkdenf;wlyif pma&;q&mZeD;armifESHjzpf Muonhf rif;,ka0 (OD;0if;armif) ESifh aiGwm&D «a':cif&D (1925-1958)» wkdUonf vnf;aumif;? aemufydkif;wGif jrefrmpmay rsdK;qufopf rdk;rdk; (tif;vsm;) (1945-1990) wdUk uvnf;aumif; w*dk; uAsmtrsm;tjym;udk jrefrmbmomjyefqcMhJ uonf/ kd w*dk; 0w¬Kwdktm;vHk;eD;yg;udk q&myg&*l ESifh q&mjroef;wifh (1929-1998)wdkUu bmom jyefcJhMuNyD; xdk0w¬Krsm;rSm tBudrfBudrf xyfrHyHkESdyfcJh& onf/ pma&;q&mrif;ausmu ausmviO; uavmif f f dI f D trnfuGJjzifh w*dk;uAsmtcsKdUukd bmomjyefcJh onf/ xdkUtwl q&mwdkufpdk; (1920-2003)ESifh wuúov0if;rGeuvnf; w*d;pmtcsKUd udk a&G;cs,í kd f f k f jrefrmbmomodkU jyefqdkcJhMuonf/ q&mjroef;wifhESifh tjcm;pma&;q&mrsm; onf jrefrmpmzwfy&dowftwGuf w*dk;uAsmrsm;ESihf 0w¬Kwdkrsm;tm; t*Fvdyfbmomjyefrsm;rSwpfqifh jrefrmbmomodkU jyefqdkcJhMujcif; jzpfonf/ w*dk;pmayMoZmoufa&mufrI w*dk; pmayMoZmoufa&mufrIaMumifh acwfprf; pma&;q&mrsm;u acwfopf jrefrmpmay yHkoP²mef wpf&yftm; tawG;opfta&;opfrsm;jzifh zefwD;a&;om;onhfyHkpH wDxGifa&;om;cJhMuonf/ txl;ojzifh acwfprf;pmaytjzpf uAsmrsm;? 0w¬Kwdk rsm; pwifay:xGuvmonf/ t"dutm;jzifh t*Fvdyf f bmomjzifh a&;om;xm;onhf w*dk;pmayrsm;udk avhvmzwf½jI cif;rSwpfqifh jrefrmpma&;q&mrsm;ESihf pmzwfy&dowftay: w*d;pmayMoZmoufa&muf k vTrf;rdk;vmjcif; jzpfonf/ jrefrmvli,f pma&;q&m 144
    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay rsm;ESifh qef;opfajymif;vJrIudk ESpfoufMuonhf acwfynmwwfrsm;pkzGJUvsuf w*dk; pmayvuf&m rsm;tay: aqG;aEG;jiif;cHrrsm;udvnf; jyKvyMf uonf/ kI k k 1935 ckESpf0ef;usifwGif tdE´d,EdkifiH vGwf ajrmufa&; trsdK;om;a&;vIyf&Sm;BudK;yrf;rI t&Sdef tjrifhrm;qHk;odkY a&muf&Sdvmonf/ jrefrmpma&; q&mrsm; BudKufESpfoufMuonhf w*dk; *DwOÆvD uAsmpkvm ]]'dkUtdE´d,}} uAsmrS ]]tMuift&yfü pdwf"mwfwdkUonf aMumufjcif;uif;í...}} [lonhf pmom;rsm;u jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&; BudK;yrf;rI Edk;Mum;pumv jrefrmrsm; pdwf"mwfudk ydkrdkcdkifrm wuf<uapcJonf/ w*d; trdajrudk cspjf rwfE;pdwf h k kd vlom;0g'ESihf vGwvyfrtwGuf wdkufyGJ0ifBudK;yrf;rI? f I trSew&m;ESihf pnf;vH;nDnwrukd cspjf rwfE;wefz; f k G f I kd kd xm;rIrsm; xif[yfaeonhf pmrsm;ESifh w&m;rQw rIESifh jidrf;csrf;rIrsm; vrf;yGifhvmap&ef tawG;ESifh ta&;ESprsdK;pvH;jzifh w*d; BudK;yrf;rIrsm;u jrefrm f k k EdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;twGuf BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufaeMu onhf jrefrmvli,frsm;ESifh acwfynmwwf pma&;q&m rsm;twGuf pdw"mwfcetm;rsm;jrifrm;vmapcJhonf/ f Gf h tjcm;wpfzufrMS unhvQif w*d;onf tm&S f k EdkifiHBuD;rsm;odkU c&D;oGm;&mü toGm;c&D;üjzpfap? tjyefc&D;üjzpfap jrefrmEdkifiHodkU0ifa&mufNyD; c&D; wpfaxmuf oHk;Budrfwdkif &yfem;cJhzl;onf/ xkd&yfem; cJhonhf oHk;BudrfpvHk;ü &uftenf;i,frQom &efukef wGif aexdiom;cJojzifh w*d;c&D;pOfrsm;udk jrefrm k f G h k trsm;pku trIrtrSwrhJ jzpfc[efwonf/ w*d;tm; hJ f hJ l k jrifawGUvdkuf&onhf jrefrmtenf;pkuvnf; w*dk; udk rkwqwusip,Eihf xnf0gcefYnm;onhf a&S;jzpf f d f fG fS aemufjzpf jrifEipr;&Sonhf olawmfpifwpfO;? toH kd f G f d D atmifatmifjzifh b*FgvDbmomjzihf uAsm&Gwf aumif;olwpfOD;[kom ½IjrifMuonf/ tb,fh aMumifhqdkaomf b*FgvDrsm;u w*dk;tm; ynm&Sif wefcdk;BuD; u0dwpfyg;ozG,f ½dkaoudkif;½Idif;pGm qufqHí arT;BudKifonhf pHy,fyef;ukH;rsm; qufo Muvsuf w*dk; ajc&if;wGif 'l;axmufxdkifum w*dk;ajcrsm;tm; ayGUzufOD;wdkufxm;Muonfudk jrif&jcif;aMumifhyif jzpfonf/ ynma&;e,fy,füvnf; wcsdKUudk,fydkif ausmif;rsm;u w*dk; &Sefwdedauwefausmif;udk twk,vsuf orm;½d;us pnf;urf;wif;usyrrsm;ukd l k fI avQmvsuf ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;tm; vGwvyfpm h f G ynmoifMum;ay;&ef BudK;yrf;tm;xkwvmMuonf/ f a'gufwmarmifjzL; (OD;*Gravsmif) onfvef'efwuú f odvrS ynma&;'DyvdrmbGUJ ,lcNhJ yD; ynma&;0efxrf; k f k tjzpf 0g;c,fr? jrif;NcH? armfvNrdKif ponhNf rdKUrsm;wGif trIxrf;cJhonf/ a'gufwmarmifjzL;onf w*dk; ynma&;vkyfief;rsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;ojzifh &Sefwded auwefausmif;odkU oGm;a&mufavhvmcJhzl;onf/ w*kd;ausmif;wGif ta&SUwdkif;½dk;&m"avhtwdkif;ynm ydUk csaompepfukd avhvmcJonf/ 1960 jynhEp0ef;usif h fSf wGif a'gufwmarmifjzL; tNidrf;pm;,lNyD;aemuf &Seweauwefutwk,vsuf ud,yiausmif;av; f d d kd l k f kd f wpfausmif;udk urm&GwfNrdKUe,f½Sd wuúodkvf"r®m½kH awmifbufem;wGif zGifhvSpfcJhzl;onf/ odkUaomf xdausmif;onf atmifjrifrenf;yg;jcif;ESihf tjcm;tcuf k I tcJrsm;aMumifh umvMum&SnrzGiEibJ ydwc&onf/ f hf kd f f hJ emrnfBuD; pma&;q&mBuD;yg&*l tay:ü vnf; w*dk;MoZm vTrf;rdk;oufa&mufcJhonf/ q&myg&*l touft&G,fBuD;&ifhvmcsdef touf 84 ESpfausmft½G,fwGif wpfoufvHk; pmaya&;om; pkaqmif;cJhonhfaiGaMu;rsm;udk rlwnfNyD; pdwftm; xufoefpm pmMunhwuwpfwuxaxmifaqmuf G f kd f kd f l wnfcJhonf/ q&myg&*lu ¤if; pmMunhfwdkufukd ]]&SeweauwefpmMunhwu}f } [k trnfay;cJonf/ f d d f kd h xkdpmMunfhwdkufonf &efukefNrdKU ajrmufbuf qifajczkH;NrdKUwpfNrdKUjzpfonhf a&TaygufuHü zGifhvSpf xm;onf / q&myg&*l o nf w*d k ; uG , f v G e f N yD ; ESpaygif;rsm;pGmMumjrifr&eweauwefoYkd oGm;a&muf f hSSf dd vnf ywfcJhzl;oljzpfonf/ w*dk;r&Sdawmhonhf &Sefwded auwefonfyif q&myg&*ltm; rsm;pGmqGJ aqmif zrf;pm;EdkifcJhaMumif; pmMunhfwdkuftrnfu 145
    • pmqdk&mbifj'mewfw*dk;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihf jrefrmpmay oufaoyifjzpfawmhonf/ &Seweauwef pmMunfh f d d wdkufudk 2005 ckESpfwGif pwifzGifhvSpfcJhonf/ &efukefNrdKU&Sd w*dk;toif;udk 1952 ckESpfu pwifzGJUpnf;cJhonf/ w*dk;toif; Ouú|tjzpf emrnf a usmf j ref r mpma&;q&mrsm;? wuú o d k v f ygarmu©rsm;? t&m&SdBuD;rsm; tp&SdolwdkUu wm0ef ,lcJhMuonf/ xdkodkU wm0ef,lcJhMuolrsm;rSm ygVd ygarmu© OD;atmifoef;? &efukefwuúodkvf ygarmu© csKyf a'gufwmxifatmif? a'gufwm xifatmif tpfudk w&m;olBuD;csKyfOD;jrifhodef;? ausmif;q&m vnf;jzpf? emrnfausmfpma&;q&mvnf;jzpfonhf a'gufwmarmifjzL;? OD;cefYwdkY jzpfMuonf/ 1989 ckEpf aemufyi;wGirl tdE,pmayuRr;usif ynm&Sif S kd f f d´ f pma&;q&myg&*lu toif;Ouú| wm0efudkxrf; aqmifcJhonf/ q&myg&*lonf w*dk;tm; av;pm; MunfnKd oljzpfNyD; w*d;vlom;0g'qdi&m tawG; k k f tac:rsm;ESifh Ak'¨bmomt,l0g'tay: tav; teufwefzdk;xm;oljzpfonf/ 1950 jynfEp0ef;usiwif jrefrmEdiiH w*d; h S f f G k f k toif; pwifwnfaxmifpu vpOftpnf;ta0; usif ; yNyD ; td E ´ d , vl r sd K ;rsm;a&m jref r mrsm;yg w*dk;uAsm&GwfqdkyGJrsm; usif;ycJhonf/ w*dk; *Dw? oDcsif;ESifh tursm;udkvnf; wD;cwfoDqdkMu onhfenf;wl jyZmwfrsm;udkvnf; cif;usif;ujy cJhMuonf/ aemufydkif;wGifrl tpnf;ta0;udk w*dk; arG;aeY usa&mufonhf aeU&ufwGifom wpfESpf wpfBudrfusif;yEdkifcJhonf/ rsufarSmufumvü w*dk; toif; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; wjznf;jznf;avsmhyg; vmum w*dk;ESifhywfoufonhfyGJvrf;rsm; usif;y jcif;r&Sdoavmuf jzpfvmonf/ w*dk;toif; jyef vnf&ioefvmap&ef BudK;yrf;aqmif&uoifonf/ S f G f h 1961 ckESpf arv 12&ufaeYwGif w*dk; &mjynhftcrf;tem;rsm;udk &efukefNrdKUawmfcef;rü NcdrfhNcdrfhoJusif;ycJhonf/ xdkpOfu jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHawmf or®wBuD; ref;0if;armif udk,fwdkif wufa&muf*kPfjyKcJhonf/ xdkUjyif w&m;olBuD;csKyf OD;jrifhodef;? jrefrmEdkifiHw*dk;toif; Ouú| tpdk;& tqifhjrifht&m&SdBuD;rsm;ESifh pmayynm&Siftajrmuf tjrm;vnf; wufa&mufcJhMuonf/ w*dk;&mjynhfyGJ wufa&mufvmolrsm;tm; or®wBuD;ref;0if;armif u BuD;jrwfonhftawG;tac:ynm&Sif? uAsmpmqdk BuD;w*dk; av;eufaumif;rGefvSonhf tawG; tac:? t,ltqrsm; vltrsm;tMum;ü ysHUESHUap&ef ESifh wnfwHhcdkifNrJap&ef qufvufxdef;odrf;Mu& rnfjzpfaMumif; rdeYf Mum;cJonf/ w*d;&mjynftxdr; h k h f trSwf pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;udkvnf; yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhNyD; k ar½dk;r&if;uvyf (Mayo Marine Club) wGif w*d; jyZmwfwpfcuvnf; pifwifujycJhonf/ k kd w*dk;pmrsm;udk jrefrmbmomodkU ,aeU xdwdkif qufvufjyefqdka&;om; xkwfa0MuqJjzpf onf/ okdYaomf w*dk;*Dw? oDcsif;? tuESifh jyZmwfrsm;udrl oDqw;rIwjf cif;? wifqufujyjcif; k kd D r&Sdoavmuf enf;yg;oGm;onf/ jrefrmhtEkynmavmuwGif A*sDatmifpkd; (1923-1990) onf olyef;csDjzifh jrefrmyef;csD acwfopf wpfacwfudk pdkufxlEdkifcJhol jzpfonf/ A*sD atmifpdk; yef;csDvuf&mrsm;wGif w*dk;taiGU toufrsm; vTr;rd;aeaMumif; awGU&SEionf/ q&m f k d kd f aZmf*sD tm;ay;wdkufwGef;rIaMumifh A*sDatmifpdk; onf 1951 ck E S p f w G i f &S e f w d e d a uwef o d k U oGm;a&mufNyD; yef;csDynmoif,l avhvmcJhonf/ q&maZmf*sDonf A*sDatmifp;tm; &SeweauwefoUkd kd f d d oGm;a&mufí yef;csDynmavhvm&ef wdkufwGef;cJh½Hk omru tdE´d,oH½Hk;odkU A*sDatmifpdk;twGuf ynm oifqk&&Sdap&ef awmif;cHay;cJhonf/ w*dk;pmrsm;udk jrefrmpmzwfy&dowfu pOfqufrjywf ESpfoufpGmzwf½IcJhMu? zwf½IaeMuqJ jzpfonf/ jrefrmpmzwfy&dowftay: xda&mufpGm vTrf;rdk;Ekdifonhf EdkifiHjcm;pma&; q&mrsm; pmay tenf;tusOf;om&SdNyD; xdkxJwGif w*d;pmrsm; k a½SUwef;rS yg0ifaeaMumif; awGU&S&onf/ d 146 a'gufwmaomfaumif;
    • jrefrmEdiiH oef;acgifpm&if;orki;f k f d vlOD;a& oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,lrIonf a&S;,cifuwnf;u aumuf,lrl&SdcJhaMumif; orkdif; taxmuftxm;rsm;t& od&SdEkdifayonf/ EkdifiHwpfEkdifiH zGJYpnf;yHktajccHOya't& 10 ESpfvQif wpfBudrfom aumuf,lcJhjcif;jzpfayonf/ jrefrmEkdifiHwGifvnf; omvGefrif;w&m;BuD; vufxufESifh bkd;awmfbk&m; vufxufwwif vlO;D a&oef;acgifpm&if;ukd aumuf,cMhJ uaMumif; orki;f taxmuf txm;rsm;ü awG&Eionf/ Ydk G l d Y dS dk f oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,lrIwGif &nf&G,fcsufrsm;xm;&Sdonf/ ,if;wdkYteuf pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef; vrf;ñTefrIrsm;ukd a&;qGJjy|mef;Ekdifa&;twGuf vlYpGrf;tm;pm&if;&&Sda&;onf vGefpGmrSta&;BuD;vSayonf/ vGwfvyfa&;r&rD aumuf,lcJhaom oef;acgifpm&if;xuf vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemuf aumuf,lcJhaom oef;acgifpm&if;rSm ykdíwdusjynfhpHkaMumif; pm&if;Z,m;rsm;wGif awGY&SdEkdifayonf/ vlOD;a&ukd abbDvkdeD;,m; (Babylonia) Ediiwif bDpD 3800 cefYuvnf;aumif;? w½kwEiiH k f H G f kd f wGif bDpD 3000 cefYuvnf;aumif;? tD*spfEdkifiHwGif bDpD 2500 cefYuvnf;aumif; a&wGuMf unfcMhJ uaom h orkdif; taxmuftxm;rsm;&Sdonf/ vlOD;a&oef;acgifpm&if;ukd uae'gEkdifiH usHKbwfjynfe,fü 1666 ckESpfwGif yxrOD;qHk; aumufjzpfcJhonf/ acwfopfvlOD;a&oef;acgifpm&if;ukd tar &duefjynfaxmifpkü 1797 ckESpf tar&duefjynf axmifp zGUJ pnf;yHtajccHOya't& aumuf,cNhJ yD; k k l 10 ESpfwpfBudrfaumuf,l&ef vdktyfvmcJhonf/ pl;prf;csdef (Time of Observation) ü e,fed rdwftwdtusowfrSwfxm;aom t&yfwpf&yf twGif; awGY&SdorQaomvlwkdYtm; ]]awGU&SdvlOD;a&}} (The True or actual Population) [k ac:onf/ awGY&Sd vlOD;a&xJwGif tqkdygt&yfrS tkd;tdrfjzifh twnf wusaexkdifolrsm;? {nfhonfrsm;ESifh tajctaerJh rsm;yg0ifaeaMumif;awGU&onf/ pl;prf;cseü t&yfwpf&yftwGi;ü tk;tdrjf zifh df f d twnfwusaexkiorsm;tm; ]]aeNrJvO;a&}} (Ded f l l D Jure or normal Population) [k ac:onf/ a&G;cs,xm;aomaeY&uf oef;acgif,Hü f EkdifiHwpfEdkifiH e,fedrdwftwGif;&Sd (u) aeNrJvlOD; a& okdYr[kwf(c) awGY&Sd vlOD;a& ta&twGufESifh twl t&nftaoG;qkdif&m tcsuftvufrsm;ukd w&m;0if a&wGufpkaqmif;xm;onfhrSwfwrf;ukd vl O D ; a& oef;acgifpm&if; (Population Census) [kac:onf/ jrefrmEdiiwif jrefrmouú&mZf 999 ckEp?f k f H G S omvG e f r if ; w&m;vuf x uf E S i f h 1145 ck E S p f bkd;awmfbk&m;vufxufwkdYwGif vlOD;a&qkdif&m tcsuftvufrsm;ukd pkaqmif;cJhaMumif;orkdif; taxmuftxm;rsm;awGY&onf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH {&d,mtus,f t0ef;rSm 261227 'or 8 pwk&ef;rkif 676577 'or d 5 pwk&ef; uDvrwmjzpfNyD; vlO;a&oef;acgifpm&if; dk D D ukdrl 1872 ckESpfESifh 1881 ckESpfwkdYwGif atmuf jrefrmEdiirS pwifíaumuf,conf/ 1891 ckEprS kfH l hJ Sf pwifNyD; 10 ESpcefYjcm;NyD;aemuf vlOD;a&oef;acgif f pm&if;ukdaumuf,lcJhonf/ 1941 ckESpfwGif wpfEkdifiHvHk;vTrf;NcHKaom vlOD;a&oef;acgifpm&if;ukd aumuf,lcJhaomfvnf; c½kdiftvkduf vlOD;a&pm&if;Z,m;wpfckomusef&SdcJh 147
    • jrefrmEdkifiHoef;acgifpm&if;ordkif; NyD; 'kwd,urÇmppfaMumifh tjcm;pm&if;Z,m;rsm;rSm ysufpD;cJh&onf/ 1941 ckESpf vlOD;a& oef;acgif pm&if;t&rl jrefrmEkdifiHvlOD;a&rSm 16 'or 824 oef;&SdNyD; aumuf,lcJhaom {&d,mrSm 261752 pwk&ef; rkif jzpfojzifh vlO;a&odyonf;rI (Population d D f Density) rSm wpfpwk&ef;rkdifvQif 64 'or 29 jzpfonf/ 1872 ckESpfrS 1983 ckESpftxd vlOD;a& oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,lrI? aumuf,lonfh&ufpGJ ESifhvlOD;a&ESifh vlOD;a&odyfonf;rI (Population Density) wkYdudk Z,m;trSwf (1)wGif azmfjyxm;onf/ jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemuf 1953 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif jrefrmjynfrwGif 248 NrdKU? ucsifjynfe,fwGif 4 NrdKU pkpkaygif; 252 NrdKUwGif vnf;aumif;? 1954 ckEpwif jrefrmjynfr&Saus;&Gm S f G d tkyfpk 2143 ESifh ucsifjynfe,fwGif NrdKU{&d,mESifh xdpyfvsuf&Sdaom aus;&Gmtkyfpk 1016 ck pkpkaygif; 3159 wdYkwivnf;aumif; vlO;a&oef;acgifpm&if; Gf D aumuf,lcJhonf/ 1954 ckESpfwGif aus;&Gmtkyfpk rsm;rSm aumuf,lcJhaom aus;&Gmtkyfpk{&d,mrSm pkpkaygif; aus;&Gm{&d,m 15 &mckdifEIef;jzpfonf/ 1953 ckESpfwGif 252 NrdKUü aumuf,lcJh aomfvnf; jrefrmwpfjynfv;vlO;a&rSm 19.707 kH D oef;&SdcJhNyD; ,if;wkdYteuf trsdK;om;OD;a& 9688 oef;ESifh trsdK;orD;OD;a& 10019 oef;&Sd ojzifh usm;rtcsKd;rSm trsdK;orD;OD;a& 100 vQif trsdK;om; OD;a& 96 'or 70 &SdcJhonf/ vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemuf aumuf,lcJhaom oef;acgifpm&if;wGif NAdwdoQvufxufrS oef;acgif pm&if;rsm;xuf tcsuftvufyrjdk ynfppm pkaqmif; dk h kH G xm;aMumif;ukd awGY&onf/ ppfNyD;acwfoef;acgifpm&if;ukd vlOD;a& oef;acgifpm&if;? erlemvlOD;a&oef;acgifpm&if;? erlemtd;tdroef;acgifpm&if;? pufroef;acgifpm&if;? k f I tdrfwGif;pufrIvufrIoef;acgifpm&if;? pkdufysdK;a&; oef;acgifpm&if;[lí owfrSwfEkdifonf/ 1953 ckESpfü aumuf,lcJhaom oef;acgif pm&if;wGif orm;½kd;us ar;avh&Sdaom ar;cGef;rsm; tjyif Ekiiom;ESihf rSwwrf;wifcsdewif awGU&aom d f H f f G t&yfü aecJhonfhumvukd ar;cJhonf/ touf 6 ESpfESifhtxuf&SdolwdkYukd ynma&;qdkif&m taMumif; ar;onf/ touf 11 ESpfESihf txuf&SdolwdkYukd oef;acgifpm&if;ESpf (Census Year) wGif tvkyf vkycaom umv? toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;? f hJ vkyfom;? vkyfief;&Sif? ukd,fykdifvkyfief;tp&Sdaom tvkyftudkiftajctae? tvkyfvufrJhrsm;tm; tvkyfvufrJhjzpfae&jcif;taMumif;&if;ESifh 0ifaiG wkdYukd ar;jref;cJhonf/ tdraxmifonfrsm;tm; yxrtdraxmifjyK f f csdeftouftdrfaxmifouf? arG;zGm;cJhaom uav; ta&twGu?f touf&iaeaom uav;ta&twGuf? Sf om;OD;arG;csdeftouf? oef;acgifpm&if;ESpftwGif;ü aoqHk;cJhaom 5 ESpfatmufuav;ta&twGuf wkdYukd ar;jref;cJhonf/ 1973 ckESpf {NyDv 1 &ufrS 5 &uftxd aumuf,lcJhaom vlOD;a&oef;acgifpm&if;twGuf ]]1972 ckEpf jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdiioef;acgifpm&if; S k f H Oya'}}ukd jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmfvSefa&; aumifpDOuú|u jy|mef;vkdufonf/ 1973 ckESpf vlOD;a&oef;acgif;pm&if;wGif trnf?usm;^r? touf? tdrfaxmifa&;tajctae? vlrsdK;? EkdifiHom;? ukd;uG,fonfhbmom? tjrifhqHk; atmifjrifonftwef;? tvkytudi?f vkyief;? vkyf h f k f om;trsdK;tpm;? tvkyfvufrJhjzpf&onfh taMumif; &if;? rdcif? zciftaMumif;wkdYukd ar;jref;xm;onf/ 1973 ckESpfESifh 1983 ckESpf vlOD;a& oef;acgifpm&if; 2 ckukd jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOf ygwDtpkd;& vufxufwGif aumuf,lcJhonf/ 1973 ckESpf oef;acgifpm&if; aumuf,l&m wGif oef;acgifpm&if;ESihf rJqE´&if vkyief;&yfrsm;ukd S f BuD ; Muyf u G y f u J & ef t wG u f ? A[k d a umf r &S i f E S i f h aumfrwD? jynfe,f^wkdif;aumfr&SifESifhaumfrwD? 148
    • jrefrmEdkifiHoef;acgifpm&if;ordkif; NrdKUe,faumfr&SifESifhaumfrwD? &yfuGuf^aus;&Gm tkypaumfr&SiEihf aumfrwDrsm;ukd zGYJ pnf;cJMh uonf/ f k f S 1983 ckESpf {NyDv 1 &ufrS 5 &ufaeYwGif vlOD;a&oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,l&eftwGuf 1973 ckESpfwGif vlOD;a&oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,lcJhpOfu uJhodkYyif txufygtwkdif; aumfrwD 4 qifhukd zGJYpnf;cJhonf/ 1973 ckESpf rwfv 31 &ufaeY nOfhoef; acgif,Hü jrefrmwpfEdkifiHvHk;wGif &SdonfhvlOD;a&ukd &nfñTef;vsuf vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESifh jynfolY tiftm;OD;pD;XmerS OD;aqmifí NrdKUe,ftkyfcsKyfa&; ,EÅ&m;tqifhqifh tultnDjzifh 1973 ckESpf {NyDv 1 &ufaeYrS 4 &ufaeYtxd ae&yfwGifaeNrJ vlOD;a&ukdvnf;aumif;? 1973 ckESpf {NyDv 5 &uf aeYwGif avS? orÁef? oabFm ponfha&,mOftrsdK;rsdK; ay:&Sd aexkdifolESifh blwm½Hk&Sd &xm;wGJtcsdKUwkdYwGif aexkdifaomolwdkYESifh tajctaetwnfwusr&Sdol wkdYukd awGY&Sd&mt&yfü awGU&SdvlOD;a&tjzpfvnf; aumif;? rSwfwrf;wifjcif;jzifh jrefrmwpfEdkifiHvHk; twGuvO;D a&oef;acgifpm&if;ukd aumuf,cMhJuonf/ f l l xkdYtwl 1983 ckESpf {NyDv 1 &ufrS 4 &uf txdaeNrJvlOD;a&ESifh 1983 ckESpf {NyDv 5 &ufaeYwGif awGY&SdvlOD;a&ukd 1973 ckESpf uuJhokdYyif aumuf,lcJhNyD; wpfEkdifiHvHk;twGuf vlOD;a&ukd aumuf,lcJhonf/ 1973 ck E S p f vl O D ; a&oef ; acgif p m&if ; aumuf,l&mwGif &nf&G,fcsufxm;&Sd&m &nf&G,f csuf r sm;rS m qk d & S , f v pf t k y f c sKyf a &;,EÅ & m;uk d wnfaqmuf&ef jynfoYlvwawmftqifqiftwGu?f T f h h ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; a&G;cs,fEdkifa&;twGuf? rJqE´&Sifpm&if;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;vrf;ñTefrI rsm;ukd a&;qGJjy|mef;Edkifa&;twGuf ta&;BuD;aom vltiftm;pm&if;&&Sd&efwdYkjzpfonf/ 1983 ck E S p f vl O D ; a&oef ; acgif p m&if ; aumuf,l&mwGif &nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm EdkifiHawmf pD;yGm;a&;ESifhvlrIa&;pDrHudef;a&;qGJjcif;ESifh pDrH ceYfcGJa&;vkyfief;&yfrsm;twGuf cdkifvHkaom tajccH vlOD;a&pm&if;tif;&&Sd&ef? tpdk;&Xmersm;twGuf ,if;wkYdvkyief;rsm; aqmif&u&mwGif vkdtyfaom f G f vlrIa&;? pD;yGm;a&;ESifhvlOD;a&tcsuftvufrsm;ukd &&Sdap&ef? tem*wftwGuf vlOD;a&cefYrSef;jcif;? vkyfom;tiftm;cefYrSef;jcif;? vlOD;a&ajymif;vJrI tajctaersm;cefYrSef;jcif;ESifh vlOD;a& okawoejyK vkyfief;rsm;twGuf tajccHpm&if;tif;rsm;&&Sdap&ef? oef ; acgif p m&if ; Mum;umvrsm;wG i f vl r I a &;? pD ; yG m ;a&;erlemppfwrf;rsm;twGuf vkdtyfaom tajccHpm&if;tif;rsm;&&Sdap&efwkdYjzpfMuonf/ 1973 ckEpEihf 1983 ckEpf oef;acgifpm&if; S f S S aumuf,&mwGif pm&if;aumufuursm;owfrw&m l G f S f tus,ft0ef;rSm tdrfaxmifpk 50 cefY yg&Sd&rnf jzpfonf/ pm&if;aumufuGufwpfcktwGif; pm&if; aumuf u G u f w nf & S d y H k E S i f h pm&if ; aumuf u G u f e,fedrw?f taqmuftODrsm;wnf&yvrf;? a&wGi; d dS kH f a&ueftp&Sdonfhxif&Sm;aom ajrjyiftrSwftom; rsm;wnf&SdyHkukdazmfjyaom pm&if;aumufuGufajryHk wpfcka&;qGJxm;&onf/ taqmufttHpm&if;ukd vlO;a& oef;acgif k D pm&if;ESifh wpfNydKifwnf; {NyDv 1 &ufrS 4 &uf twGi; aumuf,cMhJ uonf/ f l tk;tdrr&Sd a&TUajymif;oGm;vmEdiaom avS? d f k f orÁe?f oabFmay:wGif twnfwusr&Sd aexkiol d f rsm;ukd 1973 ckEpEihf 1983 ckEpf {NyDv 5 &ufaeY S f S S eHeuf 6 em&DrS rGef;wnhf 12 em&DtwGi; pm&if; f aumuf,cMhJ uonf/ l 1973 ckESpfESifh 1983 ckESpfwGif aumuf,l &&SdcJhaom jynfe,f^wkdif;tvkduf vlOD;a&ESifh ESpfpOf vlOD;a&wkd;EIef;ukd Z,m; (2) wGif vnf;aumif;? jynfe,f^wdi;tvkuf vlO;a&jyefYcsufudk Z,m; (3) k f d D wGifvnf;aumif;azmfjyxm;onf/ 1983 ckESpf oef;acgifpm&if; ar;cGef;vTm twkd ESihf t&Snf 2 ckukd aemufqufwGJ 1 ESifh 2 wGif azmfjyxm;onf/ 149
    • jrefrmEdkifiHoef;acgifpm&if;ordkif; oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,la&;vkyfief; twGuf pm&if;aumufEifh pm&if;ppfwYdk onf vkyief; S f aqmif&uaepOftwGi; rdrwYkd tm; pm&if;aumufEihf G f f d S pm&if;ppftjzpf wm0efay;tyfaMumif;oufaocH uwfjym;rsm;ukd rdrwYkdEihf wpfygwnf; ,laqmifom; d S G Mu&onf/ pm&if; aumufuGufwpfckvQif tzGJY0if 3 OD;ygaom pm&if;aumufolrsm;u owfrSwfxm; aomaeY&ufrsm;wGif pm&if;aumuf&efjzpfNyD; pm&if; aumuftzGJY 5 zGJUcefYvQif pm&if;ppfwpfOD;? pm&if; aumufrsm;ESifh qufoG,fn§dEIdif;NyD; pm&if;tajza&; oGif;Mu&onf/ pm&if;aumuf,lolrsm;rSm oufqkdif&m pm&if; aumuf u G u f w G i f aexk d i f v suf & S d a om tdrfaxmifpkom;rsm;? oufqkdif&mpm&if;aumuf uG u f & S d tzG J Y tpnf ; wG i f aexk d i f o l v l O D ; a&? tdrfaxmifpkom;rsm;rS 6 vxuf rausmfvGefaom acwåc&D;vGefaeolrsm;? oufqkdif&mpm&if;aumuf uGuftwGif;odkY aexkdif&ef rwfv 31 &ufaeYn oef;acgifrausmfrD a&TUajymif;vmolrsm;? rwfv 31 &uf oef;acgifausmfvGefNyD; aoqHk;olrsm;&SdvQif oufqkdif&m tdrfaxmifpkwGif xnfhoGif;aumuf,l &efjzpfonf/ oufqkdif&mpm&if;aumufuGufwGif tk;tdrtwnfwusr&SbJ awGY&olrsm;? ausmif;abmf d f d 'gaqmifwif a&muf&aeol ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; G dS jzpfMuonf/ pm&if;raumuf,l&rnfholrsm;rSm tdrf axmifpkrS 6 vxufrenf;xGufcGmoGm;cJholrsm;? EdkifiHjcm;okdYynmoifoGm;a&mufolrsm;? aq;½HkokdY 6 vxufrenf; wufa&mufaq;uko aeolrsm;? (4) rwfv 31 &ufausmfvGefNyD;rS ajymif;a&TUvmolrsm;? rwfv 31 &uf oef;acgifaemufyi;wGif arG;zGm;aom dk f uav;rsm;? EdiijH cm;oHtzGYJEirom;pkrsm;jzpfMuonf/ kf S hf d 1973 ckESpfESifh 1983 ckESpf jrefrmEdkifiH oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,l&mwGif toHk;jyKcJhaom NrdKUe,fvufpGJpmtkyfrS t"dyÜm,fzGifh qkdcsuftcsdKUukd azmfjy&ayrnf/ taqmuf t tH k trk;tum&Sí vlaexkiEiaom? pD;yGm;a&; d d d f dk f wnfcif;xm;&SdEdkifaom twnfwustaqmuf ttHktm;vHk;ukd qkdvkdonf/ aeYcsif;wnfí aeYcsif; zsufodrf;aom taqmufttHkrsm; ryg0ifay/ tdrfcef; taqmuf t tH k t wG i f ; omref t m;jzif h tdrfaxmifpkwpfck odkYr[kwf pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; wpfckwnfaxmifEkdif&ef oD;jcm;0ifayguf xGuf aygufjzifh zGJYpnf;um&Hxm;aom tpdwftydkif;tcef; okdYr[kwf tcef;wGJrsm;ukd qkdvkdonf/ tdrfaxmifpk omreftm;jzifh twlae twlpm;aom rdom;pkrsm;ESifh rdom;pkrsm;wGif aqGrsdK;rawmfpyf onfjzpfap? vufcHxm;&Sdolrsm;yg0ifonf/ wpfOD; wnf;omyg0ifaom tdrfaxmifpkvnf;&SdEdkifonf/ td r f a xmif O D ; pD ; tdrfaxmifpkom;rsm; pm;0wfaea&; twGuf OD;pD;tkyfxdef;ollukdqkdvkdonf/tdrfaxmifpk om;xJrS 0ifaiGtrsm;qHk;&&Sdoljzpf&rnf[k aocsm aygufqkdvkdonfr[kwfacs/ tzG J Y tpnf ; tdrfaxmifzGJYí aexkdifjcif;rsdK;r[kwfbJ owfrSwfxm;aom pnf;rsOf;rsm;t& tkyfcsKyfol tBuD;tuJ cGifhjyKcsufjzifh aexdkifvsuf&Sdaom tkyfpkukd qkdvkdonf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;? bkd;bGm; &dyfom? a*[m? aq;½H?k tusOf;axmif ponfwkdY yg0ifonf/ ([dw,f? wnf;ckcef;rsm;ryg0ifyg/) k d bmoma&;tzG J Y tpnf ; bkef;BuD;ausmif;? oDv&Sifausmif;rsm; wGif awGY&Sd&aom bkef;awmfBuD;? OD;yOÆif;? ukd&if? oDv&Sif? bkd;olawmfwYdkukdtzGJYtpnf;ae vlOD;a& tjzpf owfrSwfaumuf,l&ef jzpfonf/ aqGrsdK; awmfpyfrIukdazmfjy&efrvkday (acwåomoemhabmif ukda&muf&Sdaeol 'kv’b&[ef;? omraPponf rsm;ukd tdrfaxmifpkwGif aumuf,l&efjzpfonf/) 150
    • jrefrmEdkifiHoef;acgifpm&if;ordkif; ppf w ef ; vsm; ppf w ef ; vsm;rsm;wG i f aexk d i f o l r sm; ukdvnf; tzGJYtpnf;aeolrsm;tjzpf aumuf,l&ef jzpfonf/ olemjyKq&mr abmf'gaqmifwif pkaygif;aexdkifolrsm;udk G vnf; tzGJYtpnf;aeolrsm;tjzpf aumuf,l&ef jzpfonf/ rma&;aq;½H aq;½Hk(pdwffu sef ; rma&;aq;½Hktygt0if) w aq;½Hwif twGi;vlemtjzpf ukoaeolrsm; k G f ukd 6 v ausmveygu tzGYJ tpnf;ae vlO;a&tjzpf f G f D aumuf,&efjzpfonf/ 6 vxufr ausmfvGefol l rsm;ukd rdrdwkdYtdrfwGif aumuf,l&efjzpfonf/ bk d ; bG m ;&d y f o m bd;bGm;&dyomwGif aeolrsm;ukd tzGYJtpnf; k f ae vl O D ; a&tjzpf aumuf , l & ef j zpf o nf / (&dyfomBuD;Muyfol? uGyfuJolrsm; ryg0ifyg/) tusOf ; axmif tusOf;axmifwGif tjypf 'PfcHae&olrsm; ukd tzGJYtpnf;aevlOD;a&tjzpf aumuf,l&ef jzpfonf/ apmifa&Smufa&;a*[mrsm;wGif aexkiorsm; h df l ukdvnf;tzGJYtpnf;aevlOD;a&tjzpf owfrSwf aumuf,l&efjzpfonf/ a&TUajymif;oGm;vmvlOD;a& tdrfajcr&Sd twnfwusr&Sd a&TUajymif;oGm; vmEd k i f a om orÁ e f a y:wG i f aexd k i f o l r sm;uk d qkdvkdonf/ vrf;ab;wGif avvGiaeol? awmif;&rf; hf pm;aomuforsm;ukd a&TUajymif;vlOD;a&[k owfrSwf l &ayrnf/ 1983 ck {NyDv 1 &ufrS 5 &uftxd vlO;a& D oef ; acgif p m&if ; aumuf , l & ef t wG u f 1983 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 5 &ufrS 9 &uftxd prf;acsmif; NrdKUe,fESifh r*Fvm'HkNrdKUe,f 2 ckwGif prf;oyf oef;acgifpm&if;ukd aumuf,lcJhonf/ tqkdygprf;oyf oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf ,l&mwGif arwåm&yfcHcsufrSm ]],ckaumuf,lrnfh vl O D ; a& oef ; acgif p m&if ; onf a'otvk d u f trSefwu,f&Sdaom vlOD;a&ukd t"duod&Sdvkdí aumuf,ljcif; jzpfonf/ okdYjzpfygí vlrsm;r<uif; rusef trSef&atmif 0kdif;0ef;ulnDMuyg}} [lí jzpfonf/ 1983 ckESpf oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,l&m wGiNf rdKUe,faygif; 288 NrdKUe,f&aomfvnf; taMumif; dS aMumif;aMumihf NrdKUe,f 6 ckwGif vlOD;a& oef;acgif pm&if;raumuf,lcJhbJ tqkdyg 6 NrdKUe,ftwGuf f cefYre;vlO;a& (Estimated Population) ukd wGucsuf S f D í pkpkaygif;vlOD;a&wGif xnhfoGif;azmfjycJhonf/ oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,csewif vlwpfO; l df G D wpfa,mufonf aeNrJvO;a&tjzpf vdyfpmwpfae l D &mwnf;wGifom&Sd&rnfjzpfonf/ urÇmhvlOD;a&oef; 7000 jynfhESpf urÇmukvor*¾ tzGJYBuD;u 2011 ckESpf? h atmufwkdbmv 31 &ufukd urÇmhvlOD;a&oef; 7000 jynfhonfhaeYtjzpf owfrSwfcJhonf/ urÇmwpf0ef;vHk;&Sd touf (15-49) ESpf t&G,ftwGif;&Sd rdcifrsm;onf 1970 jynfhESpfrsm;u xuf uav;&&SdrI avsmhenf;vmonfukd awGY& onf/ 1970 jynfhESpfwGif arG;EIef;Murf;onf 33 OD;&SdcJh&mrS 1990 jynhfESpfwGif 26 OD;? 2009 ckESpfwGif vlOD;a& 1000 vQif 20 OD;txdusqif;vmonf/ urÇmay:&Sd touf (15-49) ESpft&G,f&Sd trsdK;orD; 1 OD;vQif pkpkaygif; arG;zGm;EIef;rSm 1998 ckESpfwGif 2 'or 7 a,mufrS 2009 ckESpfwGif 2 'or 5 a,mufokdY wpfNydKifeufwnf;usqif;vm onf/ vlO;a&wk;wufrrm arG;zGm;rIomru aoqH; D d I S k rIESifhywfoufonfh aoEIef;Murf;? wpfESpfatmuf uav;aoqHk;rIEIef;? ig;ESpfatmufuav;aoqH;rI k EIef;rsm;usqif;vmrItay:wGifvnf; rlwnfonf/ 151
    • jrefrmEdkifiHoef;acgifpm&if;ordkif; urÇmay:wGif aoEIef;Murf;rSm 1970 jynfhESpfwGif vlOD;a& 1000vQif 12 a,mufrS 2009 ckESpfwGif 8 a,muftxd usqif;vmonf/ wpf E S p f a tmuf u av;aoEI e f ; rS m 1960 jynhfESpfwGif t&SifarG;uav; 1000 vQif 124 a,mufrS 2009 ckESpfwGif 42 a,mufokdYvnf; aumif;? ig;ESpfatmufuav;aoEIef;rSm 1960 ESpft&G,f&Sd trsdK;orD;wpfOD;vQif pkpkaygif;arG;zGm; EIef; (Total Fertility Rate) rSm usqif;ESpf q,fESpf twGi; usqif;vmonf/ arG;EIe;Murf;rSmrl ESpaygif; f f f 30 cefYtwGif; usqif;vmonf/ þokdYjzpf&jcif;rSm pD;yGm; zGHYNzdK;wkd;wufvmrI? trsdK;orD;rsm; ynmwwf ajrmufrIjrihfrm;vmrI? 0ifaiG&&eftcGifhtvrf;rsm; rsm;jym;vmrI? rsdK;qufyGm;usef;rma&;apmifha&SmufrI vl O D ; a&oef ; axmif a ygif ; wk d ; wuf o nf h E S p f r sm; vlOD;a& (oef;aygif;) oef;aygif; oef;aygif; oef;aygif; oef;aygif; oef;aygif; oef;aygif; oef;aygif; 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 jynfhESpfwGif 193 a,mufrS 2009 ckESpfwGif 60 a,mufokdYvnf;aumif; usqif;vmonf/ urÇmay:wGif vlwkdYESpfpOfarG;p ysrf;rQarQmf rSef;oufwrf;rSm 1970 jynfhESpfwGif 56 ESpf&Sd&mrS 1990 jynfhESpfwGif 65 ESpf? 2009 ckESpfwGif 69 ESpfokdY wkd;wufvmcJh&m vlOD;a&wkd;wufrIwGif t"dutaMumif;&yfwpfckjzpfonf/ ok d Y a omf ES p f p Of v l O D ; a&wk d ; wuf r I E I e f ; rS m (1970-1990) wGif 1 'or 8 &mcdkifEIef; &SdcJh&mrS (1990-2000) wGif 1 'or 4 &mckiEe;odYk usqif;cJh dfIf onf/ urÇ m h v l O D ; a&wk d ; wuf r I t ajctaeonf vGefcJhaomESpfaygif; 50 ESifhrwl uGJjym;vmonf/ txufwGifwifjycJhonfhtwkdif; wpfESpfatmuf uav;aoqHk;rIEIef;? ig;ESpfatmufuav; aoqHk;rI EIef;ESifh aoEIef;Murf;rsm;rSm usqif;vmouJhokdY arG;EIef;Murf; ( Rude Birth Rate) ESifh (15-49) ck E S p f 1804 1927 1959 1974 1987 1999 2011 cH,lvmrIESifh acwfrDom;qufjcm;enf;vrf;rsm; oHk;pGJrIwdkY yg0ifonf/ zGHYNzdK;qJEkdifiHrsm;wGif vlOD;a&wkd;wufvmrI onf tvkyftukdiftcGifhtvrf;enf;yg;vmjcif;ESifh rsdK;qufyGm; usef;rma&;apmifha&SmufrIvufvSrf;rrD jcif;wkdYaMumifhjzpfonf/ qif;&JEGrf;yg;rIavQmhcsa&; tpDtpOfrsm;wGif trsdK;orD;? trsdK;om;ESifhvli,f vl&G,frsm;twGuf rsdK;qufyGm;usef;rma&;qkdif&m owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ay;jcif; ponfwkdYukd xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnfjzpfonf/ urÇmhoef; 7000 ajrmufvlom;ukd 2011 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 31 &ufwGif arG;zGm;rnf [k ukvor*¾u cefYrSef;xm;aMumif;? tdE´d,EkdifiH ajrmufykdif; Owmy&ma'h&Sf jynfe,fü tqkdyguav; i,farG;zGm;rnf[k ,lq&aMumif; wkdif;rfatmhzf tif'D;,m;owif;pmu 2011 ckESpf? Edk0ifbmv 27 &ufwif a&;om;azmfjycJhonf/ G 152
    • jrefrmEdkifiHoef;acgifpm&if;ordkif; td E ´ d , Ek d i f i H Owmy&ma'h & S f j ynf e ,f vl O D ; a&onf N Ad w d e f ? jyif o pf E S i f h * smreD E k d i f i H 3 EkdifiH vlO;a& pkpaygif;ESiwnonf/ tdE,EkiiH D k hf l D d´ d f &Sd jynfe,frsm;onf vlO;a& tqrwefrsm;jym;aom D jyóemESifh &ifqkdifae&aMumif; tqkdygowif;pm u azmfjyxm;onf/ tdE´d,EkdifiHü wpfrdepfvQif 51 OD;EIef; jzifh arG;zGm;rI&Sdaeonf/ 2011 ckESpf? atmufwdk bmv 31 &ufwGif uav;arG;zGm;rnf[k q&m0ef rsm;u cefYre;xm;aom trsdK;orD;rSm Owmy&ma'h&fS S f jynfe,fae touf 25 ESpft&G,f&Sd yifuDyg0g trnf&dS trsdK;orD; jzpfonf/ jrefrmEkiiwif vlO;a& dfH G D oef; 7000 jynfh tcrf;tem;ukd usef;rma&;0efBuD; XmeESihf vlO;a& &efyaiGtzGYJwYdky;aygif;í rsKd ;qufym; D kH l G usef;rma&; qkdif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;ykdrkdod&Sd&ef &nf&G,fvsuf aejynfawmfckwif (1000) jynfolY aq;½Hü 2011 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 31 &ufwGif k Z,m;trS w f (1) usif;ycJhonf/ aejynfawmfv,fa0;NrdKUae ukatmif d jynf[e;? roDwmaxG;wkdYu aejynfawmf&Sd arwåm h d f prf;a& om;zGm;cef;ü eHeuf 2 em&Dcwif arG;zGm;aom JG G ukd,f tav;csdef 3 'or 1 uDvkd*&rf&Sd om; a,mufsm;av;tm; obm0twdkif; yxrOD;qHk; arG;zGm;aom uav;tjzpfqkcsD;jr§ifhonfh tcrf; tem;ukd usif;ycJhNyD; arG;zGm;ay;aom usef;rma&; 0efxrf;rsm;ukdvnf; qkcsD;jr§ifhcJhonf/ tcrf;tem; wGif usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD;a'gufwm 0if;jrifhESifh ukvor*¾vlOD;a&&efyHkaiGtzGJY Xmae ukd,fpm;vS,f rpöwmrdk[mruftufbf'D at[wf (Mr.Mohamed Abdel Ahad) wkdYu rdefYcGef;ajymMum; cJNh yD; jrefrmEkiiu,pm;jyK oef; (7000) ajrmufjzpf d f H dk f rnf[k cefYrSef;&aom uav;i,ftm; BudKqkdonfh oDcsif; ukd oli,fwef;ausmif;olav;rsm;u oDqNdk yD; vufaqmifrsm;ay;cJonf/ qufvufí (A World at h D dk S f 7 Billion) AD',rwwrf;ukdjyocJhonf/ vl O D ; a&oef ; acgif p m&if ; aumuf , l o nh f c k E S p f ? v? &uf p G J E S i h f aumuf , l c J h o nh f vl O D ; a&ES i h f vl O D ; a&od y f o nf ; rI pOf oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,lonhf v &uf ESpf 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1872 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1953 1954 1973 1983 Mo*kwf azazmf0g&D azazmf0g&D rwf rwf rwf azazmf0g&D rwf azazmf0g&D azazmf0g&D rwf rwf 15 17 26 1 10 18 14 5 31 31 {&d,m (pwk&ef;rdkif) 88556 87220 171430 226209 230839 233707 233492 261752 252 NrdKU 3159 aus;&Gmtkyfpk 261228 261228 153 vlOD;a& (oef;acgif) 2.747 3.737 7.722 10.491 12.115 13.212 14.667 16.824 19.507 22.541 28.921 35.308 wpfpwk&ef;rdkif&Sd vlOD;a&odyfonf;rI 31.02 42.84 45.04 46.37 52.48 56.53 62.82 64.26 110.71 135.16
    • jrefrmEdkifiHoef;acgifpm&if;ordkif; Z,m;trS w f (2) 1973 ck E S p f E S i f h 1983 ck E S p f vl O D ; a&oef ; acgif p m&if ; rsm;t& jynf e ,f ^ wd k i f ; tvd k u f vl O D ; a&wd k ; EI e f ; uk d azmf j yaompm&if ; pOf jynfe,f^wkdif; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1973ckESpfoef;acgifpm&if; vlOD;a& jynfaxmifpk ucsifjynfe,f u,m;jynfe,f u&ifjynfe,f csif;jynfe,f ppfukdif;wkdif; weoFm&Dwdkif; yJcl;wdkif; rauG;wdkif; rEÅav;wdkif; rGefjynfe,f &cdkifjynfe,f &efukefwkdif; &Srf;jynfe,f {&m0wDwkdif; jynfya&muf jrefrmEdkifiHom; 1983ckESpfoef;acgifpm&if; ESpfpOfysrf;rQvlOD;a& vlOD;a& wkd;EIef; 28921226 737939 126574 858429 323295 3119054 719441 3179604 2634757 3668493 1314224 1712838 3188783 3179546 4156673 1576 35313905 903982 168355 1057505 368985 3855991 917628 3800240 3241103 4580923 1682041 2045891 3573782 3718706 4991057 7716 2.02 2.05 2.89 2.11 1.33 2.14 2.46 1.80 2.09 2.25 2.50 1.79 2.22 1.58 1.85 - Z,m;trS w f (3) 1973 ck E S p f E S i f h 1983 ck E S p f vl O D ; a&oef ; acgif p m&if ; rsm;t& jynf e ,f ^ wd k i f ; tvd k u f vl O D ; a&jyef Y csuf &mcd k i f E I e f ; pOf 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 jynfe,f^wkdif; vlOD;a&jyefYcsuf 1973 ckESpf 1983 ckESpf jynfaxmifpk ucsifjynfe,f u,m;jynfe,f u&ifjynfe,f csif;jynfe,f ppfukdif;wkdif; weoFm&Dwdkif; yJcl;wdkif; rauG;wdkif; rEÅav;wdkif; rGefjynfe,f &cdkifjynfe,f &efukefwkdif; &Srf;jynfe,f {&m0wDwkdif; 100.00 2.55 0.44 2.97 1.12 10.79 2.49 10.99 9.11 12.69 4.54 5.92 11.03 10.99 14.37 154 100.00 2.56 0.48 3.01 1.05 10.92 2.60 10.76 9.18 12.97 4.76 5.79 11.26 10.53 14.14
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    • (9) (10) (11) (12) Xme^vkyfief; trsKd;tpm; (13) 1 vkyief;ukvim;ESivyol 1 tvkyf&SmqJjzpfí f d l S fh k f f I d ö k f 2 vkyief;uku,wivyol 2 tdrrupvyaeí f d kd f kd f k f 3 ausmif;om;jzpfí 3 vkycESivyol f hf k f 4 udk,fum,csKdUwJhí (yk*vdu) ¾ 5 yifpifpm; 4 vkycESivyol f fh k f 6 rScol D kd (or0g,r) 7 rusef;rmí 5 tpk;&trIxrf; d f f 6 rdom;pkvkyfief;vkyfol 8 &moDcsder[kwíem;ae aomv,f,mvkyom;ESifh f 7 ygwDESihfv,f^vkyf f tpnf;t½H;wGivyol tjcm;tvkyorm;rsm; k f k f 9 tjcm;taMumihaMumihf f v twGi;f tvkyf vkyf^ rvkyf 1 vkyf 2 rvkyf tdrfaxmifuszl;aom trsKd;orD; rsm;ukdar;&ef touf&Sifvsuf&Sdaomuav;OD;a& tvkytudif f k vGechJ f tvkyrvkyvQif aom f f rvkyfonhftaMumif; (12) t&SifarG;zGm;onhf uav;OD;a& pmwwf rwwf tjrihfqHk; atmifjrifonhf twef; vGefcJhaom (14) &uftwGif; vkyfom;trsKd;tpm; 1 wuf 2 rwuf 1 ae 2 rae ausmif;ae rae jrefrmEdkifiHoef;acgifpm&if;ordkif; aemufqHk;arG; uav; arG;ouú&mZf v (14) 1 2 3 5 6 7 (15) 4 1 2 3 5 6 7 9 (16) (17) (18) (19) 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 4 1 8 2 1 2 5 6 3 7 4 1 2 5 6 9 3 7 ckEpf S 4 1 8 2 156 (20) OD ; atmif j rih f o d e f ;
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    • jrefrmEdkifiH trsKd;om;vlYtcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif xGef;vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ ukvor*¾y#dnmOfwGif vlY tcGita&;ESihf tajccHvwvyfcirsm; av;pm;vkuf hf G f G hf d emrIjr§ifhwif&efESifh tm;ay;wdkufwGef;&ef[k jy|mef; xm;&m vlYtcGifhta&;ESifhpyfvsOf;í ukor*¾pepf wGif yxrqHk; jyKpkxkwfjyefcJhaom aMunmpmwrf; rSm 1948 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 10 &ufwGif usif;y aom ukvor*¾taxGaxGnvmcHu csrSwaMunm D f chJonfh ]]urÇmhvlYtcGifhta&;aMunmpmwrf;}}jzpf onf/ tqkdygaMunmpmwrf; csrSwfaMunmcJhonfh 'DZifbmv 10 &ufukd EdkifiHwumvlYtcGifhta&; aeYtjzpf owfrSwfcJhonf/ ukvor*¾taejzifh ukvor*¾y#dnmOft& vnf;aumif;? urÇmhvlYtcGifhta&; aMunmpmwrf; t&vnf;aumif; urÇmvom;rsm; vlYtcGita&; h l hf jr§ifhwifa&;ESifh umuG,fa&;ukd jznfhqnf;&ef us,f us,fjyefYjyefY vIyf&Sm;aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdaomfvnf; vlYtcGita&;csKd;azmufrwi;ukd apmifMh unfavhvm hf I kd f h &ef rjzpfEdkifouJhokdY vlYtcGifhta&; csKd;azmufcH&ol wdkif;ukd tumtuG,fay;&efvnf; rjzpfEdkifay/ xkYdaMumifh vly*K¾ vwpfO;csi;tMum;ü vnf;aumif;? k d f D f vlyk*¾KdvfwpfOD;csif;ESifh oufqkdif&m EdkifiHtpkd;& tMum;ü vnf;aumif; vlYtcGifhta&;ESifhpyfvsOf; onfh udpö&yfrsm;ukd aqmif&Guf&eftwGufrSm wpf EdkifiHcsif;pD rlvwm0efjzpfonf[k ukvor*¾u cH,lonf/ ,if;t,ltqonf EdkifiHtoD;oD;ü trsKd;om;vlYtcGita&;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm; zGUJ pnf;wnf hf axmif&ef wdkufwGef;onfh tajccHtaMumif;w&m; [k qdk&ayrnf/ urÇmwpf0ef;&Sd EdkifiHrsm;ü vlYtcGifhta&; ESifhpyfvsOf;onfh trsKd;om;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;wnf axmif&ef pdwf0ifpm;vmMuonfrSm umvMum&Snf rIr&Sao;[k qkEiaomfvnf; EdiitoD;oD;taejzifh d d kd f k f H ukvor*¾vlYtcGifhta&;aumffr&SifESifh yl;aygif; aqmif&GufMu&ef 1946 ckESpfwGif ukvor*¾pD;yGm; a&;ES i f h vl r I a &;aumif p D u awmif ; qk d c J h o nf / xkdYaemuf vlYtcGifhta&; ]]pH}}owfrSwfa&;udpö&yf rsm;ukd ukvor*¾ pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlrIa&;aumifpDu 1960 jynfveEprsm;ESihf 1970 jynfveEprsm;wGif h G f S f h G f S f aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/ EdkifiHtoD;oD;ü trsKd;om;vlY tcGifhta&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifa&; udpöukdvnf; OD;pm;ay;aqG;aEG;vmMuonf/ ,if; okdYjzifh trsKd;om;vlYtcGifhta&; tzGJUtpnf; zGJUpnf; wnfaxmifjcif;udpudk 1980 jynfveEprsm;twGi; ö h G f S f f ü ukvor*¾taxGaxGnDvmcH tqufqufESifh ukvor*¾vlYtcGifhta&;aumfr&SifwdkYwGif t&Sdef t[kefjr§ifhí aqG;aEG;vmMuNyD; 1991 ckESpf? atmuf wdkbmvwGif jyifopfEdkifiH yg&DNrKdUüusif;yaom ukvor*¾vlYtcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif tvkyf½HkaqG;aEG; yGJwGif trsKd;om;vlYtcGifhta&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; zGJU pnf;wnfaxmifjcif;udpö? ,if;trsKd;om;vlYtcGifh ta&;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;taejzifh EkiiwumtzGUJ tpnf; d f H rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&efudpwdkYukd pOf;pm;aqG; ö aEG;MuNyD; trsKd;om;vlYtcGita&;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm; hf oabmobm0? vkyief;wm0efponfwYkd EipyfvsOf; f S hf onfh tajccHrrsm;ukd csrwEiconf/ tqkyg tajccH l S f kd f hJ d rlrsm;ukd yg&DtajccHrrsm;[kvnf; ac:qdMk uonf/ l 1994 ckESpfwGif usif;yaom ukvor*¾ taxGaxGnDvmcHu trsKd;om;vlYtcGifhta&;tzGJU tpnf; zGJUpnf;&ef tajccHrlrsm;ESifhtnD trsKd;om; vlYtcGifhta&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; wnfaxmifMu&ef wdkufwGef;aMumif;? ,if;okdY zGJUpnf;wnfaxmif&m wGif tqdkyg tajccHrlrsm;ukd tav;xm;&rnfjzpf aomfvnf; rdrdwdkYEdkifiHvkdtyfcsufrsm;ESifh ukdufnD rnftzGUJ tpnf;rsK; zGUJ pnf;&ef a&G;cs,yici&aMumif; h d f dk f G hf dS ponfhpmom;rsm;yg&Sdonfh ukvor*¾taxGaxG nDvmcH qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf 48^134 ukd csrSwfcJh onf/ xdYk aemuf ukvor*¾tzGUJ 0ifEiirsm;taejzifh kd f H trsKd;om;vlYtcGifhta&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;wnfaxmif Mu&ef ukvor*¾u wkuwe;tm;ay;onfq;jzwf d f G f h kH csuf r sm;uk d uk v or*¾ t axG a xG n D v mcH E S i f h ukvor*¾vlYtcGifhta&;aumifpDtqufqufwGif csrSwfvsuf&Sdonf/ 158
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    • ordkif;xJu ]u,ef;} awmifbuft&yfodkY 0ifa&mufvmMuonhf u,ef;v[dk (awmifydkif;u,ef;) wdkYonf yxrOD; qH; rd;NAJe,ftv,fyi; &deaus;&Gmtkyp?k ]]wAvm;}} k k kd f J f (,ck-qdkifcGef&Gm) wGif pwiftajccsaexdkifMuNyD; rd;NAJe,ftaemufyi;? ta&SUydi;ESifh awmifyi;u&ifeD k kd f k f kd f (,ck-u,m;) e,fpyftxdaexdiMf uonf/ rdru,f k d kd uk,f u,ef;vwDG (awmifyi;u,ef;) [k trnfcH d kd f ,lonf/ u,ef;v[kd trsKd;orD;0wfqifrIwGif vnfyif;ESifh 'l;acgif;atmuf ajcovHk;rsm;wGif aMu; uGif;ywf0wfqifrIaMumihf wdkif;&if;om;&Srf;vlrsKd;u aMu;0wf (ywfawmif;) vlrsKd;[k ac:qdkMuonf/ aemifwGif ywfawmif;rS ya'gif[laom toHk;tEIef; onf 19 &mpkacwfOD;ydkif;rSpí a&;om;vmonfukd awGU&onf/ ,cktcg rl&if;trnfjzihf u,ef; (ya'gif) [lí a&;om;ac:qdkMuonf/ u&ifeD (,ck-u,m;) jynfe,f vGdKifaumf NrdKUe,fEifh 'Darmqd;NrdKUe,f ajrjyefYa'owGif 0ifa&muf S k aexdkifMuonhf awmifydkif;u,ef; (u,ef;v[DG) wdYkonf rdru,u,f ajrjyefYu,ef; (u,ef;urf;iH) d kd f dk [k trnfc,Ml uonf/ trsKd;orD;rsm;0wfqifrwif H I G &ifñGefYtxufydkif;ukd aiG'*Fg;aumfjym;rsm; oDuHk;NyD; 0wfqifraMumihf wdi;&if;om;&Sr;vlrsK; u,ef;abmf I kf f d (abmfjym;0wfqifonhfu,ef;) vlrsKd;[kac:qdkMu onf/ aemifwGif ,if;abmfvlrsKd;[lí a&;om;azmf jyMuNyD; ,cktcg u,ef;urf;iH (,if;abmf) [ka&; om;ac:qdkMuonf/ u&ifjynfe,fajrmufydkif; oHawmifa'o ESifh aejynfawmfwi;a'oBuD; ta&SUbufawmifay: kd f a'o aygif;avmif;jrpf½dk;wpfavQmufwGif 0ifa&muf aexdkifMuonhf awmifydkif;u,ef; (u,ef;vwDG) wdYkonf rdru,u,awmifay:u,ef;[k t"dyÜm,f d kd f dk f &onhf (u,ef;a*cdk) [laomtrnfukd cH,lMu onf/ xda'owGif aexdiMf uonhawmifyi; u,ef; k k f kd f rsKd;EG,fonf u&ifvlrsKd;ESihf taeeD;aomaMumihf 0wfpm;qif,ifrIwGif u&ifESihfydkí eD;pyfonhfoif wdkif;rsm;0wfqifMuonf/ ajrjyefYwGif aexdkifMu onhf tjcm;wkdif;&if;om;rsm;u awmifay:u&if[k trnfay;ac:qdkMuonf/ 0wfpm;qif,ifrI ajrmufydkif;u,ef;ac: (u,ef;vxm) ESihf awmifydkif;u,ef;ac: (u,ef;v[DG) rsKd;EG,fwdkY onf ajymqdonhpum;toHtedrtjrih&aomfvnf; k f hf f dS em;vnfMuonf/ tjcm;,Ofaus;rI"avhxHk;pHrsm; vnf; trsm;tm;jzihf wlnDMuonf/ okdY&mwGif 0wf pm;qif,ifrIwGif vHk;0rwlnDMuay/ ajrmufyi;u,ef;rsK;EG,f awmifx?kH awmif kd f d 0S? [efqD? [efca'owGif aexdkifMuonhf u,ef; vxmESiawmifyi;u,ef;rsKd;EG,f u,ef;ya'gifwYkd fh kd f 0wfpm;qif,ifrIonf rnfonhfvlrsKd; 0wf pm;qif,ifrIESihfrwlbJ xl;xl;jcm;jcm;jzpfaeonf ukd awGU&onf/ kd f ajrmufyi;u,ef; (u,ef;vxm) 0wfpm;qif,ifrII r vG,ve,f (yifavmif;NrdKUe,f) wGif aexdif f kH k Muonhf u,ef;vxmtrsKd;om;rsm; 0wfpm;qif ,ifronf xdt&yfa'owGif aexdiMf uonhf tjcm; I k k wkdif;&if;om;rsm;ESihf uGmjcm;rIr&Sday/ trsKd;orD;rsm; 0wfqifrIwGif OD;acgif;ukdqHyift&Snfxm;NyD; xlxJ onhfyk0gjzihf acgif;aygif;xm;onf/ twGif;tusÐukd tjzLa&mifcsnfESihf &ifcGJaMumif;ukd teufa&mif? teD a&mif? t0ga&mifjzihf pyfxm;onf/ atmuftem; wGif teDa&mifcsnfjzihf &ufvkyfxm;onf/ acgif;pGyf tusÐjzpfNyD; 0wfqifonhftcg 'l;acgif;atmuftxd zHk;xm;onf/ tay:tusÐonf tjzLa&mifcg;wkd tusÐjzpfonf/ vufarmif;ESpfzufwGif teufa&mif jzihfcsKyfvkyfonf/ trsKd;orD;0wfvHkcsnfwGif tjzL a&mifcsnfjzihf &ufvkyfNyD; atmuftem;wGif teD a&mif? teufa&mifcsnfjzihf tem;owf&ufvkyf0wf qifMuonf/ rdk;NAJe,fawmifxHk? awmif0S? [efqD? [efc a'owGif aexdkifMuonhf u,ef;vxmtrsKd;om; 179
    • ordkif;xJu ]u,ef;} 0wfqifrIwGif OD;acgif;ukd qHyift&Snfrxm;bJ acgif;wHk; wHk;xm;onf/ qHyiftenf;i,f&Snfvm vQif jyefwom;atmif"m;jzih&w&onf/ em;ESpzuf dk G f d f f wGif em;aygufazmufxm;NyD; taygufus,fatmifcsJU xm;&onf/ aiGom;em;a#mif;ukd zm;pnfyHkoP²mef tacgif;yGjyKvyNf yD; em;wGiyefí qifjref;xm;&onf/ k f ar;½d;atmufvnfwdkiftay:qHk;ae&mwGif k tjzLwpfvHk;? teDwpfvHk;pDwGJí oDxm;onhfa&mifpHk ysLykwD;vHk;ukdvnfyif;wGifywfí 0wfqifonf/ y,if;a&mifpkHysLykwD;ukH;atmufwGif teufa&mif ausmufykwD;wpfuHk;? teDa&mifuJonhf ausmuf ykwD;wpfuHk;ESihf tjzLa&mif? t0ga&mifuJonhf ykvJykwD;uHk;rsm;jzihf qifjref;xm;onf/ vnfyif; atmufajcwGif awm0ufpG,fESpfacsmif;qufNyD; BudK; jzihfqGJxm;onf/ vufESpfzufwHawmifqpfrS vufaumuf 0wftxdaMu;uGif;ywfxm;onf/ udk,f txuf ydkif;ukd *syfckwfvuf&ufxnf tjzLa&mif0wfqif xm;onf/ udk,f atmufydkif;wGif *syfckwfvuf ,ufxnftjzLa&mifabmif;bDukd0wfqifonf/ 'l;acgif;atmufwGif tjzLa&mif ykwD;wpfuHk;ywf xm;NyD; ykwD;uHk;atmufajcovHk; txufwGif opfap;okwfxm;onhf csnfBudK;rsm;jzihf ywfí qifjref;Muonf/ ajcusif;0wfwGif (bkwfo) ac: tjzLa&miftoD;wpfrsKd;ukd ykwD;uHk;ozG,f oDí 0wfqifonf/ ajcusif;0wfwpfzufvQif jcLoD; ig;vHk;0wfqifonf/ trsKd;orD;rsm; 0wfpm;qif,ifx;zGUJ rIonf kH wpfrx;jcm;onf/ trsKd;orD; OD;acgif;wGif qHyif l l t&Snfxm;onf/ oHk;vufrcefYus,fonhf bD;jzihf qHyifuNkd zD;&onf/ qHyifrsm;ukd ½d;½d;qHx;Hk jzihf rxH;bJ k k k wpfywfvQKdqHxHk;xHk;enf;jzihf xHk;Muonf/ em;xif ESpfzufwGif qHyifrsm;cGJí qHNrdwfcsxm;onf/ taygufazmufxm;onhf em;ESpfzufwGif aiGom; em;a#mif;? aiGom;em;qGrsm; 0wfqifMuonf/ vnf J yif;tay:qH;ae&mwGif tjzLESihf teDa&mifoxm;onhf k D ykwD;wpfuHk;ukd 0wfxm;onf/ ,if;ykwD;atmuf wGif teDa&mif? tjzLa&mif? teufa&mifykwD;uHk;rsm; tpOfvdkuf vnfwdkifrS&ifñGefYtxd ykvJykwD;uHk;rsm; qGJxm;onf/ vuf,mycHk;txufrS b,fcg;txd teD? t0g? teufygonhf ysLykw;vH;BuD;wpfu;pDudk D k kH pvG,oi;í 0wfqifonf/ vufEpzuf wHawmif f kd f S f qpfrS vufaumuf0wftxd t&G,tpm;tenf;i,f f ao;onhaMu;uGi;rsm; ywfxm;onf/ vufESpfzuf f f &Sd vufacsmif;rsm;tm;vH;wGif aMu;uGi;vufpyrsm; k f G f pGyxm;onf/ ud, txufyi;wGif trnf;a&mif f k f kd f jzihf tem;azmufxm;onhf vuf&uf*syfckwfxnf tjzLukd 0wfqifxm;onf/ vG,fvHke,frS u,ef;vxmtrsKd;orD;ESpfOD; cg;wGif (bkwfo) ac:a&mifpHktoD;wpfrsKd; oDxm;onhf BudK;uGif;rsm;ukd ywfí 0wfqifonf/ udk,fatmufydkif;ukd csnfjzL? csnfeD? csnfrnf;jzihf uefYvefYtpif;*syfckwfvuf&ufxnfapmifukd 'l; acgif;txdywfí 0wfqifonf/ 'l;acgif;atmuf wGif aMu;uGi;oH;uGi;ywfxm;NyD; jcLoD;rsm;qGxm; f k f J onf/ aMu;uGif;atmufwGif opfap;jzihf okwfxm; onhf csnfBudK;rsm;ukd ajcusif;0wftxd0wfqif 180
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    • tmqD,H y#dnmOfpmwrf; EdkifiHawmfor®wOD;odef;pdef *sumwmNrdKUüusif;yonhf (18) Budrfajrmuf tmqD,HxdyfoD; oD;oefYtpnf;ta0;okdYwufa&mufpOf tmPmydif bk&if? {u&mZf okYdr[kwf yk*Kd¾ vf okYd r[kwf k tzGJUtpnf;u xkwfjyefxm;aom y#dnmOfpmcsKyf? (2) vlyk*d¾Kvf? tzGJUtpnf;? jynfolvlxktm; Oya' t&ay;xm;aom vTJtyfxm;aom tcGihfta&;rsm;? vkyfydkifcGihfrsm;? (3) toif;tzGJUtpnf; vkyfief; wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;ukd abmifcwfay;aom tajccH pnf;rsOf;rsm;? txl;tcGihfta&;rsm;ESihf uif;vGwfcGihf rsm;[k tbd"mefwdkYu zGihfqdkxm;onf/ tmqD,Htoif;BuD; y#dnmOfpmwrf; a&;qGJolwkdYonf ]ukdADeefY} [laom EkdifiHaygif;csKyf toif ; BuD ; toH k ; uk d r,l b J uk v or*¾ ]]csmwm}} ukd oHk;xm;onf/ tmqD,Hy#dnmOfpmwrf;ukd 2007 ckESpf Ed0ifbmv 20 &ufaeY pifumylEiiwif usi;yaom k kd f H G f (13) Budrfajrmuf tmqD,HxdyfoD;nDvmcHwGif tmqD,Htoif;0if 10 EdkifiHrS EkdifiHawmftBuD;tuJ okdYr[kwf tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJwdkYu vufrSwfa&; xdk;Muonf/ tmqD,Hy#dnmOfpmwrf;ukd t*Fvdyf bmompum;wpfckwnf;ESihf a&;om;xm;onf/ y#dnmOf pmwrf;BuD;wGif Oya'ed'gef;? tcef;aygif; 13 cef;ESihf tydk'faygif; 55 ydk'fyg0ifonf/ Oya'ed'gef;wGif toif;0if 10 EdkifiHwdkY EkiitBu;tuJrsm;? tpk;&tzGUJ tBu;tuJrsm;u rdrwYkd dfH D d D d EdkifiH jynfolvlxkukd udk,fpm;jyKNyD; (1) tmqD,H aMunmpmwrf;ukd befaumufNrdKUü xkwfjyefí toif;pwifwnfaxmifNyD;uwnf;u tmqD,H xif&Sm;aom atmifjrifrIrsm;&&SdcJhrIESihf wdk;csJUzGJUpnf; EdkifrIukd auseyftm;&pGm todtrSwfjyKívnf; aumif;? (2) AD,ifusef;vkyfief;tpDtpOf tmqD,H y#dnmOfpmwrf; a&;qGJa&;qdkif&m uGmvmvrfyl aMunmpmwrf;ESihf tmqD,Hy#dnmOfpmwrf; tajccH rlMurf;qdi&m pDb;aMunm pmwrf;wdYk wif tmqD,H k f l G y#dnmOfpmwrf;a&;qGJcsrSwf&ef qHk;jzwfcJhMuonf rsm;ukd trSwf&ívnf;aumif;? (3) qufpyfaom yx0Dtaetxm;? wlnDaom &nf&G,fcsufrsm;? twlwuG arQmfrSef;onfhyef;wdkifxm;&SdMuaom 198
    • tmqD,H y#dnmOfpmwrf; tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;ESihf jynfolrsm;tMum; tjyeftvSef tusKd;jzpfxGef;rIESihf rSDcdktm; xm;rIrsm; wnf&Sdaeonfukd tav;*½kjyKívnf;aumif;? (4) a'oqdi&m yl;aygif;aqmif&urEifh aygif;pnf;rIudk k f G f I S ydkrdkjr§ihfwifvsuf txl;ojzihf tmqD,HuGefaumh (2) bmvDaMunmcsufwGif azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; tmqD,HvHkNcHKa&;todkuft0ef;? tmqD,HpD;yGm;a&; todkuft0ef;ESihf tmqD,H vlrI-,Ofaus;rI toduf k t0ef;[lonhf r@dKif 3 &yfyg0ifaom tmqD,H todkuft0ef;wnfaxmifjcif;ESihf todkuft0ef; wnfaxmifrIukd ydkrdkxda&mufpGm aqmif&Guf&ef oEéd|mefcsrSwfívnf;aumif;? tmqD,H Oya' qdkif&mESihf zGJUpnf;rIqdkif&m rlabmifukd þy#dnmOf pmwrf;jzihf xlaxmif&ef qHk;jzwfMuonf/ þudptvdYk im tmqD,tzGUJ 0ifEiirsm; ö S H dk f H EdiiawmftBuD;tuJrsm; okYd r[kwf tpk;&tzGUJ tBuD; k f H d tuJrsm;onf pifumylEdkifiHü tmqD,Hwnfaxmif onhf ESpf (40) jynhordi;0if tcrf;tem;wGif pkpnf; f k f awGUqHkMuvsuf þy#dnmOfpmwrf;ukd oabmwl csrSwfMuonf/ tcef; (1) &nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESihf tajccHrlrsm; tydk'f (1) &nf&G,fcsufrsm; (1) a'otwGi; Nidr;csrf;a&;? vHNk cHKa&;ESifh f f wnfNidrfa&;ukd xdef;odrf;&ef? Nidrf;csrf;rIukd vdkvm; onhf tavhtxrsm; ydkrdkcdkifrmap&ef? (2) EkdifiHa&;? vHkNcHKa&;? pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlrI-,Ofaus;rI yl;aygif; aqmif&ua&;ukd ydrjkd r§iwifjcif;tm;jzihf a'oqki&m G f k fh d f cHEdkif&nf&SdrIukd jr§ihfwif&ef? (3) ta&SUawmiftm&S a'oukd tPkjrLvufeufuif;rJhZkeftjzpfvnf; aumif;? xkdYtjyif tzsufpGrf;tm;BuD;rm;aom vufeufrsm;uif;rJhaom a'otjzpfvnf;aumif; xdef;odrf;xm;&ef? (4) tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;ESihf jynfolrsm;taejzihf urÇmwpf0ef; w&m;rQwNyD; 'Drdkua&pDjynfh0í nDñGwfrQwonhf ywf0ef;usif wGif Nidr;csrf;pGmaexdiEiMf uap&ef? (5) ukepnfrsm; f k f dk f 0efaqmifrIrsm;ESihf &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm; vGwfvyfpGm pD;qif;í pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;? todynm&Sif rsm;? twwfynm&Sifrsm;? tvkyform;rsm; tqif ajyacsmarGUpGm a&TUajymif;EdkifNyD; rçwnf t&if;tESD; rsm; ydkrdkvGwfvyfpGmpD;qif;rI&Sdonhf ukefoG,frIESihf &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrItwGuf xda&mufpGm taxmuftuljyK Edkifaom wnfNidrfí <u,f0csrf;omNyD; tqihfjrihf ,SOfNydKifEdkifpGrf;&Sdonhf pD;yGm;a&;aygif;pnf;rI jzpfay: aprnhfwpfckwnf;aom aps;uGufESihf xkwfvkyfrI a'oxlaxmif&ef? (6) tjyeftvSef ulnDrIESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;jzihf tmqD,Ha'otwGif; qif;&JEr;yg;rIavsmyg;ap&efEifh zGUH NzdK;rIum[csuudk G f h S G f usOf;ajrmif;ap&ef? (7) tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEkdifiHrsm; tcGihfta&;ESihf wm0efrsm;udk tav;xm;NyD; 'Drdku a&pDydkrdkawmihfwif;cdkifrmap&ef? pDrHtkyfcsKyfrIaumif; rGefa&;ESihf w&m;Oya'pkd;rdk;a&;ukd wdk;wufap&efESihf vlYtcGihfta&;ESihf tajccHvGwfvyfcGihfrsm;ukd um uG,jf r§iwif&ef? (8) bufpvNkH cHKa&;tajccHrEifh tnD fh kH lS Ncdr;ajcmufrrsm;? e,fpyfjzwfausmfrcif;rsm;ESifh e,f f I I edrdwfjzwfausmf pdefac:rIrsm;ukd xda&mufpGm wkHYjyef &ef? (9) a'otwGi; obm0ywf0ef;usif umuG,f f apmihfa&Smufjcif;? obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm; a&&Snf zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufapjcif;? ,Ofaus;rItarGtESpfESifh tmqD,Hjynfolrsm; b0t&nftaoG;jrihfrm;rIukd xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smufjcif;wdkYukd tmrcHcsuf&&Sdap rnhf a&&SnfzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrIukd jr§ihfwif&ef? (10) tmqD,Hjynfolrsm; pGrf;&nfjrihfrm;apa&;ESifh tmqD,Htodkuft0ef; ydkrdkawmihfwif;cdkifrmapa&; twGuf ynma&;ESihf b0wpfoufwmoifMum;a&; wGif vnf;aumif;? odyÜHESihfenf;ynm&yfwGif vnf; aumif;? eD;uyfpGm yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;jzihf vlY pGr;tm;t&if;tjrpfrsm;ukd zGUH NzdK;wd;wufap&ef? (11) f k vlYzUHG NzdK;rI? vlrzvrEifh w&m;rQwrItwGuf wef;wl I l kH I S tcGihftvrf;rsm;&&Sdap&ef aqmif&Gufay;jcif;jzihf tmqD,H jynfolrsm; vlaerIb0ESihf aumif;usKd; csr;omwd;wufvmap&ef? (12) tmqD,jH ynforsm; f k l 199
    • tmqD,H y#dnmOfpmwrf; twGuf vHkNcHKíab;uif;NyD; rl;,pfaq;0g;uif;pif onhf ywf0ef;usifxlaxmif&mwGif yl;aygif;aqmif &GufrI ydkrdkawmihfwif;cdkifrmvmap&ef? (13) tmqD,H aygif;pnf;a&;ESifh todut0ef;xlaxmifa&;vkyief; k f f pOfwGif vlYtzGJUtpnf; u@tm;vHk;taejzifh yg0ifaqmif&uí tusKd;cHpm;rI&&SMd uap&ef tm;ay; G f jcif;jzihf jynforsm;ukd tav;xm;onhf tzGUJ tpnf; l jzpfay:vmap&ef? (14) tmqD,a'otwGi; uGjJ ym; H f jcm;em;aom ,Ofaus;rIEitarGtESprsm;ukd ydrxe; S hf f k kd d f odr;apmifa&Smufjcif;jzihf tmqD, toGivu©Pm f h H f ukd jr§ihfwif&ef? (15) yGihfvif;NyD; jrifomxifom&Sdí tydk'f (2) tajccHrlrsm; (1) tyd'f (1) wGiazmfjyxm;onhf &nf&,f k f G csufrsm;ukd taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif tmqD,HESihf ,if; tzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;onf tmqD,H aMunm pmwrf;rsm;? oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;? uGefAif;&Sif;rsm;? oabmwlnDcsufrsm;? pmcsKyfrsm;ESihftjcm; pmcsKyfpm wrf;rsm;yg tajccHrlrsm;ukd xyfavmif;twnfjyKí vdkufemrnf/ (2) tmqD,HESihf,if; tzGJU0ifEkdifiH rsm;onf (u) tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEdkifiHtm;vHk; vGwvyfr?I tcsKyftjcmtmPmydiqir?I wef;wl&nf f k f kd f wl&SdrI? e,fajrwnfwHhcdkifNrJrIESihf trsKd;om;a&; tmqD,Htpnf;ta0;rsm;wufa&muf&ef a&muf&Sdvmaom EdkifiHawmfor®wOD;odef;pdeftm; tif'dkeD;&Sm; or®wESihftzGJU0ifrsm;u BudKqdkEIwfcGef;qufpOf trsm;yg0ifEkdifonfh a'oqdkif&m zGJUpnf;wnf aqmufrtwGi; tmqD,taejzihf jyifyrdwzufrsm; I f H f ESifh qufqa&;ESiy;aygif;aqmif&ua&;wGif tmqD,H H fh l G f yifrwGef;tm;jzpfonhf wuf<uaom tcef;u@ ESifh A[ktcsutcsmusrwYkdukd xde;odr;&efponfwYkd d f I f f jzpfonf/ vu©Pmrsm;ukd av;pm;vdkufemjcif;? (c) a'oqdkif &m Nidrf;csrf;a&;? vHkNcHKa&;ESihf om,m0ajyma&;ukd wdk;wufap&ef twlwuG oEéd|mefcsrSwfaqmif&Guf jcif;ESifh pkaygif;wm0ef,r&jdS cif;? (*) usL;ausmfjcif;? l I tiftm;oH;jcif;? odYkr[kwf tiftm;oH;&ef Ncdr;ajcmuf k k f jcif; okYdr[kwf tjynfjynfqi&m Oya'ESifh udkufnDrI kd f 200
    • tmqD,H y#dnmOfpmwrf; r&Sdonhftjcm; vkyfaqmifrIrSeforQukd pGefYvTwfjcif;? (C) tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;ukd Nidrf;csrf;pGm tajz&Smonhf enf;vrf;tay: tm;xm;jcif;? (i) tmqD,HtzGJU0if EkdifiHrsm; jynfwGif;a&;wGif 0ifa&mufpGufzufrI r&Sjd cif;? (p) jyifyrS 0ifa&mufpuzufr?I zsufvzsuf G f kd qD;jyKrIESihf zdtm;ay;rIrsm; uif;&Sif;pGmjzihf trsKd;om; a&;wnf&SdrIqdkif&m tzGJU0ifEkdifiHwdkif; tcGihfta&; ukd av;pm;jcif;? (q) tmqD,H bHktusKd;pD;yGm;ukd jyif;xefpGm xdcdkufaponhfudp&yfrsm;tay: wdkifyif ö aqG;aEG;rIrsm;udk ydrjkd yKvkyjf cif;? (Z) w&m;Oya' pkd;rdk; k a&;? pDrHtkyfcsKyfrIaumif;rGefa&;? 'Drdkua&pDtajccHrl rsm;ESifh zGUJ pnf;yHtajccHOya't& zGUJ pnf;onhf tpk;& k d &Sr[onhf tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;ukd vduemjcif;? d I l k f (ps) tajccHvGwfvyfcGihfrsm;? vlYtcGihfta&;rsm;ukd jr§iwifumuG,jf cif;ESifh vlra&;w&m;rQwrI jr§iwif fh I fh jcif;wdkYukd av;pm;jcif;? (n) ukvor*¾y#dnmOf pmwrf;ESihf tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEdkifiHrS oabmwlvufcH xm;onhf tjynfjynfqdkif&m vlom;csif;pmem axmufxm;rI Oya'tygt0if tjynfjynfqdkif&m Oya'ukd apmihxe;vduemjcif;? (#) tmqD,tzGUJ 0if f df k f H EkdifiHwpfEdkifiHuaomfvnf;aumif;? tmqD,HtzGJU0if r[kwfonhf EkdifiHwpfEdkifiHuaomfvnf;aumif;? tpk d ; &r[k w f o nh f tzG J U tpnf ; wpf c k c k u aomf vnf;aumif; tmqD,tzGUJ 0ifEiirsm; tcsKytjcm H dk f H f tmPme,fajrwnfwciNf rJr?I EdkifiHa&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&; hH kd wnfNidrfrIwdkYukd Ncdrf;ajcmufonhf rdrde,fajrukd toHk;csjcif;tygt0if rnfonhfvkyfaqmifrIrsKd; okdYr[kwf rl0g'wGifrqdk yg0ifjcif;ukd a&Smif&Sm;jcif;? (X) uGJjym;rIrsm;&Sdaomfvnf; pnf;vHk;nDñGwfjcif; pdwf"mwfjzihf bHkwefzdk;xm;rItay: tav;xm;í tmqD , H j ynf o l r sm; uG J j ym;jcm;em;onh f ,Ofaus;rIbmompum;? ud;uG,onhf bmomw&m; k f wdkYukd av;pm;jcif;? (!) EkdifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? vlrI a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;rIqi&m jyifyqufqa&;wGif wuf kd f H <upGmyg0ifxdawGUjcif;? "r®"d|mefusaom tajrmf tjrifus,fjcif;? trsm;yg0ifEdkifjcif;ESihf cGJjcm;rIr&Sd jcif;wdkYukd qufvufxdef;odrf;NyD; tmqD,Hukd A[kd tcsutcsmusapjcif;? (¡) aps;uGuudk tajccHonhf f f pD;yGm;a&;wGif pD;yGm;a&;uwdu0wfrsm;ukd xda&muf pGm taumiftxnfazmfa&;ESihf a'oqdkif&m pD;yGm; a&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrI t[efYtwm;rsm;ukd tqihfqihfavQmhcsa&;wdkYtwGuf tjynfjynfqdkif&m ukefoG,fa&;owfrSwfjy|mef;csufrsm;ESihf tmqD,H u csrwxm;onhf jy|mef;csursm;ukd vdkufemaqmif S f f &Gufjcif;ponfh tajccHrlrsm;ESihftnD aqmif&Guf& rnfjzpfonf/ tcef; (2) Oya't& Oy"d*kPf&SdrI tydk'f (3) tmqD,H Oya't& Oy"d*kPf &Sr?I tmqD,udk tpk;& tcsi;csi;qdi&m tzGUJ tpnf; d H d f f k f wpfcktjzpf Oya'aMumif;t& Oy"d*kPf&SdrIukd þy#dnmOfpmwrf;jzihf tyfESHvdkufonf/ tcef; (3) tzGJU0ifjzpfjcif; tydk'f (4) tzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm; tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEkdifiHrsm;rSm b½lEdkif;'g½lq vrfEkdifiH? uarÇm'D;,m;bk&ihfEkdifiH? tif'dkeD;&Sm; or®wEdii?H vmtdjk ynfoYl 'ru&ufwpfor®wEkii?H k f D kd d f rav;&Sm;Ekii?H jynfaxmifpor®wjrefrmEkii?H zdvpf d f k d f ydkifor®wEdkifiH? pifumylor®wEkdifiH? xdkif;bk&ifhEkdifiH ESihf AD,uferfqdk&S,fvpfor®wEdkifiHwdkYjzpfMu onf/ tydk'f (5) tcGifhta&;ESihfwm0efrsm; (1) tzGJU0ifEkdifiHrsm;onf þy#dnmOfpm wrf;t& wlnDonhftcGihfta&;ESihf wm0efrsm; &&Sd rnf/ (2) tzGUJ 0ifEiirsm;taejzihf þy#dnmOfpmwrf; dk f H yg jy|mef;csufrsm;ukd xda&mufpGm taumiftxnf azmf&efESihf tzGJU0if wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;tm;vHk;ukd vduemaqmif&u&ef oihavsmonhjf ynfwi; Oya' k f G f f f G f rsm;jy|mef;jcif; tygt0if vdktyfonhf tpDtrHtm; vHk;ukd aqmif&Guf&rnf/ 201
    • tmqD,H y#dnmOfpmwrf; jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfem,u OD;cifatmifjrihf (32) Budrfajrmuf tmqD,HygvDrefrsm;qdkif&m taxGaxGnDvmcH yxrtBudrf pkHnDtpnf;ta0;okdY wufa&mufpOf tydk'f (6) tzGJU0ifopfrsm;tm; vufcHjcif; (1) tmqD,tzGUJ 0iftjzpf avQmufxm;jcif; H ESihf 0ifcGihfjyKjcif;twGuf vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;ukd tmqD,Hvkyfief;aygif;pyfnd§EIdif;a&;aumifpDu owfrSwfay;&rnf/ (2) tzGJU0ifopf0ifcGihfjyKjcif;ukd atmufwif azmfjyxm;onhf pHowfrwcsufrsm;tay: G S f tajccH&rnf/ (u) ta&SUawmiftm&S[k todtrSwf jyKxm;onhf yx0D0ifa'otwGif; wnf&Sdonhf ae&mjzpfjcif;? (c) tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEkdifiHtm;vHk;u todtrSwjf yKjcif;? (*) þy#dnmOfpmwrf;ukd vduem k f &efoabmwlnjD cif;? (C) tzGUJ 0if wm0ef0wå&m; rsm;ukd aqmif&GufEdkifpGrf;ESihf xdkokdYaqmif&Guf&ef qE´&Sdjcif;? (3) tmqD,HtzGJU0iftjzpf cGihfjyKjcif;ukd tmqD,Hvkyfief;aygif;pyfnd§EIdif;a&;aumifpD axmufcHcsufjzihf tmqD,HxdyfoD;tpnf;ta0;u wlnDqE´jzihfqHk;jzwf&rnf/ (4) avQmufxm;onhf EdkifiHu þy#dnmOfpmwrf;tm; aemufrSyg0ifcsKyfqdk aMumif; pmcRefvTmukd vufrSwfa&;xdk;jcif;jzihf tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEdkifiHtjzpf 0ifcGihfjyK&rnf/ tcef; (4) tzGJUtpnf;rsm; tydk'faygif; 9 ydk'fygaom þtcef;wGif tmqD,HtzGJUtpnf;rsm; zGJUpnf;yHkukd jy|mef;ay; xm;onf/ ,if;wdkYrSm (1) tmqD,HxdyfoD;tpnf; ta0;twGuf tydk'f (7) uvnf;aumif;? (2) tmqD,H vkyief;aygif;pyfnEi;a&;aumifptwGuf f §d dI f D tydk'f (8) uvnf;aumif;? (3) tmqD,Htodkuf t0ef; aumifprsm;twGuf tyd'f (9) uvnf;aumif;? D k (4) tmqD,H0efBuD;tqihfu@tvdkuf tzGJUtpnf; rsm;twGuf tydk'f (10) uvnf;aumif;? (5) tmqD,twGi;a&;rSL;csKyfEifh tmqD,twGi;a&;rSL; H f S H f csKyf½Hk;twGuf tydk'f (11) uvnf;aumif;? (6) tmqD,tNrJwrf;ud,pm;vS,rsm; aumfrwDtwGuf H k f f f tydk'f (12) uvnf;aumif;? (7) tmqD,HtrsKd;om; tqihftwGif;a&;rSL;rsm;½Hk;rsm;twGuf tydk'f (13) uvnf;aumif;? (8) tmqD,HvlYtcGihfta&;qdkif&m tzGUJ twGuf tyk'f (14) uvnf;aumif;? (9) tmqD,H d azmifa';&Sif;twGuf tydk'f (15) uvnf;aumif; jy|mef;xm;onf/ 202
    • tmqD,H y#dnmOfpmwrf; tcef; (5) tmqD,HESihfqufEG,fonhf tzGJUtpnf; rsm; þtcef;wGif tydk'f (16) u tmqD,HESihf qufEG,fonhf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tmPm wm0ef 0wå&m;rsm; aqmif&Gufa&;ESihf Oya'ESihfenf;Oya' rsm;ukd jy|mef;xm;onf/ tcef; (9) bwf*sufESihfb@ma&;qdkif&m udpö&yf rsm; þtcef;wGif tyd'f 2 yd'yg&S&m (1) taxG k k f d axGrlrsm;? (2) tmqD,HtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf½Hk; vkyfief;aqmif&GufrIqdkif&m bwf*sufESihf b@ma&; ukd jy|mef;xm;onf/ tcef; (6) uif;vGwfcGihfrsm;ESihf tcGihfta&;rsm; tydk'faygif; 3 ckygaom þtcef;wGif (1) tzGUJ 0ifEiirsm; ydieufajrtwGi; ,if;&nf&,f dk f H kf f G csufrsm;NyD;ajrmufatmifjrifpGm aqmif&GufEdkifap&ef twGuf vdtyfonhf uif;vGwcirsm;ESifh tcGita&; k f G fh fh rsm;ukd cHpm;ap&ef? (2) tmqD,twGi;a&;rSL;csKyfEifh H f S tmqD,HtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf½Hk;rS 0efxrf;rsm; uif; vGwfcGifhrsm;ESihf tcGihfta&;rsm;? (3) tmqD,Hwm0ef ukd xrf;aqmifaom tNrJwrf;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESihf 0efxrf;rsm; uif;vGwfcGihfrsm;ESihf tcGihfta&; rsm;ukd jy|mef;xm;onf/ tcef; (7) qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwfjcif; tydk'f 2 ckygaom þtcef;wGif (1) wdkif yifaqG;aEG;jcif;ESihf wlnDqE´jzihf qHk;jzwfjcif;? (2) taumiftxnfazmfjcif;ESihf vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;ukd jy|mef;xm;onf/ tcef; (8) tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;ukd ajz&Sif;jcif; tydk'f 7 ckygaom þtcef;wGif (1) taxGaxGrlrsm;? (2) Mum;0ifaqmif&Gufay;jcif;? auscsrf;atmifjyKjcif;? zsefajzjcif;? (3) oD;jcm;pmcsKyf pmwrf;rsm;yg tjiif;yGm;rIajz&Sif;a&;enf;vrf;rsm;? (4) tjiif;yGm;rI ajz&Sif;a&;enf;vrf;rsm; wnf axmifjcif;? (5) ajz&Si;r&aom tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;? (6) f vdkuf emaqmif&Gufjcif;? (7) ukvor*¾y#dnmOf pmwrf;yg jy|mef;csufrsm;ESihf tjcm;oufqdkif&m tjynfjynfqdkif&mvkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udk jy|mef; xm;onf/ tmqD,HygvDrefrsm;qdkif&m taxGaxGnDvmcH 'kwd,tBudrftpnf;ta0;wGif OD;cifatmifjrihftm; trSwfw&wHqdyf*kPfjyKay;tyfpOf tcef; (10) tkyfcsKyfrIESihfvkyfxHk;vkyfenf; þtcef ; wG i f tyd k ' f 4 ck y g&S d & m (1) tmqD,Ouú|? (2) tmqD,Ouú| tcef;u@? (3) H H oHwrefa&;&m xHk;wrf;pOfvmESihf tavhtxrsm;? (4) tmqD,Hvkyfief;qdkif&m bmompum;wdkYukd jy|mef;xm;onf/ tcef; (11) oGifjyifvu©PmESihfoauFwrsm; þtcef ; wG i f tyd k ' f 6 ck y g&S d & m (1) tmqD,oGijf yif vu©Pm? (2) tmqD,aqmify'?f H H k 203
    • tmqD,H y#dnmOfpmwrf; (3) tmqD,HtvH? (4) tmqD,HtrSwfwHqdyf? (5) xdef;odrf;xm;&Sdjcif;ESihf pmcsKyftwnfjzpfjcif;? (2) tmqD,HaeY? (6) tmqD,HoDcsif;wdkYukd jy|mef;xm; jyifqifcsursm;? (3) vkyief;vrf;ñTersm;ESifh vkyx; f f f f kH onf/ vkyenf;rsm;? (4) jyefvnfo;oyfjcif;? (5) y#dnmOf f kH pmwrf;tm; t"dyÜm,fzGihfqdkjcif;? (6) Oya'aMumif; t& qufvufwnf&aerI? (7) rl&if;pmom;? (8) dS tmqD,Hy#dnmOfpmwrf;tm; rSwfyHkwifjcif;? (9) tmqD, ydiqionhypön;rsm;wdYk udk jy|mef;xm; H k f kd f f f onf/ tmqD,y#dnmOfpmwrf;ukd tmqD,toif; H H 0ifEdkifiH 10 EdkifiHrS EkdifiHawmftBuD;tuJ oHk;OD;ESifh tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ ckepfOD;wdkYu vufrSwfa&;xdk; Muonf/ tmqD,Hy#dnmOfpmwrf; tcef; (12) jyifyqufqHa&; þtcef;wGif tydk'f 5 ydk'fyg&Sd&m (1) jyify qufqHa&;qdkif&m tjyKtrlrsm;? (2) aqG;aEG;zuf qufqa&;ndEi;ol? (3) wwd,Ediirsm;ESifh tjynf H § dI f k f H jynfqi&m tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;&Sd tmqD,aumfrwDrsm;? kd f H (4) jyifytzGUJ tpnf;rsm; tqihtwef;? (5) ukv f or*¾pepfESihftjcm;aom tjynfjynfqdkif&m tzGJU tpnf;rsm;? Xmersm;ESifh qufqa&;wdYkudk jy|mef;xm; H onf/ aemufqufwGJav;ck (1) tmqD,H0efBuD;tqihf u@tvdkuf tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;atmufwif (u) tmqD,Eiia&;ESifh G H kd f H vHkNcHKa&;todkuft0ef;? (c) tmqD,HpD;yGm;a&; todut0ef;? (*) tmqD,vra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rI k f H l I todkuft0ef;wdkYESihfqdkifaom tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ukd jy|mef;xm;onf/ (2) tmqD,Eifh qufE,aomtzGUJ tpnf; H S G f rsm;atmufwGif (u) tmqD,HygvDrefrsm;nDvmcH? (c) pD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? (*) tawG;tac: ynm&Sirsm;tzGUJ ESifh ynma&;qdi&m tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? f k f (C) todtrSwfjyKNrdKUjy vlYtzGJUtpnf;qkdif&m tzGJU tpnf;rsm;? (i) tjcm;tmqD,HESihf oufqdkifonhf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ukd jy|mef;xm;onf/ (3) tmqD,HtvH? t&G,ftpm;av;rsKd;ukd o½kyfjyyHkESihfta&miftaoG;? twdkif;txGmrsm;ESihf jy|mef;xm;onf/ (4) tmqD,HtrSwfwHqdyf? o½kyfjyyHkESihf t"dym,faqmifr?I ud,pm;jyKrI? ta&miftaoG;wdYk udk Ü k f jy|mef;xm;onf/ tcef; (13) taxGaxGEifh tNyD;owf jy|mef;csursm; S f r sm; þtcef;wGif tydk'f 9 ydk'fyg&Sd&m (1) vufrSwfa&;xdk;jcif;? tNyD;owftwnfjyKjcif;? 204 r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z a'gufwmcifarmifñGefY
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    • uk v or*¾ v l Y tcG i f h t a&;aumif p D xkdYaemuf UPR vkyfief;tzGJUonf vlYtcGifh ta&;aumifpD (UNHRC-United Nations Human Rights Council) yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;odkY rdrdjyKpkxm; onfhtpD&ifcHpmukd wifoGif;onf/ vlYtcGifhta&;aumifpDonf (UPR) vkyfief; tzGYJ rS jyKpktwnfjyKxm;onftpD&ifcpmukd aqG;aEG; h H &mwGifvnf; oHk;oyfcH&onfhEdkifiH? vlYtcGifhta&; aumifp0ifEiirsm;ESihf tpk;&r[kwaomtzGJUtpnf; D kd f H d f wkdY aqG;aEG;cGifh&rnfh rdepf? em&D ponfwkdYukd vnf; pnf;rsOf;rsm;csrSwfxm;onf/ ,ckvuf&Sd ukvor*¾vlYtcGifhta&;aumifpD tBuD;tuJonf rpöAmeD,rfyDavjzpfNyD; 2008 ckEpf pufwifbmv 1 &ufaeYwif ¤if;wm0efukd S G pwifxrf;aqmifcJhonf/ XmecsKyfrSm qGpfZmvef EdkifiH *sDeDAmNrdKUü wnf&Sdonf/ jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmfonf urÇmhrdom;pktzGJUBuD;jzpfonhf ukvor*¾tzGJUBuD; tzGUJ 0if wpfEiijH zpfonfEitnD ukvor*¾tzGUJ kd f S fh BuD; vkyfief;aqmifwmt00wGif yg0ifaqmif&Guf vsuf&aeonf/ ukvor*¾tzGUJ BuD; vufatmufcH dS tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? txl;jyKtzGJUtpnf;rsm;? a'o tvdkufaumfr&Sifrsm;? qufpyf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? vkyfief;tpDtpOfrsm;ESihf &efykHaiGtzGJUrsm;? pm&if; tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&uaejcif;jzpfonf/ G f ,if;okdY aqmif&Guf&mwGif vlYtcGifhta&; qdkif&mudp&yfrsm;vnf; yg0ifonf/ vlYtcGihfta&; ö qdkif&mudpö&yfrsm;wGif EdkifiHa&;MoZmvTrf;rdk;vdkrI? EdkifiHa&;ya,m*rsm; ywfoufaerI? cGJjcm;oHk;oyf qufqvr?I wpfcgwpf&H t,ltqESifh oabmxm; H kd rsm; trsKd;rsKd;ajymif;vJqufqHaerIponhf rlrrSefrI rsm;&Sdaeonf/ ukvor*¾tzGJUBuD;taejzihf vlYtcGifh ta&;qdkif&mudp&yfrsm;twGuf ukvor*¾vlYtcGihf ö ta&;aumifpD (UNHRC-United Nations Human Rights Council) ukd wnfaxmifxm;onf/ okdYjzihf ukvor*¾tzGJU0ifEkdifiHjzpfonhf jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEdkifiHonf ukvor*¾vlY tcGihfta&;aumifpDESihf ywfoufqufEG,frIrsm;ukd yl;aygif;yg0if aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf/ trSefpifppf EdkifiHawmftwGif;&Sd w&m;0if qE´jyKcGihf&Sdonhf EdkifiHom;rsm; (92 'or 48 &mcdiEe;) jzihf twnfjyKjy|mef;cJaom jynfaxmifpk k f I f h or® w jref r mEd k i f i H a wmf zG J U pnf ; yH k t ajccH O ya' (Constitution of Republic of the Union of Myanmar) wGif Ediiom;rsm; vlYtcGita&;qdi&mrsm; jy|mef; k f H fh k f xm;onf/ EdiiawmfzUJG pnf;yHk tajccHOya'tcef; (1)? k f H EdkifiHawmf tajccHrlrsm;tcef;yk'fr (4) wGif ]]EdkifiH awmf tcsKyftjcmtmPmonf EdkifiHom;rsm;xHrS qif;oufNyD; EdkifiHawmfwpf0ef;vHk;üwnfonf}} [lívnf;aumif;? yk'fr (6) yk'frcGJ (i) wGif ]]EdkifiH awmfü w&m;rQwjcif;? vGwfvyfjcif;ESihfnDrQjcif; wnf;[laom avmuygvw&m;rsm;xGef;um;a&;}} [lívnf;aumif; jy|mef;xm;&m ,if;wdkYonf tajccHvlYtcGihfta&; rlvblwrsm;jzpfMuonf/ xdYk tjyif w&m;pD&ifa&;ESipyfvsOf;ívnf; fh yk'fr (19) yk'frcGJ (u) wGif ]]Oya'ESihftnD vGwf vyfpGmw&m;pD&ifa&;}}? yk'frcGJ (c) wGif ]]Oya't& uefYowfcsufrsm;rSty jynfoYl a&SUarSmufwif w&m; G pD&ifa&;}}? yk'frcGJ (*) ]]trIrsm;wGif Oya't& ckcH acsycGihfESihf t,lcHydkifcGihf&&Sda&;}} wdkYjy|mef;xm;jyef &m w&m;pD&ifa&;wGifvnf; vlYtcGihfta&;ukd tcdkif trmtmrcHxm;onf/ xdkYtjyif tcef; (*) EkdifiHom;rsm; rlv tcGihfta&;ESihf wm0efrsm;wGifvnf; yk'fr (347) rS (349) txd EdkifiHom;wdkif; Oya't& wef;wl nDrQrI? qif;&Jcsrf;om? bmom? ,Ofaus;rI? &mxl;? tqihftwef;ukd taMumif;jyKí cGJjcm;jcif;r&SdaprI? a&mif;0,frI? wm0efxrf;aqmifrI? toufarG;0rf; ausmif;rI? ynmoifMum;EdirI ponftcGita&;rsm; k f h hf ü cGJjcm;jcif;r&SdaprIwdkYukd jy|mef;xm;onf/ yk'fr (354) wGifvnf; jy|mef;xm;onfh Oya'rsm;ESifh rqefYusifygu vGwvyfpm xkwfazmf f G 208
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    • uk v or*¾ v l Y tcG i f h t a&;aumif p D vnf; EdkifiHawmfonf vlYtcGihfta&;udpö&yfrsm;ESihf ywfoufí ½dk;om;rI? apwemxm;rI? trSefw&m;ukd jrwfEdk;rIrsm;tjynhft0&SdaMumif; oufaoxlvdkuf jcif;jzpfonf/ xdkrQomru 2-9-2011 &ufwGifusif;y onhf yxrtBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmf? 'kwd,yHkrSef tpnf;ta0; 'oraeYü aumfrwDwdk;csJUzGJUpnf;jcif; ukdaqmif&GufcJhonf/ pkpkaygif;aumfrwD 19 ck zGUJ pnf;NyD; jzpfonf/ ,if;aumfrwDrsm;wGif [oFmw rJqE´e,frS OD;a|;OD;u Ouú|tjzpf aqmif&Guf onhf ]]EdkifiHom;rsm; rlvtcGifhta&;? 'Drdkua&pD ta&;ES i h f y wf o uf í od o mxif & S m ;vG e f ; onh f aqmif&GufrIjzpfonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHtrsKd;om;vlYtcGihfta&; aumfr &SifOuú| OD;0if;jrESihftzGJU0ifrsm;tm; EkdifiHawmfokdY a&muf&aeonhf tar&dueftpk;& jrefrmEdiiqif dS d k f H kd &m txl;udk,fpm;vS,fESihfrl0g'a&;&m nd§EIdif;a&;rSL; Mr.Derek Mitchell wdkYu 13-9-2011 aeYwGifvm a&mufawGUqHkí ESpfzuftjrifrsm; aqG;aEG;nd§EIdif;cJh Muonf/ tar&dueftpkd;& jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m txl;udk,fpm;vS,fESihf rl0g'a&;&mnd§EIdif;a&;rSL; uk v or*¾ v l Y t cG i h f t a&;aumif p D o k d Y w uf a &muf v maom bef u D r G e f ; ES i f h E d k i f i H t BuD ; tuJ r sm; ESihf vlYtcGihfta&;qdkif&maumfrwD}} vnf;yg0if onf/ EdkifiHawmf vlYtcGihfta&;qdkif&m xif&Sm; ay:vGifonhfaqmif&Gufcsufjzpfonf/ jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrmEdkifiHawmf jynf axmifpktpkd;&tzGJUonf trdefYaMumfjimpmtrSwf (34^2011) ukd 5-9-2011 &ufpJG jzihf xkwfjyefcJhonf/ tqdkygtrdefYaMumfjimpmjzihf OD;0if;jr oHtrwfBuD; (tNidr;pm;) Ouú|tjzpf aqmif&uaom jrefrmEdiiH f G f k f trsKd;om;vlYtcGihfta&;aumfr&Sifukd zGJUpnf;jcif;jzpf onf/ þonfuvnf; Ekiiawmftpk;& vlYtcGifh d f H d Mr.Derek Mitchell ESihftzGJUonf 9-9-2011 rS 14- 9-2011 txd EdkifiHawmfüa&muf&SdaepOftwGif; e,f p yf a &;&m0ef B uD ; Xme jynf a xmif p k 0 ef B uD ; 'kwd, AdkvfcsKyfBuD; odef;aX;? EkdifiHjcm;a&; 0efBuD; Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;0PÖarmifvGif? jyefMum; a&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;ausmfqef;? tvkyform;0efBuD;XmeESihf vlrI0ef xrf;? u,fq,fa&;ESihf jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&; 0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifp0efBuD; OD;atmifMunfwYkd Eifh k S oD;jcm;pD awGUqHkaqG;aEG;cJhonf/ 210
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    • uif * sKH t D azazmf0g&DvwGifusif;yaom ckepfBudrfajrmuf jynf o l Y nD v mcH w G i f tzG J U 0if j zpf v maomtcg uif*sKHtDonf ajrmufukd&D;,m;EdkifiH t½dkuf t&mukd qufcHrnfholtjzpf EdkifiHwumu pwif odjrifcJhonf/ 1991 ckESpf 'DZifbm 24 &ufwGif ajrmufukd&D;,m;ppfwyf rsm;ukd uGyfuJtkyfcsKyfol jzpfvmcJonf/ ppfwyfonf ajrmufu&;,m;twGuf h dk D tajccHusaomaMumifh wyfcsKyftjzpf cefYtyfcH&jcif; onf ¤if;twGuf ta&;ygaomtqifhjzpfonf/ uif * sKH t D uif*sKHtD touf 50 jynfharG;aeYjzpfaom 1992 ck E S p f w G i f tmPmvT J a jymif ; ,l c J h o nf / uif*sKHtDvufxufwGif ¤if;zcifvufxufu xuf oufOD;qHykdifpepf ykdqefonf/ uif*sKHtDonf ¤if;tpkd;&tzGJU0if0efBuD;rsm;ESifh ygwD0if rsm;xHrS t<uif ; rJ h t rd e f Y emcH r I E S i f h oabmwl n D r I u k d omvkdvm;NyD; tBuHÓPfESifh nd§EIdif;rI tvkdr&SdcJhay/ uif*sKHtDonf EkdifiHtao;pdwftcsuftvuf rsm;utp ¤if;uk,wif ñTeMf um;onf/ 1994 ckEpf d f dk S Zlvkdifv 8 &ufwGif uiftDqGef;uG,fvGefonf/ uif*sKHtDonf ¤if;tmPmpkpnf;rI&&Sdap&ef oHk; ESpftcsdef,lcJh&onf/ 1997 ckESpf atmufwkdbm 8 &ufwGif ukd&D;,m;tvkyform;ygwD (Woker's Party of Korea) w&m;0iftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;jzpf vmonf/ 1993 ckESpf {NyD 9 &ufwGif trsKd;om; umuG,fa&;aumfr&Sif tBuD;tuJjzpfvmonf/ 1998 ckESpfwGif ¤if;umuG,fa&;aumfr&Sif tBuD; tuJ&mxl;ukd Ediitjrifq;&mxl;jzpf&ef aMunm k f H h kH cJhaomaMumifh ¤if;aeY&ufwGifyif EdkifiHtBuD;tuJ tjzpf uif*sKHtDukd owfrSwfEdkifcJhonf/ uif*sKHtD onf 0efBuD;csKyf csKd,Hk&Grf? ygwDrefOuú|uif,Hkeef wdkYESifhtwl zGJUpnf;xm;aom ajrmufukd&D;,m;tpkd;& EdkifiHawmftkyfcsKyfrIu@[k trnf&SdonfhoHk;OD; wGJzuftkyfcsKyfa&;wGif wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf/ uif*sKHtonf ppfwyfutycsKyfonfh wyfrSL;tjzpf D dk k f vnf;aumif;? csKd,Hk&Grfonf tpkd;&tzGJUukdvnf; aumif;? uif,eefonf EdiijH cm;qufqa&;udvnf; kH k f H k aumif; toD;oD;wm0ef,lxm;Muonf/ vufawGU wGif uif*sKHtonf EdiiEitpk;&tzGUJ ukd tjynfht0 D k f H S hf d xdef;csKyfxm;onf/ ¤if;tpkd;&tzGJUtwGuf vl trsm;vufcHaom a&G;aumufyGJwGif 0ifa&mufa&G; cs,fc&ef rvdtyfaomfvnf; ¤if;taejzifh uk&;,m; H k d D jynfolYppfwyf wyfcsKyftaejzifha&m ajrmuf ukd&D;,m;trsKd;om;umuG,fa&;aumfr&Sif tBuD; tuJtaejzifhyg &mxl;ESpfckukd wpfNyKdifeufwnf; wm0ef , lxm;aomaMumifh jynf o l Y n D v mcH w G i f ig;ESpfjynhfwdkif; wnDwñGwfwnf; a&G;cs,fjcif; cH&onf/ 2009 ckEpf {NyD 9 &ufwif trsK;om;umuG,f S G d a&;aumfr&Sif tBuD;tuJtjzpf xyfrHa&G;cs,fcH& NyD; jynfolYnDvmcHokdY wufa&mufvmcJhonf/ xkdokdY wufa&mufjcif;onf 2008 ckESpf Mo*kwfvrSpí yxrqHk;tBudrf jynfolYa&SUarSmufxGufay:vmjcif; jzpfonf/ 2010 jynhfESpf arvwGif w½kwfEkdifiHokdY oGm; a&mufconf/ 2010 jynhEpf Mo*kwwif ¤if; hJ f S f G om;ESifhtwl w½kwfEdkifiHokdY xyfrHoGm;a&mufcJh onf/ 2011 ckESpf arvwGif w½kwfESifh ajrmufukd &D;,m;ESpfEdkifiHtMum; ESpf 50 ajrmuf cspfMunfa&; ESiaygif;pnf;a&; oabmwlnrpmcsKyf vufrSwfa&; hf D I xkd;&ef a&muf&SdcJhonf/ 2010 pufwifbm 28 &uf wGif ukd&D;,m;tvkyform;ygwD taxGaxG 218
    • uif * sKH t D *&ef*sm;? zmvD twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf xyfrHa&G;cs,fcH&onf/ 2011 ck E S p f Mo*k w f v wGif ½k&Sm;EdkifiHokdYoGm;a&mufí or®w'Drx&DrufA'ufESifh awGUqHkcJhonf/ D D uif*sKHtDonf uifa&mifqGwfESifh vufxyf cJhNyD; orD;jzpfol uifqlaqmifudk 1974 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf/ w&m;r0ifonfhyxrqHk; ZeD;jzpfol aqmif;a[&ifonf ajrmufu&;,m;½ky&if rif;orD; dk D f S jzpfNyD; ¤if;ESifh 1971 ckESpfwGif om;tBuD;qHk; uif*sKHeefukdarG;zGm;onf/ 'kwd,ZeD; uka&mif[;ESihf d D 1981 ckEpwif uif*sKcsL? 1983 ckEpwif uif*sKtef S f G H S f G H ukd arG;zGm;cJhonf/ uif*sKHtDonf 2011 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 17 &ufwGif NyKH,rf;NrKdUjyifokdY &xm;jzifh c&D;oGm;aepOf ESvHk;xdckdufcJhí aoqHk;cJhaMumif; ukd&D;,m;A[kdowif; at*sifpDu owif;xkwfjyef onf/ *&ef*sm;? zmvD/ / zmvD*&ef*sm;ukd tar&d uefEdkifiH u,fvDzkd;eD;,m;jynfe,f qef*sKd;pfNrdKUü 1925 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf/ txufwef;ausmif; rS xGufNyD; rMumrD ½kyf&Sifxkwfvkyfol qifjrL&,f a*:'Gifu pdwf0ifpm;aomaMumifh 1943 ckESpfwGif zmvD * &ef ; *sm; ½k d u f u l ; cJ h o nf h The North Star Zmwf u m;wG i f Zmwf0ifcef;tenf;tusOf; pwifo½kyfaqmifjcif;rS pí ½kyf&SifavmuodkY 0ifa&mufcJhonf/ 1944 ckESpf a*smhbf? pwdAf wGif The Purple Heart Zmwfum;wGif pwifí ta&; BuD;aom u@rSyg0ifcGifh&cJhonf/ ¤if;o½kyfaqmif cJhaom Zmwfum;tcsdKUrSm Strangers on a Train, Rope, Enchantment Full House,Senso jzpfonf/ 1980 ckEpwif ausmfMum;aom jyZmwf Sf G jzpfonfh Deathtrap wGif o½kyfaqmifcJhonf/ G 1995 ckESpfwGif The Carefree Tree jyZmwfwif o½kyaqmifcJhonf/ 2007 ckESpfwGif ¤if; Include f Me Out: My Life From Goldwyn to Broadway trnf&Sdaom ukd,fwkdifa&;tw¬KyÜwådukd a&;om; cJonf/ zmvD*&ef*sm;onf rwfv 27 &ufwif e,l; h G a,mufNrdKUü touf 86 ESpwif uG,veonf/ f G f G f a *smh bf ? pwd A f / / tzdk;wefpdwful;rsm;ukd toHk;0ifaom xkwfukefrsm;tjzpfajymif;vJjzpfay: apcJhonfh Apple uGefysLwmukrÜPD trIaqmif t&m&SdcsKyf pwdAfa*smhbf (Steve Jobs) onf ol qef;opfaompdwful;rsm;jzihf vlom;wdkY vlaerI b0udk wpfqifhjr§ifhay;cJholjzpfonf/ Apple uGefysLwmukrÜPDukd pwifwnf axmifolrsm;teuf wpfOD;jzpfol pwdAfa*smhbfukd ynmwwf rdbESpfyg;jzpf o l Abdulfattah John Jandali ES i h f Joanne Carole Schieb wk d Y u tar &d u ef j ynf a xmif p k u,f v D z k d ; eD ; ,m;jynf e ,f ? qefz&efppöukdNrdKUwGif 1955 ckESpf? azazmf0g&D 24 &ufu arG;zGm;cJhonf/ odkYaomf a*smhbfi,fpOf uwnf;u rdbrsm;uGJuGmaeaomaMumifh arG;pm; rdbrsm;jzpfMuaom aygvfa*smhbf? uvm&ma*smhbf wkdYESihftwl aexdkifcJh&onf/ aemifwpfcsdefwGif uGefysLwm'DZkdifemESifh Apple uGefysLwmukrÜPDukd wnfaxmifoljzpfvmrnfh a*smhbfonf tv,f tvwfwef;pm; rdom;pkwif BuD;jyif;cJhonf/ G 1962 ckEpwif a*smhbrom;pkonf urÇmh S f G f d uGefysLwmenf;ynmA[kd Xmejzpfonfh u,fvD zk d ; eD ; ,m; ]qDvDuGef awmifMum;}[k wifpm; ac:a0:onfht&yfodkY ajymif;a&TUcJhonf/ a*smhbf 219
    • a*smhbf? pwdAf onf tm;vyf c sd e f r sm;wG i f vQyf p pf y pö n f ; rsm; f xkwfvkyfonfh Hewlett Packard vkyief;wGif pl;prf; avhvmcJhonf/ xkdvkyfief;wGif tif*sifeD,mrsm; wDxGifaom vQyfppfypönf;rsm;ukd a*smhbfawGY& onf/ xkdpOfwGif touf 12 ESpf t&G,f&SdNyDjzpfaom a*smh b f o nf uG e f y sLwmES i f h pwif & if ; ES D ; cJ h N yD ; uGefysLwmjzihf tvkyfvkyf&onfukd ESpfoufcJhonf/ pwd A fa *smh bf txufwef;ausmif;om;b0wGif Hewlett Packard puf½Hkü jyKvkyfaom a[majymykdYcsrIrsm; ukd wufa&muf em;axmifavh&Sdonf/ a[majymyGJ wpfckwGif puf½HktBuD;tuJjzpfol Willion Hewlett xHrS ¤if;ausmif;oifcef;pmwpfcktwGuf vkdtyf aom pufypön;tpdwtydi;ukd awmif;,lcz;onf/ f f k f hJ l 0DvsHu a*smhbfukd pdwf0ifpm;oGm;NyD; ypönf;rsm; ay;onfhtjyif aEG&moDwGif puf½HkokdY vma&muf &efurf;vSrf;cJhaomaMumihf ¤if;puf½HkwGif tcsdefydkif; tvkyf0ifvkyfcJhonf/ 1972 ckEpf txufwef;atmifNyD;aomtcg S atmf&D*Gefjynfe,f ydkYwfvef;&Sd Reed College odkY rdb&if;rsm; tultnDjzifh wufa&mufcJhonf/ odYk aomf NyD;qH;onftxd roifMum;bJ wpf0ufwpf k ysufESifhausmif;xGufcJhonf/ aemufydkif;umv rsm;wGif a*smhbfonf q,fausmfoufb0ukd ra& r&mESihf jzpfovdk jzwfoef;cJhonf/ touf 19 ESpf wGif tdE´d,odkYoGm;a&mufí ta&SUwdkif; xl;jcm; eufeJaom bmoma&;ukdvnf; avhvmcJhzl;onf/ 1975 ckESpf wGif [krf;b½l;uGefysLwm uvyfoYkd qufo,conf/ ¤if;uvyfwif i,fpOfu G f hJ G Hewlett Packard uk r Ü P D w G i f od u Rrf ; cJ h & aom oli,fcsif;jzpfol pwdAfa0:ZfeufrSm wpfu,a&oH; dk f k uGefysLwmwDxGif& ef avhvmBudK;yrf ; aeonf / xdkYaemuf 1976 ckESpfwGif Apple uGeysLwmukrPD f Ü ukd a*smbEifh a0:ZeufwYkd ESpfOD;ydkifaiGrsm;jzihf pwif h f S wnfaxmifcJhonf/ yxrOD;qHk;taejzihf uGefysLwm 0goem&Sifrsm;ESihf tif*sifeD,mrsm;twGuf qm;upf bkwfukd a0:Zfeufu 'DZdkif;xkwfí a*smhbfuaps; uGufwifjcif;udk wm0ef,lcJhonf/ Apple yxrESpfwGif qm;upfbkwfrsm; ukdom a&mif;csEicaomfvnf; uGefysLwmukd,fxnf kd f hJ rsm; ykdíao;i,fvm&efESifh pGrf;aqmif&nfykdrkdwkd; wufvmap&ef ESpfOD;om;BudK;yrf;cJhMuonf/ 1977 ckESpfwGif xkwfvkyfcJhaom Apple II uGefysLwmonf urÇmwpf0ef;wGif wpfu,a&oH; uGefysLwmrsm; dk f k aps;uGufopfukd pwifzGifhvSpfEdkifcJhonf/ oHk;ESpf twGif; a&mif;&aiGa':vmoef; 200 jrifhwufcJh onf/ ¤if;wdkY ESpfOD;onf oifhwifhaom uGefysLwm ukd,fxnfESifhtwl vkdufzufí BuD;rm;aom pGrf; aqmifrIukd ay;Edkifaom aqmhzf0Jjzifh NydKifbufrsm;ukd tvJxkd;EkdifcJhonf/ vlaygif;rsm;pGmu Apple II ukd 0,f,ltoHk;jyKcJhMuonfh&v'ftaejzifh ukrÜPD wnfaqmufNyD;av;ESpftwGif; vlxkMum;rsm;pGm ysYHESHUa&muf&SdcJhaomaMumifh 1980 ckESpf 'DZifbmwGif Apple atmifjrifrI txGwtxdya&muf&chonf/ f f dS J okYdaomf 1981 ckEpwif BuD;rm;aom pufrI S f G ukrÜPDjzpfonfh International Business Machines Ü D dk f k f (IBM) ukrPu wpfu,a&oH;uGeysLwmaps;uGuf ukd 0ifa&mufxkd;azmuf&ef BuHpnfrIu Apple atmifjrifrIukd Ncdrf;ajcmufcJhonf/ Apple III ukkd aps;uGuwioi;cJaomfvnf; enf;ynmESiaps;uGuf f Gf Gf h fh jyóemrsm;ukd &ifqkdifcJh&aomaMumifh jyefvnf 220
    • a*smhbf? pwdAf ½kyfodrf;cJh&onf/ 1983 ckESpfwGif Lisa wHqdyf wifoGif;cJhonf/ ¤if;onf vkyfief;oHk;uGefysLwm toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf *&yfzpf rsufESmjyif? trSwf tom; icom rsm;? Window pepf? armufpfESihfjrm; rsm;yg0ifvmcJhonhf uGefysLwmjzpfonf/ okdYaomf aps;EIef;jrihfrm;aomaMumihf ratmifjrifcJhay/ 1983 ckESpfwGif IBM onf Apple aps;uGufa0pk wpf0ufausmfukd &,loGm;cJhonf/ 1981 ckESpfaemufydkif;wGif a*smhbfonf yg&rD&aom vli,ftif*sife,mrsm;ESihf zGYJ pnf;xm; dS D onfh Macintosh tao;pm; ya&m*sufukd prf;oyf onf/ 1984 ckESpf? Zefe0g&DwGif Macintosh ukd pwifwifoi;cJonf/ Lisa uJoYdkyif *&yfzpf rsufESm G f h h jyifESihfjzpfNyD; pm;yGJwifyHkESdyfjcif;twGuf toHk;0if aomaMumihf avqmy&ifwmESihf wGJzuftoHk;jyK& onf/ okdYaomf aps;uGufwGif atmifjrifrIr&cJhay/ Mac ½HI;edrfhrIonf Apple ukrÜPDukdyg xdckdufvm onf/ Apple onf a*smhbfb0jzpfaomfvnf; ukrÜPDrS z,fxkwfjcif;cH&onf/ 1985 ckESpfwGif ¤if;pGrf;tifukd toHk;cs&ef enf;vrf;opfrsm;ukd pwif&SmazGcJh&m *&yfzpfuRrf;usifonfhtzGJYwpfzGJYESifh awGUqHkcJhonf/ xkdtzGJYonf a*smhvl;uyfpf½kyf&Sif ukrÜPDwGif t½kyfrsm;ukd ydkrkdvIyf&Sm;ouf0ifap&ef uGefysLwmjzifh zefwD;aomtzGJYjzpfonf/ a*smhbf onf xkduGefysLwmXmeukd 0,f,lcJhonf/ xkoYkd 0,f,caomfvnf; a*smbf t"du d l hJ h qE´rm tqifhjrifhaom uGefysLwmrsm; zefwD;jcif; S yif j zpf o nf / 1985 ck E S p f puf w if b mvwG i f tqifhjrifh ynma&;ESifh odyÜHokawoejyKcsufrsm;ukd taxmuftuljyKrnfh NEXT uGefysLwmukrÜPDukd wnfaxmifawmhrnfjzpfaMumif; Apple bkwftzGJYxH aMunm tod a y;onf / xk d o d k Y w nf a xmif & ef tawmfqHk; tif*sifeD,mrsm;ESifh ta&mif;pma&;rsm; ukd ac:,lvkdaMumif; ajymMum;&m Apple u oabm rwlcJhay/ 1986 ckESpfwGif Next uGefysLwmukd pwifwxif xkwvyonf/ [mh'0yi;ESihf aqmhz0J D G f k f f J dk f f ykdif;ESpfrsddK;vHk;ukd taumif;qHk;t&nftaoG;&&Sd&ef pGrf;aqmifcJhonf/ tqifhjrifhenf;ynmrsm;ESifh wDxGifchJNyD; 1988 ckESpfwGif a&mif;cscJhaomfvnf; aps;EIef;jrifhrm;jcif;aMumihf aps;uGufwGif ½kef;uefcJh& onf/ Next OD;wnfcsufukd ausmif;ynma&; twG u f o mru pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; rsm;twG u f &nf&G,fí csJUxGifcJhonf/ ykdí aps;oufomaom ukd,fxnfukd toHk;jyKcJhonf/ odkYaomfukrÜPDrSm t½HI;ay:cJhaomaMumifh wGJzufwnfaxmifolrsm;rSm xGufcGmoGm;Muonf/ 1995 ckESpfwGif a*smhbf0,f,lcJhaom Pixar ukrÜPDrS Toy Story umwGef;½kyf&Sifukd uGefysLwmjzifh tptqHk;wnf;jzwf½kduful;cJh&m atmifjrifrI&&SdcJh onf/ 2006 ckESpfwGif a0gh'pöae½kyf&SifukrÜPDESihf yl;aygif;í umwGef;½kyf&Sifum;rsm;pGmukd zefwD;cJh&m atmifjrifr&&ScaomaMumihf a*smhbrm ukrP 80 I d hJ f S Ü D &mckdifEIef;cefYukd ydkifqkdifrI&Sdvmonf/ 1996 wGif Apple ukrÜPD trIaqmif t&m&SdcsKyftopfjzpfol Gil Amelio u aqmhzf0J topfrsm; tpm;xkd;&ef Next uGefysLwm enf;ynm ukda&G;cs,fí a':vmoef; 400 jzihf0,f,lcJhonf/ a*smhbfukdvnf; Apple tBuHay;t&m&Sdtjzpf cefYtyfcJhonf/ 1997 ckESpfwGif Apple ukrÜPD qHk;½IH;rIrSm a':vmoef; 700 &SdcJhNyDjzpfaomaMumihf a*smhbfu bkwftzGJYukd jyefvnfzGJYpnf;cJhonf/ 1997 ckESpf Mo*kwfvwGif rdkufc½dkaqmhzfukrÜPDESihf yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifrnfjzpfaMumif; aMunmonf/ 1998 wGif iMac uGefysLwmukd xkwfvkyf onf/ tifwmeufESihf tdrfoHk; uGefysLwm toHk;jyK olrsm;ukd zrf;pm;EkdifcJhonhf iMac rSm aps;uGufwGif atmifjrifrI&&SdcJhonf/ 2000 jynfhESpfwGif a*smhbf onf trIaqmift&m&ScsKyfjzpfvmonf/ 1999 ckEpf d S wGif iMovie? 2003 ckESpfwGif iTunes Store jzihf tGefvkdif; *Dw0efaqmifrIukd zefwD;cJhonf/ 2001 ckESpf wGif iDVD? 2002 ckESpfwGif iPhoto? 2006 ckESpfwGif iWeb wkdYukd wDxGifonf/ 221
    • a*smhbf? pwdAf awvm? tJ v pf Z f b uf o f ½ k d U pf r G e f 2001 ckESpf tpwGif tvG,fwulo,f aqmifEdkifaom tDvufx&Gef;epfypönf;aps;uGufukd vIi;xefom;apcJonfh iPod ukd wDxGifcJhaomaMumihf df G h Apple t&Sdeft[kefBuD;rm;vmonf/ iPod onf 'D*spfw,fypönf;rsm; pka0;&mA[kdcsuf jzpfay onf/ vSyaom'DZkdif;? vkyfaqmifcsufrsdK;pHkyg0if aomaMumihf ta&mif;&qH;jzpfonf/ 2007 ckEpwif k S f G prwfzkef;rsm;ukd oHk;pGJ&vG,fulap&ef OD;aqmifcJh aom iPhone xkwvyonf/ 2010 ckEpwif oifykef; f kf Sf G uGefysLwm (Tablet) aps;uGufukd oD;jcm;&yfwnf Edkifap&efyHkazmfay;cJhaom iPad ukdxkwfvkyfonf/ 2004 ckEpuwnf;u yefu&d,uifqmukd cHpm;cJh& S f aom a*smbfonf 2011 ckEp?f Mo*kwvwGif trIaqmif h S f t&m&ScsKyf&mxl;rS tem;,lí vkyazmfuizufjzpfol d f dk f rpöwmwifuGwfcfukd vTJtyfcJhonf/ a&m*gaMumihf tonf;tpm;xdk;ukorI cH,lcJh&aoma*smhbfonf uG,fvGefumeD;tcsdefrSmyif iPhone4s ukd wDxGif cJhonf/ ynma&;ykdif;wGif bGJYr&SdcJhaomfvnf; enf; ynmacwfudk OD;aqmifconfh a*smbaoqH;aMumif; hJ h f k owif;ukdMum;od&aomtcg tar&duefor®w tkdbm;rm;? bDvf*dwfEihf ZlumbwfwYdk u *kPjf yK S csD;usL;pum;ukd 0rf;enf;pGm ajymMum;cJhMuonf/ wDxGifrIpGrf;&nfrsm;pGmjzifh urÇ m h e nf ; ynmuk d ykdrkdaumif;rGefatmif vkyfaqmifcJhol pwdAfa*smhbf onf 2011 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 5 &uf? touf 56 ESpft&G,fwGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpk? u,fvD zdk;eD;,m;jynfe,fwGif uG,fvGefonf/ awvm? tJvpfZfbufof½kdUpfrGef/ / tar&duef ½kyf&Sifavmu a[mvd0k'f*E¦0ifrif;orD;BuD; tJvpfZfbufof½kdYpfrGefawvm (tJvpfZfbufof awvm) ukd 1932 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv 27 &uf wGif t*FvefEkdifiH? vef'efNrdKU? [rf;pwuf*g;'if;ü zcifz&efppfvef;awvmESihf rdcifqm&mAGKd ifvmwkYd u arG;zGm;onf/ zcifESifhrdcifrSm tar&duefEkdifiHom; rsm; jzpfaomfvnf; t*FvefEkdifiHokdY ajymif;a&TU aexkdifcJhonf/ 1939 ckESpf 'kwd,urÇmppfjzpfaom tcg tar&duefEdkifiH u,fvDzkd;eD;,m;jynfe,fokdY jyefvnfajymif;a&TUcJhonf/ zcifonf yef;csDjycef; ykdif&SifjzpfNyD; rdcifonfjyZmwfrif;orD;a[mif;jzpf onf/ vpfZf tpfukdrSm a[mif;0'fawvmjzpf onf/ i,f&G,fpOf uav;b0uwnf;u trsm;ESifh rwl toGiftjyif uGmjcm; vSyonfhvpfZudk ,leAm f D q,fv½y&ixwvya&; ukrPrS ckepfESpftwGuf f k f S f k f k f Ü D oabmwl pmcsKyfcsKyfqkd cJhaomaMumifh 1942 ckEpf S tJvpfZfbufof½dkYpfrGefawvm wGif yxrqH;tBudrtjzpf There’s one Born Every k f f S f G Minute ½ky&iwif uav;o½kyfaqmiftjzpf yg0ifcJh onf/ wpfEptMumwGif ,leAmq,fvEihf vrf;cGchJ S f D f S J NyD; MGM ukrÜPDrS t*Fvdyfuav;o½kyfaqmif Zmwf½kyftwGuf vpfZfukdvufcHcJhí 1943 ckESpfwGif Lassie Come Home ½kyf&SifwGif yg0ifo½kyfaqmifcJh onf/ vpfZudk ¤if;touf 12 t&G,wif ½kuu;cJh f f G d f l aom National Velvet Zmwfum;rSpí vlodrsm;cJh onf/ 1949 ckESpfwGif ½kduful;cJhaom Little Women ½kyf&SifwGif uav;o½kyfaqmiftjzpf aemufq;½kuf kH d ul;chJNyD; Conspirator Zmwfum;rSpí vlBuD;o½kyf aqmiftjzpf pwif½kduful;cJhonf/ 1957 ckESpfrS av;ESpfqufwkduf atmfpumqk qefcgwifpm&if; 0if c J h o nf / 1960 jynf h E S p f w G i f ½k d u f u l ; aom Butterfield 8 Zmwfum;wGif taysmfr,ftjzpf o½kyf 222
    • awvm? tJ v pf Z f b uf o f ½ k d U pf r G e f za&ZD,m? *sKd aqmifxl;cRefcJhí atmfpumqk&&SdcJhonf/ xkdrSpí a[mvd0k'f tatmifjrifqHk;tEkynm&Sifrsm;pm&if; wGifyg0ifcJhNyD; tEkynmaMu;tjrifhqHk;rif;orD; tjzpf ½kyf&Sifwpfum;vQif a':vmwpfoef;&&SdcJh onf / 20th Century Fox ½k y f & S i f u k r Ü P D t wG u f rif;om;&pfcsufbmwefESifhwGJzufí uvD,kdygx&m ½kyf&Sifudk 1960 ckESpfwGif ½kduful;cJhNyD; 1963 ckESpfwGif tNyD;owfcJhonf/ ¤if;½kyf&SifrSm txl; atmif j rif c J h í tEk y nmaMu;tjzpf a':vm 7 oef;&&SdcJhonf/ 1959 ckESpf touf 27 ESpfwGif c&pf,mefbmomrS *sL;bmomodkY ul;ajymif;ukd; uG,fcJhonf/ 1966 ckESpfwGif rif;om;&pfcsuf bmwefESifhyif Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? ½kyf&Sifukd½kduful;cJh&m ynmwwf ygarmu©wpfOD; ayghoGrf;aomZeD;onftjzpf o½kyfaqmifxl;cRefcJhí atmfpumqk&&SdcJhjyefonf/ vpfZfonf ½kyf&Sif um;rsm;? jyZmwfrsm;tjyif ½kyfjrifoHMum;Zmwfvrf; wGJrsm;udkvnf;½kduful;cJhonf/ 1994ckESpfwGif ½HkwifcJhaom The Flintstones Zmwfum;rSm vpfZfaemufqHk;½kduful;cJhaom Zmwf um;jzpfNyD; aemufykdif;wGif ½kyf&Sifum;rsm;vufcH½dkuf ul;jcif;r&SdcJhay/ vpfZfonfattkdif'Dtufpfa&m*g okawoe&efyHkaiG &SmazG&mwGif a':vmoef; 200 ausmf&&Sonftxd &SmazGEicNhJ yD; vlra&;vkyief;rsm; d dk f I f vkyfaqmifcJh&mwGif xl;cRefcJhí 1992 ckESpfwGif Jean Herscholt Humanitarian qkESifh tar&duefor®wu csD;jr§ifhaom Presidential Citizens Medal qkwkdYtjyif tjcm;qkrsm;pGmukdvnf; &&SdcJhonf/ u,fvDzkd;eD;,m;NrdKUawmf0ef a[mif;rif;om; BuD;tmEk;uvnf; jynfe,f *kPfaqmifoltrsdK; d orD;tjzpf *kPfjyKcJhonf/ 1987 ckESpfwGif jyifopf jynfrS csD;jr§ifhonfh Legion of Honour qkukdvnf; aumif;? 2000 jynfhESpf wGif t*Fvefb&ifrBuD;u k ay;tyfaom Dame Commander of the Order of the k British Empire bGYJ udvnf;aumif; &&SdcJhonf/ vpfZf onf vlrIa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifhtEkynm vkyfief;rsm; wGif xl;cRefíqkrsm;pGm&&SdcJh½Hkomru c&rf;jyma&mif rsufvHk;rsm;ESifh xljcm;aomvSyrIukd ykdifqkdifjcif;? tdrfaxmifzufrsm;cJhjcif;ESifh tdrfaxmifzufrsm;u ay;cJhaomtzkd;wef vuf 0 wf&wemrsm;ESifh vuf aqmifrsm; ykdifqkdifc J hjcif;wkdYaMumifhvnf; vlodrsm; xif&Sm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ vpfZfonf trsdK;om; ckepfOD;ESifh tdrfaxmif&SpfBudrfjyKcJhonf/ yOörESifh q|rajrmuf cifyGef;tjzpf rif;om;&pfcsufbmwef udk 1964 ckESpfwGif wpfBudrf? 1975 ckESpfwGif wpfBudrf ESpfBudrfvufxyfcJhonf/ vpfZfonf cifyGef;onfrsm;ay;aom &Sm;yg; tzkd;wefonfh vuf0wf&wemrsm;tjyif vef'ef? [m0kdiftDESifh Palm Springs wkdYwGif tdrfBuD;rsm;ukd ykdifqkdifcJhonf/ xkdYjyifvpfZfonf The Elizabeth Collection vuf0wf&wemta&mif;qkdifESifh emrnf ausmfa&arT;wHqdyfrsm;jzpfonfh White Diamonds, Passion, Passion For Men wkdYudkvnf; xkwfvkyf a&mif;csqJjzpfonf/ uG,fvGefcsdefwGif ydkifqkdifrI pkpkaygif;rSm oef; 600 rS 1000 txd[k cefYrSef;Mu onf/ tJvpfZfbufofawvmonf touf 79 ESpft&G,f? rwfv 23 &uf eHeuf 1em&D 28 rdepfwGif avmhpftdef*svdpfNrdKU Cedars-Sinai aq;½HkwGif ESvHk; a&m*gjzifh uG,veconf/ ruG,verwif aq;½Hk f G f hJ f G f D G okdYtBudrfaygif;rsm;pGmwufcJh&NyD; cGJpdwfrIaygif;rsdK;pHk jyKvk y f c J h & onf / vpf Z f u k d r wf v 24 &uf w G i f avmhpftdef*svdpfNrdKU&Sd Forest Lawn okomefwGif 2010 jynfEpu uG,vecaom rkuu,f*sufqif h S f f G f hJ d f tkwf*lESifhuyfvsuf jr§KyfESHcJhonf/ tokbtcrf; tem;odkY t&if;ESD;qHk;rdwfaqG 40 cefYomwuf a&mufcGifhjyKcJhonf/ uG,fvGefcsdefwGif om; 2 OD;? orD; 2 OD;? ajr; 10OD; ESifh jrpf 4 OD;usef&pfonf/ h J D f D za&ZD,m? *sKd/ /urÇm[A;0dwvufa0SUcsefy,H wpfOD;jzpfol *sKdza&ZD,mukd 1944 ckESpf? Zefe0g&D 12 &uf w G i f tar&d u ef j ynf a xmif p k ? um½k d vkdif;em;jynfe,fawmifykdif;&Sd bl;zkdYNrKdUü arG;zGm; 223
    • za&ZD,m? *sKd z,f & m½d k ? *sm&,f v f ' if ; ef onf/ za&ZD,monf 1970 ckESpf azazmf0g&D 16 &ufwGif e,l;a,mufpD;wD;ü jyKvkyfaom vufa0SY xk;owfywif NyKdibufjzpfol *sifrtvpfpudk ig;csD d JG G f D J f jzifh tvJxkd;EdkifcJhNyD; 1973 ckESpf Zefe0g&D 22 &uf *sd K za&ZD , m ½HI;edrfhcJhonf/ 1975 ckESpf atmufwdkbmwGif zdvpfykdifEdkifiHü rkd[mruftvDESif wwd,tBudrf xkd;owfcJhonf/ xkdvufa0SYyGJukd reDvmNrKdUu &ifodrfhwkefzG,f&m ,SOfNyKdifrI[k ausmfMum;vlod rsm;cJonf/ xkywif tvDonf 14 csD cufcyifyef;pGm h d JG G J xkd;owfcJh&NyD; za&ZD,mukd tEk d i f & &S d c J h o nf / NyKdiytenf;i,f ,SONf yKdicNhJ yD;aemuf 1976 ckEpwif f JG f S f G vufa0SUavmurS tem;,lconf/1981 ckESpfwGif hJ jyefvnf0ifa&mufcJhaomfvnf; ratmifjrifcJhay/ xk d Y aemuf y k d i f ; wG i f zD v m'J h z D ; ,m;jynf e ,f ü tm;upm;½Hk zGifhvSpfcJhonf/ EkdifiHwum vufa0SY tausmftarmfrsm;pm&if;wGif yg0ifNyD; a&Tcg;ywfqk &ol*sdKza&ZD,monf 2011 ckESpf Ekd0ifbm 7 &uf wGif tonf;uifqma&m*gjzifh uG,fvGefonf/ dfH z,f&m½kd? *sm&,fvf'if;ef/ /Ekiia&;ESihf a&SUae wGifjyKvkyfaom NyKdifyGJwGifrl NyKdifbufa*smhzkdrefukd ½HI;edrfhcJhonf/ za&ZD,monf taysmfwrf;upm;cJh aom yGJpOfrsm;wGifyif taumif;qH;[JA;0dwupm; k D f orm;jzpfcJhonf/ za&ZD , monf 1965 ck E S p f Mo*kwfvrSpwifí taysmfwrf;vufa0SY upm; orm;tjzpfrS aMu;pm;vufa0SYupm;orm;tjzpf ,SOfNyKdifcJhonf/ t&yf 5 ay 11 vufr? ukd,fcE¨m tav;csdef 205 aygif&SdNyD; tNrJwuf<uxufoef aomyHkpHESifh pGrf;tm;jynfh b,f0kdufvufoD;ydkif&Sif za&ZD,mukd [JAD;0dwfcsefyD,Ha[mif; a&mfuDrmpD&m EkdESifh ckdif;EIdif;avh&SdMuonf/ 1968 ckESpf rwfvwGif ¤if;NyKdifbufa[mif;jzpfol blpwmrufopfukd 11 csDwGif tvJxkd;EkdifcJhonf/ 1971 ckESpfwGif [JAD;0dwfcsefyD,HESpfOD;jzpfol rkd[mruftvDtEkdif& &S d c J h o nf / 1974 ck E S p f w G i f rk d [ mruf t vD E S i f h 'k w d , tBud r f *sKd z a&ZD , mwd k Y o nf ruf ' D q if O,smOfwGifjyKvkyfaom vufa0SYxkd;owfyGJwGif xdyfwdkuf&ifqkdif,SOfNyKdifcJh&m 15 csD xkd;owfcJhNyD; za&ZD,mtEdi&&Sconf/ 1974 ckEpwif rd[mruf k f d hJ S f G k tvDEifh 'kw,tBudrf ,SONf yKdix;owfc&m 12 csDjzifh S d f dk hJ vkyief;rsm;vkyaqmifcNhJ y; pmayrsm;vnf;a&;om;cJol f f D h *sm&,fv'if;ef z,f&m½kudk 1935 ckEp?f Mo*kwv f d S f 26 &ufwGif tar&duefEdkifiH? e,l;a,mufNrdKUü arG;zGm;onf/ z,f&m½konf 1984 ckEpwif Ekiia&; d S f G d f H vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; pwifjyKvkyf cJhonf/ touf 16 ESpft&G,fwGif ar&Darmifhruf[wfwefaumvdyfokdY ynmoifq&&Sí wufa&mufynmoifMum;cJhonf/ k d 224 *sm&,f v f ' if ; ef z ,f & m½k d
    • z,f & m½d k ? *sm&,f v f ' if ; ef bJ v f p wm½d k p f ? qD A f 1956 ckESpfwGif bGJY&cJhNyD; rMumrD e,l;a,mufNrdKU yk*¾vduausmif;wpfausmif;wGif q&mrtjzpfvkyf ukdifcJhonf/ Oya'a&;&mrsm;ukd pdwf0ifpm;aom aMumifh zkYd'[rfwuúovwif nausmif;wufí 1960 f kd f G ckESpfwGif Oya'bGJU&&SdcJhonf/ xkdESpfwGif *RefZuf um½kdESifh vufxyfNyD; om;orD; 3 a,muf&&Sdonf/ 1974 ckEpwif c½kivufaxmuftusdK;awmfaqmif S f G d f a&SUaejzpfconf/ ¤if;a&SUaevkyoufwpfavQmuf hJ f wGif rw&m;zdESdyfcH&ol 'ku©onfrsm;txl;apmifh a&Smufa&;tzGJUukdzGJYpnf;í uav;oli,frsm;ESifh oufBuD;&G,ftkdrsm; yg0ifywfoufaeaom &mZ0wf rIrsm;? vdiyi;qki&m tEdiusic&rIrsm;ESihf tdrwi; f dk f d f k f hf H f G f rw&m;ESypufc&olrsm;ukd OD;pm;ay;í tusdK;aqmif d f H ay;cJhonf/ 1978 ckESpfwGif e,l;a,mufNrdKUc½kdif a&G;aumufyGJwGif tEkdif&&SdcJhonf/ z,f&m½kd wwd,oufwrf;wGif trsKd ;orD;rsm; wef;wltcGihf ta&;&&Sd&eftwGuf wkdufyGJ0ifcJhonf/ trsdK;orD; tenf;pkom&Sdaom vTwfawmfwGif usm;rtcGifh ta&;wef;wl&,lvkdonfh trsdK;orD;0g'a&;&m vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;wGif pGrf;tm;&Sdaomolwpfa,mufjzpfcJh onf / 'k w d , ouf w rf ; wG i f ygwD tem*wf OD ; wnf c suf E S i h f rl 0 g'a&;&mrsm;a&;qG J & mwG i f u@wpf&yftaejzifh yg0ifconf/ z,f&m½kda&;om; hJ cJhaom pmtkyf tcsdKUrSm My Story,Changing History: Women, Power and Politics wkdYjzpfonf/ bJvfpwm½dkpf? qDAf/ / Oa&mywdkuf a*gzfh pwm;qDAfbJvfpwm½dkpfukd 1957 ckESpf {NyDv 9 &uf aeYwGif pydefEdkifiH ywf'&DemNrdKUü arG;zGm;onf/ qDAonf a*gufo;tm;upm;ukd cHrifaomrdom;pkrS f D k aygufzGm;vmoljzpfonf/ ¤if; tpfukdESifhOD;av; rSm aMu;pm;a*gufoD; tm;upm;orm;rsm;jzpfMu onf/ qDAf upm;yGJrsm;wGif zefwD;EkdifpGrf;&Sdjcif;? pdwu;pdwoef;aumif;jcif;ESifh yg&rDx;jcif;wdYk onf f l f l xl;jcm;onhf 0daoorsm;jzpfMuonf/ qDAfonf 1974 ckESpfrSpí a*gzfhtm;upm;ukd pwif avhvm qDAfbJvfpwm½dkpf vdkufpm;cJhonf/ xdkESpfrSmyif touf 16 ESpf t&G,jf zihf pydeaMu;pm;wHcepuq&&Sonf/ 1976 f G f kd f k d ckESpf? touf 19 ESpft&G,fwGif British Open a*ghzf NydKifyGJü ½dkufcsufav;csufjzihf tEdkif&cJhonf/ 1980 jynhfESpfwGif usif;yaom U.S.Opean rmpwmNydKifyGJ wGif ½IH;edrfhcJhonf/ 1981 ckESpfwGif ,l½dkyD,H Ryder Cup tzGJUwGif U.S. PGA yGJpOfrsm; upm;Ekdif&ef twGuf qE´jyKcH&onf/ 1980 jynhveEprsm;wGif f G f S f qDAfonf Ryder Cup toif;wGif BuD;rm;aom atmifjrifrIrsm;jzihf Oa&myyGJpOfrsm;ukd vTrf;rdk;xm; cJhonf/ 1995 ckESpf Oa&myyGJpOfonf ¤if;aemuf qHk;tEkdif&onhf yGJpOfjzpfonf/ qDAfonf 2000 jynhfESpfwGif Oa&my &mpkEpf S upm;orm;ESihf pydefEkdifiH &mpkESpftm;upm; orm;tjzpf a&G;cs,fcH&onf/ 1997 ckESpfwGif Oa&my Ryder Cup toif; acgif;aqmifjzpfNyD; World Golf Hall of Fame wGifyg0ifoljzpfonf/ 2003 ckESpfaemufydkif;wGif NydKifyGJ0ifjcif;ukd wjznf; jznf;&yfem;vmcJh&m 2007 ckESpf Champions Tour NydKifyGJukd aemufqHk;NydKifcJhonf/ Oa&myyG J p Of 50 ausmf u k d ,S O f N yd K if c h J o l qDAfbJvfpwm½dkpfonf 2008 ckESpf aemufydkif;wGif OD;aESmuftusdwfa&mifa&m*gjzpfyGm;cJhNyD; tBudrfrsm; pGm cGJpdwfukorIcH,lcJhaomfvnf; 2011 ckESpf arv 7 &uf? touf 54 ESpft&G,fwGif uG,fvGefcJh onf/ 225
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    • 0d k i f ; a[muf p f ? atrD uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) 2007 ckESpfwGif bvdwfzDvf'gpDApfESifh vufxyfcJh NyD; tdrfaxmifa&; tqifrajyrIaMumifh 2009 ckESpf wGif uGm&Sif;cJhonf/ atrDonf 2011 ckESpf aEGOD; &moDwGif Oa&myazsmfajza&; tpDtpOfrsm;&Sdaomf vnf; ZGefv 18 &ufwGif qm;AD;,m;ü azsmfajzyGJjyK vkyf&m t&uftvGeftuRH aomufpm;xm;ojzihf tqifrajyrIjzpf&mrS ,if;azsmfajza&;tpDtpOfrsm; ukd &yfqkdif;cJh&onf/ ayghyf*Dwavmu pHjy yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;jzpfol atrDonfvef'efajrmufykdif; urf'ifNrdKU&Sd aetdrfwGif Zlvkdifv 23 &uf? touf 27 ESpft&G,fwGif vef'efNrdKUü t&uftvGeftuRH aomufoHk;cJhaomaMumihf uG,fvGefonf/ atrD 0kdif;a[mufpfukd (touf 27 ESpft&G,fwGif aoqHk; cJhaom xif&Sm;onfha&mhcf tqkdawmfrsm;twGuf zGJYpnf;xm;onfh) 27 Club wGif xnfhoGif;cJhonf/ omoe"Z od&Dy0& "r®mp&d,? atmifajrompH Nrd K Ue,f " r® p Mumy#d y wf omoemjyK&d y f o mES i f h "r®pMum&dyfomrsm; r[mem,u (1373 ckESpf? oDwif;uRwfvqef; 5 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) au0v"r®? t&Sif?a'gufwm oufawmf(47) ESpf? odu©mawmf (27) 0g omoewuú o D v "r® m p&d , ? B.A,M.A, Ph.D ,if;awmfrif;ausmif;pmcsq&mawmf (1373 ckESpf? awmfovif;vjynhfausmf 2 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) auo&? b'´EÅ oufawmf (68) ESpf? odu©mawmf (48) 0g t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? a&TbkdNrdKU okcum&D uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aomyk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011)/ / ausmif;wkduf y"meem,u jynfaxmifpor®wjrefrmEdiiawmfü ax&0g'Ak'bm (1373 ckESpf? oDwif;uRwfvqef; 2 &ufwGif k kfH ¨ omomoemawmftusKd ; o,fy;xrf;&Guawmfrl&if; ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) dk f ysHvGefawmfrloGm;Muaom &[ef;awmfrsm;ESifh EkdifiH a&;? pD;yGm;a&;? pmay? tEkynmESifhe,fy,ftoD;oD; auo0omrd? b'´EÅ wGif xl;cRexif&m;NyD; uG,veom;Muonfh yk*Kd¾ vf oufawmf (78) ESpf? odu©mawmf (58) 0g f S f Gf G rsm;&Sonf/ ¤if;wdYk teuftcsKUd ukd azmfjytyfygonf/ r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? 'kdufOD;NrdKU r[m0dZdwm &mr d tvHjyy&d,wådpmoifwkduf bkef;awmfBuD;oif ynm a&;ausmif; y"me em,u &[ef ; awmf r sm; (1373 ckESpf? 0gacgifvjynfhausmf 13 &ufwGif u0dE´? b'´EÅ ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) oufawmf(91) ESpf? odu©mawmf (71) 0g t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? armfvNrdKifNrdKU ajrxJ ausmif;wkdufESifh bm;tHNrdKUe,f xHk;tkdifaus;&Gm uk@vmbd0Ho? b'´EÅ oufawmf (66) ESpf? odu©mawmf (46) 0g &Gmv,fausmif;wkduf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? e,kefvqef; 1 &ufwGif ysHvGef r[m*E ¬0gpuy@dw? omoe"Z"r®mp&d, 0de, yg&*l?r*FvmawmifñGefYNrdKUe,f oHCem,utzGJY awmfrlonf/) tzGUJ 0if? a'0om*&odrue;"r®um½Hk ygVdwuúokdvf f k f d ausmif;wkduf pmcsq&mawmf ukrm&? b'´EÅ (1372 ckESpf? wykdYwGJvqef; 9 &ufwGif ysHvGef oufawmf(77) ESpf? odu©mawmf (57) 0g t*¾r[mur®Xmemp&d,? r[mur®|memp&d,? awmfrlonf/) 229
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) uk@vmbd0Ho? b'´EÅ oufawmf (88) ESpf? odu©mawmf (68) 0g tbd " Zt*¾ r [mo'¨ r ® a Zmwd u ? ax&0g'Ak ' ¨ omoemjyKMo0g'gp&d,tzGJYOuú|? Munfhjrifwkdif NrdKUe,f pvif;ausmif;wkduf wkduftkyfq&mawmf (1373 ckESpf? oDwif;uRwfvqef; 9 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) BuD;ausmif; ausmif;xkdifq&mawmf (1373 ckESpf? ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 4 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) *E¨rm? b'´EÅ oufawmf (50)? odu©mawmf (30) r[m*E ¬ 0 gpuy@d w ? omoe"Z"r® m p&d , ? anmifav;yifNrdKUe,f oHCem,utzGJY (a&Tusif) tusdK;awmfaqmif? ra'gufNrdKU yef;aiG½Hkawm& uk@vmbd0Ho? b'´EÅ y&d,wådpmoifwkduf wkduftkyfpmcsq&mawmf oufawmf(91)ESpf? odu©mawmf (72) 0g tbd " Zr[m&|*k ½ k ? t*¾ r [mur® | memp&d , ? (1372 ckESpf? ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 11 &ufwGif r[mur®|memp&d,? r[mpnfOD;aoQmifem,u? ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) r&rf ; uk e f ; Nrd K Ue,f o'¨ r ® & H o D r [mpnf & d y f o m p&d,? b'´EÅ y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 6 &ufwGif oufawmf (80)? odu©mawmf (60) EkdifiHawmfA[kdoHCmh0efaqmif? prf;acsmif;NrdKYe,f ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) Am;u&mwkduf wkduftkyfcsKyfa&; em,utzGJYOuú|? atmifr*Fvm usm;ausmif;q&mawmf acrdE´? b'´EÅ (1373 ckESpf? 0gacgifvjynfhausmf 3 &ufwGif oufawmf (107) ESpf? odu©mawmf (47) 0g tbd"Zt*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu? ppfawGNrdKU bk&m; ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) av;qlausmif;wkduf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? wefcl;vjynfhausmf 3 &ufwGif paE´mbmo? b'´EÅ oufawmf (98) ESpf? odu©mawmf (78) 0g ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) a&;NrdKUe,f tpifpHjyaus;&Gm? urf;em;ausmif;wkduf y"me em,u acrdE´? b'´EÅ (1372 ck E S p f ? jymok d v jynf h a usmf 1 &uf w G i f oufawmf (86) ESpf? odu©mawmf (66) 0g t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? omoe"Zod&Dy0& ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) "r®mp&d,? EdkifiHawmfMo0g'gp&d, awmifuwNf rdKU k Z,EÅ? b'´EÅ o'¨ra&mif&ef pmoifwkduf y"me em,u ® dS (1373 ck E S p f ? 0gqk d v jynf h a usmf 5 &uf w G i f oufawmf (105) ESpf? odu©mawmf (85) 0g t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? tdE´d,EdkifiH &mZN*dK[f ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) NrdKU &mZN*dK[fausmif;wkdufESifh '*HkNrdKUopf (qdyf urf ; ) Nrd K Ue,f &mZN*d K [f a usmif ; wk d u f y"me acrdE´? b'´EÅ em,u oufawmf (89)ESpf? odu©mawmf (69) 0g tbd " Zt*¾ r [mo'¨ r ® a Zmwd u "Z? *syef E k d i f i H (1373 ckESpf? uqkefvjynfhausmf 13 &ufwGif cdwusL;½SL;uRef;? rkd*sdNrdKU urÇmat;apwD bkef;awmf ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) 230
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) Z0e? b'´EÅ ouffawmf (87) ESpf? odu©mawmf (67) 0g r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? usHKaysmfNrdKUe,f a&pcef; aus;&Gm y&[dwausmif;wkduf vli,fzGHYNzdK;a&; y&[dwa*[m y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? wefcl;vjynhfausmf 6 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) t*¾r[my@dw? EkiiawmfMo0g'gp&d,? rif;jym;NrdKU d f H aZ,sokcpmoifwkduf y"me em,u (1373 ckEp?f uqkevjynfaeYwif ysveawmfronf/) S f h G H Gf l aZmwdygv? b'´EÅ oufawmf (90)? odu©mawmf (70) tbd"Zr[m&|*k½k? t*¾r[my@dw? tbd"Z t*¾ r[mo'¨raZmwdu? EkiiawmfMo0g'gp&d,? a&Tusif ® d f H edum,OyOuú| r[mem,uwGzuf a&Tusiomoem J f ykdif? Mucwf0kdif;0Hom"dywd t*¾r[m0dem,u? yJcl; NrdKUMucwf0kdif; y&d,wådpmoifwkduf y"meem,u (1372 ckESpf? jymokdvjynhfausmf 13 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) awZed,? b'´EÅ oufawmf (88) ESpf? odu©mawmf (68) 0g t*¾r[mo'´r®aZmwdu"Z? omoe"Zod&Dy0& "r®mp&d,? EdkifiHawmfA[kdoHCmh0efaqmif (,cif)? aejynfawmfysOf;rem;NrdKUe,f qkawmif;jynfhausmif; wkduf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? e,kefvqef; 6 &ufwGif ysHvGef awmfrlonf/) wdavmu? b'´EÅ oufawmf (78) ESpf? odu©mawmf (58) 0g t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? omoe"Zod&Dy0& "r®mp&d,? bDat? &efukefomoemhwuúokdvf em,ucsKyf (,cif)? wdyd#u"&a&G;cs,fa&;tzGJU Zm*&? b'´EÅ tusdK;awmfaqmif (,cif)? ax&0g'Ak'¨omoem oufawmf (85) ESpf? odu©mawmf (64) 0g f t*¾r[my@dw? r[m*E¦0gpuy@dw? omoe"Z jyKMo0g'gp&d,? r&rf;uke;NrdKUe,f r[mwdavmum½Hk od & D y 0&"r® m p&d , ? Ek d i f i H a wmf M o0g'gp&d , ? ausmif;wkduf y"me em,u ausmufwef;NrdKU rif;ausmif;y&d,wådpmoifwkdufESifh (1373 ckESpf? wefcl;vjynfhausmf 2 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) aZ,smyl&y&d,wådpmoifwkduf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? oDwif;uRwfvjynfhausmf 7 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) wdomoe? b'´EÅ oufawmf (77) ESpf? odu©mawmf (57) 0g r[m*E¦0gpuy@dw? yJc;l wki;f a'oBu;D oHCem,u d aZmwdu? b'´EÅ oufawmf (90)? odu©mawmf (70) tzGJY (a&Tusif) tzGJY0if? a&Tusifedum, &wånL t*¾r[mur®|memp&d,? tr&yl&NrdKU rk;ukw0yóem r[mem,u? anmifav;yifNrdKUe,f >yefwefqmNrdKU? d f d r*Fvmr*¾i&yom oHa0Zed,XmeBuD; y"meem,u omoeaombPdum½Hkpmoifwkduf y"meem,u f d f (1372 ckEp?f jymokvqef; 11 &ufwif ysveawmfrl (1373 ckESpf? 0gacgifvjynhfausmf 9 &ufwGif S d G H Gf onf/) ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) ÓP? b'´EÅ oufawmf (89) ESpf? odu©mawmf (69) 0g awZ0EÅ? b'´EÅ oufawmf (76) ESpf? odu©mawmf (56) 0g *E¦0gpuy@dw? omoe"Zod&Dy0& "r®mp&d,? 231
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) tvHkNrdKUe,f uGif;ausmif;y&d,wådpmoifwkduf wkduftkyfq&mawmf (1372 ck E S p f ? jymok d v jynf h a usmf 1 &uf w G i f ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) e&dE´mpm&? b'´EÅ oufawmf (88) ESpf? odu©mawmf (69) 0g tbd"Zr[m&|*k½k? t*¾r[my@dw? EkdifiHawmf Mo0g'gp&d,? BudKUyifaumufNrdKU wkuausmif;ygVd d f wuúokdvfausmif;wkduf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? 0gacgifvjynhfausmf 12 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) awZ0EÅ? b'´EÅ oufawmf (62) ESpf? odu©mawmf (42) 0g o'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? rtlyifNrdKUe,f rvufwkdaus;&Gm tkyfpk ynm&HoDESpfusdyf&Spfqlausmif; y"me em,u ynm? b'´EÅ (1373 ckESpf? wefcl;vjynfhausmf 6 &ufwGif oufawmf (106) ESpf?odu©mawmf (77) 0g ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) rGefjynfe,fMo0g'gp&d,? rk'HkNrdKU pmpifausmif;wkduf y"me em,u wdó0&? b'´EÅ (1372 ckESpf? waygif;vjynhfausmf 14 &ufwGif oufawmf (95) ESpf? odu©mawmf (76) 0g ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) Ek d i f i H a wmf M o0g'gp&d , ? jynf N rd K U e0if ; 0gqk d ausmif;wkduf y"me em,u ynm0Ho? b'´EÅ (1373 ckESpf? awmfovif;vjynfhausmf 7 &ufwGif oufawmf (67) ESpf? odu©mawmf (47) 0g ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) t*¾r[m*E¦0gpuy@dw? r[m*E¦0gpuy@dw? omoe"Z "r®mp&d,? rHk&GmNrdKU "r®yg&*l ygVd ax&m0Ho? b'´EÅ wuúokdvfausmif;wkduf wkduftkyfq&mawmf oufawmf (75) ESpf? odu©mawmf (55) 0g (1373 ckESpf? e,kefvqef; 2 &ufwGif ysHvGef t*¾r[m*E¦0gpuy@dw? omoe"Z"r®mp&d,? awmfrlonf/) csrf;at;ompHNrdKUe,f? oD&dr*Fvm a*G;csdKwkduf? pnfolbk&iftk|fausmif; OD;pD;y"me em,u ynmomrd? b'´EÅ (1372 ck E S p f ? jymok d v jynf h a usmf 4 &uf w G i f oufawmf (76) ESpf? odu©mawmf (56) 0g ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) ur®|memp&d,? acsmufNrdKUe,f? pavNrdKU? NrdKUe,f r[mpnf omoemh&dyfom Mo0g'gp&d, "r®&u©dw? b'´EÅ (1373 ckESpf? wefcl;vjynfhausmf 14 &ufwGif oufawmf (69) ESpf? odu©mawmf (49) 0g ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) r*Fvm'HNk rdKUe,f0enf;"k&?f axmufMuefYNrdKU a&S;a[mif; d d awm&ausmif;wkduf y"me em,u? pma&;q&m y@dw? b'´EÅ acsmif;OD;armifpE´m? q&m"r®ygv oufawmf (103) ESpf? odu©mawmf (84) 0g (1373 ckESpf? oDwif;uRwfvjynfhausmf 10 &uf t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? 'dkufOD;NrdKUe,f oHC wGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) em,utzG J Y (a&T u sif ) Ouú | ? a&T u sif e d u m, 232
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) &wånL r[mem,u? t&n0goD a&Tusifedum, Mucwf0kdif;0denf;jyefXmer[mem,u? 'kdufOD; NrdKUe,f azmifawmfoDNrdKU? &wembHkausmfausmif; wkduf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? awmfovif;vjynfhausmf 4 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) (1373 ckESpf? wefcl;vjynhfausmf 10 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) 0drvAk'¨d? b'´EÅ oufawmf (85) ESpf? odu©mawmf (65) 0g t*¾r[mur®|memp&d,? r[mur®|memp&d,? EdkifiH awmf A[kdoHCmh0efaqmif? &efukefNrdKU rdk;ukwf 0g&? b'´EÅ 0dyóem w&m;pOfESifh vkyfief;jyefYyGm;a&;tzGJUcsKyf oufawmf (92) ESpf? odu©mawmf (72) 0g em,ucsKyf? omauwNrdKUe,f atmifpMumrdk;ukwf t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? r[m*E¦0gpuy@dw? 0dyóem "r®&dyfom y"me em,u A[ef;NrdKUe,f &mrna0ykv’wkduf? aoG;aq;uef (1373 ckESpf? 0gqdkvqef; 5 &ufwGif ysHvGef rGefygVdwuúokdvfausmif;wkduf y"me em,u awmfrlonf/) (1373 ckESpf? ewfawmfvqef; 2 &ufwGif ysHvGef awmfrlonf/) omoe? b'´EÅ oufawmf (89) ESpf? odu©mawmf (69) 0g 0dpdwå? b'´EÅ t*¾r[m*E ¬0gpuy@dw? omoe"Z od&Dy0& oufawmf (62) ESpf? odu©mawmf (42) 0g "r®mp&d,? Ediiawmf A[koCmh0efaqmif? EdkifiHawmf k f H d H t*¾r[mo'¨raZmwdu"Z? t*¾r[m*E¦0gpu y@dw? 0denf;"dk&f? vyGwåmNrdKU oD&dvu©P usKdufxD;½dk; y&d ® omoe"Z "r®mp&d,? Ekiiawmf A[koCmh0efaqmif? ,wådpmoifwdkuf y"me em,u dfH d H Ediiawmf0enf;"k&?f vm;½I;NrdKU &efatmifjrif y&d,wåd (1372 ck E S p f ? jymod k v jynh f a usmf 3 &uf w G i f k f H d d d pmoifwkduf y"me em,u ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) (1372 ckEp?f jymokvqef; 8 &ufwif ysveawmfrl S d G H Gf onf/) od&D"r®? b'´EÅ oufawmf (88) ESpf? odu©mawmf (68) 0g t*¾r[my@dw? tbd"Zt*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu? 0de,? b'´EÅ oufawmf (82) ESpf? odu©mawmf (62) 0g omoe"Z od&Dy0& "r®mp&d,? EdkifiHawmf Mo0g'g r[m*E ¬0gpuy@dw? t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? p&d , ? a&T u sif e d u m, &wå n Lr[mem,u? yJc;NrdKU ÓPAvy&d,wåpmoifwuf y"me em,u oCFef;uRef;NrdKUe,f r[modyÜHy&d,wådpmoifwdkuf l d kd (1372 ckESpf? jymokdvqef; 10 &ufwGif ysHvGef y"me em,u awmfrlonf/) (1373 ckESpf? e,kefvqef; 6 &ufwGif ysHvGef awmfrlonf/) 0drv? b'´EÅ oufawmf (86) ESpf? odu©mawmf (66) 0g oDv0EÅ? b'´EÅ r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? xm;0,fNrdKUe,f Z[maus; oufawmf (100)? odu©mawmf (80) &Gm Z[mausmif;wdkuf y"me em,u r[mo'¨ r ® a Zmwd u "Z? &mrned u m,r[m 233
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) em,u? urm&GwNf rdKUe,f "mwfaygif;pHkausmif;wdkuf (1372 ck E S p f ? waygif ; vqef ; 12 &uf w G i f y"me em,u ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) (1372 ck E S p f ? waygif ; vqef ; 14 &uf w G i f aombdw? b'´EÅ ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) oufawmf (106) ESpf? odu©mawmf (56) 0g vSn;ul;NrdKUe,f? azmifBuD;ta&SUaus;&Gm? atmifaZ,sKH f oD[Av? b'´EÅ oufawmf (88) ESpf? odu©mawmf (68) 0g awm&ausmif;wdkuf y"me em,u t*¾r[my@dw? ygVdyg&*l? &rnf;oif;NrdKUe,f (1373 ckESpf? 0gacgifvjynfhausmf 12 &ufwGif xD;vIdifausmif; y"me em,u ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) (1372 ckESpf? jymodkvqef; 5 &ufwGif ysHvGef awmfrlonf/) oH0&? b'´EÅ oufawmf (91) ESpf? odu©mawmf (34) 0g t*¾r[mur®|memp&d,? rdk;ukwf0dyóem ur®|m ok*E¨? b'´EÅ oufawmf (62) ESpf? odu©mawmf (40) emp&d,? *efYa*gNrdKUe,f taemuf*efYa*g rHkv,f r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? wmarGNrdKUe,f at;csrf; awm&ausmif; q&mawmfBuD; atmifjrifaiGausmif; (tkwcub&m;ausmif;) y"me (1372 ckESpf? wydkYwGJvjynhfausmf 7 &ufwGif f G f k em,u ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) (1373 ckESpf? jymokdvqef; 2 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmf rlonf/) o'¨r®? b'´EÅ oufawmf (90)? odu©mawmf (70) t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? ajrmufOuúvmyNrdKUe,f okreom*&? b'´EÅ oufawmf (91) ESpf? odu©mawmf (71) 0g Mo0g'gp&d,? r,fvrkapwDawmf Mo0g'gp&d,? tbd"Zt*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu? t*¾r[mo'¨r® &efatmifausmif;wduf od*O;ausmif; y"me em,u k Ð D aZmwdu"Z? oD&dvuFmEkdifiH uE´DNrdKU uE´Djrefrm (1372 ckESpf? wefcl;vqef; 1 &ufwGif ysHvGef ausmif;wduEifh '*HNk rdKUopf (qdyurf;) NrdKUe,f ,kZe awmfrlonf/) k f S f O,smOfNrdKUawmf jrefrmuE´Dausmif;wdkuf y"me em,u okE´&? b'´EÅ (1372 ckESpf? wefcl;vqef; 9 &ufwGif ysHvGef oufawmf (84) ESpf? odu©mawmf (64) 0g awmfrlonf/) t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? c&rf;NrdKU "r®dum&mr a&Tusifwdkuf ausmif;opfausmif; y"me em,u (1372 ckESpf? jymodkvqef; 6 &ufwGif ysHvGef okr*Fv? b'´EÅ oufawmf (81) ESpf? odu©mawmf (61) 0g awmfrlonf/) t*¾r[my@dw? t*¾r[m*E¬0gpu y@dw? EdkifiH awmfMo0g'gp&d,? yckuúLedum, *Pr[m0dem tmp,? b'´EÅ ,u? yckuLNrdKU r[m0dowm&mrwduf r[mem,u oufawmf (65) ESpf? odu©mawmf (45) 0g ú k k 234
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) plV*E ¬0gpuy@dw? wdkufBuD;NrdKU jynfo'¨r®aZmwd um½Hkpmoifwdkuf y"me em,u (1372 ckESpf? waygif;vjynfhausmf 10 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) tmpm&mbd0Ho? b'´EÅ oufawmf (84) ESpf? odu©mawmf (65) 0g t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? rEÅav;wkdif;a'oBuD; Mo0g'gp&d,? ausmufqnfNrdKUe,f xef;Zifawmf aus;&Gm a&Twif;jcifausmif;wkduf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? awmfovif;vjynfhausmf 4 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) tmavmu? b'´EÅ oufawmf (63) ESpf? odu©mawmf (43) 0g r[m*E ¬0gpuy@dw? a0gNrdKUe,f oHCem,u tzGJU tzGJU0if? NrdKUOD;ausmif; y&d,wådpmoifwdkuf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? 0gacgifvqef; 6 &ufwGif ysHvGef awmfrlonf)/ Mobmo? b'´EÅ oufawmf (87) ESpf? odu©mawmf (67) 0g tbd"Zr[m&|*k½k? t*¾r[my@dw? EkdifiHawmf Mo0g'gp&d,? armfvNrdKifNrdKU aumhvSmy&d,wåd pmoifwdkuf y"me em,u (1372 ckESpf? aESmif;wefcl;vqef; 7 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) Moo"? b'´EÅ oufawmf (73) ESpf? odu©mawmf (53) 0g *E ¬0gpuy@dw? omoe"Z "r®mp&d,? 0ef;odkNrdKU omoemhtvif;a&mifausmif;wdkuf (1372 ckESpf? wydkYwGJvqef; 10 &ufwGif ysHvGef awmfrlonf/) tuFk&? b'´EÅ oufawmf (80)? odu©mawmf (60) EdiiawmfA[koCmh0efaqmif? wkuBf uD;NrdKUe,f OuúHNrdKU kfH d H d uefOD;ausmif; y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 6 &ufwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/) Owår? b'´EÅ oufawmf (65) ESpf? odu©mawmf (45) 0g *E 0gpuy@dw? r*Fvm'HNk rdKUe,f oHCem,utzGUJ ¬ Ouú|? pdwåokcwyfOD;ausmif;wdkuf y"me em,u (1372 ckESpf? waygif;vqef; 4 &ufwGif ysHvGef awmfrlonf/) £`E´d,? b'´EÅ oufawmf (102) ESpf? odu©mawmf (83) 0g tbd"Zr[m&|*k½k? t*¾r[my@dw? tbd"Zt*¾ r[mo'¨ r ® a Zmwd u ? Ek d i f i H a wmf M o0g'gp&d , ? bm;tHNrdKU rJabmifausmif;wdkuf y"me em,u (1373 ckESpf? uqkefvqef; 10 &ufwGif ysHvGef awmfrlonf/) vl y k * ¾ d K vf r sm; ausmfrif;? 'kwd,AkdvfcsKyfBuD; (Nidrf;) touf (80) owåKwGif;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; (Nidrf;) (16-10-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) ausmfatmif? OD; touf (79) ESpf ½kyf&Sifrif;om;? yef;csDq&mausmfatmif? ½kyf&SifZmwf um; 12 um; ½kduful;o½kyfaqmifcJhol (18-4-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) 235
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) usifvIdif? OD; touf (89) ESpf aqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD;(Nidrf;) (7-3-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) cifaxG;Munf? a': touf (58) ESpf pma&;q&mr cifav;rGe?f oD[ok"r®od*Ð? B.A(law), LL.B (1-4-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) cspfarmif? pE´&m; touf (79) ESpf *Dwpmqkd pE´&m;cspfarmif? jrefrmhtoHESifh½kyfjrif oHMum; *Dwwm0efcH (Nidrf;)? aw;*Dwpdppfa&; bkwftzGJY0if (22-2-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) aiGatmif? OD; touff (76)ESpf pma&;q&mOD;aiGatmifrGef? r*FvmAsL[mESifhyd#u AsL[mtrIaqmif? tNidrf;pm;ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD;? "r®mp&d,? ygVdyg&*ll? B.A,B.Ed (23-12-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) cifarmif0if;? a'gufwm ('óeaA') touf (82) ESpf EkdifihH*kPf&nfbGJY (yxrqifh)? ynma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;(Nidrf;)? oHtrwfBuD; (Nidrf;)? ynma&; apmrH k n if ; wuúodkvfygarmu©csKyf (Nidrf;)? &efukef0dZÆmESifh touf (92) ESpf uefawmhcHoufBuD;pmayynm&Sif pma&;q&mr odywuúov'óeduaA'Xme ygarmu© (Nir;)? HÜ dk f df B.A (Hons:),M.A (Yale),Ph.D (Yale) apmrHknif;(a':&if&if) 0dZÆmynmxl;cRefwHqdyf (9-1-2011 &ufwif uG,veonf/) G f Gf (yxrqifh)? trsdK;om;pmayqkESifhtrsdK;om;pmay wpfoufwmqk&Sif? ta&SUawmiftm&Spmayqk&Sif? yckuúLOD;tHk;azwpfoufwmpmayqk&Sif? q&m0ef cifvSatmif? OD; touf (62) ESpf wifa&Tpmayqk&Sif? jrefrmpmtzGJY tzGJY0if? trsdK;om; pma&;q&m ausmfeE´atmif ,Of a us;rI E S i f h t Ek y nmwuú o k d v f Z mwf o bif (17-7-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) tBuHay;? jrefrmEkdifiHtrsdK;orD;a&;&mtzGJYcsKyf ,Ofaus;rItBuHay;? jrefrmEkdifiHtrsdK;orD;pD;yGm;a&; pGrf;aqmif&Siftoif;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHrdcifESifhuav; csd K ;jzLcif touf (73) ESpf apmifha&Smufa&;toif; em,u? pma&;q&mr csKd;jzLcif 1983 ckESpf pmayAdrmef B.A,Dip: in Japanese pmrlqk 0w¬Kwdkaygif;csKyf 'kwd,qkukd pdefjzihfjyKvkyf (12-12-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) aom ESv;om;ydi&irsm; pmrljzih&&So?l vlr0efxrf; kH k f S f f d I OD;pD;Xme vufaxmuf ñTefMum;a&;rSL; (Nidrf;)? pkd;jrifh? OD; Ph.D (Moscow) touf (76) ESpf (24-6-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) 'l;&if;oD; OD;pkd;jrifh (c) OD;armifodef;? t*¾r[m 236
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) oD&dok"r® rPdaZmw"&? oD&dok"r®rPdaZmw"&? oD[ok"r®rPdaZmw"&bGJUwHqdyfawmfrsm;ESifh vlrI xl;cRefwHqdyf&&Sdol (2-5-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) pef;jrifh? OD; touf (62) ESpf ½kyf&Sifo½kyfaqmif armifvluav; (30-4-2011 &ufwif uG,veonf/) G f Gf pdefxGef;? OD; touf (85) ESpf vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if ('kwd,qifh)? or0g ,r0efBuD;XmeESifhpGrf;tif0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; (Nidrf;)? AkdvfrSL;BuD; (Nidrf;) (26-7-2011 &ufwif uG,veonf/) G f Gf pdefxGef;? a'gufwm (ygarmu©) touf (71) ESpf &efukefwuúokdvf? ½lyaA'Xme? ygarmu©XmerSL; (Nidrf;)? M.Sc (Sur), Ph.D(Sur), Csci C Phys Finstp (Lond) (24-1-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) awmfawmf? OD; touf (79) ESpf oD&dok"r®rPdaZmw"&? jrefrmEdkifiH½kd;&myef;ynm &Sifrsm; tpnf;t½Hk; (A[kd) em,u? yef;warmh ynm&Sif (21-9-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) wifaiG? OD; touf (66) ESpf ½ky&iEifh AD'D,dko½kyfaqmif auwkrwDrsKd;atmif f S f S (3-1-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) xdyfwif0if;? pE´&m; touf (59) ESpf aw;a&;? *DwrSL; (8-8-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) ewf E G , f touf (79) ESpf pma&;q&m ewfEG,f (OD;vSjrihf)? aqmif;yg;? 0w¬K? a0zefpm? bmomjyefaqmif;yg;? yifukda&;vHk;csif; 0w¬Krsm;? bmomjyefv;csi;0w¬Krsm; tajrmuftjrm; kH f a&;om;cJhol (11-5-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) ñGefYpdef? a': touf (87) ESpf oD[ok"r®od*Ð? ok"r®od*ÐbGJUwHqdyfrsm;&&Sdol (22-6-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) eE´modef;ZH? pma&;q&m touf (65) ESpf pma&;q&m eE´modef;ZH (a'gufwmodef;ZH)? r[m o'¨r®aZmwdu"Z? &efukefwuúokdvf 'óedu aA'Xme ygarmu©XmerSL;(Nidrf;)ESifh tcsdefydkif; ndrf;armif? OD; ygarmu©? EdkifiHawmf y&d,wådomoemhwuúokdvf touf (92) ESpf f Æ Æ uefawmhcHoufBuD;pmayynm&Sif ausmufqnf {nhygarmu©? 0dZmbGUJ ('óeduaA')? r[m0dZmbGUJ ('óeduaA')? yg&*lbGJU ndrf;armif? tv,fwef;jyq&m (Nidrf;) (14-8-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) (27-4-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) 237
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) EGJUEGJUrl? tu,f'rD touf (61) ESpf tu,f'rDEJGYEJGYrl(a':jroef;EGJU)? ½kyf&SifESifhAD'D,dk o½kyfaqmif? 1974 ckESpfwGif aemful;r½kyf&Sif Zmwf u m;jzih f trsKd ; orD ; Zmwf a qmif x l ; cRef q k (tu,f'rD)&&Sdol (13-6-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) EG , f ( ppf a wG ) touf (80) uAsmq&mrBuD; EG,f(ppfawG)? (a':tHk;cif) B.A (Ed), B.Ed, Dip;Ed (UK) (6-5-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) yg&*l? pma&;q&m touf (90) uefawmhcoufBuD;pmayynm&Sif pma&;q&m yg&*l H (OD;vSBudKif)? 1963 ckESpf tEkynmpmayqk bmom jyef y xrqk ? 1967 ck E S p f jref r mEd k i f i H [d E ´ D pmaytoif ; pmaya&T w H q d y f q k ? 1985 ck E S p f trsKd;om;pmayqk bmomjyef (&o) qk? 2001 ck E S p f trsKd ; om;pmaywpf o uf w mpmayqk E S i h f yckuúLOD;tHk;azpmaywpfoufwmpmayqk? 2003 ckESpf 0dZÆmynmxl;cRefwHqdyf (yxrqihf) &&Sdol (9-4-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) Edii*P&nfbUJG ('kw,qih)? jynfoYl&umaxmufyHh k f hH k f d f d © a&;ESifh xGufukefzGHUNzdK;a&;rif;BuD; (Nidrf;) (3-5-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) armifarmifodkuf touf (66) ESpf yef;csD armifarmifodkuf (5-8-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) armifarmifat;? OD; touff (86) ESpf vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if (wwd,qifh)? arG;jrLa&; ESifha&vkyfief;0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD; (Nidrf;)? AkdvfrSL;BuD;(Nidrf;) (10-9-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) armif0PÖ? pma&;q&m? ½kyf&Sif'g½dkufwm touf (65) ESpf pma&;q&m? ½kyf&Sif'g½dkufwm armif0PÖ? 1971 ckESpfwGif uwåDygzdeyfpD;a&TxD;aqmif; ½kyf&Sif Zmwfum;ESihf 1990 jynhfESpfwGif ckepfpOftvGrf; ½kyf&SifZmwfum;wdkYjzihf jrefrmh½kyf&Sifxl;cRefqk (tu,f'rDqk) 'g½dkufwmqk ESpfqk&&Sdol (11-1-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) armifopfrif;? pma&;q&m? aw;a&;q&m touf (58) ESpf jynfaxmifpkausmfEkdif? ½kyf&Sifo½kyfaqmif aw;a&;q&m armifopfrif; (OD;a'0)? jrefrmEkdifiH touf (87) ESpf ½kyf&Sifo½kyfaqmif jynfaxmifpkausmfEkdif (OD;at; *Dwtpnf;t½Hk; (A[kd) wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (2) jrih f ) ? jynf a xmif p k o wif ; pm owif ; axmuf (5-6-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) a[mif; (27-6-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) jrihfpkd;? OD;? ½kyf&Sifo½kyfaqmif touf (59) ESpf ½kyf&Sif'g½dkufwm jrihfpdk; (0^o) buav;? OD; (21-7-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) touf (92) ESpf 238
    • uG,fvGefolxif&Sm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm; (2011) jrifhxGef;? okawoD touf (76) ESpf pma&;q&mokawoDjrifhxGef; (OD;yG) (2-10-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) pma&;q&m zsmyHkvSrkd;EG,f? 1997 ckESpf trsdK;om; pmayqkESifh 1972? 1973? 1974? 1975? 1977 ckESpfrsm;wGif pmayAdrmefpmrlqkrsm;qGwfcl;&&Sdol (24-10-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) &Jjrifh? OD; touf (68) ESpf uAsmq&m? pma&;q&m atmifomrkd; (20-12-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) 0if;xdef? OD; touf (89) ESpf owå K wG i f ; 0ef B uD ; Xme 'k w d , 0ef B uD ; (Nid r f ; )? AkdvfrSL;BuD; (Nidrf;) (26-10-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) vGif? OD; touf (88) ESpf 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf (Nidrf;)? b@ma&;ESifh pDrHudef; 0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; (Nidrf;)? trsdK;om;'Drkdua&pD tzGJYcsKyf twGif;a&;rSL; (6-12-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) vSMunf? ocif (c) &JeDausmf0if; touf (90) vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if (yxrqifh)? ,cif tvH eDuGefjrLepfygwD (25-10-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) vSuGef;? ocif touf (90) uefawmhcHoufBuD;pmayynm&SifESifh owif;pm q&mBuD;rkd;ndK Ek d i f i H h * k P f & nf b G J Y ('k w d , qif h ) ? vG w f v yf a &; armfuGef;0if(yxrqifh)? aMu;rHkowif;pmwkduf t,f'DwmcsKyf (Nidrf;) (4-12-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) vSpdef? OD; touf (66) ESpf 0if;Ekdif? OD; touf (73) ESpf b@ma&;ESihftcGef0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD; (Nidrf;)? B.Com,B.L,R.A (18-4-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) aomif;xG#f? OD; touf (84) ESpf ynma&;0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD; (Nidrf;)? ynma&; wuúokdvfygarmu©csKyf (Nidrf;)? jrefrmEdkifiHpmwwf ajrmufa&;taxmuftuljyKyifrXme 'kwd,Ouú|? ynmwefaqmif tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU 'kwd,Ouú|? B.A, B.Ed,M.S (Ed) (Indiana) (8-8-2011 &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf/) oef;at;? OD; touf (62) ESpf pma&;q&m eDr;? oef;Nidr;at; kd f (11-3-2011 &ufwif uG,veonf/) G f Gf odef;ñGefY? OD; touf (88) ESpf aZ,sausmfxifbGJU? EdkifiHh*kPf&nfbGJU (yxrqihf)? 239
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