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  • 1. 2007 ckESpf? pmayAdrmefpmrlqk okwya'om (odyÜHESihf toHk;csoyÜH) 'kw,qk& d d odaumif;p&m e-Commerce armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pDpOfwnf;jzwfol - OD;pef;wifh (wuúokvf qef;wifEi) d h kd f pmwnf; (wm0efcH) pmayAdrmefxkwf jynfolUvufpGJpmpOf
  • 2. 2009 ckESpf? yxrtBudrf? tkyfa& - 1500 'dkYwm0efta&;oHk;yg; jynfaxmifpk rûyduGJa&; 'dkYta&; wki;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDñGwrI rûyduGJa&; 'kYta&; d f f d tcsKyftjcm tmPm wnfwHhckdiNf rJa&; wefzdk; ( 500 ) usyf 'dkYta&; jynfolYoabmxm; jynfytm;uk;ykqe½; tqk;jrif0g'Drsm;tm; qefusiMf u/ d d f kd d Y Edkiiawmf wnfNidrat;csr;a&;ESihf Ekiiawmfw;wufa&; f H f f d f H kd udk aESmifh,SuzsuqD;olrsm;tm; qefYusiMf u/ f f EdkiiHawmf jynfwGi;a&;udk 0ifa&mufpGuzuf aESmifh f f f ,Suaom jynfyEdkiiHrsm;tm; qefYusiMf u/ f f yHkESya&;ESihf pmtkyxkwa0a&;vkyief; d f f f f pmayAdrmef pmwnf;rª;csKyfu rSwyHkwiftrSwf (07492) jzifhf yHkESyí f d f rSwykHwiftrSwf (03911) jzifh xkwa0onf/ f f jynfwGif;jynfy tzsuform;rsm;tm; bHk&efoltjzpf owfrSwacsrIe;Mu/ f f
  • 3. rmwd u m EdkifiHa&; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf EkiiawmfwnfNidra&;? &yf&mat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf w&m;Oya' dfH f G pdk;rdk;a&;/ trsK;om; jyefvnfpnf;vHk;nDñwa&;/ d G f cdkirmonfh zGUJ pnf;yHktajccHOya'opf jzpfay:vma&;/ f jzpfay:vmonfh zGUJ pnf;yHtajccHOya'opfEitnD acwfrD zGUH ûzd; k S hf wdk;wufaom EdkiiHawmfopfwpf&yf wnfaqmufa&;/ f pD;yGm;a&; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf tcef ; 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ pdkuysK;a&;udk tajccHí tjcm;pD;yGm;a&; u@rsm;ukvnf; f d d bufpHk zGHUûzd;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ aps;uGup;yGm;a&;pepf yDjyifpm jzpfay:vma&;/ f D G jynfwGi;jynfyrS twwfynmESihft&if;tESD;rsm; zdwac:í f f pD;yGm;a&; zGHUûzd;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ EdkiiHawmfpD;yGm;a&;wpf&yfvHk;ukd zefwD;EdkirI pGr;tm;onf f f f EdkiiawmfEihf wdki;&if;om;jynfowkvuf0,fwi&a&;/ f H S f l Yd G f dS vlrIa&; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf wpfrsK;om;vHk; pdw"mwfESihf tusihpm&dwå jrifhrm;a&;/ d f f trsK;*kP?f Zmwd*kPjf rifrm;a&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rItarGtESprsm;? d h f trsK;om;a&;vu©Pmrsm; raysmufysuatmif xde;odr;apmifh d f f f a&Smufa&;/ rsK;csppw"mwf &Sioefxufjrufa&;/ d f d f f wpfrsK;om;vHk; use;rmBuYckia&;ESihf ynm&nfjrifrm;a&;/ d f H d f h 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ taMumif ; t&m pmrsuf E S m todynmtajccH pD;yGm;a&;vrf;aMumif;ay:rS tkipDwD d f *vdkb,fvkduaZ;&Si;ESihf tdkipDwDawmfvSea&; f f f f tkipDwDtajccHtaqmufttHk zGHUûzd;rItpDtpOf d f tDvufx&Geepf ul;oef;a&mif;0,frI f (e-Commerce) qkonfrm d S - pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf e-Commerce f tm;omcsursm; f - e-Commerce toHk;csrIenf;vrf;rsm; - e-Commerce rSwpfqifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f qufoG,rIrsm; f - atmifjrifaom e-Commerce vkyief; f uGi;qufrsm; f - e-Commerce tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm; d f e-Commerce,e-Business ESihf tifwmeuf pD;yGm;a&; tifwmeufESihf tD;-pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f B2B e-Commerce [lonfrSm B2B e-Commerce tcef;u@ ta&SUtm&S B2B e-Commerce jrifuGi; f 1 8 13 18 44 50 55 60 67
  • 4. tcef ; 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ taMumif ; t&m pmrsuf E S m - w½kwEkiiH tD;aumrmhpjf rifuGi; f d f f - *syefEkdifiH B2B e-Commerce aqmif&GurIrsm; f - *syefEkiiH B2B e-Commerce tvm;tvm d f - awmifuk&D;,m;EkiiH tD;aumhrmhptajctae d d f f - a[mifaumif tD;aumrmhptajctae f ta&SUtm&S B2B e-Commerce tajctae 102 zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;ESihf e-Commerce tajctae d f 109 ta&SUawmiftm&S tD;aumrmhpf tajctae 115 ta&SUawmiftm&S tD;aumrmhpf jyóemrsm; 122 tmqD,HEkiiHrsm;twGi; tdkipDwDtajctae d f f f 128 - *vdkb,fuGe&ufpD;yGm;a&;ESihf xdki;tD;aumrmhpf f f - pifumylEkiiH e-Commerce azmfaqmifrI d f - rav;&Sm;EkiiH e-Commerce aqmif&GurIrsm; d f f - zdvpfykdiEkdiiH e-Commerce jrifui; f f G f - AD,uferfEkiiH tdkipDwDtqifhtwef;ESihf d f f e-Commerce tajctae e-Commerce zGUH ûzd;wk;wufrI d 170 - tifwmeufay:rS pD;yGm;a&;qki&m d f tm;omcsursm; f e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIESihf? tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm; f 194 tcef ; taMumif ; t&m pmrsuf E S m 17/ tkipDwDawmfvSea&;ESihf owif;tcsutvuf d f f f pD;yGm;a&; 203 18/ *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;ESihf tkipDwDawmfvSea&; 208 d d f f d f f 19/ e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIESihf tpdk;&tcef;u@ 212 - e-Commerce twGuf ESpvkdzG,&m f f aumif;aomay:vpD - tpdk;&taejzifh toHk;ûyEkiaom e-Commerce d f - atmifjrifaom e-Commerce tajccHtaqmuf ttHkqki&m t"duvdktyfcsursm;ESihfpyfvsO;aom d f f f tjcm; ay:vpDupö&yfrsm; d 20/ tmqD,H vlUpGr;tm;t&if;tESD;ESihf tkiwD f d f zGHUûzd;wk;wufrIoHk;oyfcsuf d 219 21/ e-Commerce tem*wfvrf;aMumif; 227 &nfñTe;udk;um;csursm; f f
  • 5. 2 tcef; (1) tod y nmtajccH pD ; yG m ;a&;vrf ; aMumif ; ay:rS td k i f p D w D vGecJhaom 25 ESpausmu owif;tcsutvufESihf f f f f qufoG,fa&;enf;ynmwkd;wufrIrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;tusKd; oufa&mufrrsm; &&SapcJonf/ pifppf tkipwawmfvea&;onf I d h d f D D Sf topfjzpfxGe;aom 'pf*spw,fqufoG,a&;enf;ynmrsm;yif f f f jzpfonf/ ,if;enf;ynmrsm;onf uGeysLwm ½k;½dk;aqmif&uf f d G Ekipr;xuf ausmvecJhonf/ þenf;ynmrsm;onf xkwvkyf d f G f f Gf f rI? jzefjY zL;rIEihf qef;opfzefw;rIvyief;pOfrsm; pGr;f aqmif&nfukd S D kf odoomomjzifh wufapcJonf/ xkwvkyrpr;tm; wdk;wufrI d h f f I G f udkwe;wifjcif;jzifh tkipwawmfvea&;onf *vdkb,fp;yGm;a&; Gf d f D D Sf D a&&Sntif*sijf zpfvm&ef arQmfvifhxm;onf/ f tdkipDwDawmfvSea&;onf pD;yGm;a&; toGivu©Pm f f f tm;vHk;okYd a&muf&Sonf/ tifwmeufvkyief;rS vkyief;okYd d f f (B2B) ESihf vkyief;rS pm;oHk;olokYd (B2C) udk avQmYcsay;onf/ f a&mif;vktm; uGi;f quf pDrcefcrrwpfqifh pDrcefcrpr;f &nfrsm;udk d H Y JG I S H Y JG I G armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jrifwufapcJonf/ todynmqki&m ynmay;jcif;ESihf Ekiiwum h h df dfH yl;aygif;aqmif&ujf cif; pGr;aqmif&nfjr§iwifjcif;jzifh qef;opf G f hf zefw;rIukd vG,uacsmarGUaponf/ tifwmeufrS 0,f,ronf D f l l I udk,wki0,f,lrIxuf q,fyHkwpfyHkom ukeusonf[k qkMd u f d f f onf/ tdkipDwD tajccHpDrHcefYcGJrIESihf ypön;0,f,lxe;odr; f f df f axmufya&;pcef;rsm; tusK;aus;Zl;rsm;onf zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm; hH d dk f H pD;yGm;a&;rsm;wGiyifvQif ydkrkBd uD;rm;rsm;jym;vmEkionf/ xkjYd yif f d f tkipwawmfvea&;onf todynmzefw;jcif;ESihf ynmay;jcif; d f D D Sf D p&dwEihf tcseavQmcsjcif;jzifh ukepnfopfzUHG ûzd;rIEihf okawoeESihf fS df h f S zGHUûzd;rIuJhokYdaom qef;opfzefwD;rI? vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm; f f pGr;aqmif&nfukd jr§ihfwifay;onf/ f tdkipDwDawmfvSea&;udk qufvufaqmif&GurIaMumifh f f f 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm;twGuf 0,fvtm;onf [mh'00,fvtm; I f kd f J kd xuf ydrrsm;jym;onf/ tkipwjD zifh owif;tcsutvufvyief; k kd dfD f kf pOf aqmif&ujf cif;onf Codified Knowledge twGuf 0,fvkd G tm;udk jrifhwufaponf/ Codified Knowledge qkonfrSm d tcsutvuf yHk&yrsm;ESihf oauFwrsm;yHkpEi&aeaom owif; f d f H S hf dS tcsutvufyifjzpfonf/ uGeysLwmaqmhz0J? okawoeESihf f f f zGUH ûzd;rIenf;ynmyg0ifrEihf aiGa&;aMu;a&;qki&m xkwukeypön; I S d f f f f rsm;onf 0,fvktm;taejzifh wpfpwwpfykdi; ydkrkdrsm;jym;vm d d f f onf/ tb,faMumifqaomf ,if;wdkukd Codified yHkpwpfckwif h h kd Y H G vkyief;pOfaqmif&uEiNf yD; jzefjY zL;EkiaomaMumifjh zpfonf/ ,if; f G f kd d f xkwvkyrIESihf jzefYjzL;rIonf tkipDwDtoHk;csrIESihftwl ydkrkd f f d f
  • 6. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 3 pGr;aqmif&nf&vmonf/ xkjYd yif ,if;wkonf todynm tajccH f dS Yd pD;yGm;a&;u vktyfaom qef;opfzefwD;rI vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurI d f f trsK;d tpm;rsm;vnf; jzpfMuonf/ tjrifEitMum;tm½Hypön;f rsm; S hf k twGuf 0,fvktm;onf broadband w,fvDqufoG,a&; d f 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm; ysUH EUHS rjI zif,aqmifvmaom ykrkBd uD;rm; I f h l d aom ykYdaqmifa&;vrf;aMumif;trsK;rsK;ESihf jrifhwufaeonf/ d d b@ma&; 0efaqmifrvyief;rsm;twGuf 0,fvtm;onf tem*wf I kf kd twGuf pdwêf udua&G;cs,p&mrsm;uJhokYdaom aiGa&;aMu;a&; f f qki&m qef;opfzefw;rIrsm;ESihf &Saeaom tdkipwwukd a&maESm d f D d f D D Ykd jcif;jzifh jrifhwufvmcJhNyD jzpfonf/ 0efaqmifrIvkyief;wk;wufrIukd [mh'0JrS aqmhz0Jukd f d f f cGJxkwfjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? qef;opfzefwD;rIvkyfief;pOfrS xkwvkyrIvkyief;pOfukd cGJjcm;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? yg0ifrI f f f twGuf 0,fvktm;udk jr§ihwifjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? b@ma&; d f vkyief; jrifhrm;aomwk;wufrIjzifhvnf;aumif; wGe;wifcJh f d f onf/ tkipwawmfvea&;ESitwl ukw'f (Code)? vkyief;pOf d f D D Sf hf f f ESihf todynmydkaqmifrwukd cGjJ cm;Edki&efjzpfvmonf/ qef;opf Y I Ykd f zefw;rI vIy&m;aqmif&ur&v'frsm;onf 0efaqmifrI yHkprsm;udk D f S G f I H jzpfaponf/ aqmhz0J? todÓPfynmqki&m ykiqkirIypön;? f d f d f d f f okawoe? zGHUûzd;rIESihf enf;ynmulnDyHhykd;rI paom 0efaqmifrI yHkpHrsm;udk jzpfaponf/ tkipwD awmfvea&;onf ,SOûf ydiEipr; t"dut&if; dfD Sf f dk f G f tjrpftaejzifh todynmqufE,aom vIy&m;aqmif&urrsm; T f f S G f I 4 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f okYd a&GUvsm;&ef tqifajyatmif aqmif&uay;aeonf/ pD;yGm;a&; G f zGJUpnf;rIqki&m toGiajymif;jcif;onf todynmtajccH d f f pD;yGm;a&;okYd a&GUvsm;aeonf/ pifppf todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&; D [lonf todynmudzefw;aom pD;yGm;a&;yifjzpfonf/ pD;yGm;a&; k D vkyief;taejzifh wpfO;csi;jzifvnf;aumif;? tzGUJ tpnf;taejzifh f D f h vnf;aumif; todynmudk&,lonf/ ykaqmifay;onf/ pGr;&nf Yd f jynfh0pGm toHk;csay;onf/ a[mif;EGr;aeaom todynmudk f pOfqufrjywf tpm;xk;ay;onf/ todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&; d twGuf ta&;ygaomtcsursm;rSm pGr;aqmif&nf&aom tkipwD f f dS dfD vkyief;rsm;ESihf tdipwtajccHtaqmufttH?k pGr;f aqmif&nf&aom f kfD D dS Ekiiwumxkwvkyrue&ufrsm;? yg0g&Saom qef;opfzefw;rI d f H f f I Gf d D pepfrsm;? vlom;&if;jrpfvkyief;ESihf tzGJUtpnf;qki&m topf f d f jyefvnfûyvkyrIwkYdyif jzpfonf/ f pifppf tkipDwDtcef;u@ESihf tajccHtaqmufttHkwkYd d f onf todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;yvufazmif;jzpfonf/ ,if; yvufazmif;onf todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&;twGuf todynm D udk zefwD;jcif;? ynmay;jcif;ESihf toHk;csjcif;twGuf enf;vrf; rsm;udk ulnyy;dk ay;onf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;pGmonf trsK;d om; D hH f owif;tcsuftvuf tajccHtaqmufttHkwpfckudk wnf aqmufí wGe;wGe;wkuwkduf aqmif&GuaeMuonf/ þonf f f d f f rSm todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;odkY ,if;wkYd toGiajymif;rIukd f vG,ulacsmarmap&efjzpfonf/ owif;tcsutvuf tajccH f f taqmuf t tH k (Infor-structure) wG i f w,f v D u G e f j rLeD
  • 7. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 5 au;&Si; uGe&ufrsm; yg0ifonf/ xkYdjyif r[mAsL[majrmuf f f owif;tcsutvufpepfrsm;? taxmuftulûyay:vpDEihf Oya' f S pepfrsm; yg0ifonf/ tajccHtaqmufttHkukd toHk;cs&efESihf zGHUûzd;wkd;wuf&ef vl;om;&if;jrpfvnf; yg0ifonf/ tDvuf x&Geepf pD;yGm;a&;onf owif;tcsutvuf zGUJ pnf;rIykHoP²mef f f wk;wufaeaom tpdwtydki;wpfcktjzpf yg&S&ef arQmvifxm; d f f d f h onf/ tod y nmtajccH p D ; yG m ;a&; tBuD ; rm;qH k ; tusKd ; oufa&mufronf Ekiiwumxkwvkyrue&ufrsm; zGUJ pnf;rI I d f H f f I Gf jzpfEkionf/ tjyeftvSetm;jzifh todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;&Sd d f f Edkiiwum xkwvkya&;uGe&ufrsm;udk aygif;pnf;aqmif&uEif f H f f f G f kd onf/ ,if;xkwvkyrIuGe&ufrsm;onf tao;pm;ESihf tvwf f f f pm;vkyfief;rsm;tygt0if pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk pkpnf;&ef &nf&,onf/ xkwvyrue&uf todynm? tajccHp;yGm;a&; G f f kfI Gf D yHp yHpusaom Oyrmwpfcukd aqmhz0J tcef;u@wGif awGUEif kH kH k f dk onf/ ,if;u@wGif qDvDuGeawmifMum;&Sd qef;opf zefwD;rI f A[dkXmeonf bef*vdk? tdE´,&Sd xkwvkyrItajcpcef;rsm;ESihf d f f csdwfqufxm;onf/ todynmzefwD;jcif;wGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIonf todynm tajccHpD;yGm;a&;wGif pD;yGm;a&;wk;wufrI tajccHt&if;tjrpf d wpfckjzpfonf/ qef;opfzefw;rI vIy&m;aqmif&urrsm;twGuf D f S G f I têuducsi;wlaomywf0ef;usiwpfcktm; ulnyyk;&ef pD;yGm;a&; f f f D hH d pGr;tifwpf&yfonf ,if;Ekiiwum ,SOûf ydiEipr;udk qH;jzwf f dfH f dk f G f k 6 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ay;onf/ qef;opfzefwD;rIpGr;&nfonf zGHUûzd;NyD;pD;yGm;a&;rsm; f atmifjrifrItwGuf txl;ta&;BuD;vmonf/ qef;opfzefwD;rI vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm;udk ukexkwvkyrIrS cGJjcm;vkuonf/ f f f f f d f ukexkwvkyrI vIy&m;aqmif&urrsm;udk zGUH ûzd;qJp;yGm;a&;rsm;odkY f f f f S G f I D a&TUajymif;onf/ qef;opfzefwD;rI ta&;BuD;aom tpdwftydkif;onf EkiiHwum&Sd ,SOûf ydiEkipGr;&Saom wuúokdvrsm;yifjzpfonf/ d f f d f f d f ,if;wuúovrsm;u todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&;twGuf odyenf; kd f D HÜ usaom todynmudk zefwD;onf/ ausmif;oifynma&;ESihf pufrIvkyfief;tMum; tjyeftvSeftusKd;oufa&mufrIonf aemufxyf tpdwtydki;wpfckjzpfonf/ ,if;onf todynm f f zefw;ouJoYkd ynmay;jcif;udkvnf; zefw;ay;onf/ b@ma&; D h D pepfonf qef;opfzefwD;jcif;udk OD;pm;ay;onfh vkyief; pwif f aqmif&Guaom tzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk tultnDay;onf/ zGHUûzd;NyD; f pD;yGm;a&;rsm;onf aps;uGursm;udk zGHUûzd;wk;wufapcJhonf/ f d todynmudk½kyfvHk;azmfaom vlom;t&if;tjrpfonf tod y nmtajccH p D ; yG m ;a&;twG u f r&S d r jzpf v k d t yf o nf / todynmtajccH pD;yGm;a&; vktyfrIrsm;onf pufrIvkyief; d f acwf vdktyfrrsm;ESihf rwlnacs/ pufrvkyief;qki&m pD;yGm;a&; I D I f d f rsm;onf yl;aygif;aqmif&Guaom tzGJUtpnf;wpfckwGif tvkyf f vkyaeaom uRrf;usirI trsm;tjym;&Svmaom tvkyorm;rsm; f f d f tay:wGirwnfonf/ todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&;onf qef;opff f l D zefwD;rIpepfrsm;udk a&&Snxe;odr;xm;Eki&ef zefwD;wwfaom f df f d f
  • 8. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 7 yg&rDESifh owif;tcsuftvufESifh w,fvDuGefjrLeDau;&Sif; uGe&uf tajccHtaqmufttHkukd ulnyyk;&ef tkipwD vkyom; f D hH d d f D f rsm;ay:wGif rlwnfonf/ xkYdjyif todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;&Sd qef;opfzefwD;rI vsijf refaomajcvSr; qdkvk&if; oabmrSm f d todynmonf vsifjrefpGm acwfukefoGm;NyD; vltrsm;u vktyfaomtodynmay:wGif aemufqHk;tcsetxd xde;odr; d df f f xm;NyD; ,if;wkYduRrf;usirIrsm;onf jyefvnfvef;qef;ap&ef f vdktyfonf/ xkYaMumifh todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;&Sd tzGJUtpnf; d rsm;udk 0efaqmifrIay;aom vkyom;tiftm;udk jznfhwif;ay;&ef f tvdim tzGUJ tpnf; ynma&;armf',fykpukd wpfo;yk*vzefw; kY S H H D ¾ D rIESihf b0wpfoufwm avhvmrItay: yGihvif;rI&&ef xde;odr; f Sd ff f xm;&rnfjzpfonf/ todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&; vktyfrrsm;&&Sd D d I &ef tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;onf ,if;wkynma&; f Yd ESihf oifwef;tpDtpOfrsm;udk yHkazmf&efvktyfonf/ d tcef; (2) *vd k b ,f v k d u f a Z;&S i f ; ES i f h td k i f p D w D a wmf v S e f a &; ydraumif;rGeaom o,f,yaqmifjcif; 0efaqmifrvyief; k kd f l Y dk I kf rsm;rS w,fvDzke;ESihf vlxkqufoG,a&;rD'D,mokYd enf;ynm f f qki&mzGHUûzd;rIonf ydkrkdao;i,fNyD; ydkrkdaygif;pnf;aqmif&uaom d f G f urÇmBuD;udk zefwD;cJhNyD;jzpfygonf/ ,ckrsuarSmufumvwGif f tkdifpDwDawmfvSefa&;onf urÇmBuD;udk ydkrdkao;i,fNyD; ydkrdk aygif;pnf;aqmif&uEicNhJ yD jzpfonf/ qufo,a&;? ukeo,rI G f kd f G f f G f ESihf tvkytudki&&SrI? yk*K¾d vfa&;ESihf EkiiHa&;qki&m tay;t,l f f d d f d f vkyief;rsm;onf *vdkb,fpau;taejzifh jzpfysuvmcJhonf/ f f EkiiHrsm;tMum; e,ferwrsm;udk ausmjf zwfNyD; *vdkb,fvkuf d f d d f d aZ;&Si; jzpfay:vmcJhonf/ f þwGif Ekb,fqk&Sif Joseph Stig Litz u *vdkb,f d vkuaZ;&Si; (Globalization) udk þodkY t"dyÜm,fzGihqkcJhonfd f f f d ]]*vdkb,fvkdufaZ;&Sif;onf urÇmay:&SdEdkifiHrsm;ESifh jynfolrsm; ydkrkdeD;uyfaom aygif;pnf;aqmif&GurIjzpfonf/ f o,f,lykYaqmifa&;ESihf qufo,a&;qki&m BuD;rm;aomukeus d G f d f f
  • 9. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 9 p&dwrsm; avQmhcsjcif;jzifh *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;udk o,faqmif f d d f f vmcJhNyD;jzpfonf/ ukefypönf;rsm;? 0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;? t&if;tESD;? todynmA[kokwESifh vlrsm;e,fedrdwfrsm;? jzwfausmpD;qif;rIrsm;qki&m twm;tqD;rsm;udk ûzdcGJjcif;jzifh f d f *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;udk o,faqmifvmcJhonf}} d d f f dk f f f þwGif *vkb,fvuaZ;&Si;onf pD;yGm;a&;toGitjyif d vu©Pmwpfckoufoufr[kwaMumif; od&&ef ta&;BuD;onf/ f dS ,if;onf b0toGiftjyifvu©Pmtm;vHk;udk tusKd; oufa&mufaponf/ *vdkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;ESihf qufET,yg0ifaqmif&Guae d f f f f aom taMumif;jcif;&mtenf;qHk; av;ck&Sonf/ ,if;wkYdrSmd (1) txl;ojzifh tkipDwDawmfvSea&;wGif enf;ynm d f f qki&majymif;vJrI? d f (2) aps;uGutajcûypepfrsm; ysHUESHUvmrI? f (3) jynfwi;Ekiia&; (*vkb,fvuaZ;&Si; acwfvef G f d f H d kd f f G pGr;tm;rsm;onf EkiiHa&;t& ydkrkdoomxif&Sm; f d f d vmonf) ESihf (4) EdkiiHtwGi; ûydiqkirIrsm;wkYdjzpfonf/ f f f d f *vdkb,fvkdufaZ;&Sif;onf EdkifiHrsm;udk enf;vrf; oHk;oG,fjzifh tusKd;oufa&mufaMumif; Anthony Giddens u tBuHûywifjyxm;onf/ yxrtcsurSm *vdkb,fvkduaZ; f f &Si; (txl;ojzifh *vkb,faps;uGuae&m) onf EdkiiHrsm;rS f d f f 10 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pGr;tm;rsm;udk ta0;odkU,loGm;onf/ EkiiHrsm;onf ,if;wdkY f d f tuRr;f w0if&aom pD;yGm;a&; tem*wfrsm;udk trdeay;í r&acs/ dS Yf ,if; taumif;qHk;OyrmrSm tpk;&rsm; aiGaMu;xde;csKyf&ef d f rpGr;aqmifEkdirIyifjzpfonf/ Giddens u wpfcsewnf;wGif f f df *vdkb,fvkdufaZ;&Sif;onf a'oqkdif&m? ,Ofaus;rIqkdif&m uk,ykivkyykiciEihf udk,pm;vS,rsm;twGuf jzpfEkiajc topf d f d f f d f G hf S f f d f rsm; vIYHaqmfrItopfrsm;ukd zefwD;ay;onf[kqkonf/ d *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si; 'kw,tusK;oufa&mufrIrSm d d f f d d a'oqki&mtrsK;om;a&;0g' jyefvnfouf0ifEk;<uvmrItwGuf d f d d taMumif;&if;yifjzpfonf/ urÇmqefqefûyavav a'oqki&m d f ûyrlzkdY ydkvkdtyfavavyif jzpfonf/ *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si; wwd,tusK;oufa&mufrIukd d d f f d a'oqkdif&mtkyfpkzGJUrsm; ta&;wBuD;jzpfay:rItoGiftjzpf taumif;qHk;awGUjrif&onf/ þwGif tifwmeufESihf tkdipDwD f awmfvea&;onf pDrtkycsKyfrI (governance) udk rnfotusK; Sf H f Ykd d oufa&mufrI&SaMumif; odxm;&efvktyfonf/ pDrHtkycsKyfrIukd d d f aygif;pnf;xm;aom aqmif&GurItm; pkpnf;xm;jcif;tjzpf f ½dk;&Si;pGmt"dym,fziEionf/ tpk;&tkycsKyfa&;wGif qHk;jzwf f Ü f G hf kd f d f csucsjcif;? vkyief;pOf[kvnf; owfrwMf uonf/ tkipwtae f f S d f D D jzifh ,if;us,jf yefaomtjrif? usO;ajrmif;aomtjrif ESpcpvH; k Y f fk k wGif pDrHtkycsKyfjcif;tay: t"du tusK;oufa&mufrI&Sonf/ f d d tkipwvkyief;rsm;onf tpdk;&u Edkiiom;rsm;ESihf rnfoktjyef d f D D f f H Yd tvSefaqmif&GufonfESifh 0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;udk rnfodkY
  • 10. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 11 ykYaqmifoifhonfqkaomtcsursm;ESihf ywfoufí EkiiHom;rsm; d d f d f tMum; arQmfvifhxm;rItopfrsm;udk zefwD;ay;onf[k pDrH tkyfcsKyfrIodyÜH (uae'g) u,HkMunfxm;onf/ tifwmeuf enf;ynmESihf toH;csrsK;½d;ADZqki&m rMumao;rDu wk;wufrrsm; k d k df d I onf yk*¾Kd vfa&;&ma&G;cs,rIESihf yk*¾vuvTr;rk;rIqki&m e,f f d f d d f edrdwfrsm;udk xl;jcm;pGm jyefvnft"dyÜm,fowfrSwfaeonf/ jynfolvlxkta&;ygrI udpö&yfrsm;ay:wGif pkpnf;xm;aom qHk;jzwfcsucsjcif;qki&m e,ferwrsm;udk jyefvnfowfrSwf f d f d d f aeonf/ tqifhwpfckwGif tkipDwDtoHk;ûyaom tpdk;&rsm;onf d f ykrkaumif;rGepm pDrtkycsKyfEkivrrnfjzpfonf/ e-Govermemt d d f G H f d f d hf (odkY) EdkiiHom;rsm;tusK;&S&ef tpdk;&vkyief;rsm; vufcHrIESihf f d d f ydkiqkirIukd jr§ihfwif&ef tkipDwDtoHk;ûyrIonf aumif;rGeaom f d f d f f pDrHtkycsKyfrItwGuf tpdk;& armif;ESirIwGif vktyfaomt&m f f d wpfckjzpfonf/ 21 &mpkwif owif;tcsutvufenf;ynmudk us,jf yefY G f pGm t"dyÜm,fzGihfqkd&mwGif ta&;tBuD;qHk;yg0gt&if;tjrpf[k Rovert Keo Hane ESifh Joseph Nye.Jr wkYdu oabmwlxm; onf/ *vkb,fvuaZ;&Si;u xl;jcm;aomoGijf yif vu©Pmudk d kd f f azmfjyonfh owif;tcsutvufEihf qufo,a&;u yHkazmfxm; f S G f onfh urÇmBuD;wGif owif;tcsutvuf pD;qif;rIrsm;ESihf rD',m f D ay;ydkYrIrsm;ay:wGif ûyrlaqmif&Gu&ef pGr;&nfonf EdkiiHa&; f f f qkdif&m tpDtpOfudk tm;ay;jr§ifhwifjcif;twGuf r&Sdrjzpf 12 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f vktyfaom ud&,mwpfckjzpfonf/ ,cktcg oHcif;wrefcif; d d (Diplomacy) wGif tpdk;&rsm;omru ,if;wkYd udk,pm;ûyaom f vlrItzGJUtpnf;rsm;vnf; yg0ifonf/ ûcHíqk&aomf *vkb,f d d vkuaZ;&Si;onf tdkipDwDawmfvSea&;ESihf qufET,rI&SaMumif; d f f f f f d odomxif&Sm;vSayonf/
  • 11. 14 tcef; (3) tdkifpDwD tajccHtaqmufttHk zGHYNzKd;rItpDtpOf ta&SUtm&SEdkifiHrsm;onf todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&; (Knowledge- based Economy) toGiajymif;&ef atmufyg f taxmuftulûyvkyief; tpDtpOfig;rsK;udk vkyaqmif&rnfjzpf f d f onf/ ,if;wkYdrSm(1) tkipwtusK;u@zGUH ûzd;apjcif; (,if;wGif tkipwD d f D D d d f D qufE,0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm;ESihf tkipwD tajccH T f I f d f D taqmufttHkwYkd yg0ifonf/ ,if;onf todynm tajccHp;yGm;a&; tcsutvufaumif;wpfcjk zpfonf) D f (2) EkiiHwum xkwvkya&;uGe&ufrsm; &,ljcif;? d f f f f (3) qef;opfzefwD;rIpepfrsm; tm;aumif;apjcif;? (4) vlom;t&if;tjrpfrsm; tqifhjrifhjcif;ESihf (5) pufrIvkyief;rsm;ESihf aumfyka&;&Si;rsm; jyefvnf f d f zGJUpnf;xlaxmifjcif;wkYd jzpfonf/ xkjYd yif tm&SEiirsm;onf tkipwukd taumif;qHk;ûyvkyf kd f H d f D D &ef vktyfonf/ tb,faMumifqaomf ,if;xkwvkyrykrk&Edkif d h h kd f f I d d armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f aom tkipDwD awmfvSea&; tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm;aMumifh jzpf d f f d f onf/ a'oqki&m qef;opfzefwD;rI vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm; d f f f tm½Hkpkujf cif;jzifh ,if;wkYd tiftm;pkrsm;wGif todynmA[k d okwrQa0a&; jrifrm;wk;wuf&ef vktyfonf/ ,if;vIy&m;rIrsm; h d d f S udk tkdifpDwD qufET,faeaom 0efaqmifrItcef;u@jzifh taxmuftulûy&ef vktyfonf/ d ta&SUtm&SEiirsm;wGif txufygwlnaom tpDtpOfrsm; kd f H D &Saomfvnf; wpfEkiiHcsi;pD zGHUûzd;rItqifht& OD;pm;ay;rIrsm; d d f f onf uGJjym;jcm;em;Ekdifonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh aemufusaom zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;onf ,if;wkYpD;yGm;a&;udk taxmuftulûy&ef d f d tudki;tcufrsm;udk tm½Hkpku&ef &nf&G,Mf uonf/ EkiiHwum f d f d f f xkwvkyrIuGe&ufrsm;ESihf qufoG,&,l&ef &nf&G,Mf uonf/ f f f w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; tajccHtaqmufttHkukd jrifrm;wk;wuf D G f h d apjcif;ESihf pufrIvkyief; tcsutjcmae&mrsm; zGHUûzd;apjcif;jzifh f f 'pf*spw,fuGm[rI ay:aygufvmrIukd umuG,&ef&nf&G,Mf u f f onf/ tjcm;wpfzufwGif pufrIxGe;opfpEdkiiHrsm; xdywef; f f f OD;pm;ay;rIonf a,bk,stm;jzifh zGUH ûzd;NyD;Edkiirsm;ESihf twlwyif f H l jzpfonf/ ,if;OD;pm;ay;rIum; qef;opfzefwD;rI vIy&Sm;aqmif f &GurIrsm; jr§ihfwifjcif;yifjzpfonf/ tu,fí pufrIxGe;opfp f f EkiiHrsm;onf todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;udk ydkrkdvsijf refpGm &,l d f jcif;jzifh Ekiirsm;odkY wufvr;&ef tkipwawmfvea&; yg&m'ki; d f H S f d f D D Sf d f d f ta&GUtm;omcsuukd &,lvQif ,if;EkiiHrsm;onf tkipDwD f d f r[mAsL[mrsm; vkdtyfvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;EkdifiHrsm;onf
  • 12. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 15 ydkrkdzefwD;wwfaom vlom;t&if;tjrpfrsm; &,laqmif&Gujf cif; jzifh qef;opfzefwD;rIpepfrsm; tm;aumif;jcif;udk tm½Hkpkuaom d f jynfhpHkus,jf yefYonf csO;uyfrIwpfck ûyvkyoifhonf/ f f todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;ESSihywfoufí ta&SUtm&SEkiiH f d f rsm; r[mAsL[mqki&m aemufxyfta&;ygaom toGitjyif d f f vu©PmrSm EdkiiHwum cswqufrIrsm;yifjzpfonf/ ypdzwf f d f d a'owGif BuD;rm;aom pD;yGm;a&;&Sonfh tar&duefESihf w½kwf d ESpEkdiiHESihf ,if;wkY cswqufrIrsm; &Sioeftm;aumif;&efESihf f f d d f f wdk;csUJ &ef ,if;Edkiirsm;twGuf tvGetrif;ta&;BuD;onf/ *syef f H f EkiiHESihf cswqufjcif;um; tenf;i,fta&;ygrI toGioabm d f d f f d f D om&Sonf/ ta&SUtm&SEiirsm;tMum; uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIukd tkipwD d kd f H tajccHtaqmufttHktydki;rS MunfvQif us,jf yefvonf/ trSef f h Y S pifppf xGe;opfp pufrEiirsm;onf aumif;pGmzGUH ûzd;NyD; w,fvD f I kd f H uGefjrLeDau;&Sif;pepfrsm; &SdMuonf/ Broadband w,fvD uGejf rLeDau;&Si; tajccHtaqmufttHkwGif awmifukd&D;,m;? f a[mifaumifESihf pifumylwkYonf *syefa&SUokdY a&mufaeonf/ d ,if;tajccHtaqmufttHkonf e-Commerce twGuf ta&;yg H d D d f H onf/ OECD tpD&ifcpmt& awmifuk&;,m;Ekiionf Broadband tifwmeuf qufoG,rIrsm;wGif urÇmay:ü OD;aqmifol f jzpfonf/ odkYaomfvnf; tjcm;ta&SUtm&SEkiiHrsm;wGif yHkao d f w,fvDzke;vdki;rsm;ESihf rdkbki;zke;rsm; edrhfaomxk;azmufrI f f d f f d EIe;rsm;onf tifwmeufysUH EUHS rukd aESmifaES;apcJonf/ tmqD,Eihf f I h h H S w½kwEiiwwirl tajccHtaqmufttHktajctaeonf tav; f kd f H Ykd G f teufxm;&rnfh jyóemwpfckjzpfonf/ 16 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tif'kdeD;&Sm;? zdvpfykdiESihf xdki;EkiiH&Sd tajccHw,fvD f f d f uGejf rLeDau;&Si; taqmufttHk rvHkavmufrIonf ,if;wdkY f tifwmeuftoHk;ûyrIEihf tifwmeufqufE,vkyief;rsm; zGUH ûzd;rI S T f f udk usO;ajrmif;apcJhonf/ rvHkavmufaom tajccHw,fvD f uGejf rLeDau;&Si; 0efaqmifrIvkyief; yHUyk;jcif;onf txl;ojzifh f f d dk f kd f H Ykd J tif'e;&Sm;ESihf zdvpfyiEiiw yx0D0iftaetxm;udk cufcap dk D d onf/ ,if;EkiiHrsm;wGif tifwmeuf access ajymif;vJEkif d f aom w,fvDuejf rLeDau;&Si;pepfrsm;ESihf EkiiHwi;yHkpHrsm;onf G f d f G f BuD;xGm;vmcJhonf/ tif'keD;&Sm;tpdk;&onf uRef;pkrsm;twGuf d EkiiHwGi; w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si;rsm;udk yHhykd;&ef û*d[wkrsm; d f f f f toHk;ûyjcif;wGif a&SUaqmifvrf;jyûyvkycJhonf/ w,fvDzke;ESihf f f tifwmeufvkyfief;rsm; vufcHrIyHhydk;jcif;onf tao;pm;ESifh f f f tvwfpm;t&G,f tif'kdeD;&Sm; pGeYOD;vkyief;&Sirsm;twGuf pD;yGm; a&;vkyief;rsm;udk vsijf refpGmwk;wufvmapcJhonf/ tif'keD;&Sm; f d d wGif tifwmeufqkdiaygif; 2000 rS 25000 &S&m ,if;ta& f d twGuonf tm&Sypdzwf a'o&SEkiirsm;wGif trsm;qHk;jzpfonf/ f d d d f H zdvpfykdivlrsK;rsm;onfvnf; w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si; tajccH f d f f taqmufttHk csKUd wJhaerI0ef;usiwGif enf;vrf;wpfcktaejzifh tifwmeufuzD;rsm;ESihf rdkbki;rsm;bufokYd vSnhfvmMuonf/ d f wpfzufwGif ta&SUtm&Sü a&&SnOD;aqmifaeaom *syef f Ekiiu pufrxe;opfpEdkiirsm;udk a&SUoqwifaeonf/ tjcm; d f H I Gf f H Ykd JG wpfzufwif a&SUoa&mufaeaomEkiirsm;ESihf tjcm;zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm; G Y dk dfH dk f H S I Gf dfH Mum; uGmjcm;rI&aeonf/ *syefEihf pufrxe;opfpEkiirsm;tMum; dS
  • 13. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 17 zGHUûzd;rI tpDtpOfESihf tjcm;zGHUûzd;qJEkdiiHrsm;ESihf pufrIxGe;opfp f f Edkiirsm;tMum; uGm[rIus,jf yefaejcif;udk jyefvnfok;oyfronf f H Y H I ,if;Ekiirsm;tMum; uGmjcm;rIrsm;udk a&mifjyef½kucwfay;onf/ d f H d f w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si;rsm;wGif pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;rsm; vGeurI D G f f f J aMumifh rvHkavmufaom ,SOûf ydironf tcsKUd Ekiirsm;wGif tajccH f I d f H taqmufttHkwpfck wnfaqmufjcif;udk avsmyg;aponf/ xki; h d f Ekiiwif tifwmeuf qufo,rtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;tMum; ,SOûf ydirI d f H G G f I f avsmhenf;jcif;onf jrifhrm;aomtqifhrsm;wGifuscH&aom tifwmeuf access udk xdef;odrf;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si;tcef;u@wGif ,SOûf ydirItcif;tusi; f f f onf ta&SUtm&SEkdiiHrsm;twGuf t"duusaom tpDtpOftrsK; f d tpm;jzpfNyD; tpdk;&rsm;onf ,if;e,fy,fwif ,if;wd êud;yrf; G kY rIrsm;udk jrifrm;wk;wufatmif aqmif&uaeonf/ xki;Ekiiwif h d G f d f d f H G w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si; tcef;u@ü tpdk;& vuf0g;BuD; f tkyronf tifwmeufxk;azmufrEihf tifwmeuf tajccHvkyief; f I d I S f rsm;ESihf toHk;csrIrsm; ta&;wBuD;jzpfay:rItwGuf tcuftcJ wpf&yfjzpfonf/ tmqD,HEkiiHrsm;onf e-Commerce twGuf d f pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;ESihftnD Oya'twki;twm abmiftwGi; f d f f &&S&ef ASEAN Frame work agreement vktyfrukd todtrSwf d d I ûycJhNyD;jzpfonf/ xdkYjyif e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIokdYaqmif&Guaom f ywf0ef;usiwpf&yfukd tm;ay;jr§ihfwif&ef ta&;ygonf/ f tcef; (4) tD v uf x &G e f e pf ul ; oef ; a&mif ; 0,f r I (e-Commerce) qk d o nf r S m .... tD;aumrmhpftjzpf vlodrsm;aom tDvufx&Gefepf ul;oef;a&mif;0,frI (Electronic commerce) (e-Commerce) qkonfrm tDvufx&Geepfue&ufwpfckay:ü ae&m ,lvmaom d S f Gf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;aqmifwm wGucsurI okYr[kwf qufoG,rI f f f d f enf;ynmwkukd toHk;ûyonfh vkyief;aqmif&urrsm; jzpfonf/ Yd f G f I þodjkY zifh tD;aumrmhpwif tD;vfar;pmyd?kY owif; tcsutvuf f G f f hf wku½uy,vyief; yDpueysLwmjzifh wku½uf zke;vSnac:,l d f kd f Ykd l k f D Gf d f dk qufoG,pepf? EDI ( Electronic Data Interchange) [kac: f aom tDvufx&Geepf tcsutvuf zvS,a&;pepfwkYd yg0if f f f aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; vkyukdiaqmif&GurIrsm; yg0ifMuyg f f f f onf/ pifppf tD;-aumrmhptwGuf txif&Sm;qHk;ESihf pGr;tm; f f txufjrufqHk;qufoG,rIpepfrSm tifwmeuf jzpfygonf/ f xdkYaMumifh tD;-aumrmhpukd wpfcgwpf&H tifwmeuf aumrmhpf f okr[kwf tki-aumrmhpf (Internet commerce (or) iCommerce) Yd df [kvnf;ac:Muonf/
  • 14. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 19 trSetm;jzifh tD;-aumrmhponf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; f f f vkyfief;aqmif&GufrIenf;vrf;udk ajymif;ypfcJhNyDjzpfygonf/ 0ufbqk'f r&Sonfh vkyief;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk tkwt*Faw? f d d f f tajccHpD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;rsm;[kac:Muonf/ uGefysLwmESifh tifwmeufqufoG,rIrsm; &Sonfhvkyief;rsm;udkrl cvkwESihf f d f f f dk f ñTeMf um;rI pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;[k trnfwyfMuygonf/ ½kyyi; f jynfprEihf tifwmeufqufo,rI ESprsK;pvH;&Saeonfh pD;yGm;a&; h kH I S G f f d k d vkyief;rsm;udk cvkwESihf t*FawpD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; (click f f f an mortar) [kac:wGionf/ tD;-aumrmhponf a&S;½dk;pD;yGm;a&; f f vkyief; qufoG,vkyukdirIrsm;wGif aES;auG;av;vHapcJhonfh f f f f tcseESihf c&D;wmtuGmta0;wkYd tuefYtowf? twm;tqD; df rsm;udk trSeyif y,f&m;Edkiygonf/ ,cktcg tD;-aumrmhpjf zifh f S f vkyief;aqmif&urrsm;udk urÇmtESUH csucsi;vufiif; vkyukif f G f I f f f d f Ekiojzifh yg0ifaqmif&GuolESpOD;pvHk;udk aiGaMu;tuketus d f f f oufomapygonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk omreftvkyae&m f f rsm;wGiyif vpOf taumiftxnfazmfEkionf/ uGeysLwm f d f f wpfvHk;? tifwmeuf qufoG,rIwpf&yfwkYd&Sxm;vQif vkyief; f d f aqmif&urrsm;udk ae&mra&G;üaqmif&uEkiygonf/ qk&ygvQif G f I G f d f d tD;-aumrmhponf ukeypön;0,f,jl cif;uJoYkd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f f f h f taumiftxnfazmfrIrsm;udk ½dk;&mtkwfESifh t*Fawvkyfief; taqmufttHk tjyifbufü jzpfay:vmaponf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf e-Commerce tm;omcsursm; f f aumfy&wXmetwGi; owif;tcsutvufprcefcrwif kd d f f f D H Y JG I G tifx&meuf tultnDay;rIrsm;onf ukrÜPDwpfck e-Com- 20 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f merce tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;ESihf f tjyeftvSequfpyfEkionf/ f d f xkjYd yif tifx&meuf jyifyqufpyfaeaom tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; f ESihvnf; tjyeftvSequfpyfaeonf/ XmewGi;owif;tcsuf f f f tvufqi&m wpfûydieufp;qif;rItwGuf tifx&meufukd cGiûhf y kd f f D aomaMumifh ta&;ygaom owif;tcsutvufukd vkyief;pOf f f 0ifNyD; jyify e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyief;rS pD;qif;aeaom f tcsutvufESihf vkuzufatmif aqmif&Guonf/ wpfzef f d f f aumfya&;&Si; tzGUJ tpnf;qki&m vkyief;pOfrsm; pGr;&nf&dS kd f d f f f NyD; xda&muftusK;&Saom aygif;oif;aqmif&urukvnf; cGiûhf y d d G f I d xm;onf/ tifx&meufrsm; wpf[ex;kd wk;d wufvmjcif;onf txuf kf atmuftqifhqifh trdeYay;xde;csKyfaom tzGJUtpnf;rS owif; f f tcsutvuf tajccHaomtzGJUtpnf;odkY a&TUajymif;rIjzpfapcJh f onf/ ,if;a&TUajymif;rIwGif pDrHcefYcGJrIqki&m wm0ef,lrIrsm;? d f qufo,a&;ESihf owif;tcsutvufp;qif;rIrsm;ESihf vkyief; G f f D f tkypkzUJG pnf;rIrsm;twGuf yg0ifywfoufrrsm;&Sonf/ þonf f I d rSm e-Commerce wGif cswqufaeaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; d f f twGuf tifx&meuf ta&;ygrIyif jzpfonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf e-Commerce tm;om f csursm; &Sonf/ þonfrSm pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;aqmif&Gujf cif;? f d f ukeusp&dwf avQmhcsjcif;tjyif tjcm;tm;omcsuukd qkvkjd cif; f f d jzpfonf/ e-Commerce onf equalizer wpfcktaejzifh aqmif&Guonf/ ,if;onf pwifaqmif&Guonfhvkyief;opf f f f rsm;ESihf tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;udk *vdb,faps;uGuf f k
  • 15. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 21 odkYa&muf&S&ef pGr;aqmifay;onf/ tm;aumif;aom e-Busid f ness plan onf a&S;qefaom pD;yGm;a&;wefzk;rsm;udk vHk;0rSw,l d f jcif;r&Sacs/ d e-Commerce onf 0,folUpwêf uduf rsm;rsm;pm;pm; d toHk;ûyjcif;udk ûyvkyay;onf/ þe,fy,fwif e-Commerce f G toHk;csjcif;rsm;wGif toHk;ûy&efvG,ulaom atmf'grSmpepfrsm; f yg0ifonf/ azmufonfrsm;onf olwkdY yk*¾Kd vfa&;qki&m d f txl;a&G;cs,rIt& xkwukeypön;rsm;udk a&G;cs,rSm,lcGihfukd f f f f f ,if;pepfrsm;u cGihfûyxm;onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh e-Commerce r[mAsL[m toHk;ûyonfh um;xkwvkya&;ukrÜPDwpfckonf f f tGevki;trSmrsm; cGihûf yxm;NyD; &uftenf;i,ftwGi; um;opf f d f f rsm;rSm,lEkdi&ef pDpOfxm;onf/ þonfrSm azmufonfrsm; f txl;rSm,lrI vkyief;pOfonf wk;wufrI&NSd yD; atmf'grSmpepfukd f d aygif;pnf;aqmif&ucvQif ,if;pepfonf ydkrkxa&muf tusK; G f hJ d d d &SpGm tvkyvkyEkionf/ d f f d f e-Commerce onf uGe&ufxkwvkyrI (network prof f f duction) udk cGihfûyxm;onf/ yx0D0iftaetxm;t& ysHUESHU aeaom uefx½duwmrsm;onf uGeysLwmuGe&ufrsm;rS wpfqifh k f f f wpfO;ESiwpfO; cswqufMuonf/ uGe&ufxkwvkyr tusK; D hf D d f f f f I d jzpfxe;rIrsm;wGif ukeusp&dwrsm; avQmhcsay;onf/ ydkrkd r[m Gf f f AsL[mqefaom ypfrwrm;uufwif;vnf;yg0ifonf/ xyfqifh S f f I f wefzk;jr§iukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrrsm;a&mif;csjcif;? vG,ul d hf f acsmarGUap&efvnf; aqmif&uay;onf/ vktyfaom pepfopfrsm; G f d 22 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f vnf;yg0ifonf/ uGe&ufxkwvkyjf cif;ESihftwl ukrÜPDwpfck f f onf urÇmtESUH tjym;&Sd puf½krsm;odkY vkyief;rsm;owfrway;Ekif H f S f d onf/ Oyrm- wdusaomtpdwtydki;rsm; wyfqifjcif;uJhokYd f f tvkyrsm;udk txl;owfrSway;Ekionf/ f f d f Amazon.com onf virtual pmtkyqkiBf uD;jzpfonf/ f d 4if;pmtkyqkiBf uD;onf ESppOfta&mif;EIe; cefYrSe;ajc a':vm f d f f f 1 'or 2 bDvsH &Sonf/ 0ufbay:wGif a&mif;csaeaom d f f d f pGr;aqmif&nfrsm;t& Amazon onf yHkaoydkiqkirIrsm;wGif f a':vm 56 oef;cefY oHk;pGJcJhNyD;jzpfonf/ þwGif dot.com Frenzy rS oifcef;pmrsm;udk wifjyvkonf/ &if;ES;jr§KyErbPfrsm; d D f HS I qki&m ½IaxmifhrSMunfhvQif dot.com Frenzy onf aiGaMu; d f BuD;BuD;rm;rm; upm;wwfolrsm; (vkyief;&Sif t&if;&Sirsm;) f f &Sonfh avmif;upm;jcif;ESihf cswqufxm;onf/ tifwmeuf d d f pGeYfOD;vkyief;&Sirsm;onf vkyief;xlaxmifonfh t&if;tESD; f f f xkway;olrsm; qGaqmif&efEihf aps;uGua0pk&&S&eff tvGeeraom f J S f d f d hf tqifhrsm;wGif ,if;wkY ukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrIvkyief; d f f f rsm; aps;EIe;rsm;udk owfrSwxm;onf/ jrifhrm;aom wefzkd; f f owfrwjf cif;rsm;twGuf &if;ES;jr§KyfEorsm;u cufcaom 0ifaiG S D HS l J rsm; awmif;qkjd cif; pwifaomtcg aps;EIe;xk;usrI pwifcJh f d onf/ tifwmeuf ukrÜPDrsm;onf aps;uGufa0pkr&&Sdcif taxGaxGtoHk;p&dwrsm; tvGetrif; oHk;pGJcJh&onf/ f f e-Commerce onf azmufonfrsm;ukd rsm;pGmtultnD ay;onf/ C2B tay;t,lvkyfief;rsm;wGif azmufonfrsm;
  • 16. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 23 (pm;oHk;olrsm;) onf xkwukeypön;rsm; rnfokYd ûyvkyonf/ f f f f 0efaqmifrIrsm; rnfokYd ydkYaqmifrItay:ydkrkdvTr;rdk;rI ay;pGr;Mu f f onf/ azmufonfrsm;udk ykrkdBuD;rm;pGmxde;csKyfEkirIESihtwl ed f d f f Commerce onf ykdrdkjrefqefNyD; ydkrdkyGifhvif;vkyfief;pOfudk f cGihfûyxm;onf/ e-Commerce onf tvHk;pHk vG,vifhwul &&SEkirEihf vufcrtaejzifh aps;uGuEihf xkwukeypön;rsm;udk d d f I S H I f S f f f owif;tcsutvufrsm; ûyvkyay;onf/ aps;EIe;yGihfvif;rIukd f f f wk;wufaponf/ þonfu azmufonfrsm;udk ykrkdoifhawmf d d aom 0,f,lrIqHk;jzwfcsursm; ûyvky&efpGr;aqmifay;onf/ f f f e-Commerce toHk;csrIenf;vrf;rsm; trsK;rsK;aom toHk;csrIrsm;onf ed d f d f f f Banking, e-Tailing ESihf tGevki; publishing ? tGevkdi; retailing tygt0if tifwmeufay:&Sd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf f vrf ; aMumif ; rsm;ES i f h tvm;tvmrsm;ud k pOf q uf r jywf oufa&mufrI&Saeonf/ orm;½k;us aiGay;acsrIenf;vrf;rsm; d d (aiGaMu;ppfaq;rIrsm;? pm&Gupmwrf;puúLtoHk;ûyrIukd tajccH f aom w&m;0ifwif'gyHkpH) rS tDvufx&Geepfqki&m tjcm; f d f a&G;cs,p&menf;vrf;rsm; (e-Payment pepfrsm;) odkY a&TUajymif;rI f udk tm;ay;jcif;jzifh ydkrdkzGHUûzd;NyD; &ifhusufaom e-Banking ywf0ef;usionf e-Commerce wGif ta&;ygaom tcef;u@ f okYd a&muf&Svmonf/ d þokYqkvQif tGevki;ay:wGif 0,f,ljcif;ESihf aiGay;acs d d f d f jcif;ESifhpyfvsOf;í zGHUûzd;qJEkdifiHrsm;wGif vuf&Sdwnf&Sdaeaom tavhtusihftawGUtêuHrsm;u rnfokYd&Sygoenf;/ d e-Commerce 24 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f zGHUûzd;qJEkdifiHrsm;wGif tGefvdkif; tay;t,lvkyfief;rsm; twGuf &&SEkiaom aiGay;acsrIpepfrsm;rSm atmufygtwki; d d f d f jzpfygonf(u) orm;½dk;us aiGay;acsrIenf;vrf;rsm; 1/ aiGom;ydkYaqmifrI rsm;pGmaom tGevki; tay;t,lvkyjf cif;rsm; f d f onf tGefvdkif;ay:wGif 0,f,la&;atmf'grsm; wifoi;jcif;ESihf yg0ifywfoufonf/ aiGay;acsrI G f f onf ½ky0w¬Kypön;rsm; ydkYaqmifrItay:rlwnf f aom aiGaMu;jzpfonf/ 2/ bPfaiGay;acsrIrsm; tGevi;ay:wGif ukeypön;rsm;rSm,lNyD;aemuf f kd f f f rSm,laomukrP bPfaiGpm&if;odkY aiGom;p&ef Ü D f aiGay;oGi;jcif;jzifh Payment udk ûyvky&onf/ f ydkaqmifrI (Delivery) udk orm;½dk;usenf;vrf;rsm; Y twki; ûyvky&onf/ d f f (c) tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrIenf;vrf;rsm; f pm;oHk;olrsm;udk tusK;oufa&mufapaom qef;opf d zefwD;rIrsm;d ,if;wGif Redit ESihf Debit uwfrsm;? tvktavsmuf f aiGxkwpufrsm; (ATMs) odr;qnf;xm;aom value cards ESihf f e-Banking wkYd yg0ifonf/
  • 17. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 25 f f f f * tGevkdi;aumrmhpukd pGr;aqmifay;aom qef;opfzefwD; rIrsm;- ,if;wdkonf e-Cash, e-Checks, smart cards ESihf enY crypted credit uwfrsm;jzpfMuonf/ ,if; payment enf;vrf; rsm;onf zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;wGif tvGetrif; ay:jyLvm rjzpfacs/ d f f tay;t,lvkyief; tajccHtay:wGif vHkûcHpwcs&aom csee,f f d f f rsm;ü BuD;rm;aomukrÜPDtenf;i,fu ,if;wkYdukd toHk;ûyMu onf/ Ü D I dS * ukrPrsm;udk oufa&mufr&apaom qef;opfzefw;D rIrsm;,if;wkYdonf aiGay;acsrI,EÅ&m;rsm;ESihf qufpyfonf/ þwGif wku½kup&efaiGxm;jcif;jzifh cGiûhf yxm;aom automated d f d f clearing houses rSwpfqifh bPftwGi; vTJajymif;rIrsm; yg0if f onf/ f * tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrIpepf ta&;BuD;yHk tDvufx&GeepfaiGay;acsrIpepf (EPS) onf tGevki; f f d f ywf0ef;usi&Sd 0,f,lolrsm;ESihf a&mif;olrsm;tMum; b@ma&; f qki&m zvS,rIpepfwpfck jzpfonf/ ,if;udk bPfwpfbPf d f f Mum;cHqufo,ay;ol? okr[kwf Oya'ESitnD aqmif&uaom G f Yd hf G f wif'gtm;jzifh ay;ol? okYr[kwf Oya'ESihtnD aqmif&Guaom d f f wif'gtm;jzifh ausmaxmufaemufcHûyxm;aom 'pf*spfw,f b@ma&;ud&,mwpfck (Oyrm electronic checks,or digital d cash) jzifh vG,ulacsmarmaponf/ f 26 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrpepfonf e-Commerce wGif f I t&;BuD;aomtcef;u@ü yg0ifonf/ tb,faMumifhqkaomf d ,if;onf e-Commerce loop ukd ydwapaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ f zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;wGif zGHUûzd;rIatmuftqifha&mufaeaom tDvuf d f x&Geepf aiGay;acsrpepfonf e-Commerce wdk;wufrI twGuf f I av;eufaom t[eftwm; 0efxky0efyk;jzpfonf/ ,if;Ekiirsm; Y f d d f H wGif pGeO;wDxivyief;&Sirsm;onf Oya'taMumif;ESihf pD;yGm;a&; Yf D Gf kf f qufpyfrIt& tifwmeufay:wGif ta<u;0,f uwfjzifh aiGay; acsrukd vufrcHEkiMf uacs/ t"dujyóemrSm aiGay;aiG,vkyief; I d l f vHkûcHrIyifjzpfonf/ e-Payments aqmif&GurIukd pDrHtkycsKyfaeaom Oya' f f aMumif;qki&m tajccHtaqmufttHkr&SrI odr[kwf rvkavmufrI d f d kY H onfvnf; yg0ifywfoufvsu&onf/ xkaMumifh e-Banking f dS Yd atmfya&;&Sif;rsm; aqmif&GufonfhbPfrsm;onf ,if;wkdY uk,wkiESihf ,if;wkYd azmufonfrsm;tMum; 0efaqmifrI? d f d f oabmwlnDrIrsm; toHk;ûyMuonf/ zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;pGmwGif EIi;,SOcsutm;jzifh rzGHUûzd;ao; d f d f f f aom ta<u;0,fuwfvkyief;onfvnf; e-Commerce twGuf f twm;tqD;wpfcjk zpfonf/ vlO;a& ao;i,faom tpdwtydi;f D f k wpfckomvQif ao;i,faom ta<u;0,fuwfjym; aps;uGuf tajccHt& tifwmeufay:wGif ukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrrsm; f f I 0,f,EiMf uonf/ aiGay;aiG,vkyief;udk usK;aMumif;nDñwNf yD; l kd l f d G Oya'aMumif;t& vktyfr[krpOf;pm;rD uwfyi&i tao;pdwf d I kd f S f
  • 18. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 27 azmfjyxm;aom oabmwlncsuf (Oyrm- xd;NrJvufrw) qki&m D k S f df vdktyfrjI yóemvnf; &Sao;onf/ ,if;vktyfronf tar&duef d d I ESihf tjcm;zGHYûzd;NyD;EkiiHrsm;wGif r&Sacs/ d f d f * tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrIpepf toHk;ûyjcif;wGif oHk;pGJolrsm; ,HkMunfrItqifhtwef; zGûYH zd;qJEiitrsm;pkwif aiGom;tajccH pD;yGm;a&;rsm;&SaeqJ dk f H G d jzpfonf/ aiGom;udk vHkûcHrIrQomru trnfvQKdU0Suxm;jcif; f t&yg aiGay;acsrI ydkrkdESpvkzG,&maumif;aom tajctae[k f d f rSw,xm;Muonf/ tjcm;Ekiirsm;twGurl aysmufqk;oGm;aom f l d f H f H odkYr[kwf ckd;,lcH&aom ta<u;0,fuwfESifh qufpyfaom ay;qyf&efwm0ef (Lia bility) tay:wGif Oya'aMumif;t& uefowfrraocsmrIEihf vdrvnfrukd pD&ifqkH;jzwfjcif;twGuf Y I S f I Oya'abmiftwki;twm tm;enf;rIESihf ûyvky&efrsm;jym;rIonf d f f vHkûcHa&;ESihf yg0ifqufpyfaeonf/ ûcHíqkd&vQif tDvufx&Gefepf aiGay;acsrIpepfESifh pyfvsO;í oufqki&mjyóemrsm;udk ajz&Si;&ef vdktyfonf/ f d f f ,if;wkonf rSwwrf;xde;odr;jcif;wGiyg&Saom pGr;aqmif&nf Yd f f f f d f rSwpfqifh vdrvnfrtay: oHk;pGotumtuG,ay;jcif;? tay; f I J l f t,lvkyief;oD;oefYwnf&SNd yD; taESmifht,Suuif;rIESihf vHkûcHrI&Sd f f jcif;? oHk;pGJolrsm;tm;vHk;odkY nDrQaom vufcHrIukd aocsmap&ef ,SOûf ydiEkiaom aiGay;acsrIvkyief;rsm;ESihf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESihf f d f f aiGay;acsrenf;vrf;rsm; a&G;cs,rtcGita&;wkjYd zpfonf/ zGUH ûzd;qJ I f I hf Ekiirsm;&Sd Oya'abmiftwki;twmonf tDvufx&Geepfenf;jzifh d f H d f f 28 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tay;t,lvkyjf cif;rsm;ESihf aiGay;acsrIrsm; tpDtpOfrsm;udk tod trSwûf y pwifoifhonf/ rS wpfqifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;qufoG,rIrsm; f f e-Commerce onf end-to-end qufqHa&;pDrHcefYcGJrI tajzrsm;jzifh azmfaqmifaom pD;yGm;a&;opfqufqHa&;odkY pD;yGm;a&;a[mif;qufqHa&; (a'gifvku^tvsm;vdkuf qufqH d f a&;) udk toGiajymif;onf/ þonfrSm e-Commerce rS f wpfqifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; qufqHrIrsm; toGiajymif;jcif;yif f f jzpfonf/ e- Commerce onf tzGJYtpnf;uGef&ufrsm;udk vG,ulacsmarmaponf/ þuGe&ufrsm;wGif tao;pm;vkyief; f f f rsm;onf azmufonf0,fvktm;rsm;udk ydkrkdxa&muftusK;&SpGm d d d d ukiwG,ajz&Si;&ef ypön;ay;oGi;rIrsm;ESihf xkwukeypön; d f f f f f f f f jzefYcsa&;twGuf vufwGJazmf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tay:wGif rlwnf d onf/ f azmufonfrsm;? tvkyorm;rsm;? ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;? f f jzefYcsolrsm;ESihf ,SOûf ydibufrsm;ESihf cswqufxm;aom uGe&uf d f d f f rsm; uGi;qufukd pDrHcefYcGJ&ef aygif;pnf;xm;aom odkYr[kwf f H Y JG f d wk;csUJ xm;aom Supply Chain pDrcefcrI tajz&Si;rIrsm; vktyf d f f onf/ Supply Chain Management (SCM) udk ukeypön;rsm;? owif;tcsutvufESihf b@ma&;udk BuD;Muyfjcif;taejzifh f t"dyÜm,fowfrSwonf/ ,if;wkYdonf ypön;ay;oGi;olxHrS f f f ukexkwvkyook?Yd ,if;rS vuúm;a&mif;olok?Yd vuúm;a&mif;olrS f f f l vufvDa&mif;olokY?d vufvDa&mif;olrS pm;oHk;olxHokYd a&GUvsm; e-Commerce
  • 19. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 29 jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf ukrPrsm;tMum; ,if;wdkY pD;qif;rIrsm; Ü D yl;aygif;aqmif&Gujf cif;ESihf aygif;pnf;aqmif&Gujf cif;wkYd yg0if ywfoufonf/ 0ifa&muftusK;&Saom Supply Chain Mand d Sf f f G d f agement &nfre;csuonf uGi;xJwif aemufxyfcswquf aom ukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrIrsm;udk tcseukuf yHhykd;ulnD f f df d jcif;jzpfonf/ Supply Chain Management (SCM) wGif t"du pD;qif; rI oHk;ck&Sonf/ ,if;wkYdrSmd 1/ xkwukeypön; pD;qif;rI (The Product Flow) f f f ,if;pD;qif;rIwGif Supplier rS azmufonfwpfOD; xHokdY ukeypön;rsm; a&GUvsm;rIyg0ifonf/ xkYdjyif f f azmufonfxHrS wkHYjyefrI odkYr[kwf 0efaqmifrI vktifrsm; yg0ifonf/ d 2/ owif;tcsutvuf pD;qif;rI (The Informaf tion Flow) ,if;wGif trSmvTmrsm; xkwvway;ydkjY cif;ESihf ydkaqmifrI f T f Y tqifhtwef; aemufqHk;tajctaewkYd yg0ifonf/ 3/ b@ma&;pD;qif;rI (The Finances Flow) ,if;wGif ta<u;ay;pepf? aiGay;acsrItpDtpOfrsm;? tyfukepepfEihf aiGaMu;acgif;pOftvkuf ykiqirI pDpOfrI f S d d f kd f rsm; yg0ifonf/ 30 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tcsKdU SCM toHk;csrIrsm;onf zGifhxm;aom tcsuf tvufyHkpHrsm;tay:wGif tajccHonf/ ,if;wkYdonf tifwm y½dkuptwGi;ESihftjyif tcsutvufESpckpvHk; rQa0jcif;udk f f f f f yHhykd;ay;onf/ ,if;udk wk;csJUxm;aom tifwmy½dkup[kac: d f f onf/ ,if;tifwmy½dkufpfwGif t"duypönf;ay;oGif;olrsm;? ukexkwolrsm;ESihf wdusaom ukrÜPDwpfck aemufqHk;azmuf f f f d d onfrsm; yg0ifonf/ rQa0ay;aom tcsutvufwkYd trsK;rsK; uGJjym;aom tcsutvufpepfrsm; odkYr[kwf tcsutvuf f f odkavSmif½kHrsm;wGif xm;&Sonf/ ,if;wkonf rsm;pGmaom uGjJ ym; d Yd jcm;em;aom ae&mrsm;ESihf ukrÜPDrsm;wGif &SMd uonf/ ukrÜPD ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf ,if;tcsutvufrQa0jcif;ESihf ukrPD f f f Ü azmufonfrsm;ESifh ,if;tcsuftvufrQa0jcif;wdkYonf xkwukeypön;wk;wuf&ef SCM toHk;csrIrsm;udk cGihfûyonf/ f f f d xkYdjyif ukeusp&dwrsm;avQmhcs&efvnf; cGihfûyonf/ ,if;onf f f tem*wfvkdtifrsm;twGuf vuf&t&if;tjrpfrsm;ESihf pDrHcsuukd Sd f ydkrkaumif;rGe&ef Supply Chain tzGUJ tm;vHk;udkvnf; cGiûhf yonf/ d f þonfrSm e-Commerce onf azmufonfrsm;? vkyom;rsm;? f ypön;ay;csiolrsm;? jzefYcsolrsm;ESihf ,SOûf ydibufrsm;udk rnfokdY f f d f cswqufaMumif; azmfjyonf/ d f e-Business model oufqiaom tpdwtydi;rsm; dk f f kf e-Business armf',fyHkpHwpfckwGif wpfzufazmfjyygwkYd yg0if&rnfjzpfonf/
  • 20. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 31 1/ rQa0xm;aom 'pf*spw,f bdZeuf tajccHtaqmuf f ttHk ,if;wGif 'pf*spw,fxkwvkyrIESihf jzefYcsa&;enf; f f f d ynmrsm; (broadband/ 0g,mvufue&ufrsm;? conGf tent/ zefwD;jcif;enf;ynmrsm;ESifh owif;tcsuf tvufpDrHcefYcGJrIpepfrsm;) yg0ifonf/ ,if;wkYdonf rsm;rsm;pm;pm; xkwvkyrIue&ufESihf e,fy,fzefwD; f f Gf &efESihf toHk;cs&ef vkyief;yg0ifaqmif&Guolrsm;udk f f cGihfûyrnfjzpfonf/ 2/ atmfya&;&Si;f rsm;twGuf acwfrqef;jym;aom armf',fypH D kH þyHkpHwGif Supply Chains ESihf Buy Chains ESpfck pvHk; yg0ifaom aygif;pnf;aqmif&Guaom Value f Chain rsm;yg0ifonf/ 3/ e-Business pDrHcefYcGJrI armf',fyHkpH pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tzGUJ rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyazmfuizuf f f kd f rsm; þyHkpHwGif yg0ifonf/ 4/ ay:vpD? pnf;rsO;ESihf vlrIa&;pepfrsm; f þpepfrsm;wGif e-Commerce Oya'rsm;? uGe&uf f ûyvkyjf cif;vkyief;? ta0;oifavhvma&;? rufvkH;ay; f tpDtpOfrsm;ESihf udkunr&aom bdZeufay:vpDrsm; f D I dS yg0ifonf/ 32 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f þwGif e-Business r[mAsL[mqki&m zefw; d f D wwfaom ae&m,lrI om"uwpfckukd wifjycsif ygw,f/ ,if;rSm Dawson a&S;a[mif;ypön;vkyief; f f ESifh Sotheby tGefvkdif;avvHyGJae&mrsm;yif jzpfonf/ Dawson's a&S;a[mif;ypön;vkyief;onf f f 23 ESpfMum oufwrf;&SdNyDjzpfaom a&S;a[mif; bdZeufvkyief;jzpfonf/ tGevki;avvHwif Site f f d f rsm; xGuay:vmrIESihftwl Linda Dawson onf f ,if;vkyief;&Sionf vGwajrmuf&eftvdim ,if; f f f Yk S bdZeufr[mAsL[mwGif tifwmeufukd xnfhoGi; f pOf;pm;&ef vktyfrIukd êudjrif½HkrQru tm;omcsuf d &,l&efvnf; êudjrifcJhonf/ xdktawmtwGi; Sotheby's trnf&dS wk;wuf f d aeaom tGevkdi;avvHae&monf tifwmeufay: f f wGif ydkrkBd uD;rm;aom y&dowfukd qGaqmif&ef ,if; J avvHypön; xm;okxe;odr;rI pepfukd jr§iwifjcif; f d df f hf tusK;aus;Zl;tm; od&SoabmaygufMuonf/ d d Sotheby's onf tBuD;rm;qHk; tGevkdi; avvHyGJ f f usif ; yae&mrsm;jzpf o nf / ,if ; onf ,if ; Website uk d zG i f h j cif ; jzif h ,if ; tif w meuf r[mAsL[mudk jyefvnfoHk;oyfcJhonf/ ,if; 0ufbqkufr S m Sothebys.com jzpfonf/ ,if; f d
  • 21. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 33 0ufbqkuukd tGevkdi;avvHwifae&mrsm; twGuf f d f f f ydkrkdao;i,faom udk,pm;vS,rsm;ESihf avvHwif f f ae&mrsm;twGuf zGivpay;onf/ ,if;csO;uyfrEihf hf S f f I S twl Sotheby onf ,if; ukeypön;odkavSmif f f xkway;rIpepfwif tawGUG têuH&&Sconf/ ,if;onf f G d hJ ykrkBd uD;rm;aom aps;uGuukd qGJaqmifcJhonf/ ydkrkd d f vG,ulap&ef Sotheby's onf ,if; tzGUJ 0ifrsm; f twGuf 0ufbqufudk yHhydk;½HkrQru Dawson's f kd tzGUJ om;rsm;udk ulnconf/ bDvtm;vHk;ESihf pkpnf; D hJ f aumuf,rtm;vH;udvnf; udiw,ajz&Si;f &ef pDpOfchJ lI k k kf G f onf/ ,if; r[mAsL[m atmufwif tzGJU0if 4660 G OD; pm&if;ay;oGi;cJhonf/ Dawson twGurl ef f business ta&mif;onf 2000 jynfEpv,fyi;wGif h S f kd f pkpkaygif; ta&mif; 25 &mcdkiEIe; &&ScJhonf/ f f d 2001 ckEp?f Zefe0g&Dv wGif 50 &mcdiEe; &&Sconf/ S k f I f d hJ atmifjrifaom e-Commerce vkyief;uGi;qufrsm; f f e-Commerce onf orm;½dk;us pD;yGm;a&;tay;t,l vkyief;wGif ,SOûf ydiEiaom tjcm;a&G;cs,p&m enf;vrf;jzpf&efvkd f f dk f f onf/ tzGJUtpnf;wpfckonf e-Commerce tusK;aus;Zl; d rsm; trsm;qHk;&&S&eftwGuf enf;ynmudpö&yfrsm; pOf;pm;&efvkd d onf/ xdkjY yif pGr;aqmifay;Ekiaom udp&yfrsm;udk pOf;pm;&efvkd f d f ö onf/ yHkpHusaom e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyief; uGi;quf f f 34 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f wGif atmufygt"duaqmif&Gufolrsm;ESifh qufpyfaeaom vktyfcsursm; yg0ifonfd f f d a&mif;csol (Seller) wGif atmufygtcsursm; &Soifh onfe- Commerce pGr;* f aqmif&nfyg&Saom aumfykd&wf d d 0ufbfqkduf (Oyrm-vHkûcHrI&Sdaom tay;t,l vkyief; Server) f aumfyk&wtifx&meuf (odkYrSom atmf'grsm;udk d d f * pGrf;&nf&Sdaom toGifjzifh vkyfief;pOfaqmif&Guf Ekirnf/) d f owif;tcsutvuf pD;qif;rIrsm;udk pDrcefc&efEihf f * H Y JG S e- Commerce pepfukd xde;odr;&ef tkiwD em;vnf f f df wwfuRrf;aom 0efxrf;rsm;/ tay;t,lvkyfief; pD;yGm;zuf (ygwem) rsm;wGif atmufygwkYdyg0ifonftay;t,lvkyfief;* &Sif;vif;a&;udk aqmif&Guf ay;pGr;aom bPftzGUJ tpnf;rsm; (ta<u;ay;uwf f aiGay;acsrIESihf tDvufx&Geepf &efyHkaiGvTJajymif; f * rIrsm;qki&m vkyief;pOfaqmif&Gujf cif;) d f f EkiiHtwGi;? EkiiH0ef;usiESihf EkiiHjyifywGif ukef d f f d f f d f ypönf;a&GUvsm;rIudk pGrf;aqmifay;&ef trsKd;om; tqifhESihf tjynfjynfqki&m ukeypön;wifykdYonfh f f * d f ukrÜPDrsm;? vkyief;rS pm;oHk;olokdY tay;t,l f vkyief;twGuf pepfonf tao;pm;xkyyk;rIrsm; f f d
  • 22. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 35 uke&usK;eyfaom ydkaqmifrtwGuf enf;vrf;wpfck f d Y I udk ay;pGr;&rnf/ f f f * tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; aygif;pnf;aqmif&GurIESihf vHûk cHrudk tmrcH&ef ,HMk unf&aom wwd,tzGUJ (Third I Party) taeES i f h aqmif & G u f a om ppf r S e f o nh f MoZmtmPm&SrI/ d f pm;oHk;olrsm; (Consumers) (vkyief;rS pm;oHk;olokYd tay;t,lvkyief;) (B2C) f * ta<u;0,fuwfjym;rsm; us,jf yefYaom toHk;ûyrIukd pGr;aqmifay;Ekiaom? oH;pGEiaom 0ifaiGEihf tifwm f df k J dk f S eufukd vufcHaom? ta&;ygaom vltawmfrsm;rsm; udk zGJUpnf;xlaxmif&rnf/ f d f * rsujf rifukd,wkif ypön;rsm;0,f,ljcif;xufpmvQif tifwmeufay:rS xkwukeypön;rsm;? 0,f,ljcif; f f f twGuf tawG;tac:wpfckukd ydkiqki&rnf/ f d f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; (Firms/Business) f vkyief;rSvkyief;odkY tay;t,lvkyief; B2B wGif tifwm f f f eufvufcrEitwl txl;ojzifh Supply Chains twGi; ta&; H I S hf f ygaom ukrPrsm;udk zGUJ pnf;xlaxmifpkpnf;&rnf/ tifwmeufrS Ü D atmf'grsm;udk rSm,lEkiaom pGr;&nfukd ,if;ukrÜPDrsm;wGif d f f &S&rnf/ d 36 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tpk;& (Govermment) d d f * tpk;&taejzifh e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyief;udk pDrHtkycsKyfaom w&m;0ifabmif twki;twmwpfck f d f xlaxmif&efjzpfonf/ ,if; e-Commerce tay; t,lvkyief;rsm;wGif tDvufx&Geepf pm&Gupmwrf; f f f rsm;? vufrSwrsm; yg0ifonf/ f d f * w&m;0iftzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf Oya'abmif twki; twmudk wGe;tm;ay;vdrhfrnf/ ,if; abmiftwki; f d f twmwGif Oya'rsm;ESihf pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;rsm;wGif f yg0ifonf/ ,if;w&m;0iftzGUJ tpnf;rsm;onf tjcm; olrsm;tMum; vdrvnfrIrS pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf f f f pm;oHk;olrsm;udk tumtuG,ay;onf/ tifwmeuf (Internet) aemufqHk;wGif tifwmeufonf atmifjrifaom toH;ûyrIjzpfvmonf/ ,if;onf atmufygtcsursm; k f wGif rlwnfonfD d f * tm;aumif;Ny; ,HMk unfpwcstm;xm;&aom tifwmeuf tajccHtaqmufttHk/ f f d ∗ tifwmeufay:wGif ukeypön;rsm;0,f,jl cif;ESihf tcsef ukeaom pm;oHk;olrsm;udk 'ku©ray;onfh aps;EIe; f f owfrSwzGJUpnf;rI/ (Oyrm-a'owGi; zke;ac:rIrsm; f f f fk k k S f ESihf ISP access ESpcpvH;twGuf yHao owfrwxm; aom vpOfEIe;xm;/) f
  • 23. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 37 &SifoefBuD;xGm;&eftwGuf txufyg tcsutvufrsm; vdktyfonf/ þwGif tifwmeufonf ef Commerce ESihf qufpyfaeonfukd &Si;jyvdkonf/ tifwmeuf f onf aps;rBuD;bJ ,HkMunfpwcstm;xm;pGm cswqufEki&ef d f d f d f urÇmtESHUtjym;rS vlrsm;udk aqmif&Guay;onf/ enf;ynm f qki&m tajccHtaqmufttHktaejzifh ,if;onf urÇmvHk;qki&m d f d f uGe&uftzGUJ tpnf; jzpfonf/ y½kwaum tpkta0;toHk;ûyvsuf f d kd owif;tcsurQa0&ef cswqufay;onf/ vlESihf owif;tcsuf f d f tvuf uGe&ufrsm;taejzifh tifwmeufonf e-Commerce f udk pGr;aqmifay;onf/ tGevki;ay:wGif ukeypön;rsm;ESihf f f d f f f 0efaqmifrrsm;udk a&mif;cs&ef tifwmeufu vkyief;rsm; aqmif&uf I f G ay;onf/ tifwmeufukd pD;yGm;a&;&nf&G,csursm;twGuf toHk; f f rcsrD ukrÜPDrsm;onf EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) uJhokdYaom yk*¾vuuGe&ufrsm; toHk;ûyonf/ ,if;onf ed f Commerce apmapmydki; yHkpHjzpfonf/ odkYaomf yk*¾vu f d uGe&ufrsm; wyfqifjcif;ESihf xde;odr;jcif;onf tvGeaps;BuD; f f f f onf/ tifwmeufESihftwl e-Commerce onf vsijf refpGm ysHUESHYcJhonf/ tifwmeufonf Open Stardards rsm;tay:wGif tajccHaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ e-Commerce e-Commerce tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm; d f tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm;ukd avhvmMunfh d f vQif ypön;ay;oGi;ol? xkwvkyol (Supplier/Producer) ? f f f f e-Commerce 38 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pm;oHk;ol (oHk;pGJol) (Consumer) ESihf vlrItzGJUtpnf; ety) tcsuoHk;csujf zifh ½IjrifEkionf/ f d f (Soci- ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm* xkwvkyorsm; (Suppliers/ f f ;? f f l Producers) ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;bufrS ½IjrifvQif e-Commerce f f tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm;wGif tcsuajcmufcsuwkYd yg0ifonf/ d f f f yxrtcsurm urÇmtESa&muf&jdS cif;jzpfonf/ 'kw,tcsurm f S YH d f S wpf&ufvQif 24 em&D? wpfywfvQif ckepf&uf&aejcif;jzpfonf/ Sd wwd,tcsurSm Mum;vlrsm;z,f&Sm;&ef tvm;tvm&Sjd cif;jzpf f onf/ pwkwtcsurm ppfreaomtcsewif uwfwavmufrsm; ¬ f S Sf df G udk aemufqHk;tajctaetxd &&S&efpGr;&nfjzpfNyD; wpfOD;csi; d f f ay;pGr;EkirIrsm;twGuf tvm;tvm&Sjd cif;yifjzpfonf/ yOör f d f tcsufrSm tay;t,lukefusp&dwfrsm; omíenf;yg;jcif;jzpf onf/ q|rtcsurSm atmf'g (trSmvTm) vrf;aMumif;yHkpHwGif f wk;wufr&aom azmufonftultnDay;rI? udk,wi0efaqmifrI d I dS f kd f ay;aom owif;tcsutvuf jyefvnfxkw,ljcif;ESihf oD;jcm; f f ajymqkd aqG;aEG;rIrsm;jzpfonf/ tifwmeufonf aemufqHk;oHk;pGJolrsm;ESifh wkduf½dkuf qufo,&ef trnfay;oGi;rIwif yg0ifotm;vHk;udk pGr;aqmif G f f G l f ay;onf/ ,if;onf Mum;cHqufoG,rIuif;a0;&ef OD;wnf f ay;Ekionf/ aemufqk;azmufonfEihf wku½kuqufo,ronf d f H S d f d f G f I tifwmeufu pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; tay;t,lvkyfjcif;rsm;udk ,laqmifaom t"duawmfvSea&;yifjzpfonf/ f
  • 24. odaumif;p&m e-commerce 39 tpD&ifcHcsut& tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwif f G e-Commerce jzefYcsda&;ukefusp&dwftay: tusKd;ouf a&mufrI &Sconf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh avaMumif;vufrwrsm;twGuf d hJ S f orm;½dk;usESihf tifwmeuftajccHa&mif;csrItMum; pkaqmif;rI rsm;onf bPfvkyief;twGuf 87 rS 89 &mckiEe; txd&onf/ f d f If dS bDvay;acsrtwGuf 67 rS 71 &mckiEe;&Sonf/ touftmrcH f I d f If d twGuf 60 &mckiEIe;&Sonf/ aqmhz0JjzefYcsrItwGuf 97 rS d f f d f d 99 &mckiEIe; txd&Sonf/ d f f d oHk;pGorsm;ESihf wku½kuxawGUrtydki;rSMunfvQif azmuf J l d f d f d I f h onfqufqa&;? pDrcefcrukd tifwmeufu awmfveypfcNhJ yDjzpf H H Y GJ I Sf onf/ atmf'grsm;udk wu,fvkcsiaomtcsewGif &Ekionf/ d f df d f xkaMumifh pHprf;ar;jref;rIrsm;udk êud;yrf;rItenf;i,frQEihf wduspm Yd k S G ajzqkEionf/ aumif;pGmyHazmfxm;aom online help pepfrsm;ESihf d dk f k vlom;Mum;0ifrIryg&SbJ oHk;pGJrIrsm;ar;cGe;rsm;udk wpfOD;csi; d f f ajzMum;Ekionf/ aemufqHk;wGif azmufonfrsm;ESihf oD;jcm; d f aqG;aEG;ajymqkrItwGuf tvm;tvmudk BuD;rm;pGm jr§ihfwifEkif d d cJhonf/ tifwmeufrwpfqifh tD;aumrmhponf 0ifa&mufrueus S f I kf p&dwEihf tay;t,lukeusp&dwEpckpvHk;udk enf;yg;ap&ef ulnD f S f f S f f kd f yHyk;ay;onf/ xkjYd yif ydkrkBd uD;rm;aom aps;uGuokYd yx0D0ifqi&m h d a&muf&rukw;csUJ &ef pGr;&nfukjd znfqnf;ay;onf/ þtcsuu dS I d kd f h f tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm; (SMES) ukd vG,vifwul f f h &&Sdaponf/ OECD 40 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f oHk;pGJolrsm; (Consumers) * oHk;pGJolrsm;twGuf tusK;aus;Zl;rsm;wGif atmufygwkYd d yg0ifonf1/ aetdrrS oufaomifhoufom aps;0,fEkdionf/ f f 2/ urÇmtESHY a&G;cs,rIrsm;udk vufcHEkionf/ f d f 3/ ukeusp&dwf ,SOûf ydirIrsm;udk vufcH&&SEkionf/ f f d d f 4/ rm;uufwif; owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk vufc&&Sd f H onf/ 5/ 'pf*spw,fukeypön; (Oyrm-aw;*Dw) ukd prf;oyf f f f &ef tcGihftvrf;&Sonf/ d 6/ tcsera&G; aps;0,f&ef pGr;&nf&Sonf/ df f d 7/ 'pf*spw,fukeypön;rsm;udk csucsi; download f f f f f ûyvkyEkionf/ f d f 8/ wpfukd,a& 0efaqmifrI ûyvkyEkionf/ f f d f 9/ zke;vdki; apmifhqki;aep&mrvkacs/ f f d f d 10/ ta&mif;orm; rvkacs/ d 11/ a&mif;csrukd vG,uacsmarmap&ef todÓPf&aom I f l dS at;*sihfrsm;&Sonf/ d xkwukeypön;o,f,lykdYaqmifrI qef;opfzefwD;aom f f f enf;vrf;rsm;onf BuD;xGm;vmcJNh yD jzpfonf/ ,if;onf r0,f,l &ef xkwukeypön;udkprf;oyf&ef pm;oHk;olrsm; t&nftaoG; f f f udk jr§ihfwifay;aeonf/
  • 25. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 41 * tzGJUtpnf; pD;yGm;a&;ylaygif;aqmif&urEihf zGUH ûzd;rItzGUJ tpnf; (OECD) G fIS u us,fjyefYaom &nfrSef;csufig;&yfokdY e-Commerce pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlrIa&;tusK;oufa&mufukd tESpcsKyfazmfjyxm; d f onfrSm þodkYjzpfonf1/ e-Commerce onf aps;uGuae&mudk toGiajymif; f f ay;onf/ 2/ ,if;wGif "mwfulypön; tusK;oufa&mufrI&onf/ f d Sd 3/ ,if;onf pD;yGm;a&;wGif tjyeftvSeaqmif&GurIukd f f jrifhwufaponf/ 4/ ,if;onf yGihfvif;rIukd tajccHonf/ 5/ ,if;onf qufpyfvsu&aom tcseta&;ygrIukd f Sd df ajymif;vJay;onf/ ,if;&nfrSe;csursm;onf e-Commerce t&mxifrI f f us,jf yefYrIukdazmfjyonf/ ,if;&nfrSe;csursm;udk tav;teuf f f azmfjyjcif;onf xkwvkyorsm;? Mum;vlrsm;ESihf aemufqk;oHk;pGol f f l H J rsm;tMum; tjyeftvSeaqmif&GurIukd jrifhwufaponf/ f f Intelligent software agent rsm; tultnDEihf e-ComS merce onf xkwfvkyfolrsm;? Mum;cHvlrsm;ESifh aemufqHk; oHk;pGorsm;tMum; tjyeftvSeaqmif&urukd jrifwufaponf/ J l f G f I h ,if;onf xkwfukefypönf;rsm;ESifh ykdrkdESpfoufzG,f&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufaom tcsutvufukd ar;jref;&efuJhokdY ulnDyhHyk;&ef f d vnf; ,cktcg ykívG,ulvmonf/ d f 42 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ukepnfopfrsm; yHkazmfjcif;vkyief;pOfwGif pm;oHk;olrsm; f f yg0ifaqmif&Gujf cif; jrifhwufvmrIonf pm;oHk;olykrkdESpoufrI d f rsm;ESihf ykrkdaumif;rGeaom vkuzufrI&&S&ef 0,folUpwêf uduf d f d f d d aqmif&ujf cif;qki&m tcGitvrf;rsm;udk udk,pm;ûyonf/ ,if; G fd f hf f onf acwfa[mif;pD;yGm;a&; ukeoG,rItrSwtom;jzpfaom f f f pHowfrSwjf cif;ESihf qefYusibufjzpfonf/ aemufqHk;wGif ,if; f onf yGihfvif;rI,Ofaus;rIukd arG;zGm;&ef arQmfvifh&onf/ þonfyifvQif tifwmeuftajccHtoGitjyifvu©Pmyif f jzpfayonf/ e- Commerce onf rnDrQrI t&if;tjrpfopfwGif u@opfwpfckzivprnfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf ay:jyLvmjzpfae G hf S f aom digital devide yifjzpfonf/ xkwvkyrIbufrSMunfhvQif f f tifwmeufonf tao;pm;ESifh tvwfpm;vkyfief;rsm; xkwukeypön;rsm; tGevi;ay:wGia&mif;cs&ef tcGitvrf;rsm; f f f f kd f f hf udk ulnDyHhykd;ay;onf/ odkY&mwGif pm;oHk;olbufrSMunfhvQif tifwmeufukd vufcHEkiaom yDpDESihf w,fvDzke;vki;ydkiqki&ef d f f d f f d f wwfEkiaom olrsm;omvQif trSetuefjzpfonf/ xkYdjyif ydkrkd d f f aumif;rGeaom w,fvDzke;tcif;tusi;&Sonfh EkiiHrsm;wGif f f f d d f tGevki;tay;t,l vkyjf cif;rsm; tusK;aus;Zll;rsm;udk pl;prf; f d f d avhvmjcif;qki&m uGjJ ym;aom tm;omcsu&vrrnf jzpfonf/ d f f dS d hf aemufxyftusK;aus;Zl;rSm e-Government jzpfonf/ d tpd;&vkyief;rsm;wGif tifwmeuftoH;ûyjcif;rS tzGUJ tpnf;u&Ekif k f k d aom tenf;qHk;e,fy,fEpck&onf/ yxre,fy,frm 0efaqmifrI S f dS S
  • 26. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 43 vkyief;rsm;udk tDvufx&Geenf;tm;jzifh o,f,lykdYaqmifEkirI f f d f e,fy,fjzpfonf/ aemufxyfwpfckrm tDvufx&Geepf 0,f,rI S f l pepfrSwpfqifh &&Saome,fy,fjzpfonf/ pifumylEkiiHonf d d f urÇmtpdwtydki;taejzifhvnf;aumif;? urÇmtESHYtjym;wGif f f vnf;aumif; ajrprf;c&rf;ysK;aeaom EdkiiHjzpfonf/ d f tmqD,HtwGuf ,if;tusKd;oufa&mufrItm;vHk;udk toHk;csoifhonf/ rsufarSmufacwf tmqD,HtwGuf odod omomta&;ygrIrSm e-Commerce taejzifh tifwmeufrS wpfqifh tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm; (SMEs) ulnyyk; f D hH d aom tcGihftvrf;rsm;yifjzpfonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;armf',f f wpfckukd zdvpfyiEkiiwif pwifconf/ Ekiiwum b@ma&; kd f d f H G hJ d f H aumfya&;&Si;ESitwl Planters Development Bank (jynfwi; kd f hf G f zGUH ûzd;rIbPf)? e Vicor (Silicon valley tif*sie,mESihf twkiyifcH fD d f tzGJUtpnf;)? zdvpfykdipufrIvufrIESihf ukeonfBuD;rsm;toif;? f f tm&SpDrHcefYcGJrI odyÜHwkYdonf e-Planters [kac:aom SMEs twGuf Portal wpfckukd xlaxmif&ef yl;aygif;aqmif&GucJh f Muonf/ 0efaqmifrI vkyief;rsm;wGif Web hosting ESihf aiGay; f acspepfrsm; yg0ifonf/ 0efaqmifrIukd aumfr&SitajccHjzifh f ay;onf/ tmqD,a'otaejzifMh unfvQif tmqD,Eiirsm;tMum; H h H kd f H ,SOûf ydiEiaom tm;omcsuwif uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIukd pl;prf;avhvm f dk f f G &SmazG&ef xkwvkyrue&ufrsm;udk ulnyyk;a&;twGuf tifwm f f I Gf D hH d eufukd toHk;ûy&OD;rnfjzpfonf/ tcef; (5) e-Commerce, e-Business ES i f h tifwmeufpD;yGm;a&; tD;aumrmhpf (Electronic commerce) onf xkwukef f ypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm;twGuf tGevi;tifwmeuf f I f f kd f vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm; us,jf yefYaomtrsK;tpm;udk &nfñTe; f f d f ay;onf/ ,if;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tay;t,lvkyaom ESpO; f f f D ESpzufonf ½kyykdi;qdki&mzvS,rI odkYr[kwf wku½kduzvS,rI f f f f f d f f f f f f xuf tDvufx&Geepfenf;t& tjyeftvSequfoG,onf/ e-Commerce onf rsm;aomtm;jzifh tifwmeufay: wGif 0,fjcif;? a&mif;jcif;ESifh ywfoufonf/ ,if;onf uGeysLwmu yHkazmfay;aom uGe&ufrSwpfqifh ukeypön;rsm; f f f f odkYr[kwf 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;toHk;ûy&ef ykiqkirI odkYr[kwf f d f d f tcGihfta&;rsm; vTJajymif;jcif;ESihfywfoufaom ta&mif;t0,f vkyrI wpfpHkwpf&mudk aqmif&Gujf cif;ESihfywfoufonf/ ef Commerce ESihf ywfoufí ykrkjd ynfhpHkaom t"dyÜm,frSm þodkY d jzpfonf/ e-Commerce onf tDvufx&Geepfqufo,a&;ESihf f G f 'pf*spw,f owif;tcsutvuf vkyief;pOfenf;ynm toHk;ûyrI f f f yif jzpfonf/
  • 27. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 45 þae&mwGif e-Commerce ESifh e-Business wdkYü uGJjym;aom t,ltqrsm;&Sonf/ e-Commerce wGif owif; d tcsutvufEihf qufo,a&;enf;ynm (tkipw) udk vkyief; f S G f d f D D f rsm; tMum;wGivnf;aumif;? tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tMum;wGivnf; f f aumif; toHk;ûyonf/ xdkYjyif vkyief;rSpm;oHk;ol (businessf to-consumer) tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;wGif toHk;ûyonf/ tjcm; f wpfzufwif e-Business wGif tkipwonf wpfO;wpfa,muf G d f D D D bdZeufukd jr§ihwif&eftoHk;ûyonf/ ,if;wGif uGeysLwmu f f azmfaqmifaom uGef&uftay:wGif vkyfief; tzGJUtpnf;u aqmif&uaom vkyief;pOfwpfckckyg0ifonf/ e-Business G f f jynfhpHkus,jf yefYaom t"dyÜm,frSm þodkYjzpfonfpifppf e-Business [lonfrSm enf;ynmrsm;toHk;csrI? pD;yGm;a&;opf tawG;tac:rsm;ESihf wGucsuaeaom yg&mEkiiH f f df wkrwpfqifh tydkjznfpuaom azmufonfwefzk;udk ydkaqmif&ef Yd S h G f d Y tzGUJ tpnf;wpfck vkyief;pOfrsm;toGiajymif;jcif;yifjzpfonf/ f f e-Business wGif tajccHvkyief;pOfoHk;&yfukd tqifhjr§ihf f xm;onf/ ,if;wkYdrSm1/ xkwvkyrIvkyief;pOfrsm; (Production Processes) f f f 2/ azmuf o nf u d k tm½H k p k d u f o nf h v k y f i ef ; pOf r sm; (customer-focused processes) 3/ XmewGi;pDrHcefYcGJrI vkyief;pOfrsm; (Internal Manf f agement Processes) wkYdjzpfonf/ 46 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f xkwvyrvyief;pOfrsm;wGif 0,f,a&;? atmf'g&&Sa&;ESihf f kfI kf l d ukepnfrsm; xkwvkyxe;odr;a&;wkyg0ifonf/ xkjYd yif aiGay; f f f df f Yd acsa&;vkyief;pOfrsm;? ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf tDvufx&Geepf f f f f cswqufrrsm; xkwvkyrI xde;csKyfrvkyief;pOfrsm; yg0ifonf/ d f I f f f I f azmufonftm½Hpuonfh vkyief;pOfrsm;wGif y½dr;dk &Si;f ESihf k kd f f k rm;uufwif;êud;yrf;rIrsm;? tifwmeufay:wGif a&mif;csjcif;? azmufonf0,f,lrIatmf'grsm;ESihf aiGay;acsrIvkyief;pOfrsm;? f azmufonfyHhykd;a&;vkyief;pOfrsm; yg0ifonf/ f XmewGi; pDrcefcrvkyief;pOfrsm;wGif 0efxrf;0efaqmifrI f H Y JG I f f D rsm;? oifwef;? XmewGi; owif;tcsutvufrQa0jcif;? AD',kd f uGez&ifhûyvkyjf cif;ESihf 0efxrf;opfcefYxm;jcif;wkYd yg0ifonf/ f tDvufx&GeepftoHk;csrIrsm;onf ta&mif;tiftm; xkwvkyrI f f f pGr;f tm;jr§iwif&ef xkwvyrEihf ta&mif;tiftm;tMum; owif; hf f kfIS tcsutvufpD;qif;rIukd jr§ihfwifay;onf/ f pifppf tifwmeufpD;yGm;a&;onf e-Commerce ESihf eBusiness xuf ydkrkdus,jf yefYaom t,ltqwpfckjzpfonf/ ,if;wGif e-Commerce ESihf e-Business yg0ifonf/ pD;yGm;a&; ESihf ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;twGuf Mum;cHrD'D,rfwpfcktaejzifh tDvufx&GeepfuGe&ufrsm; toHk;ûyvsuf pD;yGm;a&;vIy&Sm; f f f aqmif&urrsm;tm;vHk;udk qufpyfr&onf/ xdkjY yif tifwmeuf G f I I dS odkY cswqufxm;aom uGe&ufrsm;wnfaqmufjcif;ESihf toHk;cs d f f 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm; 0,f,jl cif; ESpckpvHk;wGif yg0ifywfouf I f f aom vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm;ESihf qufET,onf/ ,if;onf f f f
  • 28. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 47 t"duusaom t"dutuefok;ckukd zefw;ûyvkyay;onf/ ,if; Y H D f wdkYrSm ½kyykdi;qki&m tdkipDwDtajccHtaqmufttHk? pD;yGm;a&; f f d f f vkyfief; tajccHtaqmufttHkESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;wdkY jzpfonf/ þwGif wuúquf(cf) wuúodkvf&Sd okawoeESifh tDvufx&GeepfA[kXme (CREC) onf tifwmeufpD;yGm;a&; f d rnfokdYtvkyvkyonfukdazmfjyaom t,ltqqdki&m abmif f f f twki;twmwpfckukd azmfaqmifw;wufapcJonf/ ,if;abmif d f kd h twki;twm tifwmeufp;yGm;a&; tvTm (4) vTmudk azmfjycJh d f D onf/ ,if;wdkYrSmtvTm 1/ tifwmeuftajccHtaqmufttHk (Internet Infrastructure) tvTm 2/ tifwmeuftoHk;csrItaqmufttHk (Internet Applications Infrastructure) tvTm 3/ tif w meuf M um;cH q uf o G , f a y;ol r sm; (Internet Intermediaries) tvTm 4/ tifwmeufaumrmhpf (Internte Commerce) wkYd jzpfonf/ tvTm (1) wGif ukrÜPDrsm;onf tifwmeufESihf World f d fJ f Wide Web twGuf uGe&ufûyvkyjf cif;ud&,mESihf [mh'0? aqmhz0J pGr;aqmifrIrsm;twGuf yHhykd;Muonf/ f tvTm (2) wGif aqmhz0xkwukersm;ûyvkyaom ukrPD f J f f f Ü rsm;yg0ifonf/ ,if;wdkYonf 0ufbtay;t,lvkyief;rsm;udk f f 48 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f vG,ulacsmarGUatmif ûyvkyay;onf/ xkYdjyif Web developf f ment 'DZkdi;ESihf twkiyifcHvkyief;rsm;udk yHhykd;ay;aomukrÜPD f d f f rsm; yg0ifonf/ tvTm (3) wGif e-Commerce 0,folrsm;ESihf a&mif;ol h d rsm;udk cswqufay;aomukrPrsm;? Web Content udk yHyk;ay; d f Ü D aom ukrPrsm;yg0ifonf/ e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyjf cif; Ü D jzpfysuEiaom aps;uGursm;udk yHy;onfurPrsm;vnf; yg0if f dk f f h kd h kÜ D onf/ tvTm (4) wGif oHk;pGJolrsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;odkY f xkwukeypön;rsm; odkYr[kwf 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm; wku½kduf f f f f d f a&mif;csaomukrÜPDrsm; yg0ifonf/ txufazmfjycsursm;onf tifwmeufpD;yGm;a&;tvTm f (Internet Economy Layer) yif jzpfonf/ þwGif tifwmeuf f pD;yGm;a&;tvTm (1) wGif Netwotking ukrÜPDrsm;? [mh'0J? f aqmhz0JukrÜPDrsm;? Line Acceleration ukrÜPDrsm;? [mh'0J f f f xkwvkyolrsm;? yDpDESihf Server xkwvkyolrsm;? tifwmeuf f f Backbone Providers, tifwmeuf0efaqmifryyk;olrsm; (ISPS), I Hh d Security Venders rsm;ESihf Fiber Optics xkwvkyorsm; yg0if f f l onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh jy&aomf Cisco, AOL, AT& T ESihf Qurest wkdYyg0ifonf/ tvTm (2) wGif tifwmeufaumrmhptoHk;csrrsm; Web f I development aqmhzf0J? tifwmeuftwkdifyifcHukrÜPDrsm;? f f f tGevi;oifwef;? Search Engine aqmhz0?J 0ufbu pGr;aqmif f dk f
  • 29. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 49 ay;aom tcsutvufrsm;? rmvfwDrD'D,mtoHk;csukrÜPDrsm; f yg0ifonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh Adobe rkuú½aqmhz?f IBM ESihf Oracle d kd wkYd yg0ifonf/ f tvTm (3) wGif Ventical vkyief;rsm;wGif aps;uGuf zefw;olrsm;? tGevi;c&D;oGm;vma&;at;*sirsm;? Brokerages, D f kd f hf Content Aggregators tGevi;aMumfjimolrsm; Internet Ad Brof dk f kers, Portals/Content Providers ukrÜPDrsm; yg0if onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh e-STEEL, Yahoo, Travelocity e-Trade ESihf ZDNet ukrÜPDrsm; yg0ifonf/ tvTm (4) wGif E-Tailers, tGefvkdif;azsmfajza&;ESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;qki&m vkyief;rsm;? xkwvkyolrsm;? d f f f f tGevki;a&mif;csaom ukrÜPDrsm;? avaMumif;vdki;a&mif;cs f d f f aeaom ukrÜPDrsm;? tGevki;vufrSwrsm;? Fee/Subscripf d f f tion Based ukrÜPDrsm; yg0ifonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh Amazon. com ESihf Dell wkYdyg0ifonf/ * * * * * tcef; (6) tif w meufESSi f h tD ; -pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; -pD ;a&;vk E tifwmeufonf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;ukd ykrkpr;aqmif&nf f d d G f jynfh0pGm aqmif&Gujf cif;twGuf jzpfEkiajctopfrsm;udk tBuD; d f tus,ay;pGr;Ekionf/ oifbmvkyEiovJ? oifbmvkyray; f f d f f kd f f EkiovJqkwm Munfh&efvkonf/ oifhtaejzifh oifhukrÜPDESihf d f d d ukeypön;rsm;taMumif; owif;tcsutvufrsm;pGmudk jyoEkif f f f d onf/ NyD;vQif ,if;ukeypön;rsm;udk a&mif;csEionf/ Website f f kd f ay:wGif wpfaeYvQif 24 em&D? wpfywfvQif (7) &uf a&mif;csEif kd onf/ oifhtaejzifh ydkrkdxa&muftusK;&SpGm 0,f,lEkionf/ d d d d f tb,faMumifqaomf ypön;ay;oGi; a&mif;csorsm;pGmudk azmfjy h kd f f l d I &ef tifwmeufukd toHk;ûyEkionf/ Online ay:wGif vktyfrrsm; d f udk xkwjf yEkionf/ aps;uGuzvS,rIrsm;ûyvkyNf yD; 0,f,lEkif d f f f d onf/ tGevkdi;avvHaps;uGursm;ESihf toHk;ûyNyD; ukeypön; f f f f f aps;uGursm;wGif avQmhaps;ESihf0,f,lEkionf/ f d f oifonf atmf'grsm; rSm,lEionf/ tay;t,l vkyEif kd f f kd onf/ oifhtaejzifh ukeypön;a&mif;olrsm;ESihf jzefYjzL;a&mif;cs f f
  • 30. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 51 ay;olrsm;udk ykrkdjrefqefpGm aiGay;acsEkionf/ oifhvkyazmf d d f f ukizufrsm;ESihf Extranet xlaxmifaqmif&Gujf cif;jzifh ukeus d f f p&dwukd enf;yg;aponf/ tGevi;tvkypm&if; 0efaqmifrrsm; f f kd f f I ESihf tD;ar;vftifwmAsL;rsm; toH;ûyjcif;jzifh ydrxa&muf tusK;&Sd k k kd d d pGm oiftvkycefYEkionf/ f d f tifwmeufrSwpfqifh ydkrkdaumif;rGeaom owif;tcsuf f tvufEihf avhusioifMum;jcif; (oifwef;) udk 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf S hf oif uk,pm;vS,rsm;xHokdY ulnDyhHyk;Ekionf/ oifonf d f f d d f oifh0efxrf;rsm;tMum;udkvnf;aumif;? olwkdYtcsif;csif;udk vnf;aumif;? ½Hk;csKyfokvnf;aumif; qufo,a&; vdkavao; Yd G f r&Sd aqmif&u&ef tifx&meuf (Intranet) wpfckukd wnfaxmif G f aqmif&uEionf/ tifx&meufonf owif;vTmrsm;? 0efxrf; G f kd f a&;&mtcsutvuf? xkwueypön;tcsutvuf? tD;-avhvm f f kf f f rI tpDtpOfrsm;? ukrPjD yu©'ersm;ponfwukd xnfoi;pOf;pm; Ü df Ykd h G f Ekionf/ oiftaejzifh ydkrkrsm;jym;us,jf yefaom yx0D0ifrsm;odkY d f h d Y f f d f oifhukeypön;rsm;udk y½dkrkd;&Si;ûyvkyEkionf/ f f tifwmeufay:wGif avhvmpl;prf;olrsm;ESihf csO;uyftm½Hk f pdkutkypkrsm; aqmif&Gujf cif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? tifwmeufay: f f wGif <u,f0aom owif;tcsutvufrsm; &,laqmif&ujf cif; f G jzifhvnf;aumif; oifhtaejzifh aps;uGursm;? azmufonfrsm;? f h tvm;tvm&Sorsm;ESihf ,SOûf ydibufrsm;udk ydkrkpr;&nfjynf0pGm d l f d G f okawoeûyvkyEkdionf/ ay;ydkYEkionf/ arwåm&yfcHEkionf/ f f d f d f oD;jcm;azmufonfrsm;okYd owif;rsm;? 0efaqmifrrsm; ay;pGr;jcif; I f 52 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jzifh azmufonfrsm; xyfrH&&Sdatmif aqmif&GufEkdifonf/ tifwmeufukd toHk;ûyjcif;jzifh oifaxmufyHhykdYaqmifa&; pDrH zGJUpnf;rIrsm;ESihf atmfya&;&Si;rsm;udk oifhtaejzifh rnfrnf&& f wk;wufapEkionf/ pifppf tifwmeufonf qufoG,a&;? d d f f 0,f,ljcif;ESihf a&mif;csjcif;twGuf xl;cRefajymifajrmufaom yvufazmif;topfukd ulnyy;onf/ ,if;tusK;aus;Zl;rsm; D Hh kd d onf tcseEitrQ BuD;xGm;wk;wufaeonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; d f S hf d f acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ,if;tvm;tvmrsm;udk csD;usL;cJhMu onf/ GE ukrÜPDBuD;udk OD;aqmifol *su(cf)0Jv(cs) (Jeck f f f Welch) u Website wpfckxuf ydkrkdxkwvky&ef olUvlrsm;udk f f wkuwGe;EdI;aqmfcJhonf/ d f f ]]tifwmeufukd vufc,kHMunfyg/ tifwmeufquukd H kd f jznfhpGuxm;onfxufausmvGeí oifhvkyief;udk oif rnfokdY f f f f toGiajymif;rnf[onfh pDrcsuwpfck uReawmfxoYkd ,laqmif f l H f f h H vmyg}} CIS ukrÜPDBuD; CEO jzpfol *Refcsr;bm;(pf) (John d f f G Chanbers) u Web-ify Cisco pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;udk &nf&,f ajymqkcJhonf/ d 0efxrf;wpfOD;u ]]ulnDyHhydk;wJh azmufonf qufqHrI Seb-based wki;[m vkyief;tpdwtydki;u tpm; d f f f f xk;oifwvyief;udk wefz;dk rjznfpuEiyg}} rduúaqmhz Ouú| d h hJ k f h G f dk f k f jzpfol bDv*wu tifwmeufukd ukrÜPDrsm;twGuf r&Srjzpf f d f d aomt&m[k ½Ijrifxm;onf/ Cisco
  • 31. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 53 ]]tifwmeuf[m aemufxyf a&mif;csjcif;vrf;aMumif;rQ om r[kwbl;/ tem*wfukrÜPD[m Digital Nervous Sysf tem eJY aqmif&Gu&vdrhfr,f}} [k qkum ukeusp&dwrsm;udk f d f f tBuD;rm;qHk; avQmhcscJhNyD;jzpfonf/ ukefusp&dwfenf;yg;aom w,fvDqufoG,fa&;ESifh Web vrf;aMumif;rsm;rSwpfqifh uGeysLwmrsm;udk azmufonfrsm; f Ü okYd wku½kua&mif;cscaom Dell ukrPBD uD;onf HP/Compaq, d f d f hJ IBM ES i f h Apple wk d Y x uf pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; ûyvk y f & mwG i f ukefusp&dwfenf;yg;oufomcJhonf/ Dell onf ,cktcg tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif ygpife,fuGefysLwma&mif;cs&mü OD;aqmifaeaom ukrÜPDBuD;jzpfvmcJhonf/ GE ukrÜPDBuD;onf ,if;ukeoG,rIvkyief;pOf Netf f f work udk pwifwnfaxmifjcif;ESifh tifwmeufrSwpfqifh xkwfukefypönf;rsm;udk &SmrSD;&,ljcif;jzifh ,if;0,f,lrI bwf*sua':vm oef;&maygif;rsm;pGmudk oufomapcJhonf[k f qkdonf/ tifwmeuf tusK;aus;Zl;rsm;pGm&Saomfvnf; e-Comd d merce onfvnf; vlxkpdw0ifpm;rIukd &&Saeonf/e-Comf d merce onf tifwmeufukd a&mif;csrIvrf;aMumif;odkY toGif ajymif;&ef tcGihtvrf;udk qkvkonf/ e-Commerce dot.com f d d onf pmtkyrsm;? aw;*Dwrsm;? pmtkyrsm;? tDvufx&Geepfypön; f f f f rsm;? pawmh0,f,ljcif;? tmrcHESihf avaMumif;vufrSwrsm;? f y&dabm*rsm;? toHk;taqmifypön;rsm; tdrta&muf tpm;tpm f f 54 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ay;ydr?I tBuHay;vkyief; ponfwukd a&mif;csaqmif&uay;jcif; kY f Ykd G f jzifh pwifcJhonf/ Wal-Mart ESifh Levi uJhokdYaom vufvDorm;rsm;udk tajccHonfh Smart pwdk;qkiBf uD;rsm;onf Online ta&mif; d vrf;aMumif;rsm;udk xlaxmifMuonf/ Dot.Com rsm;pGmonf 1991 ck aemufyi;umvrsm;wGif ûydvcaomfvnf; ,if;wkonf dk f J hJ Yd dot.bomb rsm;odkY ajymif;vJconf/ ,cktcg dot.om yl;aygif; hJ aygufuGJcJhaomf ukrÜPDwki;onf ukrÜPDt&nftaoG;udk d f d a&mifjyef[yf&ef website wpfck vktyfonf/ azmufonfrsm; onf jyocsdefudk tvkdr&Sdacs/ owif;tcsuftvufudkom tvk&SMd uonf/ azmufonfrsm;onf &Si;vif;aom owif; d f tcsutvufukom tvk&MdS uonf/ vG,uaom atmf'grSm,l f d d f l jcif; vkyxkH;vkyenf;udkom tvdk&onf/ þodkjY zifh Marketing f f dS azmfaqmif&mwGif tifwmeufESihf tD;-pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;onf f ta&;BuD;aom tcef;u@odkY a&muf&SaeNyDjzpfonf/ d
  • 32. 56 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f - tcef; (7) B2B e-Commerce [l o nf r S m e-Commerce e-Share, Netsales,ixl Enterprises and Universal Access uJhokYdaom outsourcing providers) yHkpHrsm;rSm B2B (Business-to-Business), B2C (Business-tosumer-to-Consumer) ESifh rdkbki;pD;yGm;a&; d f (m-Commerce) wkdYjzpfonf/ B2B e-Commerce [lonf ukrPrsm;tMum; e-ComÜ D merce taejzifh owfrwxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf bdZeuf S f rsm;tMum;qufqHrIrsm;ESihf tay;t,lvkyaom e-Commerce f yHkpHjzpfonf/ þ B2B e-Commerce onf e-Commerce 80 &mckiEIe;cefY&onf/ uRrf;usiynm&Sif trsm;pku B2B ed f f Sd f Commerce onf B2C tuefYxuf ydkrkd jrefqefpGm qufvuf wk;wufvmvdrhfrnf jzpfonf/ d B2B aps;uGufwGif tajccHtpdwftydkif;ESpfck&Sdonf/ ,if;wkYdrSm e-Frastructure ESihf e-Markets wkYdjzpfonf/ pifppf e-Frastructure onf B2B Adokumjzpfonf/ ,if;wdkYwGif wpfzufazmfjyygwkYdyg0ifonf- o,f,ykaqmifa&;? odkavSmifa&;ESijhf zefcsd l Yd Y a&; (e-g procter and gamble) - toHk;cs0efaqmifrIyHhydk;olrsm; - central facility rS packaged software pDrHcefYcGJrI/ f G f f kf - e-Commerce vkyief;pOfwif vkyief;tpdwtydi;rsm; jyifyt&if;tjrpf&mazGvkyukir/ ,if;wGif WebS f d f I housing security ESihf customer care solutions (e.g t"duusaom? uGJjym;jcm;em;aom Consumer), B2G (Business-to-Government), C2C (Con- logistics - tifwmeuf&dS real-time auctions atmfya&;&Si;ESihf f ûyjyifxe;odr;rItwGuf auction solutions aqmhz0/ df f f J (e.g Moai enf;ynmrsm;ESihf opensite enf;ynmrsm;) - 0ufbquf content pDrcefcrEihf ykaqmifr vG,ul f dk H Y JG I S Y d I f acsmarGYrItwGuf content pDrHcefYcGJrIaqmhz0J/ (e.g Inf - terwoven and Procure Net) - 0ufbtajccHaumrmhpf f enablers (e.g commerce one browser-based, XML-enabled 0,f,la&; atmfwkar;&Si; aqmhz0J/) d f f e-Markets rsm;udk 0ufbqkursm;taejzifh ½dk;pif;pGm f d f t"dym,fowfrwxm;onf/ ,if;0ufbqursm;wGif a&mif;ol Ü S f f kd f ESihf0,folrsm;onf wpfOD;ESihfwpfOD; tjyeftvSequfoG,Nf yD; f tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; aqmif&GuMf uonf/ ykrkdawGUjrifaeus f d B2B Oyrmrsm;udk azmfjy&aomf IBM, Hewlett-Packard (HP),
  • 33. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce Cisco onf 57 tifwmeuftay:wGif ,if;xkwukeypön;atmf'g f f f rsm; 90 &mckiEIe;ausmf vufcH&&Sonf/ d f f d f f pifppf B2B toHk;csrIrsm;onf ypön;oGi;,lpDrHcefYcJGrI (txl;ojzifh 0,f,lrIatmf'gvkyief;pOf)? inventory pDrHcefYcGJrI f (Oyrm-order-ship-bill cycles pDrHcefYcJjG cif;)? jzefYcsa&;pDrHcefYcJrI d G (txl;ojzifh oabFmwifpm&Gupmwrf;rsm; wpfqifay;ydkjY cif;)? f h csee,fpDrHcefYcGJrI (Oyrm-atmfya&;&Si; tajctaersm;qki&m f f d f ajymif;vJrrsm;wGif owif;tcsutvufjzefcsjd cif;) ESihf aiGay;acs I f Y rI pDrcefcrI (Oyrm-tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrpepfrsm;-EPS) H Y JG f I ponfh e,fy,frsm;wGif &SMd uonf/ tvHk;pHk *vdkb,f e-Commerce &S,,mwGif ef Marketer y½dk*sursm;onf 2000 jynfhESpwGif 79 'or 2 f f &mckiEIe;rS 2004 ckESpwGif 87 &mckiEIe;odkY jrifhwufcJhonf/ d f f f d f f B2C e-Commerce &S,,mwGif tusK;qufjzpfaomusqif; f d rIonf 2000 jynfhESpwGif 20 'or 8 &mckiEIe;rS 2004 f d f f ckESpf wGif 13 &mckiEIe;odkY a&muf&ScJhonf/ tvm;wlyif d f f d B2B onf tm&Sypdzdwfa'owGif B2C wkd;wufrIa&SUodkY a&muf&cJh onf/ zGHUûzd;qJaps;uGursm;wGif B2B e-Commerce Sd f tusK; jzpfxGe;rIrsm;udk avhvmMunfhygu pdw0ifpm;zG,f d f f awGU&S&onf/ zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm; pD;yGm;a&;wGif B2B aps;uGuf d d f rsm; t&mxifrIudk wpfzufyg taxmuftxm;rsm;wGif awGU&Sd&onf- 58 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tay;t,l ta&mif;t0,fp&dwrsm; f B2B e-Commerce aqmif&GurIrSm wpfqifh odom f xif&Sm;pGm avQmhcsEkiaom ukeusp&dwf e,fy,foHk;ck&Sonf/ d f f d f f f yxrtcsurSm search ukeusp&dwrsm; avQmhcscsuyifjzpf f onf/ êud;yrf;rI? tcsdefESifh aiGaMu;oHk;pGJrIt&MunfhvQif tifwmeufonf ydrpr;&nf&aom owif;tcsutvuf csee,f k kd G f dS f f vrf;aMumif; jzpfonf/ B2B aps;uGursm;wGif 0,f,orsm;ESihf f l l a&mif;olrsm;onf wpfckwnf;aom tGevki;ukeoG,rI vlrI f d f f f todkutûrHwif twlwuG pkpnf;aeMuonf/ xdjkY yif qufvuf f G í search ukeusp&dwrsm; avQmhcsaeonf/ 'kw,tcsurSm f f d f vkyief;pOf aqmif&ur?I tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; ukeusp&dwf f G f f f rsm;avQmhcsrI jzpfonf/ Mum;cHaqmif&GurI avQmhcsjcif; f B2B e-Markets rSwpfqifh ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;onf f f 0,forsm;ESihf wku½kutjyeftvSef qufo,Mf uonf/ Mum;cH l d f d f G aqmif&Guolrsm;ESihf jzefYcsolrsm; avQmhcsMuonf/ okYd&mwGif f d Mum;cHaqmif&uorsm;yHkptopfrsm;onf ay:aygufaeNyD jzpf G f l H onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh e-Markets rsm;udk Mum;cHaqmif&uorsm; G f l taejzifh pOf;pm;Ekionf/ tb,faMumifhqkaomf ,if;wdkYonf d f d supply chains &Sd ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf azmufonf rsm;jym; f f vmaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ e-Markets rsm; ydkrkdtaxmuftxm;&&Saom tusK; d d jzpfxGe;rIrsm;teuf aps;EIe;yGihvif;rIwGif jrifhwufvmrIvnf; f f f
  • 34. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 59 yg0ifonf/ e-Market wGif 0,folrsm;ESihf a&mif;olrsm; pkpnf; jcif;onf aps;uGuaps;EIe;? owif;tcsutvufESihf yg0if f f f aqmif&uolrsm;odkY tay;t,lvkyief;aqmif&ujf cif;udk azmfjy G f f G onf/ tifwmeufonf wpfOD;csi;0,f,lrI? okYdr[kwf tay; f t,lvkyjf cif;qki&m owif;tcsutvufxkwa0jcif;udk cGiûhf y d f f f onf/ e-Market &Sd tzGJUom;tm;vHk;twGuf owif;tcsuf tvuf vsijf refpm vufcrEihf &&Srukd ûyvkyxm;onf/ xkjYd yif G H I S d I f pG,pkH0,forsm;ESihf ausmif;olrsm; pkaygif;yg0ifaqmif&uaom f l G f aps;EIe;owfrSwjf cif;wGif oGuvufNyD; aphpyfñ§EIi;Ekiaom f f d d f d f aps;EIe;owfrSwjf cif;twGuf B2B e-Markets rsm;u e,ferwf f d d rsm; wk;csJUay;onf/ xkYdaMumifh e-Mark place rsm;wGif 0,fol d rsm;ESihf a&mif;olrsm; vktyfcsursm;udk pkaygif;xm;onf/ d f ,if;aps;EIe;rsm;onf wpfOD;csi;aqmif&GurIrsm;rS &&Saeaom f f f d aps;EIe;rsm;xuf omíenf;yg;onf/ f rsm;rsm;pm;pm;xkwvkyrIESihf uGe&uftusK;oufa&mufrIrsm; f f f d B2B e-Markets vsifjrefaom wkd;wufrIonf tpOftvmjzpfaom supplys-side ukeusp&dwtajccH rsm;rsm; f f pm;pm; xkwvkyrI zefwD;ay;onf/ xdkYjyif 0,folrsm;ESihf f f a&mif;olrsm; xl;jcm;aom ta&twGufudk twlwuG ,laqmifvmjcif;onf demand-side rsm;rsm;pm;pm;xkwvkyr?I f f odkYr[kwf uGe&uftusK;oufa&mufrIrsm;udk yhHykd;ay;onf/ f d tcef; (8) B2B e-Commerce tcef ; u@ onf urÇmt0ef;ysHUESHYvmcJhNyDjzpfonf/ tifwmeufenf;ynm? tD;aumrmhpw vsijf refaom wk;wufrI f Ykd d todynmay;rIwkEitwl B2B [kac:aom business to busiYd S hf ness tD;aumrmhponf ta&SUtm&SwGif ysHUESHYvmcJhNyDjzpfonf/ f yHretm;jzifh ukrPrsm;onf tifwmeufay:odYk pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; kSf Ü D f tay;t,lrsm; a&GUvsm;vmaomtcg ,if;wkdYonf tjcm; ukrPrsm;ESihf ,if;wk XmewGi; tzGUJ tpnf;qki&m zGUJ pnf;rIEihf Ü D Yd f df S ,if;wdkY qufoG,rIrsm;udk xl;xl;jcm;jcm;zGihfvSp&ef vdktyf f f onf/ e-Commerce B2B e-Commerce toGivu©Pmrsm; f onf tifwmeufay:wGif ae&m ,lxm;aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;tMum; ukeypön;rsm;ESihf f f f 0efaqmifrvyief;rsm;twGuf pD;yGm;a&;qki&m tay;t,lvyief; I kf df kf rsm;udk udk,pm;ûyonf/ urÇmtESHY ukrÜPDrsm;udk odoomom f d tm½kpkurrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tay;t,luprsm;twGuf H d f I f d ö ,if;wk tifwmeuftoHk;ûyrIukd vsijf refpm wk;csUJ vmvdrrnf Yd G d hf B2B e-Commerce
  • 35. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 61 jzpfonf/ ,if;tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;onf B2B e-Commerce f ukzGihfvSpay;aom pGr;aqmif&nf&Sd wku½kdutjrwftpGe;rsm; d f f d f f f tay:wGif tajccHonf/ tar&duefqufoG,fa&;ud&d,m xkwvkyoljzpfaom U3W systems ukrÜPDBuD;onf 1996 f f ckEpwif supply chain management (SCM) okYd B2B e-ComS f G merce toHk;csjcif;udk pwifcNhJ yD;aemuf xkwvkyrI raqmif&uf f f G aom ukeypön;rsm;udk 0,f,l&ef ,if;ysr;rQtcseonf 13 f f f df &ufrS 17 &ufokdY avsmhenf;oGm;onf/ ,if; ysrf;rQ wpf,epf xkwvkyrp&dwonf ajcmufykHwpfykHusqif;cJh onf/ l f f I f B2B e-Commerce pwifaqmif&ujf cif;onf zGUH ûzd;qJ pD;yGm;a&; G rsm;wGif xkwvkyrpr;tm;ESihf ydkrkBd uD;rm;aom jrifrm;wk;wufrI f f I G f h d rsm;udkyifvQif xkwvkyay;Ekipr;&Sonf/ tb,faMumifqaomf f f d f G f d h kd ,if;wkYdonf tvHk;pHkaom? tusenf;yg;aom pGr;aqmif&nfrS f pwifaeaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ tifwmeuftajccH pD;yGm;a&;tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; toGif f vu©Pmrsm; 0,f,la&;? xkwfvkyfrI? ta&mif;? ydkYaqmifa&;ESifh 0efaqmifrIvkyief;twGuf ,if;wdkY internet value chain okYd f tajccHtm;jzifh wefzk;jr§ihfwif&ef r[mAsL[majrmuf ud&,m d d rsm;taejzifh uGeysLwmrsm;ESihf tkiwukd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;u f d f D f q,fpkESpfrsm;MumMum toHk;ûyaeMuonf/ 1980 jynfhESpf aESmif;yki;umvrsm;uwnf;u tDvufx&Geepf tcsutvuf d f f f zvS,rI (EDI) pepfrsm;rSwpfqifh ukrPe,ferwrsm;twGi;ESihf f Ü D d d f f 62 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jynfywGiatmf'grSmjcif;? invoice ûyvkyjf cif;ESihf oabFmwifjcif; f owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk tzGJUtpnf;rsm;u tDvufx&Geepf f f enf;jzifh toGiajymif;Ekionf/ tkiww;wufrrsm;onf 0,f,l f d f d f D kd I a&; (Supply Chain Management SCM)? xkwvkyrprcefcrI f f I D H Y JG IS (vkyief;t&if;tjrpfprcsucsjcif; ERP ) ESihf ta&mif;0efaqmifrEihf f DH f ydkaqmifa&; (azmufonfqufqa&; pDrcefcrI CRM ) vkyief; Y H H Y JG f wm0efrsm;twGuf owif;tcsutvufpepfrsm; zGUH ûzd;rIukd vkav f d ao;r&SacsmarGUatmif aqmif&Guay;onf/ 1990 jynfhESpf d f aESmif;yki;umvrsm;wGif tifwmeufysUH EvmrIonf jyifypD;yGm;a&; df YHS vkyazmfuizufrsm;pGmESivnf;aumif;? jynfwi;qufo,a&; f kd f hf G f G f rsm;ESihf owif;tcsutvufpepfrsm;ESihfvnf;aumif; tDvuf f x&Geepfenf;jzifh qufo,jf cif;rS tusK;tjrwfrsm; wk;yGm;apcJh f G d d k f onf/ Web tajcpduenf;ynmonf pD;yGm;a&;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;udk ukeusp&dwf omíavsmhenf;atmif ulnDay;onf/ aiGpm&if; f udp?ö atmf'grSm,ljcif;? yduepm&if;vTmûypkjcif;paom yHrevyief; Yk k f kSf kf rsm;wdusrIukd wk;wufaponf/ xkYdjyif tifwmeufonf d jynfyESihf jynfwi; pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf uGe&ufcswquf&ef G f f f d f ukeusp&dwoufomNyD; ydkrkajymif;vG,jf yifv,enf;jzifh aqmif f f d G f &GuEkionf/ us,us,jf yefYjyefYqk&vQif B2B e-Commerce f d f f d udk trsK;tpm;ESpck cGjJ cm;Ekionf/ yxrtrsK;tpm;rSm tvsius d f df d f aom ypön;ay;oGi;rI odkYr[kwf azmufonf0efaqmifrItcsKUd &Sd f f onfh wdusaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;tMum; closed end tay;t,l f vkyief;rsm;jzpfonf/ 'kw,trsK;d tpm;rSm e-Marketplace rSwpfqifh f d
  • 36. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 63 rwdusaom? vlorrsm;aom yg0ifolrsm;tMum; aps;uGuzGihf d f tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;jzpfonf/ f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf ½k;&Si;aomvkyief;twGuf f d f f yxrOD;pGm tifwmeufukd &,l&ef &nf&,Mf uonf/ BuD;rm;aom G pD;yGm;a&;tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm;udk aqmif&Guonfh tay;t,l d f f vkyief;rsm;twGuvnf; tifwmeufukd toHk;ûy&ef &nf&,xm; f f G f d I f Muonf/ onfaemuf ,if;wkonf ydkrk½yaxG;aom tay;t,l h Yd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;okYd a&TUajymif;Muonf/ f ,aeYacwfwif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf tifwmeufrS G f wpfqifh wdusNyD; oduRr;aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyazmfukizufrsm;ESihf f f d f aphpyfaqG;aEG;ndEi;jcif;? tay;t,lûyvkyjf cif;ESihf supply chain § dI f pDrcefcjJG cif; (SCM) vkyief;rsm; yg0ifywfoufaom ,if;wk H Y f Yd tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;udk aqmif&uMf uonf/ tjcm;wpfzufwif f G G tD;-aps;uGuae&m&Sd open B2B e-Commerce tay;t,l f vkyief;rsm;udk ydkrkd½kd;pif;aom vkyief;rsm;tjzpf t"dutm;jzifh f f owfrSwxm;onf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf xkwukeypön; f f f f f 'DZi;ESihf zGUH ûzd;rIukd ydkrkus,jf yefpm yl;aygif;aqmif&u&ef tifwm kd f d Y G G f eufukd pwiftoHk;ûyaomtcg t"duusaom pGr;aqmif&nf f tusK;tjrwfrsm; &&Srnfjzpfonf/ d d avmavmq,fwif Closed B2B e-Commerce pepfrsm; G udk ykrkdus,jf yefYpGm toHk;ûyNyD; ydkrkdzGHUûzd;wk;wufvm Muonf/ d d e-Marketplace rsm;rSmrl zGUJ pnf;jzpfay:rI tpueOD;tqifwif h G om &Sonf/ rsm;pGmtvm;tvm&Saom B2B e-Commerce d d 64 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pepfrsm;udk oD;jcm;0,forsm;u atmf'grsm;ESihf ypön;ay;ydrrsm; l f kY I pDrcefcjJG cif;twGuf ,if;wk EDI pepfrsm; wk;csUJ rwpf&yftae H Y Yd d I jzifh tpueOD; aqmif&GucJhonf/ f xkwukeypön;rsm; aocsmaomyHkprsm;ESihf tay;t,l f f f H vkyfief;rsm; aocsmaomyHkpHrsm;onf tifwmeufay:wGif a&mif;jcif;? 0,fjcif;ESihf ydkrkvkuzufvmonf/ B2B e-Comd d f merce onf customerized products rsm;xuf pHowfrSwf xm;aom trsK;tpm;yHkpHukeypön;rsm;ESihf ykrkdatmifjrifvmMu d f f d onf/ wpfBudrrQom tay;t,lvyjf cif;? odr[kwf tBudrta& f k Yk f twGuf enf;yg;aom tay;t,lvkyjf cif;xuf xyfcgxyfcg tay;t,lvkyjf cif;ESihf ydkraumif;rGepm vkuzufvmonf/ þ kd f G d f tqifwif B2B e-Commerce tay;t,lvyjf cif;vkyief;rsm;pGm h G k f onf r[mAsL[mrqefaom ukeypön;rsm;ESihf yg0ifywfouf f f onf/ xkjYd yif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;u r[mAsL[majrmuf trsK; f d tpm;rsm;twGuf orm;½dk;usvrf;aMumif;rsm;udk xde;odr;xm; f f Muonf/ xdkYjyif e- Commerce onf xkwvkyoltawmf f f rsm;rsm;a&mif;vkaom ukeypön;rsm; (odkY) 0,f,loltawmf d f f rsm;rsm; 0,fvkaom ukeypön;rsm;ESihf yg0ifywfoufaeaom d f f Mum;cHaqmif&Guay;aeonfh tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;wGif ydkrkd f f xda&muftusK;&SrI&Sonf/ d d d tm&Swif B2B pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; wk;wufrEihf yrmP G f d I S cefYrSe;ajconf tvGeus,jf yefYvmonf[k avhvmtuJjzwfol f f rsm;u qkMd uonf/ aps;uGuonf odoomomBuD;xGm;vmcJh f d
  • 37. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 65 onf[k trsm;pkuawGU&cJhMuNyD; vsijf refpm qufvufwk;wuf Sd G d vdrhfrnf[k qkonf/ e-Marketer tpD&ifcHcsuwpfcku d f tm&Swif B2B 0ifaiGrsm;onf 2000 jynfEptwGuf tar&duef G h S f a':vm 36 bDvsausm&onf[k cefre;cJonf/ 2004 ckEprwkif H f dS YSf h Sf d rD a':vm 300 bDvsHausmokdYa&muf&Srnf[k arQmfvifhxm;cJh f d onf/ ,cktcsexd tm&Swif B2B e-Commerce 0ifaiGrsm; df G ESihf wk;wufrIonf business to consumer (B2C) e-Comd merce udk omvGecJhNyD;jzpfonf/ e-Marketer tpD&ifcHpm f t& tm&S B2C 0ifaiGonf 2000 jynfhESptwGuf a':vm f 3 'or 2 bDvsH&SNd yD; 2004 ckESp?f ESpukeykdi;rwkirD a':vm f f f d f 38 bDvsHokdY wk;wufvmvdrhf[k arQmfvifhxm;cJhMuonf/ d txl;ojzifh B2C e-Commerce tay: B2B vTr;rdk; f BuD;pdk;rIonf a'oaocsmaom toGiftjyifvu©Pmrsm; tay:wGif wpfpdwfwpfa'otm;jzifh tajccHonf/ yxr wpfcsurm ta&SUtm&Swif ,Ofaus;rIrsm;ESihf bmompum;rsm; f S G trsK;rsK;taxGaxG&Sjd cif;ESihf jyefYusJaeaom yx0Dtaetxm; d d u us,jf yefaomaps;uGuaqmif&ujf cif;rS tusK;aus;Zl;rsm;udk Y f G d &,l&ef B2C e-Commerce twGuf cufcJaponf/ wpfcsef d wnf;yif ta&SUtm&Sa'o&Sd B2B aps;uGuae&mrsm;udk ta&SUtm&S f vsijf refaomwdk;wufrIu wGe;ydkYarmif;ESiay;onf/ txl; f f ojzifh tkiwypön;rsm;twGuf xkwvkyrtajccHtaejzifh wGe;ydkY d f D f f f I f armif;ESiay;jcif;jzpfonf/ xkjYd yif tkiwypön;rsm; tvGersm;jym; f df D f f 66 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f aom xkwvkyorsm;? qyfuefx½dkuwmrsm;ESihf ypön;ay;oGi; f f l f f f a&mif;csolrsm;twGuf wGe;ydkYay;jcif;jzpfonf/ f a'o&Sd B2B e-Commerce wk;wufrIESihf,SOvsuf d f vkyfaqmifrIrsm;onf aocsmaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;&Sd enf;ynmuRrf;usirIrsm;ESihf tajccHtaqmufttHktqifhrsm;yif f jzpfonf/ zGUH ûzd;rIenf;yg;aom pD;yGm;a&;rsm;onfvwfwavmwGif qufo,a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf tjcm;½kyyi;f qki&m tajccHtaqmuf G f f f kd d f ttHkonf tifwmeufay:wGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tay;t,lvkyf f jcif; BuD;rm;aomyrmPudkaxmuful&ef vktyfrIenf;yg;vS d onf/ xdkYjyif ta&SUtm&S&Sd tpdwtydki;rsm;pGmESihf a&mif;csrIûy f f aeonfh tcsKUd vkyief;rsm;onf ao;i,fMuNyD; olwkYonf olwkYd f d pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk tGevi;ay:odka&GUvsm;&ef o,HZmw f f kd f Y rsm;ESihf enf;ynmqki&m uRrf;usirIrsm; enf;Muonf/ d f f
  • 38. 68 tcef; (9) ta&SUtm&S B2B e-Commerce jrifuGif; ta&SUtm&Swif B2B pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tay;t,lysUH EUHS rukd G f I OD;aqmifaeonfrm tm&SEiirsm;r[kwbJ trsm;pkrm tar&duef S dk f H f S aumfykda&;&Si;rsm; jzpfaeonf/ ,if;aumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf f f pufrxe;opfp pD;yGm;a&;rsm; (NIES) tay:wGif t"dutajccH I Gf aom jynfwi;pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&uonf/ G f f G f tar&duef pD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf ,if;wkYdü EkiiHwGif d f B2B e-Commerce udk taumiftxnfazmfcNhJ yD;jzpfaomaMumifh OD;aqmifrIûyaejcif;jzpfonf/ tar&duefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf tifwmeufenf;ynm f udk &,ljcif;ü OD;aqmifO;&Guûf ycJNh yD; pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;armf',fopf D f rsm; &,ljcif;udvnf; ûyvkyconf/ 1990 jynfveEpumvrsm; k f hJ h GfSf tawmtwGi; tar&duefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf vkyief;rsm;pGm f d f f f f d f f jyifyt&if;tjrpf&SmazGjcif;ESihf t"duvkyukdiEkipGr;tay:wGif t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tm½Hkpujf cif;jzifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;aqmif&uf kd f G aom enf;vrf;opfwpfckukd zefwD;cJhonf/ txl;ojzifh tkiwD d f tcef;u@wGif tar&duefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf ,if;wkYd f armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f a&mif;vktm;uGi;qufrsm; jynfwi;ESihf jynfytpdwtydi;rsm; d f Gf f kf udk qufoG,&efESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gu&ef tdkiwDtoHk;csrIukd f f f wk;csJUcJhMuonf/ 'JvuGeysLwm (Dell computer) ukrÜPDonf d f f yDpvkyief;twGuf tifwmeuf tajccHtzGUJ tpnf;yHkpukd zefw;cJh D f H D onf/ ppöudkqpfpwefpf (Cisco Systems) ukrÜPDonf qufo,a&;ypön;vkyief;rsm;twGuf 'Jvuoyif aqmif&uchJ G f f f f hJ Ykd G f onf/,if;pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tzGJUtpnf;ESpckpvHk;onf ypön; f f f ud&,m xkwvkyorsm;taejzifh pwifcpOfrmyif olwuk,wif d f f l hJ S kYd d f kd xkwvky&ef &yfpJcJhMuNyD; jyifyt&if;tjrpf&SmazG&ef ûyvkyMf u f f onf/ trSepifppf 'Jvonf ukeypön;&,lxe;odr;ay;ydkaom f f f f df f Y ukrPD jzpfvmcJonf/ ukexkwvkyrukrPD r[kwacs/ ,if; Ü h f f f I Ü f wkYd 1990 aemufykdi;uwnf;u tcseukdujf yefvnfzGJUpnf; f df jcif;onf txl;ojzifh tkiwDe,fy,fwGif pGr;aqmif&nfESihf d f f tjrefEIe;jrifhwuf&ef jzpfonf/ þodkYjzifh tar&duefaumfykd f a&;&Si;rsm;onf B2B e-Commerce udk OD;aqmif&ef ae&m&,lchJ f Muonf/ pifppf tar&duefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf ,cktcg B2B d f zvS,rIatmfya&;&Si;wGif *vdkb,facgif;aqmifrsm; jzpfaeMu f f onf/ xkjYd yif Supply chain pDrcefcrwif B2B toHk;csrüvnf; H Y JG I G I urÇmvHk;qki&m OD;aqmifolrsm; jzpfaeMuonf/ 2000 jynfhESpf d f atmufwkbmvwGif urÇmay:ü B2B zvS,rI 1000 ausm d f f 60 &mckiEe;ausmonf tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwif tajcpdkuchJ d f If f G f onf/ tar&duefaumfydka&;&Sif;rsm;onf ,if;wkdY B2B
  • 39. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 69 tavhtusihukd ta&SUtm&SpD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf; f rsm;ESihf tay;t,lûyvkyjf cif;? ,if;wk½Hk;cGrsm; ta&SUtm&Swif Yd J G zGivpaqmif&ujf cif;rSwpfqifh ta&SUtm&SoYkd a&TUajymif;cJMh uonf/ hf S f G tar&dueftiwp;yGm;a&;tzGUJ tpnf; wkiay½Hk;cGonf yDprsm; kd f D D d f J D ESihf tjcm;ukeypön;rsm; xkwvkyjf cif;udk pDrHcefYcGJonf/ Sysf f f tem solution rsm;udkvnf; cswqufay;onf/ xkwvkyrIukd d f f f udk,wkirvkybJ a'owGi; wkiay xkwvkyol 30 cefYukd f d f f f d f f f jyifyt&if;tjrpf&SmazGNyD; xkwvkyaponf/ w½kwf (wkiay) f f d f tpdk;&onf B2B e-Commerce udk axmufconftwGuf rdcif H h tar&duef tkiwDukrÜPDrsm; ½Hk;cGJrsm;tMum;wGif wkiay½Hk;cGJ d f d f d onf B2B e-Commerce taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif wk;wuf rI t&SqkH;jzpfonf/ ,if;½Hk;cGonf 1995 ckEpf apmapmydki;wGif d J S f ERP [kac:aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; t&if;tjrpfpDrHcsucsjcif; f f (Enterprise Resource Planning) pepfukd pwifrwqufchJ onf/ d f ,if; ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf owif;tcsutvuf rQa0&ef f f f 1998 ckESpwGif SCM pepfukd jznfhpGucJhonf/ ,cktcg f f ,if;½Hk;cGJonf tqifhjrifhenf;ynmudk OD;pm;ay;aom e-Mardf f ketplace jzpfonfh converge B2B e-Commerce pHcsepHñTe; jzpfaom Rosetta Net wkYukd toHk;cs&ef êud;pm;aeonf/ ,if; d ESpckpvHk;udk wkiay tpdk;&u jr§ihfwifaqmif&Guay;aeonf/ f d f f ,if;pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tzGUJ tpnf; ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;tMum; f f f *syefpD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; r&ScJhacs/ d B2B e-Commerce wGif a&SUwef;a&mufaeaom tjcm; ta&SUtm&S pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tzGtpnf;rsm;wGif ukeypön;rsm;ESihf f YJ f f e-Commerce 70 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pHñTe; owfrSwxm;aom ukeypön;rsm;udk rsm;rsm;pm;pm; f f f f xkwvyorsm; yg0ifonf/ þwGif w½kwtrsK;om; a&eHaumfykd f kf l f d a&;&Si; (CNPC) ESihf Hut Chinson Wampou wdkYonf zufpyf f vkyief;zGUJ pnf;cJMh uonf/ ,if;zufpyfvkyief;onf tifwmeuf f f tay:rS a&eHEihf obm0"mwfaiGUukeypön;rsm;udk 0,fMuonf/ S f f a&mif;Muonf/ wkiayqDrD;uGe'ufwm xkwvkya&;ukrÜPD d f f f f vDrwuf (TSMC) onf urÇmay:wGif qDrD;uGe'ufwmypön; d f f rsm; tBuD;rm;qHk; pmcsKyft& xkwvkyoljzpfonf/ TSMC f f onf tifwmeufrSwpfqifh ,if; qDrD;uGe'ufwm 'DZkdi; f f azmufonfrsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; tay;t,ltrsm;qHk; aqmif&Gufonf/ B2B e-Commerce obm0aMumifh B2B e-Commerce wGif tar&duefO;aqmifaom pdeac:rIonf tzGUJ tpnf; D f qki&m jyefvnfûyjyifrIwGif pdeac:rIwpf&yftaejzifh ,SOwGJ d f f f vkuygvmonf/ tDvufx&GeepfxkwvkyrIvkyief; BuD;xGm; d f f f f f vmrIonf *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;udk xl;jcm;aom Ncdr;ajcmufrI d f f tjzpf pdk;&drz,&m jzpfaponf/ ,if;onf *syefaumfykda&;&Si; f G f f rsm;u ta&SUtm&Sü ,if;wkYd vkyief;aqmif&GurIrsm;wGif f f B2B e-Commerce tm; rnfokdYrwqufrnfukd tusK;ouf d f d a&mufaponf/ tDvufx&GefepfpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;onf tDvufx&Geepf xkwvkyrIvkyief; (EMS) armf',fukd &,lMu f f f f onf/ ,if;armf',fwif ,if;vkyief;rsm;onf pG,pkHrvypön; G f f l f xkwvkyolrsm; (OEM) twGuf ukeypön;rsm; txl;xkwvkyf f f f f f Muonf/ pD;yGm;a&; wGuajcudkurI rsm;rsm;pm;pm; xkwvkyrI f f f f
  • 40. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 71 taejzifh xl;jcm;aom tm;omcsursm;&&SMd uonf/ rsm;rsm; f pm;pm;xkwvkyrtwGuf tjrefEe;&&SMd uonf/ xkwvkyrwif f f I If f f I G txl;ûyvkyaqmifMuonf/ *vdkb,ftDvufx&Geepf vkyief; f f f wGif EMS vkyfief;rsm;onf OEM azmufonfrsm;twGuf xkwvkyrtydki;udk wk;wufatmif vkyaqmifaeMuonf/ EMS f f I f d f vkyief;rsm;onf pGr;aqmif&nf wk;wuf&ef tjcm;enf;vrf; f f d taejzifh B2B e-Commerce &,l&ef pdwtm;xufoefMuonf/ f pifppf EMS armf',fw;wufjzpfay:vmrIonf xkwuef dk f k ypön;wk;wufrIqki&m *syefarmf',fESihf vHk;0rwlacs/ *syef f d d f armf',fwif qufE,aeaom ydwxm;onfh aumfyka&;&Si;tkypk G T f f d f f twGi; a'gifvuaygif;pnf;aqmif&uaom xkwvkyr&onf/ f kd f G f f f I dS ,if;armf',fonf xkwvkyrIpepf t&mxif&ef pwifaeonf/ f f ,if;pepfwGif ta&SUtm&S&Sd xkwvkyrIuGe&ufrsm; yg0ifonf/ f f f EMS vkyief;tzGUJ rsm; urÇmtESUH xkwukeonf 2004 ckEpwif f f f S f G tar&duefa':vm 260 bDvsH &Sdonf/ ,if;vsifjrefaom wk;wufronf jyifyt&if;tjrpf&mazGjcif;ESihf cswqufaeonf/ d I S d f tar&duefjynfaxmifpk *vkdb,f aqmif&Gufaeolrsm;wGif Solectron, SCL Systems, Celestica ESihf Jabil Cracait ukrPD Ü rsm; yg0ifonf/ ta&SUtm&Swif aqmif&uolrsm;rSm wkiayESihf G G f d f pifumylrS tzGJUtpnf;rsm;jzpfonf/ vkyfief;onf ydkrdktm½HkpdkufvmMuonf/ omí BuD;rm;aom EMS vkyief;rsm;onf OEM rS puf½Hkrsm;&&SMd u f EMS 72 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f onf/ xkYdjyif omíao;i,faom EMS vkyief;rsm;udkvnf; f &&SdMuonf/ OEM azmufonfrsm;onf BuD;rm;aomta& twGursm;rsm;udk vsijf refpmay;oGi;Ekiaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f G f d f f BuD;rsm;ESihf qufqH&ef ydkrkdESpoufMuonf/ þodkYjzifh ,if;wdkY f onf urÇmtESUH tjym;wGif trSwwqyueypön;rsm;ukd pOfquf f H df kf f rjywf xkwvkyEkiMf urnfjzpfonf/ f f d EMS vkyief;rsm;onf B2B e-Commerce wGif f ydkrkyg0if d ywfoufvmMuonf/ *syefpD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf EMS f vkyief;okYd r0ifa&muf rvIy&Sm;rcsi; ta&SUtm&S&Sd 0,f,la&; f f f aps;uGufrsm;wGif *syefpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;&Sdaejcif;onf ,kwavsmvmNyD; ,if;wkonf ta&SUtm&S&dS B2B e-Commerce f h Yd &Sd xl;jcm;aom tcef;u@wGif yg0ifaqmif&u&rnf jzpfonf/ G f ta&SUtm&Stpd;&rsm;pGmonf B2B e-Commerce BuD;xGm; k wk;d wuf&ef wuf<upGmyg0ifaqmif&uMf uonf/ Oyrm-ud&;,m; G kD ESihf w½kwf (wkiay) tpdk;&wkYdonf jynfwGi; tao;pm;ESihf d f f tvwfpm;vkyfief; ukefypönf;rsm;jyo&ef ukefoG,frIjyyGJ Website rsm;zGUH ûzd;rIukd ulnyyk;Muonf/ trSetm;jzifh wkiay D hH d f d f tpdk;&onf B2B e-Commerce wk;jr§ihfa&;aqmif&GucJhonf/ d f w½kwf (wkiay) tpdk;& ueOD;aqmif&Guaom owif;tcsuf d f f tvuf vkyief;odyÜH vkyief;wm0efwpfckrSm e-Commerce f f toHk;csrEihf enf;vrf;rsm;udk wk;jr§ijhf zefMY uuf&efjzpfonf/ ,if; I S d odyÜHonf 'D*spw,fvkyief;aqmif&Gujf cif;twGuf jyefvnf f f
  • 41. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 73 ûyjyifajymif;vJ&mwGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;;udk uln&ef ,if;wdkY f D ESihf wkiyifaqmif&Guonf/ pifumyltpdk;&onf Kent Ridge d f f Digital labs (KRDL) udk yHhykd;cJhonf/ KRDL onf e-Commerce vkyief;rsm;twGuf incubator wpfckjzpfvm&ef trsK;om; f d aqmhz0Jokawoe A[kXmejzpfonf/ ,if; e-Commerce f d rmpwmpDrcsurwpfqifh pifumyltpdk;&onf pifumylEiiwif H f S kd f H G e-Commerce tm; ysUH EUHS pm toHk;ûyrIukd tm;ay;cJonf/ xkjYd yif G h e-Commerce okYd a&GUvsm;aeMuaom ukrÜPDrsm;twGuf vl tiftm;oifwef;ESihf tjcm;taxmuf tyHhrsm; yHhykd;ulnDcJhonf/ w½kwEkdiiH tD;aumrmhpjf rifuGi; f f f 1990 aemufykdi; ESpv,fumvwkiatmif tpk;&ydkif f f d f d (China Telecom) onf w,fvzke;uGejf rLeDau;&Si; 0efaqmifrI D f f vkyief;rsm; vkipif&&Sxm;aom Provider jzpfconf/ w½kwf f d f d hJ tpdk;&onf 'kw,vkipifukd China Unicon odkY 1994 ckESpf d d f wGif xkway;cJhonf/ Unicon onf w,fvDuGe;ukrÜPDBuD; f f jzpfvmvdrhfrnf[k tpdk;&u arQmfvifhcJhonf/ ,if;ukrÜPDBuD; onf w,fvDuGefjrLeDau;&Sif;0efaqmifrI tcef;u@wGif ,SOûf ydiEkiaomywf0ef;usiukd zefwD;ay;cJhonf/ China onf f d f f ao;i,faomukrÜPDtjzpf wnf&Saevdrhfrnfjzpfonf/ d 1994 ckESpuwnf;u w½kwEkiiHonf owif;tcsuf f f d f tvuf0efaqmifrItcef;u@wGif ,SOûf ydiEkiaomywf0ef;usif f d f 74 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f udk jrifhrm;wk;wuf&ef tqifhtrsK;rsK;ukd aqmif&GucJhonf/ d d d f w½kwEiionf 1999 ckEpukeyi;wGif tar&duefjynfaxmif f kd f H S f f kd f pkESihf WTO qufET,aom oabmwlnDcsuf NyD;qHk;onfhtcg f wGif 4if;EkiijH cm;ukrPrsm;ESihf w,fvue;aps;uGuzivp&ef d f Ü D D Gf f G hf S f uwdûycJhonf/ w,f v D u G e f ; aps;uG u f pnf ; rsOf ; owf r S w f r I E S i f h vGwvyfpmaqmif&urwif tjcm;ta&;BuD;aom ajymif;vJrrsm; f G G f I G I onf 2000 jynfhESptawmtwGi; jzpfysucJhonf/ China f f f Telecom vkyief;cGJjzpfaom Shainghai Telecom onf f tajccHw,fvDuGe;tcef;u@wGif yxrqHk;EkiiHjcm;t&if;ESD; f d f jr§KyfESHrIjzpfonfh AT+T ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&GurI oabmwlnD f csuukd vufrSwa&;xk;cJhonf/ Chain Telecom udk ukrÜPD f f d av;ck ydki;jcm;xm;onf/ ]]w½kwtpdk;&onf w½kwtpdk;& f f f w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;rsm;}}udk xkwjf yefchJ D G f f onf/ ,if;onf w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; 0efaqmifrvyief;rsm; D G f I kf twGuf tajccHtkycsKyfpra&;qki&m vrf;ñTecsursm;udk csrwf f D H d f f f S ay;onf/ 2000 jynfhESpwGif w½kwtpdk;&onf tifwmeuf f f pDrHcefYcGJrIESihpyfvsO;aom pnf;rsO;trsm;pkukd xkwjf yefcJhonf/ f f f ,if;pnf;rsO;trsm;pkrsm;wGif ]]tifwmeufowif;tcsutvuf f f pepfrsm; pDrcefcjJG cif;twGuf twki;twmrsm;yg0ifonf/ xkjYd yif H Y d f Up-Load News Business qkdif&m 0ufbfqdkufpDrHcefYcGJrI enf;vrf;rsm;}} vnf;yg0ifonf/
  • 42. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 75 wpfzef ]]tifwmeufay:rS tDvufx&Geepf toHvijhf cif; f T qdki&m pDrcefcr}} vnf; yg0ifonf/ w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; f H Y JG I D G f tcef;u@udk wjznf;jznf;zGivprEitwl w½kwtpdk;&onf hf S f I S hf f tifwmeuftwGuf ydkrkus,jf yefYaom access udk cGihûf ycJhonf/ d pifppf owif;tcsutvufenf;ynmrsm; wk;wufrI f d onf pD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;ESihf pGr;aqmif&nfukd ajymif;vJrIrsm; f ûyvky&mwGif vG,uacsmarGUaponf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh tifwmeuf f f l onf qef;opfaom jrefEIe;jrifhonfh todynmudkarmif;ESif f aom *vdkb,ftESUH ue&ufjzefMY uufaom pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra&; Gf I tzGUJ tpnf;udk toGiajymif;a&; ulnvyui&ef tifwmeufxm; f D k f kd f &Sa&;twGuf w½kwtpdk;&onf e-Commerce zGHUûzd;a&;tay: d f wGif txl;tm½Hkpkduonf/ taMumif;rlum; ,if;rSwom; f f zG,&maumif;aom toGivu©Pmrsm;aMumifh jzpfonf/ ,if; f f toGitjyif vu©Pmrsm;wGif pGr;aqmif&nf&aom? p&dwenf; f f dS f aom? tcsevGwvyfrI&Saom tvm;tvmrsm;ESihf tm;aumif; df f d onfhaps;uGuwk;csJUaom pGr;&nfwkYyg0ifonf/ f d f d 1990 aESmif;ydki;umvapmapmwGif tifwmeufawmfvef f S a&; pwifvmaomtcg w½kwEkiiHonf tar&duefESihf tjcm; f d f zGHUûzd;NyD;EkiiHrsm;uJhokdY wlnDaomenf;ynmudk vufcHcJhonf/ d f þonfaMumifh taumif;jrifolrsm;u w½kwEkiiH e-Comf d f f merce zGHUûzd;rIonf tar&duefaemufwGif use&pfcJhonf/ w½kwEkiiH toGitjyifvu©Pmrsm;pGm tusKH;0if f d f f aom Oya'? vlrIa&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;zGJUpnf;rIwkYdonf e-Com- 76 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f zGHUûzd;rIukd [efYwm;aeonf/ ,if;wGif tcGetcrsm;? f tDvufx&Gefepfjzifh aiGay;acsrIrsm;? EkdifiHjcm;aiGvJvS,frI? pDrHcefYcGJpepfrsm;? rlykdicGihf tumtuG,ay;rI? ukeypön;trSwf f f f f wHqyykdiqkirItcGihfta&;rsm;? yk*¾vuowif;tcsutvuf d f f d f d f pkaqmif;rI tumtuG,ay;jcif;ESihf toHk;csjcif;? trsK;om; f d pD;yGm;a&;vHkûcHa&; tumtuG,ay;jcif; e-Commerce qki&m f d f Oya'rsm;ESifh pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;? owif;tcsuftvuf tajccHtaqmufttHkESihf vHkûcHa&;qki&m todtrSwûf yjcif;wkYd d f yg0ifonf/ w½kwEkiiHonf qk&S,vpfaps;uGupD;yGm;a&;odkY a&S;½I f d f d f f a&GUvsm;aeaom vkyief;pOfwi&aeaomaMumifh yk*vu owif; f G f dS ¾ d tcsutvuf tumtuG,ay;jcif;qki&m tajccHtaqmufttHk f f df udk &Si;vif;pGm rxlaxmifEiawmhacs/ vHkûcHa&;tm;enf;rI trSef f kd f wu,f&aeqJjzpfonf/ trSepifppf w½kwEkiiH e-Commerce dS f f d f twGuf tBuD;rm;qHk;t[efYtwm;onf tmrcHcsuf r&SdEkdif ao;aom vHkûcHrjI zpfEkionf/ 2000 jynfEpwif w½kwtifwm d f h S f G f eufue&uf owif;tcsutvufA[kXmeu ûyvkyaom pl;prf; Gf f d f avhvmrIwGif oHk;pGJrIrsm; 52 &mcdkiEIe;u vHkûcHa&;onf ef f Commerce ESihf tywfoufqHk;t&m[k azmfjyMuonf/ rvHavmufaom aiGay;acsrpepfrsm;onf e-Commerce k I wk;wufrI aemufxyftcuftcJwpf&yfukd udk,pm;ûy onf/ d f 1999 ckESpf ESpukeykdi;wGif w½kwEkdiiH tpdk;&ydkipD;yGm; f f f f f f a&;bPf tm;vHk;onf Golden Card y½k*suESihf qufpyfNyD; d f merce
  • 43. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 77 tGevkdi;bPfvkyief;rsm; zGJUpnf;cJhonf/ rnfokYdyifjzpfap ef f f Commerce ukrÜPDtrsm;pkonf tGevkdi;ay;acsrIukd vufrcH f f Muacs/ bPf okr[kwf pmwkurS aiGay;acsrukd rvdtyfMuacs/ Yd d f I k olwonf orm;½k;us aiGay;acsrenf;vrf;rsm;udomí ESpouf Y dk d I k f Muonf/ tb,faMumifqaomf tGevi;f aiGay;acsrrsm;udk w&m; h dk f kd I 0ifjzpf&ef bPfrsm;u (10) &uf tcse,lMuaomaMumifhjzpf df onf/ xdkYjyif ta<u;0,fuwfjym;ESihf 0,f,lrIrsm;twGuf d f f f usoifhaom tcaMu;aiGrsm;pGm&Sonf/ tGevkdi;bPfvkyief; f 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;onf e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyief; f pDpOfae&mcsNyD; vG,ulacsmarGUapa&;? jrifhrm;wk;wufap&rnf f d jzpfonf/ tifwmeufvufcHrI jrifhrm;aom p&dwonf w½kwf f EkdifiH e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIudk t[efYtwm;jzpfaponf/ w½kwEkdiiHwGif tifwmeuftoHk;ûyol ay;acs&aiGonf tjcm; f f EkiiHrsm;ESihf EIi;pmvQif tvGejf rifhrm;onf/ xdkYjyif China d f d f f Telecom u awmif;cHaom jrifhrm;aom qufoG,a&;p&dwf rsm; ay;acs&ef vkyief;aqmif&GurI0ifaiGrsm;pGmudk Dot.com f f ukrÜPDrsm;u tacstwif ajymqkaeMuonf/ d w½kwEkiiHwif e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIukd ydwqkYaeaom f d f G f d tjcm;ta&;ygaomtcsurm &nf&,csu&aom ukeypön;jzefcsd f S G f f dS f f Y Ü D rIpepf uif;rJryifjzpfonf/ Dot.com ukrPrsm;pGmonf tjref h I ydkYaqmifa&;ukrÜPDrsm;ESihf tpDtpOfrsm;ûyvkyMf uonf/ olwkdY udk,ykif ydkYaqmifa&;pepfrsm; pwifxlaxmif&rnfjzpfonf/ f d ,if;pDpOfrrsm;onf ,if;wk vkyief;aqmif&urp&dwrsm;udk I Yd f G f I f 78 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jr§iwifay;onf/ ,if;pDpOfrrsm;onf tGevi;tay;t,lvyief; hf I f kd f kf ,SOûf ydiEkdiaom tm;omcsuukd avQmhcsay;onf/ w½kwf f f f tpdk;&onf w½kwEkiiHywf0ef;usiûf rdUBuD;rsm;&Sd pDrHcsursm;udk f d f f todtrSwûf ycJhonf/ enf;ynmESihf aps;uGutiftm;rsm;onf f tifwmeufw;wufrukd vTr;rk;vQifawmifrS tpdk;&ay:vpDrsm; kd I f d ESihf pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;rsm; wk;wufronf ,if;zGUH ûzd;rIqi&m f d I kd f vrf;aMumif; ta&;ygaom tqHk;tjzwfay;onfhtcsursm; f jzpfonf/ tpdk;&taejzifh EdkiiHtESHY w,fvD? uGejf rLeDau;&Si; f f tajccHtaqmufttHkzGHUûzd;rIESifh jynfolvlxkt&if;tjrpfrsm; tnDtrQ toHk;ûyrItwGuf trsK;om;rl0g'rsm; &nfre;csursm; d Sf f ESihf r[mAsL[mrsm;udk xlaxmifazmfaqmifjcif;udk OD;wnf&ef vktyfonf/ w½kwtpd;&taejzihf e-Commerce odYk a&S;½Iaom d f k rufc½kxe;csKyfrIcsO;uyfrIukd aqmif&GucJhNyD;jzpfonf/ w½kwf d df f f tpk;&onf 1999 ckESpwGif tpdk;&tGevkdi;y½k*suukd zGJUpnf; d f f f d f xlaxmifcJhonf/ 2000 jynfhESpwif A[ktpk;&onf tpdk;&ESihf f G d d pkpnf;xm;aomvkyief;rsm; tifwmeufwnf&SrIxlaxmifa&; f d tm;ay;&ef tifwmy½kupf tGevkdi;y½k*suukd ueOD; pwif d f f f d f aqmif&GucJhonf/ f
  • 44. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 79 *syefEkdiiH B2B e-Commerce aqmif&GufrIrsm; f B2B e-Commerce udtaumiftxnfazmf&mwGif k *syef tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;onf jynfwi;wGia&m ta&SUtm&Swiyg tcuf G f f G f tcJrsm;&Saeonf/ þtcsuu tar&duef? pufrIxGe;opfp d f f EdkiiHrsm;ESihf *syefEkdiiHwkdY rwlnDaomtcsuyif/ þonfrSm f f f tdkiwDrsuESmpmwGif *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm; tm;enf;csuf f f f aMumifhjzpfonf/ f tzGJUtpnf;qefqef zGJUpnf;xm;aom *syefaumfykda&;&Si; rsm;onf 1970 aemufykdi;ESihf 1980 aESmif;ydki;umvrsm;wGif f f enf;ynmvTr;rdk;rIatmufü *syefpufrIvkyief;ü BuD;rm;aom f f atmifjrifrI&&ScJhonf/ a&&SntvkytudkiwnfNrJrI? &mxl;BuD; d f f f olukd av;pm;rI oD;oefYaumfykda&&Si;tkypkrsm;ESihf a'gifvkduf f f aygif;pnf;aqmif&uaompepfrsm;onf tvkyorm;wdk tod G f f Y ynmudk vIYHaqmfay;NyD; tvkH;pkHt&nftaoG;pDrHcefYcGJrI (TQC) ESihf tcserxkwvkya&; pDrcefUcruoaom qef;opfzefw;rIrsm; df D f f H JG I hJ kYd D odkY OD;wnfconf/ ,if;tcsursm;u *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;udk hJ f d f 1980 aESmif;ydki;umvESihf 1990 aESmif;ydki;wGirl *syefpufrI f f f vkyief;onf txl;ojzifh tdkiwtcef;u@wGif ,SOûf ydiEkipr; f f D f d f G f f qkH;½IH;cJhonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh tar&duef tDvufx&GeepfukrÜPD rsm;onf *syefukrÜPDrsm;xufomNyD; tar&duefaumfykda&;&Si; f rsm;onf tdkiwD vsijf refpGmtokH;csrIESihtwl a&SUokdYwufvSr;cJh f f f Muonf/ *syefpufrIvkyief; ,SOûf ydiEkdipGr;usqif;rIonf f f f f *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;tm; pkpnf;xm;aom enf;vrf;twdki; f f rSw,lxm;onfESihf qifwlonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh a'gifvkduf f 80 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f aygif;pnf;aqmif&uxm;aom *syefykif qDr;uGe'ufwm aumfykd G f d D f a&;&Si;rsm;onf 'DZkdi;rSxkwvkyrIokdY xkwvkyrIrSa&mif;csrI f f f f f f odkU[í t&m&mwdki;udk aqmif&uconf/ ,if;odkUaqmif&urI l f G f hJ G f onf t"duvky&nfukdi&nfESih?f jyifyt&if;tjrpf&SmazGjcif;ESihf f f txl;ûyaqmif&ujf cif;oda&S;½Iaom *vdkb,fpufrvkyief; vrf; G kY I f aMumif;ESihf vGacsmconf/ *syefpr;uGe'ufwmukrPrsm;onf J f hJ D D f Ü D ,if;wdkU udk,ykdirlvenf;ynmrsm;tay:wGif tvGetrif;tm½kH f f f pdkuMf uNyD; xkwukeypön;txl;ûyvkyjf cif;uJhokdU tao;trTm; f f f e,fy,frsm;wGif wpfO;ESihf wpfO;,SOûf ydiMf uonf/ ,if;tcsuu D D f ,if;wdk xkwvkyrukeusp&dwukd jrifwufapcJonf/ xdkjY yif Y f f I f f h h *syefurPrsm;wGif a&&Sntvkytudi&&SrpepfEihf tjcm;aumfykd kÜ D f f kf dI S a&;&Si;zGJUpnf;rIrsm;? vlrIa&;zGJYpnf;rIESihf pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;ESihf f f tnD tkycsKyfrrsm; &Saeao;onf/ ,if;tcsursm;onf owif; f I d f tcsutvufenf;ynmudk &,l&efvktyfaom tzGUtpnf;qdki&m f d J f ajymif;vJrrsm;ûyvkyjf cif;rS aumfyka&;&Si;rsm;udk [efwm;csKyfukif I d f Y d onfhtaejzifh awGUjrif&onf/ pifppf tdkiwDukeypön;rsm; xkwvkyonfh vkyief;rsm; f f f f f f onf ykpusonf/ aps;aygpGm wyfqifMuonf/ enf;ynmpHcsef H H d pHñe;rsm;t& vG,upmo,f,yaqmifEiaom tpdwtydi;rsm; Tf f lG l Ykd kd f f kf udk vG,ulpGmxkwvkyMf uonf/ ,if;pufrIvkyief;rsm;onf f f f ajymif;vGG,f jyifvG,vkyEkdiNf yD; vsijf refpGmwkHUjyefaom tzGJU f f tpnf;rsm; vdktyfonf/ orm;½dk;us *syefykpukrPtzGtpnf; H H Ü D YJ rsm;onf armfawmfum;xkwvkyrIuJhokdUaom vkyief;rsm;ESihf f f f ydkrkdoifhjrwfavsmuefonf/ ,if; armfawmfum;xkwvkyrIwGif f f f
  • 45. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 81 um;tpdwtydki;udk o,f,lykdYaqmif&ef rvG,ulvSacs/ þ f f f ae&mwGif wyfqifrIvkyief;onf eD;eD;uyfuyf yl;aygif;aqmif f &GurIESihf toif;tzGJYykHpH xlaxmifjcif;vdktyfonf/ f þwGif *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm; wkjYH yefrrsm;udk avhvm d f I Munfygu pdw0ifpm;zG,aumif;vSonf/ 2000 jynfEprwdkirD h f f h Sf f *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf owif;tcsutvuf enf;ynm f f acwfwif pGr;aqmif&nfjr§iwif&efEihf ,SOûf ydiEkipr;wdk;wuf&ef G f hf S f d f G f ,if;wd tvk;pkr[mAsL[mudk jyefvnftm½kpujf cif;jzifh jynfy Yk H H H kd aumfyka&;&Si;rsm; (txl;ojzifh tar&duef) rS zdtm;ay;jcif;udk d f wkHYjyefcJhMuonf/ ,if;r[mAsL[majrmuf &nfrSe;csursm; f f aemufqufwwif ,if;wdkonf B2B e-Commerce &,l&efEihf JG G Y S jyefvnfpkpnf;&ef pwifcJhonf/ ykHpHtm;jzifh *syefEkdiiHwGi; f f jynfwGif;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk yxrqkH;ajymif;rI pwifcJhonf/ xdaemuf ,if;vIy&m;rIrsm;udk *syefEiijH yifywGif wd;csUJ aqmif&uf Yk fS kd f k G cJhonf/ xdkYaMumifh *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm; ta&SUtm&StwGuf f B2B r[mAsL[monf trSetm;jzifh B2B &,l&ef *vdkb,f f r[mAsL[mwpfck wdk;csJUrIomjzpfonf/ ,if;onfyifvQif pGr;aqmif&nfjr§iwif&efEihf *vdkb,f,Oûf ydirI &Sioef&ef jynfpkH f hf S S f f us,jf yefUaom jyefvnfzGJUpnf;jcif; wpfpwwpfa'ojzpfae d f onf/ *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm; us,jf yefUaomr[mAsL[mudk f ½kH;csKyfrsm;u pDrHaqmif&uonf/ jynfwi;vIy&Sm;aqmif&urI G f G f f G f rsm;ESihf pwifonf/ ,if;r[mAsL[monf ,if;wdkU ta&SUtm&S aqmif&urrsm;udk cseukutoGiEihf vdktyfaomajymif;vJrrsm; G f I df d f f S I taumiftxnfazmfjcif;rS umuG,wm;qD;ay;onf/ f 82 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f wdk,kwm? zl*spqk (Fujitsu) ESihf NEC paom xdywef; d f f *syefxkwvkyolrsm;onf tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm; f f f tygt0if ,if;wdkU vuf&Sazmufonfrsm;ESihf a&mif;0,fa&; d aiGay;aiG,lupörsm;udk tifwmeufay:wGif pwifaqmif&Guf d cJhMuonf/ þtcsuwGif omíBuD;rm;aom *syefxkwvkyol f f f rsm;onf ukrÜPDtwGi; odkYr[kwf ukrÜPDtkypktwGuvnf; f f f aumif;? t"dutm;jzifh 0,f,la&;twGuvnf;aumif; t"du f tay;t,ludpörsm;wGif tifwmeuftokH;ûy aqmif&Gufvm Muonf/ 2000 jynfEp?f arvESihf ZGevwGif ukeo,rEihf &if;ES; h S f f G f I S D ûr§yESHrIqkdi&m *syefpufypön;A[dkXme pl;prf;avhvmrItay: f f f wkjYH yefaom tDvufx&Geepfvkyief;ukrPD 27 ckteuf ukrPD f f Ü Ü 11 ck (41 &mcdkiEIe;) onf tifwmeufay:wGif tenf;qkH; f f ypön;0,f,la&;udk aqmif&GucJhMuonf/ ukrÜPDESpckurl pkpk f f f aygif; tydkypön;rsm;0,f,r 10-40 &mcdkiEe;udk B2B u f l I f If udk,pm;ûyonf[k ajymqdkMuonf/ ukrÜPDokH;ckurl ,if;wdkY f ypön;0,f,lrI 81 &mcdkiEIe;ausmukd tifwmeufay:wGif f f f f ûyvkyonf[kqkdonf/ ,if; tifwmeuftajccH tay;t,l f vkyjf cif;rsm;twGuf oD;jcm;ypön;ay;oGi;rI a&G;cs,jf cif;twGuf f f tm½ktpdkuq; OD;pm;ay;rIrm t&nftaoG;xde;csKyfrI pGr;aqmif H f kH S f f &nfjzpfonf/ ,if;aemufwGiurf;vSr;cJhaom ueOD;aps;EIe; f f f ûyvdkuygonf/ onfhaemuf ypfrSwaps;EIe;rsm;&&S&ef pGr;&nf f f f d f yg&Sdonf/
  • 46. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 83 *syeftzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf ,if;wdkU tD;-aps;uGuae f &mrsm; tok;ûyjr§iwifcpOfu t"dutm;jzifh ½k;vkyief;jznhwif; H hf hJ H f f ypön;rsm; 0,f,la&;ESihf ûyjyifxe;odr;a&;vkyief;rsm; yg0if f df f f onf/ tD;-aps;uGuae&modkY odomxif&m;aom pau;taejzifh f S ukrÜPDrsm; a&TUajymif;rIrsm;rSm r&Soavmuf enf;yg;vSonf/ d BuD;rm;aom xkwvyorsm;onf txl;ojzifh ,if;wdUk vuf&dS f kf l EDI pepfrsm;ESihf B2B e- Commerce udk rnfokdYaygif;pnf; aqmif&u&rnfukd avhvm&ef tcsetenf;i,f,conf/ xkUd jyif G f df l hJ ukrPtqiftaejzifh tifwmeuftajccH tay;t,luprsm;udk Ü D h d ö rnfokYd pwifrwquf&rnfukd avhvm&ef tcse,lcJhMuonf/ d f df xdjYk yif B2B e-Commerce ueOD;aqmif&u&ef oD;jcm;Xmersm;t G f wGuf cufcJvSonf/ tb,faMumifhqkdaomf ,if;tay;t,l udprsm;onf ukrPtqifpepfrsm;ESi?fh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;pD;qif;rI ö Ü D h f rsm;ESihf rvdkuzufaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ xdkUjyif ,if;wdkYonf f ½k;csKyfrsm;rS oabmwlncsuf vdktyfaomaMumifjh zpfonf/ B2B H D e-Commerce &,l&mwGif aES;auG;apaom aemufxyftcsuf rSm B2B e-Commerce tcsKUd wif yg0ifaqmif&u&efvktyfaom G G f d owif;tcsutvuf zGivpjf yjcif;ü ckc&ef *syefaumfyka&;&Si; f hf S H d f rsm;tydki;wGif wdr;ñTwrI&Saejcif;yifjzpfonf/ f f f d *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf ,if;wdkU pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; d f G f rsm;udk tm½kHpkdu&ef? jyefvnfpkpnf;&ef pwifcJhonf/ xdkYjyif f ydkrdka&jyifnDqefNyD; uGef&ufqefaomtzGJUtpnf;rsm;tjzpfodkY toGiajymif;&ef pwifcJhonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh tDvufx&Geepf f f vkyfief;wGif t"dutzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf a'gifvdkuftm;jzihf 84 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f aygif;pnf;aqmif&uaom zGUJ pnf;rIrsm;udk ûzdc&efvy&m;aeonf/ G f JG I f S qdkeDESihf rwfqk&SDwmukrÜPDBuD;ESpckpvkH;onf tar&duefESihf f ta&SUtm&StzGJUtpnf;rsm; vsijf refpGmBuD;xGm;aeaom EMS armfv',fESih,SOûf ydi&ef ,if;wdkU xkwvkyrIvkyief;cGJrsm;udk f f f f f f vGwvyfaomukrPrsm;tjzpfokYd oD;jcm;cGxkw&ef tpDtpOfrsm; f Ü D J f &,lxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ 2001 ckESpwGif qdkeDukrÜPDonf ½kyjf rif f oHMum;ud&,mESihf yDpDrsm;xkwvkyaeaom ,if; jynfwGi; d f f f puf½kH 26 ½kHteuf 12 ½kHukd aygif;pnf;aqmif&Gujf cif;jzifh 'DZi;f xkwvyrEihf azmufonf0efaqmifrtwGuf ukrPwpfcukd kd f kfIS I Ü D k xlaxmifconf/ ,if;onf w½kwf (wkiay) &Sd puf½kwpf½kEihf hJ d f H H S *syef&dS puf½kwpf½kukd tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwif ½k;csKyfzivpf H H G H G hf S xm;aom xdyfwef; EMS ukrÜPDjzpfonfh Solection odkU a&mif;cscJhonf/ rwfqk&SDwmonf xkwukeypön;zGHUûzd;rI? ukef f f f xkwvkyrEihf ta&mif;vkyief;wdkUyg&Saom ,if; orm;½dk;us f f I S f d xkwukeypön;Xmersm;udk jyefvnfzJGUpnf;jcif;tm; aMunmcJh f f f onf/ rwfqk&SDwmonf puf½kHA[dkXme tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif ukexkwvkyrIukd tm½kHpkduaeonf/ ,if;Xmersm;onf tusK; f f f f d tjrwf&&Sa&;twGuf yg0ifywfoufNyD; ukrÜPD xkwukef d f ypön;XmecGJrsm;ESihf jyifyazmufonfrsm;xHrS atmf'g&&Sa&;udk f d yg0ifaqmif&Gurnfjzpfonf/ f ukefxkwfvkyfrIxufpmvQif xkwfukefypönf;zGHUûzd;rIudk tm½kHpkdu&eftvdkYiSm NEC onf Oa&my? ajrmuftar&duESihf f ta&SUtm&Saps;uGursm;twGuf 0g,mvufzke;rsm; xkwvkyf f f f cJhaom yifv,f&yfjcm;puf½kHokH;ckukd a&mif;cscJhonf/ wdk&SDbm
  • 47. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 85 ukrPBD uD;onf Management Innovation 2001 [k trnfay; Ü xm;aomtzGJUtpnf;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIqkdi&m ûyjyifajymif;vJrI f wpfckukd &,laqmif&GucJhonf/ ,if;onf GE txuf f atmuf pDrHcefYcGJrIzGJUpnf;ykHukd ysujf ym;oGm;apaom Six- Sigma t&nftaoG;jr§ihfwifrIvkyief;pOfukd tajccHxm;onf/ f *syefEkdiiH B2B e-Commerce tvm;tvm f *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf ta&SUtm&Swif tay;t,l d f G H vkyief;rsm;twGuf B2B e-Commerce tok;ûy&mwGif xl;jcm;pGm f aemufuG,wGif &dSaeMuonf/ 2000 jynfhESp?f atmufwkdbmrS f 'DZifbmtxd Edkrl&mokawoeodyÜHrS pl;prf;avhvmrIt& tzGJU tpnf;rsm; 29 &mcdkiEIe;omvQif B2B e-Commerce udk f f tok;ûycJaMumif; awGU&&onf/ ta&SUtm&Swif *syefp;yGm;a&;tzGYJ H h dS G D tpnf;rsm; B2B e-Commerce &,laqmif&GurI aES;auG;ae f aom taMumif;&if;rsm;&Sonf/ yxrtcsurSm *syefaumfykda&; d f &Si;rsm;onf Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) pepfrsm;rS f ydkrkaps;oufomNyD; ydkrkajymif;vG,jf yifv,f ûyvkyEkiaom Web d d G f d f tajccHpepfrsm;odkY a&TUajymif;jcif;wGif tar&duefaumfykda&;&Si; f rsm;aemufwif use&pfcJhonf/ xdkYjyif *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm; G f f onf *syefEkdiiHtwGi; yxrOD;pGm vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurItcsKUd f f f f twGuf tifwmeuftajccHpepfrsm;udk ueOD;aqmif&Guf&ef &nf&,conf/ xdaemuf a&SUquftok;ûyrIukd ta&SUtm&SoUkd w;dk csUJ G f hJ Yk H &ef &nf&G,xm;onf/ f B2B e-Commerce wGif ta&SUtm&S&Sd *syefvlrsK;wdkU d pwifaqmif&GurIwGif yg0ifywfoufrIonf rsm;aomtm;jzifh f 86 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f *syefEkdiiH½kH;csKyfrsm;ü pDpOfcJhonf/ *syefEkdiiHonf jynfwGi; f f f vG,ulacsmarGUap&ef tifwmeuftajccH B2B pepfrsm;ESihf EDI f pepfrsm; tpm;xdk;&ef ydki;avmhy½dk*sursm;udk ueOD; pwifaqmif f f &Guaeonf/ *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf w½kwf (wdkiay) f f f ESihf a[mifaumif&StzGJYtpnf;rsm; tdkiwD tajccHtaqmuf d f ttkHESifh tdkifwDpmaytqifhtwef;udk avQmhwGufMuonf/ ,if;EdkiiHrsm;onf tar&duef? Oa&my pD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf; f rsm;ESihf B2B tay;t,lvyief;wGif cswquf&eftvdim ,if;wdUk kf d f Yk S tdkifwDtajccHtaqmufttkHrsm; BuD;rm;pGmwdk;wufcJhNyD; jzpfonf/ ta&S U tm&S w G i f *syef w d k U pwif x l a xmif r I r sm;onf xl;jcm;aomtm;enf;csufwGif &SdaeMuonf/ tb,faMumifh qdkaomf *syefwkUd B2B e- Commerce pepfrsm; tcseaESmif; df aom&,lrIaMumifhjzpfonf/ tar&duefESifh Oa&mypD;yGm;a&; vkyief;rsm; a'otwGi; ydkrk&if;ES;ûr§yErEitwl *syefypön; f f d D f HS I S hf f ay;oGi;olrsm;udk tifwmeuftajccH tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;wGif f f yg0ifaqmif&Gu&ef rMumcPar;jref;jcif; cHae&onf/ xdkYjyif f *syefr[kwaom ta&SUawmiftm&StzGJYtpnf;rsm;onf tifwm f eufqDokdU a&GUvsm;vmcJhonf/ ,if;wkUd u ,if;wdkY B2B pepfrsm;odkU qufo,zkdU *syefwkdU pwifaqmif&u&ef ar;jref;cJh G f G f Muonf/ tifwmeufEihf B2B wdkU qufvufysUH EUHS aerIonf ta&SU S tm&S&dS *syefaumfya&;&Si;rsm;udk enf;vrf;rsm;pGmjzifh wGe;tm;ay; kd f f aeonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh ta&SUtm&S&Sd tcsKUd *syefpuftydkypön; f
  • 48. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 87 ay;oGif;olrsm;udk tar&duefESifh Oa&myazmufonfrsm; aemufq;ypön;wyfqiforsm;ESihf tDvufx&Geepf ukexkwvkyf kH f l f f f H JG ief;0efaqmifrI (EMS) tzGUJ tpnf; Supply Chach pDrcefUcrI (CSM) pepfrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&Gu&ef wGe;tm;ay;jcif;cH& f f onf/ ,if;tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;onf t"dutm;jzifh EDI rS f wpfqifh tcsutvufzvS,jf cif;jzpfonf/ w½kwEkiiH awmif f f d f ydki;&Sd tDvufx&Geepftydkypön;rsm; xkwvkyaom *syefukrPD f f f f f Ü df f wpfckonf taemufwkdi; EDI pHcsepHñTe;rsm;udk tokH;ûy&ef f EMS rS zdtm;ay;jcif;cH&onf/ tb,faMumifhqkdaomf ,if; ukrPwif azmufonf0,fvtm;rsm;&&S&ef tqifjh rifh enf;ynm Ü D G kd d r&SaomaMumifh ,if;ukrÜPDonf txl;aqmif&Guaom tzGJU d f tpnf;rsm;wGif jynfyt&if;tjrpf vkyukiaqmif&u&ef pwifchJ f d f G f onf/ ,SOûf ydiEkdiaomywf0ef;usionf B2B e-Commerce f f f &&ef *syefaumfya&;&Si;f rsm;udk OD;aqmifconf/ EMS vkyief;rsm; kd hJ f ESihf atmf'grsm;rSm,l&eftvdim *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf pHcsef kY S d f d 0ifaom? vkyief;qk;jzwfaom pHcsepñe;rsm;ESihf tDvufx&Geepf f H df H Tf f ykHpHrsm;tokH;ûy&ef wm0ef&Sonf/ vlokH;ukef tDvufx&Geepf d f ypön;rsm;wGif *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf ,if;vkyief;rsm;udk f f f f f xif&m;apcJonf/ ,if;wdkUonf ajymif;vJrajcvSr;udk xde;csKyf S h I Edkionf/ ,if;wdkUonf B2B e-Commerce udk&,l&ef aES;auG; f aeonf/ xdktawmtwGi; *syefypön; rSm,lokdavSmifxe;odr; f f df f aomukrÜPDrsm;onf ta&SUtm&SwGif atmfya&;&Si; ûyvkyae f f 88 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f onf/ ,if;wdkUonf aygif;pnf;aqmif&uaom ukrPrsm;tjzpf G f Ü D odkU BuD;xGm;jzpfay:vmcJonf/ ,if;onf B2B e-Comerce h ysHUESHUrIESifh SCM vdktyfrIrsm;udk wkHUjyefaqmif&Gufay;onf/ tifwmeuftajccH e-Commerce ywf0ef;usi&dS ukrPrsm;onf f Ü D oD;jcm;e,fy,frsm;wGif txl;ûywnf&Sdapjcif;jzifh uGJjym; jcm;em;atmif rûyvkyEkdiacs/ ,if;e,fy,frsm;wGif ukeypön; f f f f ay;ydUk jcif;? xde;odr;jcif;wdUk yg0ifonf/ ,if;wdonf azmufonf f f Yk rsm;udk olway;pGr;Ediaom xyfqifwefz;dk jr§ihf 0efaqmifrvyief; Ykd f kf h I kf rsm;tajccHwGif ,SOûf ydi&rnfjzpfonf/ f ta&SUtm&SwGif *syefwdkYpwifaqmif&GufrIrsm;onf tifwmeuftajccH SCM ESihf ypön;odkavSmifxe;odr; ydkUaqmifrI f df f pepfrsm;xuf e-Marketplaces tokH;csjcif;wGif wdk;wufrI f tenf;i,f&onf/ *syeftpdk;&onf ta&SUtm&Swif *syefaumfykd Sd G a&;&Si;rsm; B2B tay;t,lvkyjf cif;udk ulnyyk;&ef &nf&,f f D hH d G xm;onf/ pD;yGm;a&;? ukeo,rEihf pufrvyief;0efBuD;Xmeonf f G fIS I kf *syefaumfykda&;&Si; 2000 ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&urnfjzpfonf/ f G f ,if;aumfykda&;&Si;rsm;wGif [DwmcsD? wdk,kdwm? NEC zl*spqk? f f rpfqktwkdYyg0ifonf/ ,if;ukrÜPDrsm;onf a'otwGi; B2B f d f e-Marketplaces ESihf 'pf*spw,ftpdk;& zGHYûzd;wdk;wufrIukd f vG,ulacsmarGYatmif aqmif&urnfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf *syef f G f tDvufx&Geepf pHcsepñe;vufrwus,jf yefr?I Oya'ESihf pnf; f df H Tf S f Y rsO;qdki&mpepfrsm; zGHYûzd;rIukd yHhykd;ay;onf/ tm&StESHY yl;aygif; f f aqmif&Guaom e-Marketplaces udk yhHykd;ay;onf/ ,if;onf f þ&nf&G,csutwGuf *syefEkdiiH w&m;0if zGHUûzd;rItultnD f f f (ODA) tokH;ûy&ef &nf&G,onf/ f
  • 49. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 89 *syeftpdk;&onf *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;u ta&SUtm&Swif d f G B2B tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;wdk;csJUjcif;udk axmuful&ef twdki; f f twmrsm;udk wGe;tm;ay;onf/ ,if;tqifhrsm;onf *syefEkdiiH f f a'oqdki&muGe&ufrsm;udk tm;aumif;&Sioefaprnfjzpf f f f onf/ ,if;tqifrsm;onf a'otwGi; 'pf*spw,fum[rIukd h f f G usO;ajrmif;oGm;ap&ef aqmif&Guvrhfrnfjzpfonf/ odkYaomf f f d ,if;twki;twmrsm;onf *syefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm; B2B ed f f Commerce taumiftxnfazmfjcif;twGif; BuD;rm;aom t&mxifrI &Srnfr[kwacs/ ,SOûf ydiEkdipGr;ESihf tusK;tjrwf d f f f f d jzpfxe;rIonf t"dutcsursm;jzpfonf/ ,if;tcsursm;onf Gf f f yk*vu *syefaumfya&;&Si;f rsm;taejzifh tifwmeuftajccH pD;yGm; ¾ d kd a&;vkyief;rsm; ta&SUtm&SwGif rnfokdU&,laqmif&GuEkdirnfukd f f f qkH;jzwfay;vdrhfrnfjzpfonf/ B2B e-Commerce wGif &,l aqmif&ujf cif;tay: xl;jcm;aomvTr;rdk;rIukd *syefaumfyka&;&Si; G f d f rsm;u aqmif&GurItodtrSwûf y&mwGif wdk;wufrI&&ScJhonf/ f d aumfyka&;&Si;rsm; jyefvnfwnfaqmufrI vG,uacsmarmtqif d f f l ajy&ef *syeftpdk;&ay:vpDonf B2B zGHYûzd;rItwGuf axmufcH aom ,if;ay:vpDxuf ydkrkdta&;ygvdrhfrnfjzpfonf/ awmifukd&D;,m;EdkiiH tD;-aumrmhptajctae f f awmifukd&D;,m;EdkiiH e-Commerce onf zGHYûzd;NyD; f EdkiiHrsm;ESihf EIi;,SOygu enf;ynmESihf tokH;csrItydki;wGif f d f f f tajccHtqifhü &Saeonf/ Lottle ESihf Dacom wdkUu yxrqkH; d pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rS pm;ok;oloYkd (Business-to-Consumer) (B2C) f H 90 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f udk 1996 ckEpwif pwifrwqufcMhuonf/ Dacom u yxrqk; Sf G d f J H B2B (pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rS pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;odkY) (Business-tof f Business) udk 1999 ck E S p f w G i f pwif c J h o nf / zG Y H û zd ; NyD ; Ed k i f i H rsm;wGif e-Commerce udk t"duykpjH zpfaom B2B ESihf pwifMu H onf/ awmifu&;,m;Ediiurl B2B ESih f pm;ok;olrS pm;ok;oloUkd kd D kfH H H (C2C) (Consumer- to-Consumer) ESihf pwifcNhJ yD; ,if;wdonf kY udk;&D;,m;EdkiitwGuf ydkrkta&;ygonf/ odk&mwGif 2000 jynfh f H d Y f ESpwGif B2B aps;uGua0pkukd yxrqkH; wdk;csJUcJhonf/ f 2000 jynfEpwif enf;ynmopfrsm;ay:xGuvm&m tifwmeuf hSf G f ESihf rdkbkdi;qufoG,a&;udk aygif;pyfxm;aom N-Commerce f f vnf; xGucJhonf/ aiGay;acsrIenf;vrf;rsm;onf e-Comf merce odkY q,fausmfoufrsm;udk pwifrdwfqufcJhonf/ Content vkyfief;wGif aiGaMu;tajccHvkyfief;cGifrsm; pwif ay:aygufvmcJhonf/ pifppf udk&D;,m;EdkiiHwGif B2B e-Commerce onf f 1999 ckESpaemufykdi;wGif pwifcJhonf/ Electronic Daily f f and Intel Research rS aqmif&uaom okawoet& ud&;,m; G f kD pawmhaps;uGuwif pm&if;0ifaom jynfwi;ukrPD 707 f G G f Ü 12 'or 2 &mcdkiEIe;onf 2000 jynfhESpwGif e-Comf f f merce sites rsm; wnfaqmufcJhNyD; jzpfonf/ usef 87 'or 8 &mcdkiEIe;onf 2001 ckESpwGif sites rsm;wnfaqmuf&ef f f f pDpOfcJhMuonf/ þwGif e-Commerce sites &SNd yD; ukrÜPDrsm; teuf 46 'or 5 &mcdkiEIe;onf B2C udk tokH;ûyonf/ f f 19 'or 8 &mcdkiEIe;onf B2B udktokH;ûyonf/ B2B f f
  • 50. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce sites aps;uGua0pkukd f 91 a&&Snrxde;xm;Edkiao;acs/ touf f f f d arG;0rf;ausmif;qdki&m B2B sites rsm;pGmr&Sao;acs/ odkUaomf f ukrÜPDrsm;onf closed EDI (Electronic Data Information) ( tDvufx&Geepf owif;tcsutvuf) rS Web tajccH sites f f rsm;odkY a&GUvsm;aeMuonf/ udk&D;,m;tpdk;&onf vkyief;rsm;? f wuúokvrsm;ESitwl United product code pepfukd NyD;pD;cJNh yD; d f hf jzpfonf/ pHowfrSwxm;aom tDvufx&Geepfuufwavmuf f f pepfwpfck zGHUûzd;a&;udk ,if;pepfu azmfaqmifay;onf/ e-Marketplace udk wpfenf;tm;jzifh tGevki;aps;uGu? f d f f tDvufx&Geepfaps;uGu?f odkYr[kwf Web aps;uGu[kvnf; f f ac:Muonf/ ,if;onf cyberspace udk &nfñTef;onf/ cyberspace wGif pG,pkH0,folrsm;ESihf a&mif;olrsm; awGYqkHMu f onf/ aps;uGufaygif;pnf;aqmif&GufrI vm;&mt&vnf; aumif;? aps;uGuzGJUpnf;rIt&vnf;aumif;? aps;uGuukd pDrH f f d cefYcGJolt&vnf;aumif;? e- Marketplace udk trsK;tpm;cGJjcm; xm;onf/ aps;uGuprcefcowif a&mif;ol? 0,foEihf tusK; f D H Y JG l G l S d aqmifowkYd yg0ifonf/ e- Marketplace rsm;udk udk&;,m;EdkiiH l D f wGif wdusaomvkyief;wGif tajcpdkuNf yD; zufpyfvkyief;rsm;ESihf f f ewnfaqmufxm;onf/ 2000 jynfEpü udk&;,m;wGif h S f D Marketplace 100 ud k wnf a qmuf c J h o nf / ,if ; wG i f xl;cReaom acgif;aqmifrsm;r&Sacs/ ukrPBD uD;rsm;ESihf ,if;wd f d Ü Yk qyfuefx½dkuwmrsm;tMum; orm;½dk;usqufET,rIt& jzpf f f aumif; jzpfEkdionf/ f 92 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f awmif u d k & D ; ,m;tpd k ; &onf vl x k t cef ; u@wG i f e-Commerce wd;csUJ &ef êud;pm;aeonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh Supply k Administration onf 2001 ckESpfwGif vlxktcef;u@ twGuf 0,f,la&;vkyief;pOfrsm;tm;vkH;udk uGeysLwmenf;jzifh f f aqmif&u&ef pDrcsucsconf/ tjcm;wpfzufwif tpd;&vkyief; G f H f hJ G k f f f rsm;u e-Commerce aqmif&Guaom 0,f,la&;&S,,monf tvGeenf;onf/ 2001 ckESpwGif pDrHue;ESihf bwf*su0efBuD; f f df f Xmeonf ,if;udk 50 &mcdkiEIe;odkYjr§ihfwif&ef pDrHcsuwpfck f f f a&;qGJcsrSwcJhonf/ f B2B solution aps;uGufonf vmrnfhESpfrsm;pGmwGif wpfEpvQif 100 &mckiEe;jzifh jrifwufvmrnf[k arQmvifxm; S f d f If h f h onf/ *smreDEkdiiHrS SAP ? tar&duefjynfaxmifpkrS Oracle f ESihf i2 Technology uJhokdYaom EdkiiHjcm; Solution providers f rsm;onf udk&;,m;aps;uGuo0ifvmcJNh yD; tjcm;EdkiijH cm;ukrPD D f kYd f Ü rsm;onf ,if;wdkU vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm;udk &Sioefatmif f f f f ûyvkyaeMuonf/ B2B Solution developers rsm;ESihf vkyief;&Sif f rsm;onf 0,folrsm;ESihf a&mif;olrsm;aygif;pyfaom ,if;wdkU udk,ykdif solutions rsm;ESihf sites rsm;wnfaxmif&ef êud;pm;ae f onf/ udk&D;,m;EdkiiHtaejzifh e-Commerce wdk;jr§ih&eftvdkYiSm f f ausmvm;&rnfh t"dutcuftcJrsm;rSm atmufygwdkUjzpfonff T - aiGay;acsrIrsm;? vkHûcHa&;? vkyykdicGihftmPmpepfrsm; f f uJ h o d k U aome,f y ,f r sm;wG i f rvk H a vmuf a om
  • 51. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 93 uGe&uftajccHtaqmufttkH? rjynfhpkHaom pHowf f rSwrIESihf tqifherhfenf;ynmwdkY &Saejcif;? f d d - rjynfhpkHaom zGJUpnf;rIqkdi&mpepf Oyrm-okH;pGJoltm; f tumtuG,ay;jcif;? rlykdicGihftcGetcrsm;? f f f - nHhzsi;aomyg0ifrI? enf;yg;aom cGJjcm;aqmif&GurI f f rsm;? tjrwftpGe;enf;yg;rIrsm;? f - e-Commerce udkqac:&ef rvkavmufaomo,f,ykYd JG H l aqmifa&;? vSnhfvnfjcif;ESihf jzefYcsa&;pepfrsm;? d - tpd;&ESihf yk*vutcef;u@ESpcpvk;u pGr;&nfjynfh k ¾ d fk H f aom qkH;jzwfcsucsjcif;udk tcuftcJawGYaponfh f rvkHavmufaompm&if;tif;rsm;/ vGefcJhaomESpfrsm;pGmu awmifudk&D;,m;tpdk;&onf trsK;om;,SOûf ydiEkipr;udk jr§iwifjcif;enf;vrf;wpf&yftaejzifh d f d f G f hf e-Commerce y½dkrkd;&Si;udk êud;yrf;aqmif&GucJhonf/ 1997 f f ckESpwGif awmifukd&D;,m;tpdk;&onf trsK;om;,SOûf ydiEkdipGr; f d f f f hf D H f tqifjh r§ijhf cif;twGuf CALS/EC jr§iwif&efprcsuukd aMunm cJonf/ þwGif ta&;ygaomtwdki;twmrSm uGuwuuusm; h f f d G f jzpfaeaom 0efBuD;Xmersm;udk tpdk;&tkycsKyfa&;u aygif;pnf;&ef f jzpfonf/ 1999 ckESpESihf 2000 jynhESpwGif Oya'ûytzGJYonf f f f e-Commerce e,fy,f&Sd Oya'opfrsm;udk xkwjf yefcJhonf/ odkY&mwGif tpdk;& tus,jf yefYqkH;ESihf xda&muftusK;&SqkH; d d k kd f f Hk tqifonf e-Commerce y½dr;&Si;twGuf jynhpus,jf yefUY aom h 94 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pDrHcsujf zpfonf/ ,if;udk 2000 jynfhESpwGif aMunmcJhonf/ f ,if;pDrHcsuonf ay:vpDe,fy,fig;ckukd aqmif&GucJhonf/ f f (1) zGJYpnf;rIqkdi&mwdk;wufrI f tDvufx&Geepf? b@ma&;? ukeo,a&;? e-Comf f G f merce tjiif;yGm;rIajz&Si;jcif;? tDvufx&Geepf signature and f f authorisation taESmifht,Suay;rI? tcGeyHhykd;rI ponfwkdYESihf f f pyfvsO;f í Oya'opfrsm;udxwjf yefNyD; ay:vpDrsm;udk oefUpif&ef/ k k (2) tajccHtaqmufttkH vkyom;aps;uGuf pl;prf;avhvmrIaqmif&Gu&ef? f f qufo,a&;uGe&uf jrifrm;wd;wuf&ef? pHowfrwcsuf jrifrm; G f f h k S f h wdk;wuf&ef? ydki;avmhjzefYcsa&;pepf pwifaqmif&Gu&ef/ f d f (3) jynfolYa&;&mtcef;u@ H jynfoUl a&;&mtcef;u@&Sd e-Commerce tok;cs a&; pl;prf;avhvm&efESihf wdk;csJU&ef? tokH;csEkdiaomOya'rsm; f jyefvnfzGJUpnf;aqmif&Gu&ef/ f (4) vkyief; f H yk*vutcef;u@wGif e-Commerce tok;csjcif; ¾ d twGuf yHykd;rIwkd;csJY&ef? t"duvkyief;wpfck&Sd e-Commerce f pepf wnfaqmufjcif;udk yHykd;&ef/
  • 52. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 95 (5) ukeoG,rI f f qdubm-ukeo,rI ajrykwnfaqmuf&ef?e-Trade k f f G f H ESifh pyfvsO;aom Oya'rsm;xkwfjyef&ef/ xdkYtjyif awmifu&; f kd D ,m;tpdk;&onf e-Commerce pm&if;tif; zGHYûzd;rIpDrHcsuukd f aMunmcJonf/ tzGUJ tpnf;pHu aqmif&uaom êud;yrf;rIrsm;jzifh h k G f jyóemrsm; ajz&Si;f &efjzpfonf/ xkjYd yif ude;f *Pef;pm&if;tif;rsm; rQa0jcif;udk wdk;jr§ihfaqmif&Gu&ef jzpfonf/ f a[mifaumif tD;-aumrmhptajctae f tdkipwawmfvea&;onf tifwmeufvkyief;rsm; wdk; f D D Sf f wufjrifrm;jcif;twGuf odomxif&m;apaom trSwtom;jzpf h S f onf/ tifwmeufonfvnf; urÇmwpf0ef;&Sd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f rsm;udk t&mxifapcJhonf/ ydkrkdta&;BuD;onfum; tifwmeuf onf *vdkb,f'pf*spw,fuGe&ufukd zefwD;cJhjcif;yif/ ,if; f f uGe&ufonf tcseESihfae&m vGwvyfrI&Saom vltrsm;quf f df f d oG,a&;ESihf tcsutvufxkwvwa&; tcif;tusi; wpfckyif f f f T f f jzpfonf/ ,if;uGe&ufonf owif;tcsutvufpD;qif;rI f f xda&muftusK;&Saom enf;vrf;yifjzpfonf/ owif;tcsuf d d tvufukd vufcHjcif;? xde;odr;jcif;? cGJjcrf;pdwjf zmjcif;ESihf f f zvS,jf cif;twGuf pGr;&nfukd BuD;rm;pGmjr§iwifay;onf/ pifppf f hf tdkipwawmfvea&;onfvnf; *vdkb,fqkubmaps;uGuae&m f D D Sf d f f udk zefw;cJonf/ ,if;onf e,fjcm;rJh tDvufx&Geepfukeo,f D h f f G rIEihf owif;tcsutvuf vkyief;wd;wufrukd vG,uacsmarm S f f k I f l aponf/ urÇmtESHYcswqufxm;aom pD;yGm;a&; BuD;xGm;jzpf d f 96 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ay:vmrIonf zGûYH zd;NyD;ESihf zGûYHG zd;qJEkiirsm;udk pufrvkyief;tqifh d f H I f jr§ihjf cif;ESihf a&&SnpD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufrI BuD;xGm;vmap&ef tcGihf f tvrf;rsm;udk ulnDyhHykd;ay;onf/ wpfzef tdkipwwk;wufrrsm;onf *vdkb,fukeo,rI f D D d I f G f uGe&ufopfukd zefw;ay;onf/ ,if;onf orm;½dk;usukeo,f f D f G rIEihf jzefjY zL;a&;pepfuxa&mufNyD; wGuajcuduap&ef ûyvkyay; S kd d f k f f onf/ ,if;onf *vdkb,fukeypön;rsm;ESihf t&if;tES;aps;uGuf f f D rsm;&Sd a&SUqufaygif;pnf;aqmif&urEihf ,SOûf ydirukd jr§iwifay; G f I S f I hf rnfjzpfonf/ qufoG,a&;? jyefMum;a&;ESihf tay;t,lupö f d ukeusp&dwrsm;wGif avQmhcsjcif;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk f f f urÇmtESUH aqmif&uaom xkwvkyr?I t&if;tjrpf&mazGjcif;ESihf G f f f S rm;uufwif; r[mAsL[mrsm; ydkrkd&&S&ef tm;ay;onf/ xdkYjyif d tdkipwvkyief;rsm; wdk;wufronf pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufrEihf zGûYH zd; f D D f I I S rI t"duusaom armif;ESitm;jzpfonf/ f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf tvkH;pkHpGr;&nfjr§ihwif&efESihf f f f pD;yGm;a&;a[mif; vuf&tiftm;rsm;ukd pGr;tm;jyefvnf&&S&ef dS f d tkipDwDukd tjynht0rnfokdUtokH;cs&rnfukd Munfh½I&ef vdktyf d f f onf/ ,if;tcsuonf a[mifaumiftwGuf ta&;BuD;aom f ay:vpDtokH;csrIrsm;udk xif[yfjyonf/ a[mifaumifonf ao;i,fonf/ jyifyudkarQmfMunfh&NyD; 0efaqmifrIvkyief;udk f OD;pm;ay;&aom pD;yGm;a&;&Sonf/ tkipwvkyief;wGif aemufrS d d f D D f ay:vmoljzpfonf/ vGecJhaomESptenf;i,fu a[mifaumif f f onf tifwmeufvkyief;ü vsijf refaom wfkd;wufrItawGUtêuH f &&ScJhonf/ a[mifaumiftaejzifh tdkipDwDvkyief;rsm; &,l d f f
  • 53. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 97 aqmif&Gu&mwGif trSw&zG,aumif;aom wdk;wufrIrsm;udk f f f ûyvkyfEdkifcJhonf/ a[mifaumiftpdk;&onf pD;yGm;a&;topff (New Economy) udk wdk;jr§ihf&ef êud;yrf;cJhonf/ a[mifaumif tpdk;&taejzifh tifwmeufwkd;wufzHGUûzd;rItwGuf tm&Sypdzwf d a'owGif 'pf*spw,fûrdUBuD;ESihf tifwmeufA[dk tcsutvuf f f a'otjzpfodkU OD;wnfEdkifa&; aqmif&Gufaeonf/ ,if;odkU aqmif&GuEkdi&ef tpdk;&taejzifh tajccHtaqmufttkHESihf tzGJU f f tpnf;qdki&m axmufulrItm; ulnDyHhykd;&ef ûyjyifajymif;vJrI f trsK;trsK;ESihf ay:vpD ueOD;aqmif&urrsm;udk taumiftxnf d d G fI azmfconf/ xdkUjyif tdkipwD vkyief;wdk;wuf&ef aqmif&uaom hJ f D f G f ywf0ef;usiukdzefwD;&ef taumiftxnfazmfcJhonf/ f aumif;pGmwnfaqmufxm;aom qufoG,a&;tajccH f taqmufttkonf pD;yGm;a&;opft"dutpdwtydki;jzpfonf/ H f f a[mifaumifonf wdk;wufNyD; w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; uGe&uf D G f f wGif zGHUûzd;vmcJhonf/ ,if;onf 1995 ckESpfuwnf;u 'pf*spw,fenf;tjynfhokH;aom uGe&ufukdaqmif&GucJhonf/ f f f ,if;onf pD;yGm;a&;taqmufttkHtm;vkH;twGuf broadband coverage tjynft0&&Sconf/ ,if;onf jynfwi; taqmuf h d hJ G f ttk,epfrsm; 90 &mcdiEe;f &Sonf/ a[mifaumifwif aexdiol H l kfI d G kf 100 OD;vQif exchange vdkif; ysrf;rQ 58 vdkif;&Sdonf/ tdraxmifpk 100 vQif aetdrokH;vdki; 105 vdki; &Sonf/ f f f f d pD;yGm;a&;vdkif; 600 vQif zufpfvdkif; 23 vdkif;&Sdonf/ jyifyqufoG,rItaejzifhMunfhvQif û*d[wkESihf aub,f faf f cility rsm; aqmif&Gu&ef vkipif,lxm;onfh jyify facility f d f 98 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f atmfya&wm pkpkaygif; 31 OD;&Sonf/ jyifyw,fvDuGejf rL d eDau;&Si; 0efaqmifrIvkyief; atmfya&wm 165 OD;&Sonf/ f f d a[mifaumif rdkbdkif;zkef;aps;uGufonfvnf; vsifjrefpGm zGHUûzd;aeonf/ vuf&SumvwGif rkbkdi;zke;uGe&uf 11 ckESihf d d f f f 'pf*spw,fpcsepñe; av;ck&onf/ rdbi;zke;rsm;onf vlO;a& f H dfH Tf dS k kd f f D 71 &mcdkiEIe;odkU a&muf&aeNyD; ,if;onf urÇmay:wGif tjrifh f f Sd rm;qk;xdk;azmufrEe; wpfckjzpfonf/ a[mifaumiftpdk;&onf H I If wwd,rsK;quf (third generation) rdkbkdi;w,fvDuGe;vkyief; d f f f rsm;twGuf vdipifvyx;vkyenf;rsm;udk aemufq;twnfûycJNh yD; k f k f Hk f Hk 2001 ckESpwGif avQmufvTmrsm; ac:,lcJhonf/ ,if;onf f rdkbdkif;zkef;rsm; pD;yGm;a&;qefqef avQmufxm;rIrsm;twGuf yvufazmif;wpfckukd jznfhqnf;ay;onf/ a[mifaumif tifwmeufvkyief;onf vGecJhaomESpf f f tenf;i,fu vsijf refpGm BuD;xGm;vmcJhonf/ 2000 jynfhESp?f pufwifbmvwGif a[mifaumifukeo,rI zGûYH zd;rIaumifpD (HK f G f TDC) tqdkt& tifwmeufvufcH&ef ulnDyHhykd;aeaom Internet Service Provider (ISP) pkpkaygif; 218 ck&Sonf/ d ,if;wdkYteuf 5 ckrSm broadband 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;udk f ay;pGr;cJhonf/ ISP trsm;pkonf Internet Content Providf ers (ICPs) taejzifhvnf; aqmif&GuMf uonf/ ,if; ICP rsm;onf azsmajza&;? aps;0,fxGujf cif;? zuf&Si?f tm;upm;? f c&D;oGm;vmjcif;ESihf owif;tygt0if owif;tcsutvuf f trsK;rsK;udk ok;pGcorsm;tm; ay;pGr;aeonf/ a[mifaumifwif d d H J hJ l f G ta&twGufrsm;jym;aom ICPs ? odkYr[kwf Website rsm;
  • 54. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 99 &Sdonf/ ,if;wdkUteuf t"duusrIonf 0ifaiG t"du t&if;tjrpftaejzifh tGevi;aMumfjimjcif;tay: rlwnfaeonf/ f kd f ,if;wdkUteuf tcsKdUrSm tDvufx&GefepfpD;yGm;a&;ESifh yg0if ywfoufaeonf/ Application Services Providers (ASPs) rsm;onf a,bk,stm;jzifh enf;ynmtaxmuftulESihf tdkiwD f pDrHcefUcGJrIukd ulnDyHhykd;ay;onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh ,if;wdkUwGif tD;aumrmhptwGuf Integrated Solutions ESifh supply chain f pDrHcefUcGJrIwkdU yg0ifonf/ vGecJhaom ESptenf;i,fcefUu pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;ESihf f f f tdraxmifpktcef;u@ ESpckpvk;jzifh tGevki;tay;t,lvkyief; f f H f d f f &,ljcif;ESihf tifwmeuftokH;ûyjcif;wGif a[mifaumiftaejzifh vsijf refaomwd;wufrI &&Sconf/ 2000 jynfEpf apmapmydi;f wGif k d hJ hS k tdiw&,ljcif;qdi&m w&m;0if pl;prf;avhvmrIt& uGeysLwmrsm; kf D kf f onf a[mifaumiftdrfaxmifpktm;vkH; 50 &mcdkifEIef;odkU a&muf&cJhonf/ uGeysLwm&Saom tdraxmifpk 73 &mcdkiEIe; Sd f d f f f rSm tifwmeufEicswqufxm;onf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;e,fy,f S hf d f f wGif vkyief;xlaxmifrItm;vkH; wpf0ufcefUwGif uGeysLwm f f rsm;&SNd yD; ,if;wdkUY teuf 37 &mcdkiEe;onf tifwmeufcswquf f If d f xm;Muonf/ uGeysLwmESihf tifwmeufxk;azmufrEe;rsm;onf f d I If pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tzGJUtpnf;BuD; 92 &mcdkiEIe;ESihf 78 &mcdkif f f f EIef;odkU toD;oD;a&muf&SdcJhonf/ ,if;wdkUonf tvwfpm; pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; xk;azmufrIEIe; 78 ESihf 63 &mcdkif f d f EIe;xuf omíjrifrm;onf/ xdkUjyif tao;pm; pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f h f rsm; xdk;azmufrIEIe; 48 ESihf 34 &mcdkiEIe;xufvnf; omí f f f 100 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jrifrm;onf/ World Wide Web tok;ûyrIonf tvwfpm;ESihf h H tao;pm;vkyief;rsm; (vkyief;rsm; 18 ESihf 5 &mckkdiEIe; f f f f tMum;rSmxuf ukrÜPDBuD;rsm; (vkyief;rsm; 43 'or2 f &mcdiEe;cef) tMum; ydrysUH Econf/ ,if; Web Pages rsm;onf kfIf Y k kd YHS hJ ukrÜPDrsm;ESifh ,if;wdkU xkwfukefypönf;rsm;? 0efaqmifrI vkyief;rsm;tay:wGif owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk t"duyHy;ay; f f h kd onf/ a[mifaumif&Sd tD;aumrmhponf ueOD;tqifhwGiyif f f &SaeqJjzpfonf/ ukrÜPDtzGJUtpnf;rsm; 5 &mcdkiEIe;cefYu d f f tpD&ifcconfrm ,if;wdkUonf pl;prf;avhvmonfumvtwGi; H hJ S h f tGevki;owif;tcsutvuft& ukeypön;ESihf 0efaqmifrvkyf f d f f f f I ief;rsm;udk rSm,lMuonf? odkYr[kwf 0,f,lMuonf[kqkdonf/ ,if;wdkUteuf 35 &mcdkiEIe;onf tGevkdi;ay:rS atmf'grsm; f f f f vufc&&Sconf[k tpD&ifconf/ 1999 ckEpwif ukeypön;ESihf H d hJ H Sf G f f 0efaqmifrvkyief;qdki&m tGevki;ta&mif;rsm;rS aqmif&uaom I f f f d f G f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; vufcH&&SrIrsm;onf a[mifaumifa':vm f d 4 'or 6 bDvsH&Sonf/ ,if;onf pkpkaygif;vufcH&&SrI d d 0 'or 11 &mcdkiEe;udkom udk,pm;ûyonf/ rnfokUYd yifjzpfap f If f 1998 ckESpESihf EIi;,SOvQif tGevkdi;ay:rS ta&mif;onf f d f f f f 57 &mcdkiEIe;eD;yg; jrifhwufcJhonf/ wpfzef AC Nielsen's f f Net Ratings uûyvkyaom pl;prf;avhvmrIt& 18 EdkiiHonf f f *vdkb,ftifwmeufy&dowf 80 &mcdkiEe;ausmukd uk,pm;ûy f If f d f onf/ 2000 jynfhESp?f atmufwkdbmvtwGuf tifwmeuf tok;ûyrIt&MunfvQif a[mifaumifu yxrae&m&xm;onf/ H h
  • 55. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 101 ,if;aemufwif tar&duefjynfaxmifpkvkuonf/ a[mifaumif G d f wGif tifwmeuftokH;ûycseonf ysr;rQtm;jzifh vlwpfOD;vQif df f 10 em&DESihf 13 rdepf&Sonf/ tar&duefwGif 10 em&DESihf 4 d rdepfausmom&Sonf/ tifwmeufokdY wpfBudrvnfywf&mwGif f d f ysrf ; rQMumcsd e f E S i f h Website vnf y wf r I t a&twG u f w G i f a[mifaumifu eHygwfwpf cswonf/ d f a[mifaumifonf vGecJhaom ESptenf;i,fausmu f f f tdipww;wufrtay:wGif tajccHaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;toGif k f D D kd I f ajymif;rI awGUêuHcJhonf/ w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si;? tifwm f eufEiqufE,aomvkyief;rsm; vsijf refaom wd;wufrtjyif S hf T f f k I D orm;½dk;us 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm;onfvnf; rD',m? bPfvkyf I f ief;? b@ma&;? c&D;oGm;vma&;ESihf tdrjf cHajr at;*sihfrsm; tygt0if ,if;wdk tGevki;0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm; ay;pGr;&ef Y f d f I f f tqifhrsm; owfrSwNf yD;jzpfonf/ 2000 jynfhESp?f {NyDvpm&if; t& a[mifaumifpawmhtwcse; t"dubkwpm&if;0ifxm; d f df f aom ukrÜPD 230 ausmonf tifwmeuf odkUr[kwf qufE,f f T aeaom enf;ynmy½dk*sursm;wGif &if;ESD;ûr§yESH&ef pDrHcsursm; f f f aMunmcJMh uonf/ xdUk jyif enf;ynmukrPD 56 ckonf Growth Ü Enterprise Market (GEM) wGif 1999? Edk0ifbmv uwnf;u pm&if;0ifcNhJ yD; 2000 jynfEptukewif pkpkaygif; a[mifaumif h S f f G a':vm 15 'or 3 bDvsH jrifhwufcJhonf/ ,if;pm&if;wGif ukrÜPDrsm; xl;jcm;aomyg0ifrIrSm tdkifwD odkYr[kwf tifwmeufvkyief;rsm;wGif yg0ifywfoufaejcif;yif jzpfonf/ f tcef; (10) ta&SUtm&S B2B e-Commerce tajctae ta&SUtm&SwGif B2B pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; a&mif;a&;0,f f wm ysUH Erukd OD;aqmifaeonfrm tm&SEkiirsm;r[kwbJ trsm;pk HYS I S d f H f rSm tar&duefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;jzpfaeonf/ ,if;aumfyka&;&Si; d f d f rsm;onf pufrxe;opfp Edkiirsm;tay:wGif t"dutajccHaom I Gf f H jynfwGi; pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&Guonf/ f f f tar&duefpD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf ,if;wdkUEkdiiHwif B2B f G e-Commerce udk taumiftxnfazmfcJhNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh OD;aqmifrIûyaejcif;jzpfonf/ tar&duefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf tifwmeufenf;ynm f udk&,ljcif;ü OD;aqmifOD;&Guûf ycJhNyD; pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; armf',f f opfrsm;&,ljcif;udkvnf; ûyvkyonf/ 1990 jynfveEpumv f h Gf S f rsm;tawmtwGi; tar&duefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf vkyief;rsm; f d f f pGm jyifyt&if;tjrpf&mazGjcif;ESihf t"duvkyuif Edipr;f tay:wGif S f kd k f G t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tm½kpkujf cif;jzifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;aqmif&uf H d f G aom enf;vrf;opfwpfckukd zefwD;cJhonf/ txl;ojzifh tdkiwD f tcef;u@wGif tar&duefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf ,if;wdkU f
  • 56. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 103 a&mif;vdktm;uGi;qufrsm; jynfwi;ESihf jynfytpdwtydki;rsm; f G f f f udk qufoG,&efESihf yl;aygif; aqmif&Gu&ef tdkiwDtokH;csrIukd f f f wdk;csJUcJhMuonf/ 'JvuGeysLwm (Dell computer) ukrÜPDonf f f yDpvkyief;twGuf tifwmeuftajccH tzGUJ tpnf;ykpukd zefw;cJh D f H H D onf/ ppöudkqpfpwefpf (Cisco Systems) ukrÜPDonf qufo,a&;ypön;vkyief;rsm;twGuf 'JvuoUkd yif aqmif&uchJ G f f f f hJ G f onf/ ,if;pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tzGJUtpnf;ESpckpvkH;onf ypön; f f f ud&,mxkwvkyorsm;taejzifh pwifcpOfrmyif olwkUd uk,wkif d f f l hJ S d f d xkwvky&ef &yfpJcJhMuNyD; jyifyt&if;tjrpf&SmazG&ef ûyvkyMf u f f onf/ trSepifppf 'Jvonf ukeypön;&,lxe;odr;ay;ydkUaom f f f f df f ukrÜPDjzpfvmcJhonf/ ukefxkwfvkyfrIukrÜPD r[kwfacs/ ,if;wdkU 1990 aESmif;ydki;uwnf;u tcseukduf jyefvnf f df zGUJ pnf;jcif;onf txl;ojzifh tdiwe,fy,fwif pGr;f aqmif&nfEihf kf D G S tjrefEe;jrifwuf&ef jzpfonf/ þodkUjzifh tar&duefaumfyka&; If h d &Si;rsm;onf B2B e-Commerce udk OD;aqmif&ef ae&m&,lcJh f Muonf/ pifppf tar&duefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf ,cktcg B2B d f zvS,rqi&m vkyief;aqmif&urwif *vdb,facgif;aqmifrsm; f I kd f f G fI G k jzpfaeMuonf/ xdkYjyif axmufyHhrIuGi;quf Supply chain f pDrcefUcJG rIwif B2B tok;csrüvnf; urÇmvk;qdki&m OD;aqmif H G H I H f olrsm; jzpfaeMuonf/ 2000 jynfhESp?f atmufwkdbmvwGif urÇmay:ü B2B zvS,rI 1000 ausm 60 &mcdkiEIe; f f f f ausmonf tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwif tajcpdkucJhonf/ tar f G f &duefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf ,if;wdkU B2B e-Commerce f 104 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tavhtusiukd ta&SUtm&Sp;yGm;a&;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ESihf tay;t,l hf D ûyvkyjf cif;? ,if;wdkU½k;cGrsm; ta&SUtm&Swizivpf aqmif&uf H J G f G hf S G jcif;rSwpfqifh ta&SUtm&SokdU a&TUajymif;cJhMuonf/ tar&duef tdkiwp;yGm;a&;tzGUJ tpnf; w½kwf (wdkiay) ½k;cGonf yDprsm; f D D f H J D ESihf tjcm;ukeypön;rsm; xkwvyjf cif;udk pDrcefUconf/ System f f f k H JG solution rsm;udvnf;cswqufay;onf/ xkwvyrukd ud,wif k d f f kfI k f kd rvkybJ a'owGi; wdkiayxkwvkyol 30 cefUukd jyifyt&if; f f f f f tjrpf&SmazGNyD; xkwvkyaponf/ wdkiaytpdk;&onf B2B ef f f Commerce udkaxmufcHonfhtwGuf rdciftar&duef tdkiwD f ukrÜPDrsm; ½kH;cGJrsm;tMum;wGif w½kwf (wdkiay) ½kH;cef;onf f B2B e-Commerce taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif wdk;wufrIt&Sd qkH;jzpfonf/ ,if;½kH;cGJonf 1995 ckESpf apmapmydki;wGif f ERP [kac:aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;t&if;tjrpf pDrHcsucsjcif; f f (Enterprise Resource Planing) pepfukd pwifrwqufconf/ d f hJ ,if; ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf owif;tcsutvufrQa0&ef f f f 1998 ckESpfwGif axmufyHhrI uGif;quf pDrHcefYcGJrIpepfudk jznfpuconf/ ,cktcg ,if;½k;cGonf tqifjh rifh enf;ynmudk h G f hJ H J OD;pm;ay;aom e-Marketplace jzpfonfh converge B2B edf f Commerce pHcsepHñTe;jzpfaom Rosetta Net wdkUukd tokH;cs &efêud;pm;aeonf/ ,if;ESpckpvk;udk w½kwf (wdkiay) tpdk;&u f H f jr§iwifaqmif&uay;aeonf/ ,if;pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tzGtpnf; hf G f f YJ ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;tMum; *syefpD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; f f r&ScJhacs/ d
  • 57. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce B2B e-Commerce wGif 105 a&SUwef;a&mufaeaom tjcm; ta&SUtm&Sp;yGm;a&; vkyief;tzGtpnf;rsm;wGif ukeypön;rsm;ESihf D f YJ f f pHñTef;owfrSwfxm;aom ukefypönf;rsm;udk rsm;rsm;pm;pm; xkwfvkyfolrsm;yg0ifonf/ þwGif w½kwftrsKd;om;a&eH aumfykda&;&Si; (CNPC) ESifh Hut Chinson Wampou wdkUonf f zufpyfvkyfief;zGJYpnf;cJhMuonf/ ,if;zufpyfvkyfief;onf tifwmeuftay:rS a&eHESihf obm0"mwfaiGU ukeypön;rsm;udk f f 0,fMuonf? a&mif;Muonf/ w½kwf (wdkiay) qDr;uGe'ufwm f D f xkwvkya&;ukrÜPDvDrwuf (TSMC) onf urÇmay:wGif f f d qDr;uGe'ufwmypön;rsm; tBuD;rm;qk;pmcsKyft& xkwvkyol D f f H f f jzpfonf/ (TSMC) onf tifwmeufrSwpfqifh ,if; qDrD; uGe'ufwm 'DZki;azmufonfrsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tay;t,l f d f f trsm;qkH;aqmif&Guonf/ f B2B e-Commerce obm0aMumifh B2B e-Commerce wGif tar&duefO;aqmifaom pdeac:rIonf tzGUJ tpnf; D f qdki&m jyefvnfûyjyifrIwGif pdeac:rIwpf&yftaejzifh ,SOwGJ f f f vdkuygvmonf/ tDvufx&GeepfxkwvkyrIvkyief; BuD;xGm; f f f f f vmrIonf *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;udk xl;jcm;aom Ncdr;ajcmufrI d f f kd f tjzpf pd;&drz,&mjzpfaponf/ ,if;onf *syefaumfya&;&Si;rsm; k fG f u ta&SUtm&Sü ,if;wdkU vkyief;aqmif&GurIrsm;wGif B2B f f d f d e-Commerce tm; rnfoUkd rwqufrnfukd tusK;oufa&mufap onf/ tDvufx&Geepf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf tDvufx&Gef f f epfxkwvkyrIvkyief; (EMS) arm',fukd&,lMuonf/ ,if; f f f armf',fwif ,if;vkyief;rsm;onf pG,prv ypön;xkwvkyol G f f kH l f f f 106 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f rsm;twGuf ukeypön;rsm; txl;xkwvkyMf uonf/ pD;yGm;a&; f f f wGuajcudkuf rsm;rsm;pm;pm; xkwvkyrItaejzifh xlk;jcm;aom f f f tm;omcsursm;&&SMd uonf/ rsm;rsm;pm;pm; xkwvkyrItwGuf f f f tjrefEe;&&SMd uonf/ xkwvyrwif txl;ûyvkyaqmifMuonf/ If f kfI G f *vdkb,ftDvufx&Geepfvkyief;wGif EMS vkyief;rsm;onf f f f pG,fpkHrlvypönf;xkwfvkyfolrsm; azmufonfrsm;wGuf xkwvkyrtydki;udk wdk;wufatmif vkyaqmifaeMuonf/ EMS f f I f f vkyief;rsm;onf pGr;aqmif&nfwkd;wuf&ef tjcm;enf;vrf; f f taejzifh B2B e-Commerce &,l&ef pdwftm;xufoef Muonf/ pifppf EMS armf',f wdk;wufjzpfay:vmrIonf xkwukeypön;zGUH ûzd;rIqki&m *syefarmf',fEihf vk;0rwlacs/*syef f f f d f S H armf',fwif qufE,aeaom ydwxm;onfaumfyka&;&Si; tkypk G T f f h d f f twGi; a'gifvkuaygif;pnf;aqmif&uaom xkwvkyr&onf/ f d f G f f f I dS ,if;armf',fonf xkwvkyrIpepf t&mxif&ef pwifaeonf/ f f ,if;pepfwGif ta&SUtm&S&Sd xkwvkyrIuGe&ufrsm; yg0ifonf/ f f f EMS vkyief;tzGJUrsm; urÇmtESHUxkwukeonf 2004 ckESpf f f f wGif tar&duefa':vm 260 bDvsH&Sonf/ ,if; vsijf ref d aom wdk;wufronf jyifyt&if;tjrpf&mazGjcif;ESihf cswqufae I S d f onf/ tar&duef jynfaxmifpk *vdkb,f aqmif&Guaeolrsm; f wGif Solectron, SCI Systems, Celestica ESifh Jabil Cracait ukrÜPDrsm;yg0ifonf/ ta&SUtm&SwGifaqmif&Gufolrsm;rSm w½kwf (wdkiay) ESihf pifumylrS tzGJUtpnf;rsm;jzpfonf/ f
  • 58. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce EMS vkyief;udk f 107 ydkrktm½kpkuvmMuonf/ omíBuD;rm; d H d f aom EMS vkyief;rsm;onf OEM rS puf½kHrsm;&&SMd uonf/ f xdkYjyif omíao;i,faom EMS vkyief;rsm;udkvnf; &&SMd u f onf/ OEM azmufonfrsm;onf BuD;rm;aomta&twGuf rsm;rsm;udk tvsitjrefay;oGi;Edkiaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;BuD; f f f f rsm;ESihf qufq&ef ydkrkEpoufMuonf/ þodkjY zifh ,if;wdkonf H d S f Y urÇmtEStjym;wGif trSwwqyukeypön;rsm;udk pOfqufrjywf YH f H d f f f xkwvkyEkdiMf urnfjzpfonf/ EMS vkyief;rsm;onf B2B ef f f Commerce wGif ydkrkdyg0ifywfoufvmMuonf/ *syefpD;yGm; a&;vkyief;rsm;onf EMS vkyief;odUk r0ifa&muf rvIy&m;rcsi; f f fS f ta&SUtm&S&Sd 0,f,la&;aps;uGursm;wGif *syefpD;yGm;a&;vkyief; d f f &Sirsm;&Saejcif;onf ,kwavsmhvmNyD; ,if;wdkYonf ta&SUtm&S f d f &Sd B2B e-Commerce &Sd xl;jcm;aom tcef;u@wGif yg0if aqmif&Gu&rnfjzpfonf/ f ta&S U tm&S t pd k ; &rsm;pG m onf B2B e-Commerce BuD;xGm;wdk;wuf&ef wuf<upGmyg0ifaqmif&uMf uonf/ Oyrm G udk&D;,m;ESihf w½kwf (wdkiay) tpdk;&wdkYonf jynfwGi;tao; f f pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief; ukeypön;rsm;jyo&ef ukeoG,rI f f f f f jyyGJ website rsm; zGUHûzd;rIukd ulnDyHhykd;Muonf/ trSetm;jzifh f w½kwf (wdkiay) tpdk;&onf B2B e-Commerce jr§ihfwifa&; f aqmif&uconf/ xdkiaytpdk;& ueOD;aqmif&uaom owif; G f hJ f G f tcsutvufvkyief;odyÜH vkyief;wm0efwpfckrSm e-Comf f f merce tok;csrEihf enf;vrf;rsm;udk wd;jr§ijhf zefUMuuf&efjzpfonf/ H IS k 108 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ,if;odyonf 'D*spw,fvkyief;aqmif&ujf cif;twGuf jyefvnf HÜ f f G ûyjyifajymif;vJ&mwGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk uln&ef ,if;wdUk Eihf f D S wdiyifaqmif&uonf/ pifumyltpd;&onf Kent Ridge Digital kf G f k eLabs (KRDL) udk yHhykd;cJhonf/ KRDL onf Commerce vkyief;rsm;twGuf Incubator wpfckjzpfvm&ef f trsKd;om;aqmhzf0J okawoeA[dkXmejzpfonf/ ,if; e-Commerce rmpwmpDrHcsurSwpfqifh pifumyltpdk;&onf f pifumylEiiwif e-Commerce tm; ysUH EpmtoH;ûyrIukd tm;ay;cJh kd f H G YHS G k Ü D onf/ xdjkY yif e-Commerce odkU a&GUvsm;aeMuaom ukrPrsm; twGuf vlpr;tm;t&if;tjrpfoifwef;ESihf tjcm;taxmuftyhH G f rsm; yHhykd;ulnDcJhonf/
  • 59. 110 tcef; (11) zGHYjzdK;qJEdkifiHrsm;ESifh e-Commerce tajctae zGUH ûzd;qJEkiirsm;wGif tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm; d f H f (SMES) twG u f e-Commerce onf avQmh c sxm;aom owif;tcsutvuf &SmazGrp&dwrsm;udk jzpfay:aponf/ qdkvkd f I f onfrSm ,if;onf aiGay;acsrI? ta<u;ay;vkyief;pOftwGuf f atmfya&;&Si;vkyief;rsm; avQmcscse pGr;aqmif&nfukjd rifwuf f f h df f h aponf/ azmufonfrsm;ESihf aps;uGursm;? xkwukeypön;'DZki;? f f f f d f S xkwvyrvyief;pOfrsm;? enf;ynmESihf b@ma&;t&if;tjrpfEihf f kfI kf tcsdefumvpaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;onf (SMES) twGuf wefzkd;t&SqkH;jzpfaMumif; avhvmpl;prf;rIrsm;u jyo d onf/ tifwmeufESihf wjcm;tdkipDwDonf ,if;owif;tcsuf f d tvufrsm;onf (SMES) twGuf wefzkd;t&SqHk;jzpfaMumif; avhvmpl;prf;rIrsm;u jyoonf/ tifwmeufEihf tjcm; tdkiwpD S f D wdkonf ,if;owif;tcsutvuf vufcrukd vG,uacsmarGU Y f H I f l aponf/ xdkUjyif tifwmeufonf wdusaomypfrwtkypkrsm;odkU S f f atmfwkdrpfwpf tokH;csy½dk*&rfûyvkyjf cif;ESihf 0,folpwêf uduf d f f owif;tcsutvuftygt0if owif;tcsursm; jzefYcsjd cif;udk cGihfûyxm;onf/ armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f rnfokdYyifjzpfap 0ufbay:&Sd vkHavmufaom owif; f tcsutvufonf zGHUûzd;qJEkdiiHwpfEkdiiH&Sd omreftao;pm;ESihf f f f tvwfpm;vkyfief;twGuf vdkufzufrI&SdNyD; wefzdk;&Sdjcif;ESifh ywfoufí oHo,jzpfzG,&Sonf/ ,if;onf tifwmeuf f d vufcrwijf zpfEkiaom &if;ES;ûr§yErukd ûyvkyay;onf/ zGUH ûzd;qJ H I G d f D f HS I f EdkiiHrsm;&Sd tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;trsm;pkonf a'o f f qdki&maps;uGursm;udk vdktyfonfrsm; pDrHjznfhwif;ay;onf/ f f xdkUaMumifh,if;onf a'oqdki&m tcsutvufrsm;ay:wGif f f tvGeftrif;tm;xm;ae&onf/ ,if;taMumif;&if;aMumifh f tifwmeufay:wGif 0ifaiGenf;yg;aom pGeUf OD;vkyief;&Sirsm; f twGuf txl;tokH;0if&ef a'obmompum; content tyg t0if a'oqdki&m content yrmPESihf t&nftaoG;rsm;rsm; f pm;pm; wdk;wufjrifhrm;&ef vdktyfonf/ tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm; e-Business 0ifaiGrsm;onf ta&SUOa&my? tmz&duESihf ta&SUtv,fykdi;wGif a':vm 6 f 'or 53 bDvsHrS a':vm 28 'or 53 bDvsHtxd jrifhwuf f vdrhrnf[k e-Market u cefUrSe;xm;onf/ wpfzef tm&S f ypdzdwfa'owGif 2003 ckESpfü a':vm 127 'or 25 bDvsHokdU jrifhwufrnf[k cefUrSe;xm;onf/ xdkUjyif vufwif f tar&duwGif 2003 ckESpü a':vm 23 'or 51 bDvsH&&mrS f Sd 2005 ckESpwGif a':vm 89 'or 81 bDvsHokdU jrifhwuf&ef f arQmfvifxm;cJonf/ taemufOa&mywGivnf; 2003 ckEpwif h h f S f G a':vm 340 'or 41 bDvsHrS 2005 ckESpwGif a':vm f 971 'or 47 bDvsHokdU jrifhwuf&ef arQmfvifhxm;onf/
  • 60. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 111 wpfzef ajrmuftar&duwGif 2003 ckESpfü a':vm 384 'or 36 bDvsHrS 2005 ckESpwGif a':vm 1 'or 18 f x&DvsHokdY jrifhwufcJhonf/ þwGif e-Business pdeac:rIukd SMES rsm;u atmif f jrif&ef ulnrtm; ICT-4 BUS wGif om"utaejzifh azmfjyxm; D I onf/ ICT-4 BUS [lonfrSm e-Business ESihf tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyfief;zHGUûzd;rItwGuf owif;tcsuftvufESifh qufo,a&;enf;ynm qef;opfry½dk*&rfjzpfonf/ pifppf ICTG f I 4 BUS onf tifwmeuftar&duef zGUH ûzd;rIbPf (IDB) zGUH ûzd;rI pG,pkH&if;ESD;ûr§yESHrI&efykHaiGESihf owif;tcsutvuf enf;ynm f f f qdi&m ueOD;aqmif&uryifjzpfonf/ ICT Solution udk wd;wuf kf G fI k vmaom vufcr ulnyyk;rIrwpfqifh vufwiftar&duESihf H I D hH d S um&pfbef;&Sd rdkuú½dkpGefUOD;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh SMES pGrf;aqmif&nf? ,SOfûydifEdkifpGrf;ESifh xkwfvkyfrIpTrf;tm;udk jr§ifhwif&efjzpfonf/ þonfrSm tvm;tvmaumif;aom ]]owif;tcsuvuf vlrItzGJUtpnf;}} udk &&Satmifjf rif &ef f d a'oqdki&mESihf urÇmtESHY êud;yrf;rIESihf cswqufxm;jcif;yif f d f jzpfonf/ þ ueOD;aqmif&GurIatmufwGi&Saom y½dk*&rf f f d rsm;ESihf ya&m*sursm;wGif a'otvdkuf taumif;qkH;tawGU f têuHrsm;qdkif&m oabmw&m;rsm; jzefYcsdjcif;? uGefysLwm wwfajrmufrIESihf oifwef;tpDtpOfrsm; e-Business solutions atmifjrifaom taumiftxnfazmfrItwGuf ta<u;ESifh b@ma&;qdki&m ta&;ygaomvufcrukd vG,uacsmarGUap&ef f H I f l yl;aygif;aqmif&Gujf cif; êud;yrf;rIrsm; yg0ifonf/ vufwif 112 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tar&duwGif tm;aumif;aom SMES e-Business aps;uGuf tvm;tvmudk trsm;qkH;&&S&ef r[mAsL[majrmufu&,mESihf d d d ,mOfwpfp;taejzifh ueOD;aqmif&uronf vufwiftar&duef D G fI SMES rsm;tMum; a&muf&ScJhaom a':vm 23 'or 5 d bDvsH e-Business 0ifaiGrsm;wGif azmfjycJhonf/ pifppf e-Commerce onf zGUH ûzd;qJEii&dS pGeO;vkyief;&Sif kd f H Y f D f rsm;twGuf tokH;0ifonf/ þwGif tifwmeufESihf e-ComG f kf H f dS merce u aqmif&uay;Ediaom tenf;qk;vrf;ig;oG,&onf/ ,if;wdkUrSm 1/ ,if;onf urÇmhaps;uGufrsm;odkU tao;pm;ESifh tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;ESihf a&TUajymif;aus;&Gmrsm;wGif f aexdkifaom trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf access udk vG,fulacsmarGUaponf/ 2/ *vdb,fpau;ESitnD zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm; urÇmvSnhf k hf kd f H c&D;oGm;vma&;vkyief;qdki&m y½dkrk&i;ESihf zGUH ûzd;rIukd f f d S f vG,fulacsmarGUaponf/ 3/ *vdkb,faps;uGuwif pdkuysK;a&;ESihf tylyki;a'o f G f d d f qdki&m ukeypön;rsm;wGif rm;uufwif;udk vG,ul f f f f acsmarGUaponf/ 4/ ,if;onf B2B ESihf S2G Supply Chains rsm;odkU 0ifa&muf&ef qif;&Jaom EdkiiHrsm;&Sd vkyief;tzGJU f f tpnf;rsm;twGuf vrf;rsm;udk ulnDyHhykd;ay;onf/
  • 61. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 113 5/ ,if;onf zGUHG ûzd;qJEkiirsm;&Sd 0efaqmifryyk;aeaom d f H I hH d pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk ydkrkpr;&nf&pm aqmif&uf f d G f dS G G &ef cGihfûyjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? azmufonfrsm;odUk urÇmqefqefwusaom 0efaqmifrIrsm; wdku½kduf d f yHhykd;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif; ulnDay;onf/ þwGif B2B e-Commerce rSwpfqifh pdkuysK;a&;tcef; f d u@udk vkyief;tmPmcGJa0ay;aom IFAT jzifh om"ujyvdkyg f onf/ IFAT onf atmfwmae;wpfukeoG,rItwGuf EdkiiH f f f wum tzGJUtpnf;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf zGHUûzd;qJEdkifiHrsm; pdkuysK;a&;u@udk vkyief;tmPmcGa0ay;&ef pkaygif;xm;aom f d f J êud;yrf;tm;xkwfrIwpf&yfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf 42 EdkifiH&Sd tzGJUtpnf;aygif; 100 jzifhzJGUpnf;xm;&m zGHUûzd;qJEkdiiHrsm;&Sd f tzGJUtpnf; 70 vnf; tygt0ifjzpfonf/ tzGJUtpnf;0ifrsm; onf 0ifaiGykeraomEdkiirsm;rS vufrypön;rsm;ESihf pdkuysK;a&; d d hf f H I f f d ypön;rsm;wGif ESppOfa':vm 200 rS a':vm 400 oef;cefU f f pkaygif;í aps;uGuwGif a&mif;0,fMuonf/ xdkYjyif IFAT f onf zGUûH zd;qJEkiirS xkwvkyorsm;udk ypön;xde;odr;xkway; d f H f f l f f f f yhHydk;rI? t&nftaoG;xdef;csKyfrI? xkyfydk;rIESifh ydkUukefwdkUwGif tultnDrsm;yHhykd;ay;onf/ 0efaqmifrtcef;u@wGif zGUH ûzd;qJEkii&dS tvwfpm;vkyf I d f H ief;rsm;onf EdkifiH&yfjcm;&Sd qufoG,f&efwdk;wufvmaom pGr;&nfEitwl ,if;wdkUaps;uGuukd wdk;csUJ cMhJ uonf/ xdkUjyif f S hf f ,if;wdkU 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;udk aMumfjim&efvnf;êud;pm; f 114 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f Muonf/ ,if;onf txl;ojzifh wdk;&pfvkyief;ESihfqufET,f f aom tao;pm;vkyief;&Sirsm;twGuf rSeuefvSonf/ wdk;&pf f f f vkyief;bkwtzGJUrsm;onf ,if;wdkU0ufbqkdursm;&Sd trsK; f f f f d tpm;jzifh 0efaqmifyHhykd;olrsm;pm&if;pkpnf;&mwGif taxmuf tulay;Muonf/ xdkYjyif zGHUûzd;qJEkdiiHrsm;&Sd SMES twGuf f tifwmeufonf vsijf refaom? vG,ulaom? ,kHMunfpwcs f d f tm;xm;&NyD; aps;rBuD;aomenf;vrf;jzpfonf/ tGevkdi;enf; f f ynm taxmuftulESihf aqmhz0Ju&,mrsm;ESihf tokH;csrIrsm; f d d &,ljcif;twGuvnf;aumif;? enf;ynmqdki&m pkHprf;rIrsm;udk f f ,m,Dae&mxdkicif; ûyvkyjf cif;? ûyjyifrIrsm; arwåm&yfcHjcif;ESihf f d twl xdk;ppf0iftydki;rsm; odkYr[kwf ud&,mopfrsm;twGuf f tifwmeufonf tokH;0ifaomenf;vrf;jzpfonf/ wpfzef tifwmeufonf zGHUûzd;qJEkdiiHrsm;wGif SMES f rsm;udk pGr;aqmifay;aeaom ud&,mvnf;jzpfonf/ urÇm f d tESjHY zwfoef;a&muf&vmaom ,if;wkUd tqiftwef;wlorsm;ESihf dS h l aqG;aEG;yGJtkypkrsm; qufoG,&efjzpfonf/ ,if;wdkUwGivnf; f f f wlnDvkyfief;&Sifrsm;&SdMuNyD; owif;tcsuftvuf? tawGU têuHrsm;rQa0Muonf/ wdusaom enf;ynmqdki&m jyóem f rsm;udkyifvQif tajzrsm;&SmazGMuonf/ þonfrSm wlnDaom f f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;&Sd tqifhwlvkyazmfukdizufrsm;xHrS yx0D0if f taetxm;t& oD;jcm;&Saeaom pGeYfOD;vkyief;&Sirsm;twGuf d f f txl;tzdk;wefvSonf/
  • 62. 116 tcef; (12) ta&SUawmiftm&S e-Commerce tajctae 1998 ckESpfwGif Intel aumfykda&;&Si; Ouú|jzpfol f tif'D*½dkU(Af) (Andy Grove) u udk;um;pum;ajymcJhonf]]ig;ESpwmumvrSm ukrÜPDtm;vkH;[m tifwmeuf f ukrÜPDawG jzpfvmvdrhfr,f/ 'grSr[kw&if olwkdU[m ukrÜPD f awGjzpfvmrSm r[kwbl;}} f tifwmeufwdk;wufzGHUûzd;rIonf ydkrdkwdk;csJUvmEdkifNyD[k cefUrSe;xm;Muonf/ EdkiiHwumtcsutvuf aumfykda&;&Si; f f f f (International Data Corporation) u vGecaom ESptenf;i,f f hJ f wGif a[mude;xkwcJhonf/ ,if;a[mude;rSm tifwmeuf f f f tokH;ûyolta&twGuf tawmfawmfrsm;rsm;onf 2020 jynfh ESpwGif oef; 320 odkUa&muf&vrhfrnfjzpfonf/ Nua Internet f Sd d Surveys u 2000 jynfhESp? ZlvkdivwGif azmfjycJhonfrSm f f tGevkdi;okH;pGJolta&twGurSm 359 'or 8 oef;&Sonf/ f f f d ,if;odkU aygufuGJvmaom wdk;wufrIESihftwl tifwmeufukd vspvsL½Ií rjzpfawmhacs/ wu,fawmh tcsKd UtBuHûyyk*¾dKvf f rsm;tqdt& tifwmeufwif wpfpwpf&majymif;vJ&ef pGr;&nf k G kH f armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f &Sonf[líjzpfonf/ tifwmeuf aygufuGJaom wdk;wuf d zGHYNzdK;rIukd pOf;pm;MunfhvQif ,if;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;aqmif f &GurtwGuf tvGeqaqmifr&aom yvufazmif;wpfck jzpfvm f I f JG I dS cJhonf/ rnfokdYyifjzpfap ,if;ppfrSeaom tcGihftvrf;rsm;ESihf f ,SOwNJG yD; av;eufaompdeac:rIrsm;ESihf pGepm;&rIrsm; &Saeonf/ f f Yf d e- Commerce ES i f h y wf o uf í vuf a wG Y t usqH k ; t"dyÜ,ukd rD qef;abmif;(*s) (Me Senbourg) 1999 u f f azmfñTe;cJhonf/ e-Commerce [lonf uGeysLwmMum;cHaom f f uGe&ufwpfckay:wGif NyD;pD;aomtay;t,l zvS,rI[k azmf f f ñTe;xm;onf/ ,if;uGe&ufonf ydkiqkirIqkdi&m vTJajymif; f f f d f f rI? odkYr[kwf ukefpnfrsm;ESifh 0efaqmifrIrsm; toHk;ûyrI tcGihfta&;rsm;jzpfonf[k qdkonf/ ,if;t"dyÜ,onf jynfhpHk f &Si;vif;us,jf yefYvSonf/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf wpfOD;wnf; f qki&m y½dkwkaumrsm;ESihf yk*vuvki;rsm; toHk;jyKvsuf tvdk d f d ¾ d d f tavsmuf pum;ajympuf (ATM) ESihf tDvufx&Geepf tcsuf f tvuftwHkYtjyefzvS,frI (EDI) wdkY toHk;jyKjcif;rsm;uJhodkY tay;t,l zvS,rIrsm; yg0ifaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ f 1994 ckEpwif tifwmeufukd us,us,jf yefjY yefY tokkH; S f G f f ûyrIonf browser rdwqufjcif;ESihftwl jzpfay:vmcJhonf/ Point ESihf Click vkyEiaom rnforqdk tifwmeufukd xda&muf f kd f l tusK;&Spm tokH;ûyEdkicJhonf/ tifwmeufukd us,jf yefUpmtokH; d d G d f G ûyrIwGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf tDvufx&Geepftay;t,l f f zvS,rIrsm;twGuf yvufazmif;wpfcktaejzifh Munfh&efom f
  • 63. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 117 ru tpdk;&rsm;onf 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm; ydkUaqmifjcif;ESihf f tDvufx&Gefepf0,f,la&; csdwfqufrItwGuf pwiftokH; ûy&efvnf; yg0ifonf/ aqmif&uorsm; t"dutkypko;ckwif G f l f kH G &Saom ,if;&v'frsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; (B)? pm;okH; d f olrsm; (C) ESifh tpdk;& (G) [laom trnfwyfxm;aom tifwmeufay:wGif tay;t,lzvS,rIrsm; ûyvkyvrhfrnfjzpf f f d onf/ ,if; aqmif&uorsm;tMum; 0,f,jl cif;ESihf a&mif;csjcif; G f l tay;t,l zvS,rIrsm; qJvf udk;ckukdqkdvkdonf/ ,if;wdkUrSm f Business tydki;wGif B2B, B2C ESifh B2G wdkUyg0ifonf/ f pm;okH;ol (Consumer) tydkif;wGif C2B,C2C ESifh C2G wdkUyg0ifonf/ tpdk;& Government tydki;wGif G2B, G2C, f G2G wdkU yg0ifonf/ Forester Research (2000) u a[mude;xkwconfrm f f hJ S S f G urÇmh e-Commerce 0ifaiGrsm;onf 2004 ckEpwif tar&duef a':vm 6 'or 7 bDvsH&ScJhNyD; pkpkaygif;ta&mif; 8 d 'or 6 &mcdkiEe;cefU&onf/ tm&Sypdzwwirl e-Commerce f If dS d f G f 0ifaiGonf 2004 ckESpwGif tar&duefa':vm 1 'or 6 f x&DvsH? odkUr[kwf pkpkaygif;ta&mif; 8 &mcdkiEIe; &Sonf/ f f d xdkYjyif tm&Sypdzdwfonf urÇmhysrf;rQEIef; 58 'or 4 &mcdkiEIe;ESihf EdIi;,SOvQif ydkíjrifhrm;aom wdk;wufrIEIe; 86 f f f f f 'or 5 &mcdkiEIe;&Svrhfrnf[k arQmfvifhxm;onf/ f f d d e-Commerce tajccHtaqmufttkvrf;aMumif;rsm; H (Infrastructure Trends) ESihf ywfoufí Mann, Eckert ESihf 118 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f Knight (2000) u þodkUazmfjycJhonf]]e-Commerce wdk;wufzGHUûzd;rIonf tajccHtaqmuf ttkH okH;rsK;tay:wGif rlwnfonf/ ,if;wdkUrSm qufoG,a&; d f pepfrsm;? b@ma&;aiGay;acsrpepfrsm;ESihf jzefUcsa&;ESihf o,f,l I d ydkUaqmifa&;pepfrsm;jzpfonf/ ,if;pepfrsm; vGwfvGwfvyf vyfESihf ab;uif;rI&SrSomvQif e-Commerce onf jc,fvS,f d vkyfaqmifEkdifrnfjzpfonf/}} tGevkdi;tpDtpOfcsrI vG,uljcif;onf qufoG,a&; f f f f tajccHtaqmufttkH tajctaeay:wGif rlwnfonf/ e-Commerce twGuf qufoG,a&;tajccH taqmufttkH f zGUHûzd;rIrsm; Munfh½Iavhvm&mwGif a&mif;olrsm;ESihf 0,folrsm; tjrif½IaxmifhESpzufpvkH;rS 4if;udkpkpnf;&ef tokH;0ifonf/ f a&mif;ol½axmifrMS unf&vQif ukepnfrsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrvkyief; I h h f I f rsm; ay;pGr;EdkirEihf Server rsm;udk Munf&rnfjzpfonf/ 2000 f f I S h jynfEp?f ZlvivwGif Software consortium's Internet Domach hS kd f Surveg onf World-wide hosts ud k 93 oef ; ausmf a&wGuxm;onf/ ,if;ta&twGuonf 1995 ESihf 2000 f f jynfhESptwGi; ESpxyfwkd;EIe; 50 &mcdkiEIe;ausmf BuD;xGm; f f f f f f wdk;wufaeonf/ ta&SUawmiftm&SwGif ,if;wdk;wufrIEIe;rsm; f onf ysrf;rQ urÇmhwdk;wufrIEIef;xuf ydkrdkjrifhrm;onf/ tmqD,HEkdiiHrsm;twGi; pifumyl? rav;&Sm;ESihf b½lEkdi;EdkiiH f f f f wdkUonf vlOD;a& 10000 OD;vQif hosts ta&twGufESifh MunfhvQif tjcm; qmqD,HEkdiiHrsm;xuf a&SUa&mufaeonf/ f
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  • 68. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 127 tifwmeufvufcHrIukd yhHyk;jcif;yifjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif nhHzsi; d f aomtajccHtaqmufttHk tajctaersm;wGiyifvQif ppfreaom f Sf tcGihftvrf;rsm;&&SEkionf/ d d f enf;vrf;wpfckrSm tmqD,HEkdifiHrsm;wGif tao;pm; vk y f i ef ; rsm; quf o G , f j cif ; twG u f yh H y k d ; jcif ; rS w pf q if h tifwmeufEihf *vkb,f Supply Chain okYd a&muf&apjcif;yif S d dS jzpfonf/ ydkrkysUH EUHS aomoHk;pGol tusK;jzpfxe;rItwGuf vktyfí d J d Gf d wk;csJUxm;aom tajccHtaqmufttHk rvktyfjcif;yifjzpfonf/ d d tpdk;&rsm;twGuf 'kwd,tqifhaqmif&Guf&rnfrSm tkipDwDtoHk;ûyrIwif acgif;aqmifrIyhHykd;½Hkomru ,if;vkyief; d f G f aqmif&urrsm; pGr;aqmif&nfudk jr§iwif&efjzpfonf/ ,if;okYd G fI f hf ûyvky&efjzpfEkiaom enf;ESpoG,&Sonf/ yxrenf;vrf;rSm f d f f f d tifwmeuftoH;ûyrIonf tajccHvxvyief;rsm;udk ulnyy;dk &ef k l k kf D hH jzpfonf/ aemufenf;vrf;rSm tifwmeufukd xyfrHtoHk;jyKNyD; tDvufx&Geepf0,f,a&;pepfwpfck xlaxmif&efjzpfonf/ tpk; f l d &rsm;taejzifh tifwmeuftoHk;ûyvsuf BuD;rm;aom pD;yGm;a&; vkyief;zvS,rIrsm; xlaxmifa&; yHhyk;oifhonf/ f f d tcef; (14) tmqD,HEdkifiHrsm;twGif; tkdifpDwDtajctae tkipwukavhvmaomtcg xkwvkyroufoufo½kEihf d f D D d f f I d H S rvkHavmufacs/ tdkipDwDysHUESHUrIESihf&,lrIqkdi&m owif;tcsuf f f tvufukd pepfwus pkaqmif;wwf&efvonf/ tmqD,Ekiirsm; kd H d f H twGi; tkipwysUH EUHS rukd uGjJ ym;jcm;em;aom t&if;tjrpfrsm;pGmrS f d f D D I pkaqmif;&,l&mwGif pifumylESifh tjcm;tmqD,Hav;EdkifiH (tif'keD;&Sm;? rav;&Sm;? zdvpfyki?f xki;) wkYdtMum; digital d d d f d d d f divide odoomom&Saeonfukd awGUEkionf/ tmqD,H ig;EdkiiH (pifumyl? tif'keD;&Sm;? rav;&Sm;? f d zdvpfyki?f xki;) tkipDwDukeypön;rsm;tay: pkpkaygif; d d f d f f f aps;uGuoHk;pGJrIonf 1998 ckESpwGif tar&duefa':vm 11 f f bDvsH&&mrS 1998 ckESpwGif tar&duefa':vm 42 bDvsH&vm Sd f Sd cJhonf/ 1998 ckESpwGif tDvufx&Geepfukeypön;rsm;twGuf f f f f tmqD,H ig;EdkifiH cefYrSef;xm;aom jynfwGif;aps;uGuf t&G,tpm;onf ,if;a'orS pkpkaygif;tDvufx&Geepf xkwf f f vkyrIxGuuke wpf0ufxuf enf;aeaMumif; awGU&S&onf/ f f f d tmqD,Hig;EdkifiH&Sd uGefysLwmypönf;ud&d,mrsm;tay:wGif
  • 69. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 129 pkpkaygif;toHk;p&dwonf 1988 ckESpwGif tar&duefa':vm f f 2 'or 2 bDvsH&S&mrS 1998 ckESpwGif tar&duefa':vm 2 d f 'or 3 bDvsHokYjd rifhwufcJhonf/ ,if;onf urÇmhaps;uGu f 1 'or 3 &mckiEIe;&S&mrS 3 'or 7 &mckiEIe;okYdjrifhwufcJh d f f d d f f jcif;yifjzpfonf/ pifumyl Ekiionf 1998 ckEpwif tmqD,&dS d f H S f G H pkpaygif;uGeysLwmypön;f aps;uGu 56 'or 4 &mckiEe;f &S&mrS k f f dfI d 1998 ckESpwGif 63 'or 7 &mckiEIe;okYd jrifhwufcJhonf/ f d f f xkaMumifh tmqD,ig;Ekiiwif uGeysLwmtoH;ûyrIü pifumylEiiH Yd H dfH G f k kd f tiftm;BuD;rm;rIonf ,if; uGeysLwmypön;xkwvkyrI f f f f tiftm;BuD;rm;rIxuf omvGeonf/ f xkjYd yif uGeysLwm hardware qki&m toHk;p&dwaqmhz0J f d f f f oHk;pGJrIESihf tdkipDwD0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;onf owif;tcsuf f f tvuf&SmazGjcif; ta&;BuD;aom tpdwftydkif;rsm;ukd udk,fpm;ûyonf/ pD;yGm;a&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIESifh zGHUûzd;rI tzGJUtpnf; (OECD) 1995 ckESpf cefYrSe;xm;csut& f f pifumylEkiiukavhvmMunfygu aqmhz0Eihf tdkipw0efaqmifrI d f H d h f J S f D D vkyief;rsm;onf pkpaygif; tkipwo;pGr 40 &mckiEe;&Sonf/ f k d f D D kH J I dfIf d tif;'keD;&Sm;wGif 19 &mcdkiEIe;om&Sonf/ rav;&Sm;wGif 34 d f f d &mckiEe;? xki;wGif 30 &mckiEe;ESihf zdvpfyiwif 28 &mcdkiEe; d f If d f d f If kd f G f If om&SMd uonf/ xkYaMumifh EdkiiHykdrkdwk;wufavav? aqmhz0JESihf d f d f 0efaqmifrvyief;wGif oH;pGr&,,m ykrjkd rifrm;avavjzpfonf/ I kf k JIS f d h Edkiiwum tcsutvufaumfyka&;&Si; (IDC) u ulnD f H f d f yhy;aom owif;tcsutvuftzGUJ tpnf; tñTe;ude; (ISI) udk H dk f f f 130 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tajccHí EdkiiH 55 EkiiHukd avhvm&mwGif pifumylEkdiiHonf f d f f 2001 ckEpwif tqifh 9 ae&mcswaMumif;awGU&onf/ ,if; S f G d f tñTe;ude;&rSwrSm 5169 jzpfonf/ tm&SwGif tjrifhqHk; f f f *syefEkdiiHrSm 11 ae&mwGi&Sdonf/ tñTe;ude;&rSwrSm 5182 f f f f f jzpfonf/ ,if;wkYdtxufwGif qGD'ifESihf aemfa0EkiiHwkYd&SMd uNyD; d f tñTe;ude;&rSwrSm 6000 txuf&Sonf/ tm&SxGe;opfp f f f d f pufrIEkiiH 31 EkiiHjzpfaom a[mifaumif? w½kw?f wkiay? d f d f d f ESihf ud&;,m;wkonf tqifh 15? 18 ESihf 19 toD;oD;&SMd uonf/ kD Yd tmqD,H 44 Ekiitqifrm odoomomedronf/ rav;&Sm;u d f H h S d hf 32? xki;u 47? zdvpfykiu 48 ESihf tif'keD;&Sm;u 53 d f d f d toD;oD;&SdMuonf/ wpfzef udk&D;,m;trsKd;om;uGefysLwm at*sipD (NCA) avhvmrIt& pifumylonf tqifhtm;jzifh f *syefEie;uyfaeNyD; udk&;,m;ESihf w½kwf (wkiay) a&SUoka&muf S hf D D d f Yd aeonf/ þwGif tkipDwDysHUESHUrIESihf &,lrIwkYdukd wduspGmwki;wm d f d f vQif txl;ojzifh tifwmeuf? tD;aumrmhpESihf 0g,mvuf f enf;ynmwkYd ]]tdkipDwDopf}} (New ICT) udk avhvmMunfh f ygu pifumylESihf tmqD,H av;EdkiiHwkYd uGmjcm;aeonfukd f awG&onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh aetdro; ygpife,fueysLwmydiqirI Y f kH Gf k f dk f t& MunfvQif pifumylEiiwif 1999 ckEpu 39 &mckiEe;f &SNd yD; h dk f H G Sf dfI rav;&Sm;? zdvpfyki?f tif'keD;&Sm;ESihf xki;EkiiHwkYa&SUokdYa&muf d d d f d f d d f f aeonf/ ,if;onf a[mifaumif 36 &mckiEIe;? *syef 33 &mckiEe;xuf a&SUa&mufaeonf/ awmifuk&;,m; 18 &mckiEe; d f If d D d f If ESihf w½kwf (wdkiay) 26 &mckiEIe;wkYdxuf a&SUa&mufaeonf/ f d f f
  • 70. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 131 w,fvzke;vki;rsm;ESihf q,fvvmzke;xk;azmuf D f d f l f d ysHUESHUrIt&MunfhvQifvnf; pifumylysHUESHUxkd;azmufEIef;onf rav;&Sm;xuf oHk;qykrkdjrifhrm;onf/ tjcm;tmqD,HEkiiHrsm; d d f xuf 7 qESihf 40 q ykrkdjrifhrm;onf/ EkiiHvlOD;a&tMum; d d f tifwmeuftoHk;ûyrI jyif;jyrIt&MunfhvQif pifumylEkiiHonf d f 1999 ckESpwGif vlOD;a& 24 &mckiEIe;&Sonf/ rav;&Sm;u f d f f d 5 'or 3 &mckdifEIef;&Sdonf/ tifwmeuf 'kdrdef; host t&MunfhvQif pifumylEkiiHonf 2000 jynfhESp?f Zefe0g&Dv d f d 1 &ufaeYu 150000 hosts &Sonf/ ,if;onf tjcm;tmqD,H av;EdkifiH aygif; pkpkaygif; host ta&twGufxufyif ydrrsm;jym;onf/ GDP &mckiEe;f taejzifh tkiw&if;ES;ûr§yEr k kd dfI d f D D f HS I pkpkaygif; wki;wmrIukd toHk;ûyjcif;jzifh avhvmMunfhygu d f pifumylEkdiiH 2 'or 8 &mckiEIe;onf tjcm; tmqD,H f d f f av;EkdifiHtxufwGif odomxif&Sm;pGm&Sdaeonf/ 1999 d f If d f D ckEpwif pifumylonf GDP &mckiEe;taejzifh tkiwokH;pGJ S f G rIrSm urÇmay:wGif eHygwf 10 tqifh&Sonf/ 1999 ckESpwGif d f per capital ICT oHk;pGJrIt& wki;wmMunfhvQif eHygwf 6 d f ae&mwGif tqifh&Sonf/ d urÇmaps;uGursm;wGif tkipwukeypön;rsm; xkwvkyf h f d f D D f f f rIonf 1980 jynfveEpumvrsm;ESihf 1990 jynfveEpumv h Gf S f h Gf S f rsm;wGif tmqD,Hig;EkdifiHtwGuf t"duusaom pD;yGm;a&; wk;wufrIt&if;tjrpfjzpfaepOf ,if;a'otaejzifh vkyom; d f qGJaqmifrIûyvkyfaom ukefxkwfvkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufonfh Fixed 132 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f w½kw?f ruúqDukESihf tdE´d,uJhokdYaomEkiiHrsm;ESihf ,SOûf ydirI d d f f jrifwufjcif;ukd &ifqiae&onf/ tki,mvefEiiEihf uRr;usirI h dk f df kd f H S f f qGaqmifEiaom ukexkwvkyief;rsm;aqmif&uaeaom ,cif J kd f f f f G f ta&SUOa&myEkiiHrsm;ESihf,SOûf ydi&ifqkiae&onf/ xkYdjyif ,if; d f f d f tkipwukd xkwvkyrI aqmif&urrsm;ukd *vkb,fEiipkaumfykd d f D D f f G f I d kd f H H f d f a&;&Si;rsm; (MNCs) u aqmif&GuaeMuonf/ tmqD,HEkiiH f rsm;xufpmvQif w½kwf (wkiay) ESihf uk&D;,m;wkYrS *vkb,f d f d d d tzJUG tpnf;rsm; BuD;xGm;wk;wufvmaeonf/ tmqD,HEkiiHrsm; d d f onf vHkavmufaomenf;ynmqki&m pGr;aqmif&nfrsm;ESihf d f f omí uRrf;usijf rifrm;aom vltiftm;yhy;rIzUHG ûzd;&ef rûyvkyEkif h H kd f d oa&GU ,if;wkY *vkb,ftkipDwDukeypön;xkwvkyrIqki&m d d d f f f f f d f vuf&Sd&S,f,monf tem*wfwGif a&&Snfxdef;xm;Ekdifrnf r[kwacs/ w½kwEkdiiHu urÇmhukeoG,rItzGJUtpnf; (WTO) f f f f f odkY0ifa&mufcJh&m NAFTA (ajrmuftar&du vGwfvyfaom ukefoG,frIoabmwlnDcsuf) atmuf&Sd ruúqDudkEkdifiHokdY xkwvkyra&TUajymif;jcif; jrifwufvmonf/ xkjYd yif ta&SUOa&m f f I h y aygif;pnf;aqmif&GurIwk;wufjcif;onf Oa&my,leD,HokYd f d a&muf&vmonf/ pufrvkyief;ay:vpDopfrsm;onf enf;ynm dS I f qki&m pGr;aqmifEkdirIrsm; zGHUûzd;rIESihf ynma&;ESihf vltiftm; d f f f avhusioifwef;ay;rIwif t&Se&aeaom &if;ES;ûr§yErukd tm½Hk hf G df D f HS I pku&rnfjzpfonf/ d f ykdrkdta&;BuD;aomtcsufum; pifumylEkdifiHrSvGJí tmqD,HEkdiiHrsm;onf txl;ojzifh tifwmeuf? e-Commerce f ESihf 0g,mvufenf;ynmtoH;ûyrIü tdipwysUH EUHS rEihf &,lrwwif k kfD D IS I Y dk G
  • 71. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 133 aemufususeae&pfonf/ puif'DaeAD;,ef;EdkiiHrsm;? tar&d f f uefEihf tjcm;Oa&myEkiirsm;onf tkipwopfukd vsijf refaom S d f H d f D D pl;prf;&SmazGrjI zifh a&SUoajy;aeNyDjzpfonf/ þwGif tmqD,a'oü Ykd H EdkiiHtrsm;pkonf tkipDwDopfukd tvsirD&ef zGHUNzdK;rI e-Readif d f f ness zGHUûzd;rI r&Sdao;acs/ þwGif e-Readiness &&Sd&ef enf ; ynmopf u d k vuf c H E k d i f N yD ; ynmwwf a omvl O D ; a& vHkavmufpGm&S&rnf/ vkytm;cp&dwf enf;yg;rIxufpmvQif d f enf;ynmqef;opfzefwD;rIrSwpfqifh ,SOfNydKif&ef pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;rsm;wGif r[mAsL[mtajrmftjrif&Sd&rnf/ Network (uGef&uf) tajccHtaqmufttHkwGif &if;ESD;ûr§yfESHrIrsm;onf tm;ay;&ef yk*¾vu? tpdk;&tcef;u@pepf &S&rnfjzpfonf/ d d tpk;& pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;qki&mywf0ef;usionf enf;ynm d f d f f qef;opfzefw;rIwif ydkrkaqmif&u&rnfjzpfonf/ ,if;ywf0ef; D G d G f usionf enf;ynmuRrf;usiolrsm;ESihf pDrHcefYcGJolrsm;tMum; f f pGeYfOD; wDxGivkyief;qki&m ,Ofaus;rIESihf ykrkdywfouf&rnf f f d f d jzpfonf/ tmqD,HpD;yGm;a&;t& tkipDwD&,lrI aES;auG;aom d f ajcvSr;rsm;twGuf tBuHay;csursm;wGif jzpfEkdiaom bmom f f f pum; twm;tqD;tcuftcJrsm; yg0ifrItcef;u@wGif pnf;rsn;pnf;urf;avQmhay;rI aES;auG;aomajcvSr;vnf;yg0if f f onf/ pnf;rsO;qki&mûyjyifajymif;vJr aES;auG;aom ajcvSr; f d f I f vnf; yg0ifonf/ 134 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f *vkb,fuGe&ufpD;yGm;a&;ESihf xdki;tD;aumrmhpf d f f xki;Ekiionf *vkb,fp;yGm;a&;udkzivp&ef ay:vpD d f d f H d D G hf S f wpfckukd tpOftNrJazmfaqmifcJhonf/ ,if;odkYyGifhvif;rIESifh wnfNidraom rufc½dp;yGm;a&;aMumifh xki;Ekiionf EkiijH cm;udk f kD df dfH df wku½u&if;ES;ûr§yErudk qGaqmif&mwGif atmifjrifconf/1997 d f kd f D f HS I J hJ ckESpf pD;yGm;a&;tusytwnf;jzpfonfhwkiatmif qufET,ae f d f f aom xkwvkyrenf;ynmrsm;ESitwl EkiijH cm; wku½u&if;ES; f f I hf d f d f kd f D ûr§yESHrIukd qGJaqmifcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ vkytm;coufomrItay: f f tompD;&csuutajccHNyD; xki;Ekiionf txnftvdyvkyief;? f kd d f d f H f f tDvufx&Geepfvyief;? tpm;taomufvyief;ESihf armfawmfum; f kf kf tydkypön;vkyief;paom ukexkwvkyrvkyief;rsm;pGmwGif xkwf f f f f f I f vkyrI A[dkXmewpfcktaejzifh pwifaqmif&GucJhonf/ f f trsK;om;pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra&;zGUH ûzd;rIbkwtzGUJ (NESDB) d I f ESihf urÇmhbPfwkYdu aqmif&GucJhaom avhvmrIwpf&yfwGif f xki;pufrIvkyief;rsm;pGmonf wjznf;jznf; ,SOûf ydiEkdipGr; d f f f f f qHk;½H;aeonf[k &Si;&Si;vif;vif;azmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;avhvm I f f rIonf xki;EkiiH&Sd ukexkwvkyrIvkyief;ckepfck&Sd tzGJUtpnf; d f d f f f f f rsm; ukeusp&dwzJGUpnf;rIrsm;udk cGJjcrf;pdwjf zmcJhonf/ xkYjd yif f f t"du,SOjf ydKifbufrsm;ESiEi;,SOvQif xki;pufrvkyief;rsm;wGif hf Id f f d f I f ydkrkdenf;yg;aom tjrwftpGe;rsm;&Sonf/ uRrf;usivkyom; f d f f enf;yg;rI? xkwukeypön;t&nftaoG;nhzsi;rI? ukeypön;p&dwf f f f H f f f jrifhrm;rIwkdYaMumifhjzpfonf/ om;a&ypön;rsm;rSwpfyg; pufrI f vkyief;trsm;pkwGif pkpkaygif;xkwuke &mckiEIe;taejzifh f f f d f f
  • 72. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 135 tenf;qHk; vkyfief;aqmif&GufrI p&dwf&Sdonf/ xkdYaMumifh xki;ukexkwvkyolrsm;onf ykrkdaumif;rGeaom t&nftaoG; d f f f f d f tmrcHrIrSwpfqifh xkwfukefypönf;t&nftaoG; jrifhrm; wk;wufjcif;? vkyom;uRr;usirI tqifjh r§ijhf cif;jzifh xkwvkyrI d f f f f f ukeusp&dwrsm; avQmcsjcif;tay:wGif OD;pm;ay;&efvtyfonf/ f f h kd ukefMurf;ypönf;p&dwfrsm; avQmhcsjcif;jzifh xkwfvkyfrIp&dwf avQmhcs&efvktyfonf/ xkYjd yif xki;ukrÜPDrsm;onf ,if;wkY d d f d rm;uufwif;ESihf tkycsKyfa&;qki&m pGr;&nfukdvnf; jr§ihfwif f d f f &rnfjzpfonf/ zGUH ûzd;NyD;Ediirsm;&Sd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf supply chain kfH f pDrHcefYcGJrItwGuf owif;tcsuftvufESifh qufoG,fa&; enf;ynmudk &,ltoHk;ûycJMh uonf/ ,if;onf xda&muftusK; d &Sdaom ukefusp&dwfavQmhcsa&; ud&d,mwpfcktjzpf awGU&Sd &onf/ xkYdjyif demand chain wGif tdkipDwDpwiftoHk;ûyjcif; f onf azmufonfqufqHa&;pDrHcefYcGJrIwGif pGr;aqmif&nfukd f xl;jcm;pGm jrifhwufapcJhonf/ azmufonf ESpoufauseyfrIukd f jrifhwufapcJhonf/ xdki;EkiiHuJhokYd zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;&Sd pD;yGm;a&; f d f d f dfH f vkyief;rsm;onf OECD Ekiirsm;&Sd tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;xuf vkyief;rS f vkyief;odYk (B2B) e-Commerce &,ltoH;ûyjcif;rS ykrBkd u;rm;aom f k d D ukeusp&dwpkaqmifjcif;rsm;ukd od&Sem;vnf&ef vktyfonf/ f f d d *vkb,fue&ufp;yGm;a&;udk cswquf&ef zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm; d Gf D d f kd f H twGuf cufcJvmonf/ taMumif;rlum; tcGihftvrf;rsm;ESihf 136 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f Opöm"e<u,f0rIwkdYonf zGHUûzd;NyD;EkiiHrsm;wGif ykrkdtm½Hkpku&ef d f d d f &nf&G,vmaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ a&S;umvu rsm;rsm;pm;pm; f xkwvkyjf cif;tay: tm½HkpkuMf uonf/ acwfopfp;yGm;a&;onf f d D uGe&ufp;yGm;a&;jzpfvmonf/ bmompum;onf qufo,a&; f D G f twGuf pHcsepHñTe;wpfckjzpfonf/ t*Fvybmompum;onf df f d f uGe&ufpD;yGm;a&;tcsujf zpfvmonf/ tifwmeuf&Sd owif; f tcsufvuf 78 &mckdifEIef;ukd t*Fvdyfbmompum;jzifh odr;qnf;xm;NyD; tifwmeuftay;t,lvkyief;udk t*Fvyf f f d bmompum;jzifh aqmif&uonf/ t*Fvybmompum; 0gus G f d f tjzpf xm;&SdaomEkdifiHrsm;onf *vkdb,fuGef&ufpD;yGm;a&; (global network economy) wGif tcGitvrf;rsm; &&SMd uonf/ hf Oyrmtm;jzifh tdE,ESihf zdvpfyiEiiwonf ukvevufatmuf d´ kd f kd f H Ykd d kd D usa&mufrtay:tajccHNyD; aqmhz0xwvyrae&mtjzpf oD;oefY I fJ k f kfI aps;uGuf &&Sxm;onf/ EkiiHpHkaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;twGuf calld d f d f f d f f H S f centre tcsutcsmjzpfonf/ xki;Edkiionf rMumao;rDEprsm; u rmbfwDrDvsHa':vm e-Commerce y½dk*sursm;wGif EdkiiH f f jcm;&if;EDS;ûr§yESHrIukd qGJaqmifcJhonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh pifumyl f w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si;? Zufq*gt&if;tES;tkypk (tar&duef D G f D D f zufpyft&if;tESD;vkyfief;) wkdYonf tifwmeuf access 0efaqmifrI? tcsuftvufA[kd|meESifh B2B e-Commerce wkYdtwGuf aygif;pnf;xm;aom atmfya&;&Si;vkyief;jzpfonfh f f Point Asia wGif 1 'or 2 bDvsHbwfaiG (a':vmoef; 30 cefY) udk &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHcJhonf/ xkYdjyif awmiftmz&duukrÜPD
  • 73. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 137 jzpfonfh MIH onf aemufxyf xki; tifwmeuf0efaqmifrI d f tultnDay;ukrPjD zpfonfh Internet KSC wGif aiGaMu;rsm;pGm Ü &if;ES;ûr§yEconf/ ,if; y½dk*sutenf;i,fonf tusK;tjrwf D f HS hJ f d rsm; &&ScJhonf/ tifwmeuftajccH 0efaqmifrIvkyief;twGuf d f jynfwGi;aps;uGuonf tvGeao;i,fonf/ xki;EkiiHonf f f f d f d f ykrus,jf yefaom aps;uGuvufc&ef *vkb,fp;yGm;a&;rS oD;oefY d kd Y f H d D jzpfaeonf/ xkYdjyif xki;EkiiH&Sd e-Commerce vkyief;wGif d f d f f uefYowfxm;aom &if;ESD;ûr§yESHrIESihf tvkytukitcGihftvrf; f f d f rsm;onf xki; tkiwDuRrf;usiolrsm;udk yifv,f&yfjcm;EdkiiH d f d f f f rsm;okYd armif;xkwaeonf/ f xdki;EdkiiHonf *vdkb,fuGe&ufpD;yGm;a&;wGif &Sioef f f f f jzpfxe;&ef? e-Commerce &,laqmif&u&ef uefowfxm;aom Gf G f Y tcuftcJrsm;udk z,f&Sm;jcif;jzifh trSew&m;opfukd vsijf refpm f G &,l&rnfjzpfonf/ xki;Edkiionf tompD;&aom t&if;tjrpf d f f H opfrsm;udk &SmazGae&rnfjzpfonf/ xkYdjyif *vkb,fESihf a'o d qki&m qef;opfzefwD;rIrsm;wGif vufwGJaqmif&Gu&rnfjzpf d f f onf/ xkdif;EkdifiH&Sd e-Commerce tajctaeonf tpysK;p d ueOD;tqifhwiyif &SaeqJjzpfonf/ oHk;pGJolbufuMunfhvQif G f d 1999 ckEpu xki;Ekiiwif tifwmeufok;pG&ef pm&if;ay;xm; S f d f d f H G H J olrSm cefYrSef;ajctm;jzifh vlOD;a&wpfoef;cefYom &SdcJhonf/ avhvmpl;prf;rIwpfckt& tifwmeuftoHk;ûyolrsm; 57 'or 5 &mckiEIe;onf touf 20 ESp0ef;usit&G,rsm; jzpfonf/ d f f f f f 138 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f 11 &mckiEIe;onf q,fausmoufrsm;jzpfMuonf/ avhvm d f f f pl;prf;rIwGif awGU&ScJhonfrSm tifwmeufvlOD;a& 81 'or d 6 &mckiEe;onf ukepnfrsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrtevi;ukd 0,f,chJ d f If f I G f kd f l jcif;r&Sacs/ d 1999 ckEpf arvwGif avhvmpl;prf;rIrsm;t& xkwvkyf S f ol b uf u Munf h v Qif tenf ; qH k ; uk r Ü P D 383 ck o nf 0ufbqkursm;&SMd uonf/ odkY&mwGif ,if;0ufbqkursm; f d f f d f 53 &mcdiEe;onf ukrPowif;tcsutvuf yk½rQom tqdûk y kfIf Ü D f Yd kH Muonf (okYdr[kw) ukrÜPDxkwukeypön;rsm; aMumfjim&ef f f f f toHk;ûyMuonf/ 0ufbqkursm; 32 &mckiEIe;uomvQif f d f d f f tGevkdi;tay;t,lupörsm; ay;pGr;EkiMf uonf/ 15 &mckiEIe; f f d f d d f f omvQif pdwcs&aom credit-card aiGay;acsrIrsm; ay;pGr;Ekif f f d Muonf/ tifwmeufay:wGif a&mif;csrIay;pGrf;Edkifaom ukeypön;rsm;? ausmufrsu&wemrsm;? pmtkyrsm;ESihf vufrI f f f f ynmypön;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ aqmzf0J? aw;*DwESihf owif; f tcsutvufuJhokYaom todÓPfynmqki&m ukeypön;rsm; f d d f f f a&mif;csaomukrPD tenf;i,fom&Sonf/ tGevi;uay;aom Ü d f kd f 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;wGif [kw,fêudwifrSm,ljcif; Internet f d access 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm; yg0ifonf/ tGevi;twwfynm I f f kd f qdki&m0efaqmifrEihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;0efaqmifrrsm;udk yhyk;ay; f I S f I H d aom0ufbqkursm; vwfwavmtaetxm;wGif r&Sao;acs/ f d f d Business-to-Business (B2B) tD;aumrmhpEiywfouf f S hf NyD; ukrÜPDtenf;i,fonf ukeMf urf;ypön;rsm;0,f,l&efESihf f
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  • 75. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 141 tajccHwGivkdavao;r&Sd aqmif&Guoifhonf/ ,if;tajccH f f oabmw&m;rsm;tjyif Frame work onf aocsmaom t"du ay:vpDrsm;ukd aqG;aEG;xm;NyD; uspfvspfaom r[mAsL[m ajrmufvrf;aMumif;rsm;ukd ulnDyHhyk;ay;onf/ w,fvDuGejf rLeD d au;&Si;aps;uGuukd vkavao;r&Saqmif&u&ef ,if;utqkûd y f f d d G f xm;onf/ tifwmeufonf ukefypönf;ESifh0efaqmifrIrsm; ukeo,rtwGuf ,mOfuif;rJaom ywf0ef;usijf zpfonf/ xkjYd yif f G fI h commercial code rsm;onf nDnGwrQwrI&&rnf/ todÓPf f Sd qki&m ykiqkdirItcGihta&;udk ckickdirmrm umuG,xm;&rnf d f d f f f d f f f jzpfonf/ xki;EkiiH tD;aumrmhpukavhvmvQif t"duay:vpD d f d f f d udpö&yftaejzifh w,fvDqufoG,a&;aps;uGursm;ukd vkav f f d ao;r&Sd aqmif&Gujf cif;ukd awGUjrifEkionf/ pifppf w,fvD d f quf o G , f a &;onf tD ; aumrmh p f t wG u f r&S d r jzpf a om taxmuftcH taqmufttHkwpfckjzpfonf/ zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm;wGif kd f H ,if;w,fvDqufoG,a&;u@&Sd vuf0g;BuD;tkyrIonf EkiiH f f d f rsm; Cyberspace okdY 0ifa&mufrIudk [efYwm;xm;onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh xdki;Ekiiwif vufvD Internet access aps;uGuf f d f H G onf vHk;0,SOûf ydiae&onf/ ukrÜPD 18 ckonf Internst f Service Provider (ISP) taejzifhaqmif&Gufae&aomfvnf; xki;EkiiHqufoG,a&;tmPmykif (CAT) taejzifh vufum; d f d f f d ta&mif;aps;uGu?f okr[kwf Ekiiwumaps;uGuudk vuf0g;BuD; Yd dfH f tkyxm;qJjzpfonf/ þodkYjzifh xki;EdkiiHwGif tifwmeuf &,l f d f f 142 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jcif;ukd tjyeftvSef tusK;oufa&mufEkiaom enf;vrf;rsm; d d f pGm&Sdonf/ yxrtcsurSm xki;EdkiiH&Sd tifwmeufvufcHrI ukeus f d f f f p&dwonf tjcm;tm&SEkiiHrsm;xuf odoomomjrifhrm;onf/ f d f d xki;EkiiH&Sd 24 em&D dial-up tifwmeuf0efaqmifrIaps;EIe;ukd d f d f f tjcm;tm&SEkiirsm;ESihf Edi;,SOMf unfygu xki;Ekii&dS 64 kbps d f H I f h d f d f H leased line aps;EIe;onf odoomomjrifrm;aeonfukd awGU&& f d h dS onf/ ,if;onf a[mifaumifEkiiHxuf ajcmufqydkíaps;BuD; d f onf/ *syefEiixuf 4 q? rav;&Sm;xuf 2 'or 7 q? dk f H zdvpfykdiEkiiHxuf 2 'or 6 q ydkíaps;BuD;onfukd awGU&Sd f d f &onf/ tjcm;aomtpdk;& yg0ifaqmuf&GurIonf oHk;pGJolrsm; f tay: ykrkdBuD;rm;aomp&dwrsm; jzpfaponf/ tifwmeufESihf d f tD;aumrmhptoHk;ûyrI wk;jr§i&ef xki;Ekiitaejzifh ,SOûf ydiaom f d hf d f d f H f aps;uGufwpfck vkdtyfonf/ ,if;&nfrSef;csufatmifjrif&ef jynfwGi;uJhokYd EkiiHjcm;0ifaygufopfrsm;rS ydkrkd,SOûf ydirIrsm; f d f f cGijhf yK&efaps;uGuf vkavao;r&Sd tqifajyacsmarGUapjcif;yifjzpf d onf/ xkjYd yif oHk;pGorsm; tusK;pD;yGm;twGuf tvkyvkyaom J l d f f vGwvyfaom pnf;rsO;vkyxHk;tzGJUtpnf;wpfck xlaxmif&ef f f f jzpfonf/ txl;ojzifh tar&duefu tqkûd yxm;aom Framework for Global Electronic Commerce u axmufcHxm; ouJokYd urÇmukeo,rtzGUJ tpnf; (WTO) tajccHw,fvD h h f G f I qufoG,fa&;oabmwlnDcsuf xda&mufaom taumif txnfazmfrIukd aqmif&Gu&efvktyfonf/ f d
  • 76. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce pifumylEkiiH d f 143 e-Commerce azmfaqmifrI pifumylEkiiHonf ta&SUawmiftm&SrS ûrdUBuD;tqifh&Sd d f wpfckwnf;aom uRef;EkiiHjzpfonf/ ,if; {&d,mrSm 650 d f pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwmom&Sonf/ vlOD;a&rSm 4 oef;cefY&Sonf/ d d ,if; EkiiHt&G,tpm;onf ao;i,fNyD; obm0t&if;tjrpf d f f &Sm;yg;aomfvnf; tm&Sta&SUwif tHhz,pD;yGm;a&;wk;wufaom G G f d EkiiHjzpfonf/ pifumylEkiiHonf 1965 ckESpwGif EkiiHa&; d f d f f d f d f f vGwvyfrI&&SNd yD;uwnf;u GDP wk;wufrIEIe;onf ysr;rQ f tajccHtm;jzifh 7 &mckiEIe;ausm&ScJhonf/ xkYdjyif wpfOD;us d f f f d 0ifaiGtqifhonf urÇmay:&Sd tjrifhrm;qHk;EdkifiHrsm;wGif yg0ifonf/ pifumylEdkifiHonf xkwfvkyfrItajccHtm;jzifh MunfhvQif *vkdb,fESifh a'oqkdif&maps;uGufrsm;twGuf wk;wufaeaom uRrf;usirIESihf enf;ynmtm;jzifh qJGaqmif d f rufvk;ay;aom ukeypön;rsm;xkwvkyaeonf/ tjcm;wpfzuf H f f f f wGif a'oqki&m aps;uGutwGuf BuD;rm;pGmaqmif&Guay; d f f f aeaom 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm; tcsutcsmae&mjzpfonf/ f f pifumylEiionf *vdkb,fûrdUBuD;jzpfvmonf/ ,if; kd f H wkd;wufvmaom *vkdb,fpD;yGm;a&;? b@ma&;? o,f,l ykYaqmifa&;? w,fvDuejf rLeDau;&Si;ESihf owif;tcsutvuf d G f f cswqufrrsm;ESitwl ta&SUawmiftm&SjyifyrS EdkiipkHaumfya&; d f I hf f H kd &Si; 6000 cefYESihf qufoG,rIûyvkyxm;onf/ tkipDwDtcef; f f f d f u@onf pifumylpD;yGm;a&;wGif t"duyg0ifaqmif&Guonf/ f xkwukeyrmPonf 1996 ckESpwGif pifumyla':vm 26 f f f 144 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f uka#&SNd yD; GDP 20 &mckiEIe;&Sonf/ t"duusaom d f f d u@cGJrSm ukefxkwfvkyfrIjzpfNyD; GDP 12 'or 3 &mckiEIe;&Sonf/ tdkipDwD0efaqmifrIvkyief;wGif vuúm;ESihf d f f d f f vufvueo,r?I w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si;f vkyief;rsm;? pD;yGm;a&; D kf G f D G f vkyief;owif;tcsutvufESihf enf;ynmqki&m 0efaqmifrI f f d f vkyief;rsm;? uGeysLwmESihf tkipwukexkwvkyrvkyief;rsm;rSm f f d f D D f f f I f uGeysLwmrsm;ESihf tDvufx&Geepf ½Hk;oHk;ud&,mESihf tDvuf f f d x&Geepftpdwtydi;wkjYd zpfonf/ pifumylEiionf tDvufx&Gef f f kf kd f H epfypön;rsm;? tydkypön;rsm;ESihf tpdwtydki;rsm;twGuf ta&; f f f f BuD;aom ta&SUtm&SxkwvkyrIA[kXmejzpfonf/ ,if;onf f f d tdkipDwDukeypön;rsm;twGuf ta&;BuD;aom rm;uufwif;ESihf f f f jzefYcsda&; A[kdtcsuftcsm ae&mvnf;jzpfonf/ ,if;wGif txl;ojzifh ½H;oH;pufypön;ESihf w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; ud&,m k k f D G f d rsm;yg0ifonf/ ta&twGuonf 1990 jynfEpwif oHk;ck&&mrS f h S f G dS 1996 ckEpwif 39 ck&vmonf/ ,if;wGif tifwmeuf0efaqmif Sf G dS rI yHyk;rIrsm;? rdkbi;q,fvvmESihf ar*sm0efaqmifrrsm; û*d[wk h d kd f l I f cswquf0efaqmifrIrsm; yg0ifonf/ d f f d f d f pifumylEkdiiHonf ta&SUawmiftm&SEkiiHrsm;wGif tkiwD tzGHUûzd;qHk;EkiiHjzpfonf/ pifumyltdkiwDzHUG ûzd;rIukd NcHKiHkoHk;oyf d f f avhvmMunfygu tMurf;zsi;tm;jzifh tqifh av;qifh cGjJ cm;í h f &onf/ yxrtqifhonf 1980 jynfhESprS 1985 ckESpxd f f MumcJonf/ þtqifwif pifumyl trsK;om;tkiwD armif;ESif h h G d d f rIonf 1981 ckESpwGif trsK;om;uGeysLwmvkyief;pDrHcsuESihf f d f f f
  • 77. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 145 pwifcJhonf/ ,if;ü yxrqHk;atmifjrifrIrSm tkiwDukBd uD;Muyf d f aom Oya'jy|mef;onfbkwtzGUJ ukd pwifwnfaxmifcryifjzpf h f hJ I onf/ ,if;bkwtzGUJ rm NCB [kac:aom trsK;om;uGeysLwm f S d f bkwftzGJU (NCB) jzpfonf/ NCB ESifh trsKd;om;tkdifwD? ay:vpDoawoe? pHcsepñe;f rsm;ESihf toH;csrrsm;? okawoeESihf k dfH T k I zGHUûzd;rIqki&maumfrwDrsm;onf yk*¾vutcef;u@ESihf yg0if d f d ywfoufaqmif&Guaeonf/ xkYdjyif &nfrSe;csuf oHk;&yfukd f f atmufvi;ûyvkyf owfrwxm;onf/ t&yfbuf0efxrf;qki&m kd f S f d f uGeysLwmtoHk;csrI? aqmhz0Jtwwfynm&Sirsm;tm; oifwef; f f f ay;rIESihf aqmhz0JESihf 0efaqmifrIvkyief;wk;csJU&ef a'oqki&m f f d d f tkdifwDvkyfief; xlaxmifrIwkdYyifjzpfonf/ pifumylEdkifiHukd aqmhz0JA[kXmetjzpf xlaxmif&mwGif ,if;onf tdkiwDtcef; f d f u@ü a&mif;vktm;bufwGif zGHUûzd;wk;wufatmif aqmif&Guf d d &mwGivnf; ulnDyHhyk;ay;onf/ t&yfbuf0efxrf; uGeysLwm f d f toHk;csrIukd y½k*&rf (CSCP) onf tpdk;&xkwvkyrI pGr;tm; d f f f jr§ihwif&mwGif ulnDay;onf/ þokYjd zifh ,if;onf 0,fvktm; f d bufwGif zGHUûzd;wk;wufaponf/ d ûrdUjy0efaqmifrIqkdif&m uGefysLwmvkyfief;y½dk*&rf atmif j rif r I a emuf w G i f vk d u f y gvsuf pif u myl t pk d ; &onf e-Government aqmif & G u f r I p D r H c suf u k d tpysKd ; aqmif & G u f cJ h o nf / pkpkaygif; pifumyla':vm 1 'or 5 bDvsHukd 1999 rS 2002 ckEpxd oH;ESpwmumvausmwif ,if;y½d*&rfukd Sf k f f G k ulnyyk;&ef xm;&Say;onf/ e-Government onf Infocomm D hH d d 146 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ta&;BuD;aom r@dKifwpfckjzpfonf/ ,if;onf pifumylEkiiHukd todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;opfokdY ul;ajymif; d f jcif;tm; ulnDvrhfrnfjzpfonf/ d pifumyltpdk;&onf pD;yGm;a&;vdktifrsm;udk jznfhwif; ay;&ef vuf&SOya'rsm;ESihf pnf;rsO;rsm;udk jyefvnfoHk;oyf d f onf/ urÇmay:wGif e-Commerce tqifoifhtjzpfqHk;EkiiH d f rsm;wGif wpfEkiiHjzpfaomfvnf; pifumylonf tifwmeuf d f toHk;ûyvsuf tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;twGuf zGJUpnf;rIqkdi&m f f tajccHtaqmufttHkukd tm;aumif;armif;oefjzpfap&ef pOfquf rjywf ½ke;uefêud;pm;aeonf/ qufo,a&;ESihf owif;tcsuf f G f tvuf enf;ynm0efBuD;Xme (MCIT) onf r[mAsL[mopf av;ckukd ykHazmfaeonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm e-Businesses vkyief; f ckicaomazmifa';&Si;udk csrwjf cif;? pD;yGm;a&;wGif 'pf*spw,f d f hH f S f toGiajymif;jcif;udk ulnjD cif;? oH;pGo0,fvtm;udk aphaqmfjcif; f k J l dk ESihf rSeuefaom global dot.com tcsufESihf e-Businesses f awG;ac:xm;aom acgif;aqmifrA[kXmewpfcktaejzifh pifumyl I d trSwwHqycsrSwa&; r[mAsL[mwkYdyifjzpfonf/ f d f f MCIT taejzifhvnf; yk*¾vutcef;u@rS dot.com d twGuf tpysK;axmifrIrsm;ûyvky&ef aMunmcJhonf/ wwfEkdif d f oa&GUaom w,fvDuGejf rLau;&Si;rsm;ûyvky&ef aps;EIe;owf f f f rSwrpnf;rsO;rsm;ukd qufwuf jyefvnfokH;oyfjcif;jzifh pD;yGm; f I f kd a&;vkyief;rsm; e-Commerce aqmif&Gu&ef ulnDay;onf/ f f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; tGevi;toHk;ûya&;uln&ef tjcm;ynma&; f f kd f D 21 plan
  • 78. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 147 qdki&m êud;yrf;rIrsm;ESihftwl ''How to Identify e-Commerce f Opportunities'' pmtkyxkwa0jcif;ukd ulnDcJhonf/ xkYdjyif f f &Si;&Si;vif;vif;&Saom pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;ESihf ay:vpDabmif f f d f twki;twmwnfaxmifjcif;ukd aqmif&uay;cJonf/ þodjkY zifh d f G f h uk r Ü P D r sm;onf tif w meuf t ay;t,l v k y f i ef ; rsm;ud k oufaomifhoufom aqmif&GuEkdivrhfrnfjzpfonf/ wpfzef f f d e-Banking ESihf e-Insurance uJhokdYaom e-Finance y½dk*&rf rsm;udk tm;ay;&ef tpdk;&ESihf tjcm;at*siprsm;tMum; yl;aygif; f D aqmif&GurI &Saprnfjzpfonf/ f d ,if; e-Business toGiajymif;jcif;onf ajymif;vJrukd f I vG,ulacsmarGUapaom ywf0ef;usiwpfckukd ae&m,laponf/ f f a&mif;csorsm;onf t0ifukeusp&dwavQmcsjcif;ESihf pdw0ifpm; l f f h f aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf pGepm;&rIukd enf;yg;apjcif;ü f Yf t"dutcef;u@rSyg0ifonf/ Hosted 0efaqmifrvyief;rsm;ESihf I kf twl pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;wpfckonf aemufqHk;ay:enf;ynmukd f vufcHEkiNf yD; ,if;toHk;ûyrIt& ay;aqmif&onf/ d pifumylEkiiH Infocomm Development Authority d f (IDA) onf ASP vkyief;twGuf tpysK;aqmif&GurIrsm; f d f us,jf yefaom host taejzifh jyifqifxm;cJNh yD;jzpfonf/ ,if;wkYd Y teufwpfckrSm pifumyla':vm 9 oef; wefzk;&Sd jynfwGi; d f pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; tD;aumrmhpfy½kd*&rfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf pkpkaygif;y½dk*suukeusp&dw 50 &mckiEIe;txd yHhyk;ay;Ekif f f f d f f d d onf/ ASPA wGif Hewlett-Packette uJhokdUBuD;rm;aom 148 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tDvufx&GefepfukrÜPDrsm; axmufyHhrI&Sdonf/ ,if;onf Go-ASP partner programme (Go-APP) pwifvkyfaqmif &mwGif pifumyl a':vm 2 oef; axmufyHhcJhonf/ ,if;onf Hardware ? b@ma&;udprsm;? enf;ynmqki&moifwef;wkwif ö d f Yd G axmufyjhH cif;ESitwl Singapore ASPS ukd yHy;&eftpDtpOfjzpf hf h dk onf/ ,if ; ueOD ; aqmif & G u f r I r sm;onf 0ef B uD ; Xme Infocomm 21 Programme aemufqHk;tqifhukdazmfjyonf/ Infocomm 21 Programme onf tjyif&nfrSe;csursm;ESihf f f r[mAsL[mwkYdukd qufpyfay;onf/ ,if;onf vmrnfhig;ESpf ausmfumvwGif jynfwGif; Infocomm vkyfief;zGHUûzd;rIukd vG,ulacsmarmaponf/ xkYdjyif pifumylEkdiiHukd tifwmeuf f f acwf yxrurÇmpD;yGm;a&;tqifhtwef;okYd wGe;wifay;rnf f jzpfonf/ rav;&Sm;EkdifiH e-Commerce aqmif&GufrIrsm; rav;&Sm;EkiiHwGif rmvfwDrD'D,mzGHUûzd;rIaumfyka&;&Si; d f d f (MDC) onf rmvfwr',mplygaumf&pf'g (MSC) ukd pDrcefcNJG yD; DDD H Y zGHUûzd;atmifaqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1997 ESifh 1998 ckESpfwGif jzpfysucJhaom tm&Sa'o pD;yGm;a&;tusytwnf;onf MSC f f uk d tusKd ; ouf a &muf a pcJ h o nf / ok d Y a omf ,if ; tusKd ; oufa&mufronf jyif;xefvjS cif;r&Sacs/ tajccHtaqmufttHk I d zGHUûzd;rIonf aES;auG;cJhonf/ MSC taumiftxnfazmfrI
  • 79. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 149 aESmifhaES;cJhonf/ pD;yGm;a&;tusyftwnf;onf &if;ESD;ûr§yfESH olrsm;udk xdcuapcJonf/ jynfwi;&if;ES;ûr§yEorsm;udk pD;yGm; kd f h G f D f HS l tusytwnf;u txdemapcJonf/ MSC udk ae&mcsxm;aom f h ,if;wkYd pDrHcsursm;aESmifhaES;cJhNyD; a&TUqki;cJh&onf/ tjcm; f d f wpfzufwGif EkiiHjcm;&if;ESD;ûr§yESHolrsm;onf ,if;wkYd y½dk*suf d f f &if;ES;ûr§yErEiywfoufí ]]apmifMh unf}} oabmxm;&yfwnf D f HS I S hf h csuukd xm;cJhMuonf/ ,if;tcsursm;u MSC ajcvSr;ESihf f f f wk;wufrIukd t&SeavQmhapcJhonf/ d df 1999 ckESpfuwnf;u pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeonf jrifhwufvmcJhonf/ rav;&Sm;pD;yGm;a&;onf 1999 ckESpwGif f 5 'or8 &mcdkiEIe;xd wk;wufcJhNyD; 2000 jynfhESpwGif 8 f f d f 'or 4 &mcdkiEIe;xd jrifhwuf&ef &nfrSe;cJhonf/ þESpwGif f f f f MSC zGHUNzdK;wk;wufrItaetxm;okUd jyefvnfa&muf&onf/ d Sd ,aeYxd rav;&Sm;tpk;&onf y½dk*sutwGuf RM 14 bDvsH d f oHk;pGJcJhonf/ RM 9 bDvsHrSm KILA twGujf zpfonf/ RM 3 bDvsHrSm yufx½dkemh(pf) tjrTmarQmfpiftwGujf zpfonf/ RM bDvsHrSm Cyber jaya twGufjzpfonf/ pifppf RM 14 bDvsHwif 2 'or 5 rS 10 gigabyte uGe&uf? ta0;ajy;vrf; G f rsm;qufo,jf cif;ESihf tjcm; tajccHtaqmufttHkvkyief;rsm;uJh G f okYd qufET,aeaom ukeusp&dwrsm; ryg0ifacs/ Putrajaya f f f twGuf &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;? tkycsKyfa&;t&if;tESD;opfrsm;ESihf f MSC ydki;avmhy½dk*sursm;twGuf p&dwrsm;rygacs/ f f f 150 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f aumfya&;&Si; tnTe;ude;rsm;t&MunfvQif MSC onf kd f f f h aumif;pGmwk;wufcJhonf/ 2000 jynfhESptv,favmufwGif d f pkpkaygif;ukrÜPD 362 ckonf MSC tqifhtwef;ukdulnD cJMh uonf/ ukrPD 362 ckteuf cefUre;ajctm;jzifh 60 &mckiEe; Ü Sf dfIf rSm jynfwGi;ukrÜPDrsm;jzpfNyD; usef 40 &mckiEIe;rSm EkiiHjcm; f d f f d f ukrÜPDrsm;jzpfonf/ vwfwavmtaejzifh MSC wGif urÇmh tqiftwef;&Sd ukrPBD uD; ckepfcku rmvfwr',menf;ynmudk h Ü D D D OD;aqmifaeonf/ ,if;ukrÜPDrsm;wGif rdkuú½kdaqmhz?f NTT, Oracle,Sun,Intel ESihfCompaq wkYdyg0ifonf/ 2003 ckESpwGif f urÇmhtqifhtwef;rD ukrÜPDtenf;qHk; 50 yg0ifaqmif&Gu&ef f ypfrwxm;cJonf/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vkyief;aqmif&urrsm; pkpnf; S f h f G f I vkyfaqmif&ef aetdrftaqmuftODrsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; ae&mrsm; MSC wGif &&SEkdionf/ Cyber jaya vlOD;a&onf d f 2001 ckESpf ESpv,fyki;wGif 8000 rS 2000 xdjrifhwuf&mrS f d f 2005 ckEpwif 240000 okYd a&muf&conf/ vwfwavmwGif S f G dS hJ rmvfwDrD'D,mwuúokdv 0efxrf;ESihf ausmif;om;rsm;onf f Cyber jaya vlO;a& 5000 eD;yg;&Saeonf/ tjcm;olrsm; D d onf tvkyoYkd aeYpOfom;vm&ef uGmvmvrfyûl rdUEihf ydkíeD;aom f G S {&d,mrsm;wGif aexkiMf uonf/ d MSC onf Flagship toH;csrrsm;pGmtwGuf greenfield k I e,fajrjzpfonf/ OD;aqmifaeaomat*siprsm; tpD&ifcpmrsm; f D H t& Flagship toH;csronf wd;wufr&&Saeonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh k I k I d prwfausmif;rsm;twGuf enf;ynmtajccHtaqmufttHkonf wyfqifNyD;jzpfNyD; vuf&Sd 81 ausmif;wGif prf;oyfcJhonf/
  • 80. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 151 pG,po;Hk uwf Flagship tpDtpOft& rlvu &nf&,xm;cJonfh f kH G f h twdki; uwfwpfcktpm; pG,pkHuwfEpck&onf/ yxruwfukd f f S f dS 2000 jynfhESpfukefwGif pwiftaumiftxnfazmfcJhonf/ ,if;onf tpk;&0efxrf;rsm;twGuf &nf&G,onf/ ,if;onf d f tpdk;&0efxrf;rsm; uk,a&; uk,wm? vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;? d f d f um;armif;vkipif tao;pdwtcsursm;ESihf tjcm;tcsursm; d f f f f yg0ifonf/ ,if;onf rMumcif e-Cash ESihf use;rma&;tcsuf f tvufukd yl;aygif;aqmif&uvrrnf/ 'kw,pG,pkHokH;uwfukd G f d hf d f 2001 ckESpf apmapmydki;wGif pwifrwqufcJhonf/ ,if;onf f d f bPfvyief;ESihf aiGtay;t,luprsm;udk vG,uacsmarmaprnf kf dö f l jzpfonf/ twGuf e-Business,e-Procurement, vlpr;tm;t&if;tjrpfEihf pDrtycsKyrqi&m vkyief; Gf S H k f f I dk f f wm0efrsm;ESiqiaom yki;avmhy½dk*sursm;udk vwfwavmwGif hf kd f d f f uGJjym;jcm;em;aom tqifhrsm;ESihf prf;oyfaeonf/ e-Service y½dk*sufprf;oyfrIrsm;onf armfawmf,mOfrSwfyHkwifjcif;? vkipifûyvkyjf cif;? tGevki;use;rma&; owif;tcsutvuf d f f d f f f wkYESihf qufET,aeonf/ Flagship toHk;csrIrsm;wGif jynfwGi; d f f ESijhf ynfy &if;ES;jr§KyfErrsm;udk aMunm&mwGif telehealth twGuf D HS I RM oef; 270? e-Procurement twGuf RM oef; 200 ESihf tDvufx&Geepfenf;jzifh aiGay;acsrIrsm;twGuf pG,pHkoHk; card f f twGuf RM oef; 40 &Sonf/ d e-Government Flagship 152 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tqifhtwef;&Sd ukrÜPDig;cku okawoeESifh zGHUûzd;rIvIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm;udk azmfaqmifaepOf aemufxyf f f ukrÜPD 30 u e-Commerce solutions qki&m provider d f rsm;tjzpf rSwfyHkwifxm;Muonf/ NyD;pD;vkeD;yg;jzpfaeaom yxrvIdif;vIyf&Sm;aqmif&GufrIrsm;ESifh rmvfwDrD'D,mzGHUûzd;rI aumfyka&;&Si; (MDC) onf Flagship toHk;csrIrsm;tm;vHk; d f wdk;wufrukd jyefvnfok;oyfaeonf/ þonfrm vuf&um[ I H S dS G csursm;udk azmfxkwajz&Si;&efjzpfonf/ taumiftxnfazmfrI f f f ajcvSr;udk jr§ihfwif&efjzpfonf/ 'kw,vIi;vIy&Sm;rItwGuf f d d f f jyifqifrItqifh a&muf&S&efjzpfonf/ d rav;&Sm;EkiiHonf rmvfwDrD'D,maumf&pf'g (MSC) d f ukdypfrSwfxm;aqmif&Guf&mwGif tqifhoHk;qifhowfrSwfxm; onf/ Phase 1 onf 1996 ck rS 2000 jynfhESpxjd zpfonf/ f Phase II onf 2004 ckrS 2010 jynfhESpxjd zpfonf/ Phase f III onf 2010 rS 2020 jynfhESpxjd zpfonf/ MSC onf f OD;pm;ay;zGHUûzd;rItwGuf t"durmvfwDrD'D,m toHk;csrIe,fy,f ckepfckukd owfrSwxm;onf/ ,if;wkYdukd Flagship applicaf tions [k vlorsm;onf/ ,if;e,fy,f ckepfckrSm e- Governd ment, pG,pkHokH;uwfrsm;? prwfausmif;rsm;? telemedicine,R& f D Clusters, urÇmhtESHYxkwvkyrIqki&m web rsm;ESihf e,ferwf f f d f d d r&Saom rm;uufwif;wkUd jzpfonf/ d Flagships toHk;csrIwGif rmvfwDrD'D,mzGHUNzdK;rI (development) ESihfrmvfwDrD'D,mywf0ef;usif (environment) [lí MSC
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  • 91. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 173 pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rS pm;okH;olokYd e-Commerce f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rS pm;oHk;olwkYd (B2C) e-Commerce f wGif omrefjynfolxH ukeypön;rsm; a&mif;csjcif;vkyief;rsm; f f f yg0ifonf/ ukeypön;rsm;onf pmtkyrsm;? yef;rsm; okYdr[kwf f f f uGeysLwmrsm;uJoaom ½kyypön;rsm;vnf; jzpfEionf/ pm;oH; f h Y dk f f kd f k olwkYdtaejzifh tifwmeufrS r*¾Zif;pmtkyrsm; rSmMum;ul;,l f &&SEkiojzifh aqmhz0Jrsm; rSm,ltoHk;ûyEkionf/ wpfzef bDwl d d f f d f pD ukrPwonf 0efaqmifrrsm;vnf;ay;Edkiao;onf/ aiGaMu; Ü D Ykd I f qki&mESihf &if;ES;ûryfErvyief;qki&mukrPrsm;? c&D;oGm;at*sipD df D HS I k f df Ü D f rsm;ESihf tifwmeuf0efaqmifrIay;olrsm; (ISP- Internet service providers) wkonf 0efaqmifray;onfh ukrPrsm;teufrS Yd I Ü D erlemtcsKUd jzpfygonf/ bDwlpD ukrÜPDrsm;onf a&mif;csolrsm;twGuf tusKd ; tjrwfukd ykrkdwk;yGm;aponf/ wpfzefxkwvkyrIESihf 0efaqmifrI d d f f trsK;rsK;wkukd c&D;a0;uGmrI? tcseukeqHk;rI ponfwkdY r&SapbJ d d Yd df f d &,lEkdijf cif;[laom pGr;&nfukd pm;oHk;olwkYu tD;-aumrmhprS f d f tusKd;tjrwftjzpf &&SdEkdifonf/ xkdYjyif pm;oHk;olwkdYonf taumif;qHk;a&G;cs,0,f,rtjzpf qkirsm;xJrS êudu&ma&G;cs,f f l I d f f Ekionf/ vufv0,f,orsm;udk qGaqmif&ef a&mif;csorsm;u d f D l l J l ukeypön;f oH;oyfrrsm;? aqG;aEG;ajymqkrrsm;ESihf ukeypön;f qki&m f k I dI f df owif;tcsutvufrsm;uJhokYaom 0efaqmifrIrsm;udk wk;wuf f d d ay;tyfMuonf/ pm;oHk;olvktyfcsuukd qHk;jzwfEki&efESihf d f d f ,if;wkYd urf;vSr;ay;tyfrIrsm;ukd pm;oHk;olwpfOD;csi;pDokYd f f csO;uyfqufoG,Eki&eftwGuf tifwmeufenf;ynm (Webf f d f 174 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f wpf&yfukd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;pGmu f toHk;ûyvsu&Sygonf/ pm;oHk;olrS pm;oH;oloYdk e-Commerce f d k (C2C) udk bDwpD e-Commerce tpdwtyki;i,fwpf&yftjzpf l f d f &nfñTe;&mü wpfcgwpf&H toHk;ûyonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh pDwlpD f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;wGif tifwmeufavvHyuoUdk aom udp&yfrsm;ü f JG hJ ö avvHqorsm;tcsi;csi; qufo,Eiaponfh 0ufbqursm; JG l f f G f kd f f kd f yg0ifonf/ tracking technology) pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;csi; qufoG,vkyukionfh f f f f d f merce 0ifaiGpD;aMumif;rsm; e-Com- 0ifaiGtm;vHk; av;yHkwpfyHkomvQif bDwpqufE,rrsm;rS&&Sjd cif;jzpfonf/ e-Commerce trsm;pk l D T f I onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; tcsi;csi;twGi;rSmom trSewu,f f f f f f ae&m,lxm;onf/ bDwpD e-Commerce MuD;rm;rsm;jym;vS l aom tvm;tvmaumif;wkYdu urÇmwpf0ef;rS tm½HkpkurIukd d f &&Satmif qGaqmifvsu&onf/ bDwbD aps;uGuonf bDwpD d J f dS l f l aps;uGuxufykí vsijf refpGm vkyief;wk;csJU aqmif&Guvsu&Sd f d f d f f onf/ 0ifaiGpD;aMumif;wpfck[lonf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;wpfcku f 0ifaiG&&Satmif toHk;ûyonfenf;vrf;jzpfonf/ e-Commerce d h wGif yg0ifvyuirI tqiftrsK;d rsK;d &Sygonf/ tkwt*FawtajccH k f dk f h d f ukrÜPDwcsKUd onf olwkY0ufbqkursm;udk olwkYukeypön; d f d f d f f taMumif; owif;ay;½Hk? aMumfjim½Hk tDvufx&ef&Gefepf aMumfjimoifyke;oabmrQom toHk;csMuygonf/ ,if;okYaom f d e-Commerce
  • 92. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 175 0ufbqursK;udk vufurf;aMumfjim (brochureware) qdkaom f kd f d emrnftwyfcH&ygonf/ taMumif;rSm ,if;wkYdrSm tjyeftvSef qufo,oufa&mufjcif;uif;NyD; puúLay:ü xktwki; wifjy G f d d f Ekijf cif;aMumifhjzpfygonf/ d tjcm;ukrÜPDrsm;url 0ufbfqkdufrS wkduf½dkuf0ifaiG &&Satmif rvkyuionfwif 0ufbqut&nftaoG;rsm; yg0if d f kd f h kd f kd f atmifvkyaqmifMuygonf/ xktzJGUtpnf;rsm;onf olwkdY f d 0ufbfqkdufpmrsufESmrsm;udk qufoG,frIvkyfief;NyD;ajrmuf atmifESihf xkwvkyrItaxmuftuluJhokdYaom owif;tcsuf f f tvufqkdi&m &if;jrpfrsm;ay;pGr;Ekiatmif toHk;ûyrnfjzpfyg f f d f onf/ ,if;u ukrÜPDtwGuf ½kyyki;qki&mESihf vlom;&if;jrpf f d f d f vktyfcsursm;udk avQmhcsjcif;tm;jzifh aiGukeaMu;us oufom d f f apygonf/ e-Commerce twGuf jzpfEkdifajcrsm;onfh ukrÜPD wpfcku ,if;0ufbqkuukd xda&mufpGm 0ifaiGxkw,l&ef f d f f toHk;ûyonfhtcg us,fjyefYwGifus,fvmygonf/ wcsKdUu tjrwf&&S&ef wku½ua&mif;csjcif;rsK;d uJoUdkaom a&S;enf;a&S;[ef d d f kd f h rsm;udk oHk;wwfMuygonf/ odaomf tifwmeuf obm0onf kY 0ufbqutwGux;jcm;aom 0ifaiGp;aMumif; wk;wufzUHG ûzd;rI f kd f f l D d qDoYkd a&S;½Ionf/ enf;vrf;tcsKUd taeESihf aMumfjimjcif;? vTajymif; J jcif;? tcaMu;aiGrsm;? aumfr&Sirsm;? tcsutvufrsm;cGJjcrf; f f pdwjf zmjcif;? yHkrermMum;jcif;rsm;ESihf zGUH ûzd;rItcaMu;aiGrsm;wkukd Sf S Yd awGUMu&rnfjzpfygonf/ tifwmeuf zGHUûzd;wk;wufvmonfESihf d trQ 0ifaiG&&Satmif aqmif&GuzkYd tcGihftvrf;opfrsm;vnf; d f 176 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ,if;ESihftwlwuG zGHUûzd;aeygonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf f arQmfrSe;xm;aom bDwlbD e-Commerce atmifjrifwkd;wufrI f BuD;ü yg0ifaqmif&uEi&ef tvkt,uf jyifqifwk;0ifMuvsuf G f kd f d &Sdygonf/ þwGif bDwbD (B2B) 0ufbqkursm;u ay;tyfaom l f d f tajccHxkwfvkyfrIESifh 0efaqmifrIqkdif&mtajccHcefYrSef;csufrSm atmufygtwdki;jzpfygonff bDwlbD 0ufbqkursm;u ay;tyfonfh tajccHxkwvkyrIESihf f d f f f 0efaqmifrItajccH cefYrSe;csuZ,m; f f uGeysLwm f 27% vufvDjzefYcsrI d 21% toufarG;0rf;ausmif;qdki&m 0efaqmifrIrsm; f 17% pufrIukexkwrI f f 17% aps;uGuwif a&mif;csrI f 6% xkwvkyrI f f 5% ½Hk;oHk;ypön;ESihf tydkypön;rsm; f f 4% avhusihfrIESihf ynma&;vkyief; f 3%
  • 93. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 177 txufazmfjyyg tajccHcefYrSe;csuZ,m;wGif bDwlbD f f tcGitvrf;rsm;ESihf ukrPrsm;pGmudkazmfjyxm;ygonf/ ukrPD hf Ü D Ü trsm;tjym;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; vkyazmfukizufrsm;ESihf quf f f d f oG,aqmif&Gu&ef tifwmeuf[laom xl;jcm;onfh tm;om f f csursm;udk tok;ûyvsu&MdS uygonf/ tifwmeufukd axmufyrI f H f hH uGi;quf (supply chain) twGi; yg0ifaqmif&uaeMuolrsm; f f G f tMum; owif;tcsuftvufrsm; vufqifhurf;azmfjy&ef twGuf tokH;ûyMuygonf/ axmufyHhrIuGi;quf[lonf ukef f ypön;wpfrsK;udk zefwD;xkwvky&ef twlwuGvkyukdiEkdiaom f d f f f f f axmufyHholrsm; tjyeftvSequfoG,rI uGe&ufukdqkdvkdyg f f f onf/ tcsif;csif;rSDwG,faygif;pnf;rI&SdMuaom bDwlbDtzGJU tpnf;rsm;udk vkyazmfukdizufrsm;taejzifh owif;rsm;zvS,f f f &efESihf ajymif;vJaeaom aps;uGuawmif;qdkrIrsm;udk csucsi; f f f wkUH jyefaqmif&u&ef tvdim zefw;xlaxmifxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ G f kY S D qufoG,frIudk taxmuftuljzpfap&ef tzGJYtpnf;wcsKdUu tifwmeufo;pGrtwGuf tDvufx&Geepf tcsutvuf zvS,f kH J I f f pepf (EDI systems) udk topfrr;rHûyjyifvsu&ygonf/ xdkUjyif f G f f dS pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;qufo,rIrsm; ydkrkdaumif;rGevmap&ef tjcm; f G f f pepfrsm;udkvnf; zefwD;wDxGixm;Muygonf/ f bDwlbDwif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;odkU 0efaqmifrIrsm;ay; G f onfh tzGUJ tpnf;tajrmuftjrm;yg0ifygonf/ ,if;wdktxJwif Y G aiGaMu;vkyief;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;u ay;onfhykHpHrsK; tifwmeuf f d 0efaqmifrIvkyief;wpfckvkH;rSaeí ukeokdavSmifrIESihf oabFm f f 178 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f wifykdUrIwkdYuJhokdYaom ½kyykdi;0efaqmifrIrsm;txd yg0ifaeMuyg f f onf/ tjcm;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;url pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;odkY owif; f tcsutvuf &if;jrpfrsm;ay;tyfrIwGif txl;ûyaqmif&GuMf u f ygonf/ ,if;wdu tcsutvufrsm;pkaqmif;NyD; pDpOfjyifqifí kY f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;odkY qkH;jzwfvkyukdirIvkyief;ü taxmuf f f f f tul&&Sdap&eftwGuf xkwfvkyfa&mif;csMuygonf/ ukrÜPD trsm;tjym;onf bDwlbD owif;tcsutvufMum;cHaygif; f ul;ay;olrsm; jzpfvmMuygonf/ xdkMum;cHvkyief;onf pufrI f vkyief;tpdwtydki;wpfcktwGi;rS a&mif;csolESihf 0,folrsm; f f f f tMum; tqifajyqufpyfvkyfudkifEdkifrnfh tDvufx&Gefepf pcef;uGe&uf (an electronic hub) wpfckukd xlaxmifxm;yg f onf/ þpcef;uGe&ufwkdYu a&mif;olrsm;twGua&m 0,fol f f rsm; twGuyg tusK;tjrwf&&Sapygonf/ ,if;wdkYu &SmazG f d d &onfhp&dwfpu? aqmif&GufrIp&dwfpursm; avQmhcsay;NyD; a&mif;olESihf 0,folMum; nDñGwrQwrIrsm; ydkaumif;vmonfh f taMumif;rSm yl;aygif;yg0ifoltkypk wdk;wufvmrIaMumifhjzpfyg f onf/ bDwlbD e-Commerce u ukrÜPDrsm;tm; wdusí tm;udk;avmufaom 0efaqmifrIrsm;ay;tyf&ef awmif;qdkvm ygonf/ ,aeUacwfpD;yGm;a&;uvnf; bDwlbDvkyief;zvS,rI f f vkyukdiaom cufcJ½IyaxG;NyD; tqifhjrifhpepfrsm;tay: rSDw,f f f f G aeygonf/ bDwbD ajz&Si;rIenf;pOfwpf&yf xlaxmifruvnf; l f I tcseumvESihf aiGaMu;qdki&m xl;jcm;ajymifajrmufonfh &if;ES; df f D ûr§yESHrIwpf&yf vdktyfygonf/ qufoG,rIykdi;twGuf pHcsef f f f d
  • 94. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 179 tqifopfrsm;udk bDwbtjyeftvSef qufo,rqki&m vdktyf h l D G f I d f csursm; jynfhrDEkdiap&eftwGuf xlaxmifvsu&Sonf/ f f f d pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;twGi;&Sd e-Commerce f f pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;tMum; ul;oef;a&mif;0,frI tjyeftvSequfoG,vkyukdirIrsm;udk tm;jznfhonfhtaejzifh f f f f e-Commerce ü tzGJUtpnf;wpfcktwGif; vkyfief;zvS,f aqmif&GurIrsm;vnf; yg0ifvmygonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;wGif f f e-Commerce [lonf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;wpfcktwGi; wnf&Sd f f aeonfh tDvufx&Geonf qufoG,vkyukdirIrsm;ukd aqmif f f f f &Guaom tifwmeuftajccHenf;ynmtoHk;ûyjcif;udk &nfñTe; f f jcif;jzpfygonf/ ,if;u 0ifaiG&&Satmif raqmif&uaomfvnf; d G f tzGJUtpnf;wpf&yf vkyief;aqmif&GurItwGuf ykrkdxa&muf f f d d xufjrufjcif;jzifh acRwmûcd;NcHrI&Svmapygonf/ d tifwmeufonf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;a[mif;BuD;rsm;udk wdk;wufjynfhpHkatmifjrifvmapNyD; vkyfief;opfrsm;udkvnf; zefwD;ay;ygonf/ tifwmeufaMumifh tjrifomqHk; xda&mufrI &Sapaomaps;uGuu@rsm;rSm vufvDa&mif;0,frI? aiGaMu; d f qkdif&mvkyfukdifrI? axmufulrIuGif;quf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; 0efaqmifrIrsm;? pme,fZif;rD'D,mrsm;ESihf ajzazsmrIwkYd jzpfMuyg f onf/ tifwmeufuk,üonfvnf; 0ifaiGopfrsm;&&Sapaom d f d aps;uGuwpfckukd jzpfay:aponfh taxmuftulûy tajccH f wpf&yftjzpf jzpfxGe;wk;wufvmygonf/ f d 180 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f vufvDa&mif;0,frIwGif ukefypönf;rsm;a&mif;csrIESifh 0efaqmifrIrsm;udk pm;oHk;olwpfOD;csi;xH wku½kduaqmif&Guf f d f f ygonf/ tifwmeufay:rS vufvDa&mif;0,frIudk tD;vufvDta&mif;ukrÜPDrsm;onf ,if;wkUd ypön;opfrsm;ESihf f 0efaqmifrIrsm;udk aps;uGufwifavwkdif; pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; aqmif&GuyHkenf;a[mif;rsm;udk tpOfwpkuf &ifqkiaqmif&Guf f d d f vmMuygonf/ bPfvkyief;rsm;? pawmh&S,,mESihf uk,pm; f f d f vS,vyief;rsm;uJoaom a&S;½d;tkwt*FawtajccH tzGUJ tpnf; f kf h Ykd k f rsm;jzpfonfh aiGaMu;qki&mvkyief;rsm;ESihf tmrcHurPrsm;onf df f kÜ D tifwmeufay:wGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; aqmif&GuMf uvsuf f &Sdygonf/ bPfvkyief;onf tifwmeuf0efaqmifrü pm;oHk;olrsm; f I u ykrawmif;qkvmrIudk êuHawGU&rnf[k arQmre;xm;Ekiygonf/ d kd d fSf df pawmh&S,f,mrsm; tifwmeufrS wkduf½kdufa&mif;0,frI onfvnf; pm;oHk;olrsm;taejzifh ,if;wkYd uk,ykipawmh d f d f pkaqmif; pm&if;rsm;udk xde;csKyfxm;EkiNf yD; wpfcsewnf;ü udk,f f d df pm;vS,rsm; aumfr&SiEe;f xm;rsm; jrifrm;pGm awmif;qkrrsm;ukd f fI h dI a&Smif&Sm;vmEkdifonfESifhtrQ wkd;wufjrifhrm;vmaernfjzpf ygonf/ tifwmeufwif 0ifa&mufvkyuirxaxmif&ef csO;uyf G f kd f I l f enf;trsK;rsK;udk awGU&S&ygonf/ ukea&mif;olwcsKUd u tD;d d d f vufvDta&mif;ukd ajrjyifay:rSm pwifzGihfvSpvkyukdijf cif;rS f f tpûyí vkyui&ef a&G;cs,Mf uygonf/ tjcm;olrsm;u vuf&dS f kd f
  • 95. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 181 tkwt*FawtajccH pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;wpfc csUJ xirwpfctjzpf f f k GfI k tDvufx&Geepfpwk;qkiukd xlaxmifvkMd uygonf/ wcsKUd url f d d f owif;tcsuftvuf 0ufbfqkdufwpfckukd tvHk;pHkjynfh0 pHkvifonfh tD;-aumrmhpqutjzpf csUJ xivkyukiMf uygonf/ f kd f G f f d ,if;wkdYtjrif rnfodkYyif&Sdap tD;-aumrmhpf pD;yGm;a&; vkyief;tm;vHk;onf wlnDaom vkyief;yki;wm0ef,lrIrsm;ü f f d f uk d u f n D M u&rnf jzpf y gonf / tD ; -aumrmh p f t wG u f vkdtyfcsufrsm;jynfhpHk&ef ukrÜPDwpfckonf atmufygwkdYudk pDpOf&efvktyfonfd 1/ [wf0JESihf aqmhz0J vktyfcsursm;ajz&Si;enf;? f d f f 2/ ukeypön;jzefYcsrIqki&m pDrHcefUcGJrI? f f d d f 3/ oHk;pGJol pdw0ifpm;aom 0ufbqku'DZkdi;? f f d f f 4/ azmufonfrsm;ESihf tNrJqufqrtwGuf xde;odr;enf;? H I f f 5/ 0ufbqkuukd tqifhjr§ihfwk;csJUjcif;/ f d f d tDvufx&Gefepfenf;jzifh vufvDa&mif;csrIESifh tGefvkdif; xkwfa0a&; tD v uf x &G e f e pf vufvDa&mif;csrI[lonfrSm tifwmeufay:wGif vufvDukef ypön;rsm;a&mif;csjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rS f f pm;okH;olokYd (B2C) a&mif;a&;0,fwmvkyief; awGUjrifaeus f yHkpHyifjzpfonf/ þwGif E-Tailing twGuf e-Commerce e-Tailing (electronic retailing) 182 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f wGif OD;pD;a&SUaqmifûyaeaom vrf;aMumif;rsm;udk wifjyvkyg d onf/ 1997 ckEpukd e-Tailing twGuf tBuD;rm;qHk; yxrESpf S f [k rSw,lMuonf/ ,if;onf 'Jvf uGeysLwmukrÜPDBuD;u f f ,if;0ufbqkuwGif urÇmvTmoef;aygif;rsm;pGm &&Sjd cif;udk f d f rSwwrf;wifaom tcseumvjzpfonf/ xkUd jyif Amazon.com f df atmifjrifrIonf e-Tail 0ufbfqkdufwpfck zGifhvSpf&ef Barnes+Noble uktm;ay;cJhonf/ d e-Tailing twGuf vrf;aMumif;rsm;ESihf tvm;tvm f d f rsm;udk avhvmMunfygu e-Tailing onf 2002 ckESprwkicif h a':vm 37 bDvsHokdY wk;wufvrhfrnf[k cefYrSe;cJhMuonf/ d d f aemufxyf cefYrSe;rIwpfckrSm tGevki;aps;uGuonf 2001 f f d f f ckESpwGif 45 &mckiEIe; wk;wufvrhfrnf[k cefYrSe;xm;&m f d f f d d f a':vm 65 bDvsHokdY a&muf&Svrhfrnf[k rSe;qxm;onf/ d d f tusK;tjrwftaejzifh 0ufbtajcpkuf vufvDa&mif;olrsm;? d f d uufwavmuftajcûy vufva&mif;olrsm;ESihf pwdk;qkitajccH D d f vufvDa&mif;ol trsm;tjym; odoomomuGmjcm;ayonf/ d Retail Forward rS aqmif&Guaom e-Retail avhvmrIt& f xdywef; e-Retailers 10 OD;teuf 8 OD;onf pG,pkHcsee,frsm; f f f (Multi-channel) rsm;jzpfMuNyD; ,if;wkonf tGevi;a&mif;csjcif; Yd f dk f oufoufay:wGif tm;rxm;Muacs/ Online publishing onf uGeysLwmtoHk;csrvkyief;pOf f I f jzpfNyD; pmrsm;ESihf *&yfzrsm;aygif;pyf&ef wdusaom aqmhz0J f f trsK;tpm;rsm;udk toHk;ûyonf/ þodjkY zifh pmapmifrsm;? tGevi; d f kd f
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  • 98. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 187 aiGay;acsrI pDrHcefYcGJjcif; tifwmeufay:wGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;wpfck rzGihfvSprD f f pm;oHk;ol aiGay;acsrIrsm;udk vufcHEkdi&ef vktyfygonf/ f d ukrPtcsKUd onf tDvufx&Geepf ay;acsaiGrsm;ukd vufcMH u&m Ü D f wGivnf; aiGacs;uwf (credit card) rsm;onf tifwmeufay:ü f aiGay;acsrtjzpf vlêudutrsm;qHk; enf;vrf;jzpfygonf/ ,if; I f wkYdukd tifwmeufukeypön;0,f,lrItm;vHk; 98 &mckiEIe; f f d f f twGuf toHk;ûyMuygonf/ pm;oHk;olrsm;xHrS aiGacs;uwfrsm; pdwfcsvufcsvufcH&&SdEdkif&efrSm pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;wpfckonf tqifokH;qifh NyD;ajrmufatmif ûyvkyxm;&ygrnf/ ,if;wdkrmh f Y S d (1) ukea&mif;ol aiGpm&if;zGihfrIwpfck &Sxm;&ygonf/ f (2) vHkûcHpwcs&onfh uketrSmyHkpHwpfck ay;tyf&ygrnf/ d f f (3) aiGay;acsrIukd vkyukdiaqmif&urnfh aqmhz0JtoHk;ûy&yg f f G f f rnf/ ukea&mif;olwkYdonf yHkpHwustaejzifh tD;-aumrmhpf f ukefa&mif;olaiGpm&if;wpfck &&Sdxm;&ef bPfwpfckwGif aqmif&Guxm;avh&ygonf/ ukea&mif;ol aiGpm&if;wpf&yf f Sd f f f onf tifwmeufay:rS vkyief;aqmif&GurIwpf&yf rNyD;rcsi; f aiGaMu;udk xde;odr;xm;avh&Sygonf/ xkaiGaMu;xde;odr; f f d d f f xm;rItwGuf vpOfusoifaiGukd vkyief;aqmif&urI wpfckcsi; h f G f f twGuf aumfr&Sicaygif;vsuf tqkygbPfoYkd ukea&mif;olu f d f ay;acs&ygrnf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;wkYdonf pm;oHk;olxHrS ukef f trSmpmrsm;ESihf aiGacs;uwfqki&m owif;tcsutvufrsm; d f f 188 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pkaqmif;&,l&ef trSmpmyHkpwpfckukd toHk;ûyavh&ygonf/ yHkpukd H dS H f tiSm;pepf (hosting service) okYdr[kwf ukea&mif;ol pepf wpfckckuay;xm;aom vHkûcHrItpDtpOf&Sonfh y½dk*&rfwpfck d (a secure server) ay:ü pkaqmif;xm;&Sygonf/ d aemufqHk;taeESifh ukefa&mif;olonf aiGay;acsrIudk vufcaqmif&uay;rnfh 0efaqmifrvyief;wpf&yfukd toH;ûy&ef H G f I kf k pDpOf&rnfjzpfygonf/ xkvkyief;ukd ukea&mif;olESihf bPfwkdY d f f tMum; vkyief;aqmif&urukd pDpOfvkyukiay;rnfh aqmhz0ukd f G f I f d f f J azmfxkway;ygonf/ ukea&mif;olu xdk0efaqmifrItwGuf f f vpOfaMu; ay;&ygonf/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh tiSm;pepfrsm;onf tD;-aumrmhpf aqmhzf0Jtpkwpf&yfvHk; tpdwftydkif;tjzpf aiGay;acsrEihf vHûk cHrvtyfcsursm; tm;vH;ukaomfvnf;aumif;? IS I kd f k d tcsKUd uaomfvnfaumif; ay;tyfygonf/ wpfzef pepfopfrsm;ukd kd vnf; ukerSmMum;rIESihf aiGay;acsrIvkyief;wpf&yfvHk; vHkûcH f f pdwcstm;uk;&aom pDrHcefYcGJrItjzpf ay;tyf&ef urf;vSr;ay; f d f vsu&ygonf/ ukea&mif;olwkYonf omreftm;jzifh 0efaqmif f Sd f d rIudk vkyfief;taumiftxnfazmfrIrsm; &mckdifEIef;wpf&yf ay;avh&Sdygonf/ e-Banking zGHUûzd;rItajctae e-Banking wGif w,fvzke;jzifh bPfvkyief;aqmif&uf D f f G jcif;? ta<u;0,fuwfjym;rsm;? ATMs uwfjym;rsm;ESihf wku½kuf d f d bPftyfaiG paom zGHUûzd;qJaps;uGursm;ü tuRrf;w0if&SNd yD; f &ifhusufaom tDvufx&Gefepfenf; tajccHonfh xkwfukef
  • 99. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 189 ypön;rsm; yg0ifonf/ ,if;wGif zGUH ûzd;qJtqif&dS tDvufx&Geepf f h f bDvaiGay;acsrrsm;ESihf xkwukeypön;rsm; trsm;qHk;yg0ifonf/ f I f f f ,if; zGHUûzd;qJtqifhwif stored value uwfrsm; (Oyrm- prwf G uwfrsm;? prwfaiGaMu;ESihf tifwmeuftajccH stored value xkwukeypön;rsm;) yg0ifonf/ f f f aiGay;acsrIenf;vrf;rsm;ESifh vHkûcHa&;udpö&yfrsm; Oyrmudk w½kwEkiiHjzifh wifjyEkionf/ w½kwEkdiiHwif bPf f d f d f f f G rsm;onf ta<u;0,fuwfrsm;xkway;NyD; vlrsm;pGmonf olw f Y dk oufqkdif&mbPfpm&if;rS wkduf½dkufxkwf,l&ef NrDpm;uwf (debitcard) rsm;udk toHk;ûyMuonf/ rqdkpavmufaom vlrsm;u tGevki;aiGay;acsrItwGuf olwkYta<u;0,fuwf f d f d rsm;udk toHk;ûyMuonf/ Cash- 0n- delivery onf e-Commerce aiGay;acsrI ay:jyLvmtjzpfqHk;enf;vrf; jzpfonf/ rnfokyifjzpfap tGevi;jzifh aiGay;acsronf ay:jyLvmjzpfae Yd f kd f I onf/ taMumif;rlum; China pay ESihf Cyber Beijing ay:xGuf vmjcif;aMumifhjzpfonf/ ,if;onf ûrdUBuD;tESUH tGefvkdif; aiGay;acsrIpepfukd ay;pGr;onf/ f pifppf zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;&Sd e-Banking onf zGHUûzd;rI d f apmapmyki;tqifrsm;wGif &Sonf/ zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm;&Sd bPfvyief; df h d dk f H kf trsm;pkonf orm;½dk;usenf;vrf;twki; ûyvkyaeqJjzpfonf/ d f f okYd&mwGif tGevki;bPfvkyief; jrifhrm;vmaom wk;wufrI f d f f d &Sonf/ ,if;onf zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm;&Sd tGevi;f bPfvyief;twGuf d dk f H f dk kf tvm;tvm&Saomtem*wfukd azmfjyaeonf/ þwGif tmqD,H d 190 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f EkiiH oHk;EkiiH e- Banking qki&m us,jf yefYaom ½kyyHkvTmudk d f d f d f f wifjyvkdygonf/ zdvpfykif tawGUtêuH d zdvpfykiEkiiHwGif d f d f Citibank,Bank of the Philippines lslands (BPI) Philippine National Bank ESihf tjcm;bPfBuD;rsm; onf 1980 jynfhvGeESpf apmapmyki;umvrsm;wGif e-Bankf d f ing ukd OD;pD;a&SUaqmifûyvkyfcJhMuonf/ Megalink,Bancnet ESifh BPI Expressent uJhokYd EkiiH&Sd Interbank uGe&ufrsm; d f f onf ATM (Automated Teller Machines) enf ; ynm tapmqHk;ESihf tBuD;rm;qHk; pwifolrsm;jzpfMuonf/ BPI onf 2000 jynfhESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif ,if; BPI Express Online udk pwifaqmif&uconf/ awGUjrifaeus G f hJ tGefvkdif;b@ma&;0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;wGif tyfESHaiGrsm;? &efyHkaiGvTJajymif;rIrsm;? aiGpm&if;opfrsm;twGuf toHk;csrIrsm;? xkway;xm;aom csuvufrSwrsm;qki&m Stop Payment ? f f f d f aetdrESihfum; acs;aiGrsm;? ta<u;0,fuwfrsm;ESihf vTJaiGrsm; f yg0ifonf/ pifumyl tawGYtêuH pifumylEdkifiHwGif tifwmeuftoHk;ûyolrsm; 28 &mckiEIe;ausmonf 2001 ckESp?f arvwGif e-Banking 0ufbf d f f f qkursm;udk toHk;ûyMuonf/ tifwmeufwi;wmrIukrPwpfck d f kd f Ü D jzpfaom Net Value okawoeûycsuft& pifumyl&Sd
  • 100. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 191 tGevi;bPfvyief;udk cswqufxm;aom vlta&twGuonf f dk f kf d f f jrifhwufvmcJhonf[k qkonf/ 0ufbqkursm;wGioHk;pGJcJhaom d f d f f ysr;rQtcseonf 2001 ckESpf rwfvrS 2001 ckESpf arvxd f df cefYrSe;ajctm;jzifh av;Budrf usqif;cJhonf/ 0ufbqkuMf unfh f f d olrsm;onf tay;t,lvyief;NyD;pD;jcif;twGuf tcseyro;pGaom kf d f kd kd kH J tcsuukd ,if;usqif;rIu rSw,lxnfhwGuEkionf/ ,if; f f f d f onf uGJjym;jcm;em;aom 0ufbqkursm;wGif owif;tcsuf f d f tvuf &SmazGMunfh½Ijcif;xuf tcse,lrI omíenf;yg;onf/ df pl;prf;avhvmrIt& 0ufbqkuMf unfholoHk;OD;wGif ESpOD;onf f d f tay;t,lvkyief;udk ûyvkyMf uonf/ f d pifumyl&Sd t"dubPftm;vHk;wGif tifwmeuf&Sonf/ ,if;bPfrsm;onf ukrÜPDwpfcku xkwfvkyfa&mif;csaom ukeypön;ykiqirEiywfoufaom tifwmeuf0ufbqursm;rS f f d f dk f I S h f f dk f wpfqifh pm;oHk;olrsm;xHokdY wku½kdutm;jzifh ukeypön;trsK; d f f f f d rsK;udk ay;pGr;Muonf/ ,if;bPfrsm;onf vufvDbPfvkyf d f ief;ay:wGif ueOD;tm½HkpurrS tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief; kd f I f rsm; aumfyk&wf bPfvkyief;xkwukersm;ESihf 0efaqmifrIvkyf d d f f f ief;rsm;txd a&TUajymif;cJhMuonf/ ,if;udkay;pGrf;cJhaom xkwfukefrsm;teuf &efyHkaiG vTajymif;rIEihf aiGay;acsrpepfrsm; yg0ifonf/ xkjYd yif aygif;pnf; J S I aqmif&Guaom B2B e-Commerce ukeypön; yg0ifonf/ f f f ,if;wGif xkwueypön;a&G;cs,jf cif;? 0,f,a&;trSmvTm? ykuef f kf f l Yd k pm&if;vTmaqmif&GurIESihf aiGay;acsrIwkYd yg0ifywfoufonf/ f 192 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pmcsKyfrsm;ae&m,lrEihf tmrcHjcif;? t&if;tES;aps;uGuf vIy&m; I S D f S aqmif&urrsm; yg0ifonf/ pmcsKyfpmwrf;qki&mukeo,rEihf G f I d f f G f I S vufvD bPfvkyief;wkUd yg0ifonf/ f rav;&Sm; tawGYtêuH rav;&Sm;EkdifiH&Sd e-Banking onf tvdktavsmuf aiGxwpuf ATMs pwif rdwqufaqmif&ujf cif;ESitwl 1981 k f f G hf ckESpwGif BuD;xGm;wk;wufvmcJhonf/ ,if;aemufwGif telef d hf f f d f d f banking onf 1990 jynfvGeESpumvtapmyki;wGif vkuyg aqmif&uconf/ þwGif AVR [kac:aom Automated Voice G f hJ Response toH k ; ûyrI e nf ; ynmrS w pf q if h tvd k t avsmuf pepfwpfckukd w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si;ud&,mrsm;u cswquf f d d f xm;onf/ xkaemuf ykiqirEiywfoufaom aqmhz0toHk;ûy Yd d f kd f I S hf f J vsuf yDpbPfvyief; (ok) desktop bPfvyief;ukd aqmif&uf D kf Yd kf G cJhonf/ ,if;onf vufvDazmufonfrsm;xuf aumfyk&wf d d azmufonfrsm;tMum; ydkrkday:jyLvmjzpfcJhonf/ 2000 jynfhESp?f ZGev 1 &ufaeYwGif rav;&Sm;bPf f onf tifwmeufbPfvkyief;rsm;ay;pGr;&ef a'oqdki&m pD;yGm; f f f a&;bPfrsm;udk w&m;0ifcGihfûycJhonf/ 2000 jynfhESp?f ZGev f 15 7ufaeYwGif rav;&Sm; tBuD;rm;qHk;bPfwpfckjzpfaom Maybank onf EdkiiH yxrqHk; tifwmeufbPfvkyief;udk f f pwifaqmif&uconf/ ,if;bPfonf aiGay;aiG,vkyief;rsm; G f hJ l f vHkûcHr&&S&ef 128-bit &Sd uGeysLwmpepfwif tcsutvufrsm;tm; I d f G f
  • 101. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 193 vHkûcHpwcs&rI&ap&ef tcsutvufrsm;tm; em;rvnfEkdiaom d f Sd f f oauFwrsm;tjzpfokYd ajymif;vJay;aomenf;ynmudk toHk;cs onf/ e-banking vkyfief;ukd ay;pGrf;aeaom rav;&Sm;&Sd tjcm;a'oqki&mbPfrsm;rSm Southern Bank, Hong Leong d f Bank,HSBC ESifh RHB Bank wkYdjzpfonf/ 0g,mvuftoHk;cs y½dkwkdaum (Wireless Application Protocol) (WAP) (okdY) rdkbki;bPfvkyief;udk ay;pGr;aombPfrsm;rSm OCBC Bank d f f f Phileo Allied Bank ESihf United Overseas Bank wkYdjzpfonf/ trsm;qHk;toHk;ûyaom e-Banking vkyief;rsm;wGif bPf f vkyief;pHkprf;jcif;udp&yfrsm;? bDvay;acsrrsm;? ta<u;0,fuwf f ö f I ay;acsrIrsm;? &efyHkaiGvTJajymif;rIrsm;? &S,,m &if;ESD;ûr§yESHjcif;? f f tmrcH? c&D;oGm;vmjcif;? tDvufx&Gefepfenf; tokH;ûy aps;0,fxujf cif;ESihf tjcm; tajccHbPfvkyief;rsm; yg0ifonf/ G f tcef; (16) e-Commerce zG H Y N zd K ; rI E S i f h tao;pm;ES i f h tvwf p m;vk y f i ef ; rsm; aps;uGuonf e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIukd armif;ESiay; f f onf/ okYdaomf ,if;udk aqmif&Guay;onfrSm yk*¾vutcef; f d u@yifjzpfonf/ okYd&mwGif tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief; f rsm;u us,jf yefaom e-Commerce toH;ûyrIudk wGe;tm;ay;&ef Y k f qGaqmifrrufvkH;rsm;tm; tpdk;&u yHy;ay;Ekionf/ ]]e SME J I h kd d f zGHUûzd;rIy½dk*&rf}}wGif tcef;u@toD;oD;u tao;pm;ESifh tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;odkY enf;ynmtaxmuftul yHhykd;ay;Edkif f onf/ þonfrSm e-Commerce ukd tqifhjr§ihf&efjzpfonf/ bPfrsm;? b@ma&;yHhyk;rIESihf avhusihfa&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESihf d aumfyka&;&Si;rsm;udk tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief; zGHUûzd;rI d f f twGuf tm;ay;oifonf/ ,if;onf tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm; h vkyief;rsm; wdusaomvktifrsm;udk aqmif&Guay;vdrhfrnf f d f jzpfonf/ txl;ojzifh wpfzufygtqifhrsm;udk aqmif&Guf &rnfjzpfonf-
  • 102. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 195 1/ acs;iSm;EIe;f rsm;avQmcsjcif;ESihf pGeO;D vkyief;&Sirsm; jzpfvm&ef/ h Yf f f wpfO;csi;pDokUd qGaqmifrrufvkH;rsm; yHy;ay;&ef/ D f J I h kd 2/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;aqmif&GufrIrsm;wGif e-Commerce toHk;ûy&ef&nf&,aom tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief; G f f rsm;ukd qGJaqmifrIrufvHk;rsm; yHhyk;ay;&ef/ d 3/ tdkipDwDESihf e-Commerce toHk;ûy&eftvkYdiSm tao; f pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;odkY ta<u;0,f,lrI wk;csJU f d a&; us,jf yefYvmap&ef/ 4/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;qki&m aqmhz0Jrsm;ESihf aqmhz0Jvkipif f d f f f d f qki&mavQmhaps;rsm; ay;pGr;&ef/ d f f xkjYd yiftao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;udk tkipwEihf f d f D D S e-Commerce qki&m tcrJoifwef;ay;pGr;jcif;jzifh tao;pm;ESihf df h f tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;udk enf;ynmvTJajymif;ay;&ef pD;yGm;a&; f vkyief;BuD;rsm;ESihf aumfyka&;&Si;rsm;udk tm;ay;&rnfjzpfyg f d f onf/ tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;wGif owif;tcsuf f tvufenf;ynmESihf e-Commerce qki&m rvHkavmufaom d f todynmA[kokw&SMd uonf/ ,if;vkyief;rsm;onf e-Comf merce toH;ûyjcif;wGif t"dutcuftcJwpfctaejzifh ,if;wd k k Yk enf ; ynmqd k i f & m tod y nmA[k o k w enf ; yg;rI u d k od&Sdxm;Muonf/ tkdifpDwDESifh e-Commerce toHk;ûyrIESifh qufE,aom e-Commerce ay:vpDrsm;? taumif;qHk; tawGU T f 196 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f têuHrsm;? atmifjrifrZmwfvrf;rsm;? tcGitvrf;rsm;? tcuftcJ I hf rsm;ESifhywfoufí tao;pm;ESifh tvwfpm;vkyfief;rsm;odkY owif;tcsutvufukd jzefjY zL;&ef vIy&m;rIwpfckwif tpdk;&ESihf f f S G yk*¾vutcef;u@ yl;aygif;aqmif&urIukd cswqufEkdionf/ d G f d f f df ,if; pdw0ifpm;rIqki&m vIy&m;rIrsm;wGif e-Commerce qki&m f d f f S tcrJhoifwef;rsm;ESihf tvky½HkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm; yg0ifonf/ xkYjd yif f tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;udkulnD&ef vHkûcHa&;ESihf f oD;oefwnf&rI qkcs;jr§irtpDtpOfrsm;ESihf owif;tcsutvuf Y dS D hf I f Xmersm; yg0ifonf/ aemufqk;wGif owif;tcsutvufvy&m; H f I f S rIonf pD;yGm;a&;twGuf tvHk;pHk e-Commerce zGUH ûzd;rI r[mAsL [mwGif yg&Sonf/ d pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf yk*¾vutcef;u@ qufET,f f d aeaom vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm;onf tGevkdi;odkYa&GUvsm;&ef f f f f vIHUaqmfvQif tpdk;&taejzifh e-Commerce udk OD;aqmif toHk;ûyoljzpf&ayrnf/ þodjkY zifh tpdk;&onf tûyoabmaqmif aom vTr;rk;rIjzpfvmonf/ e-Commerce taejzifh ukrÜPD f d rSwykwifjcif;? tcGeaumufcjH cif;? 0efxrf;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f H f f qufE,aomvktyfrrsm; trsK;tpm;twGuf avQmufxm;rIrsm; T f d I d uJokYd tGevi; tay;t,lvkyief;trsK;rsK;yHkpukd &,lEionf/ h f kd f f d d H kd f zGHUûzd;NyD; trsK;om;tqifh owif;tcsutvuf tajccH d f taqmufttHkonf vktyfonf/ odkaomf tao;pm;ESihf tvwf d Y pm;vkyief;rsm;qdki&m e-Commerce twGuf vHkavmufaom f f tajctaer&Sacs/ ,HkMunfpwcs&NyD; aps;oufomaom w,fvD d d f
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  • 104. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 199 oeESihf owif;tcsutvuf&mazGrtwGuf tifwmeuftoHk;ûy f S I &ef (tajccHtm;jzifh e-Mail ) qufo,a&;twGuf tifwmeuf G f toHk;ûyrIonf vkyfief;tzGJUtpnf;wpfck ukefypönf;ESifh 0efaqmifrtaMumif; ude;f *Pef; owif;tcsutvufrsm;&Saom I f d 0ufbqkursm;zGHUûzd;rIokdY wk;wufcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ aemufqHk; f d f d wGif e-Commerce twGuf tifwmeuftoHk;ûyrI jzpfvmonf/ vkyief;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; qufqrI f f H xde;odr;jcif;twGuf vrf;aMumif;wpfcktaejzifh azmufonf f f rsm;ESihf ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;qufo,&ef tifwmeufukd toHk; f f G f ûyMuonf/ vkyief;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tay; f f t,lvkyjf cif;rsm;aqmif&urwif e-Mail tusK;jzpfxe;rIrsm; G f I G d Gf ,HkMunfrtqifh zGUH ûzd;vmNyD; tvm;tvm&Saoma&mif;csrI zefw; I d D vkdufEdkifonfESifh ,if;vkyfief;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf ,if;wdkY udk,fydkif0ufbfqdkufzGHUûzd;jcif;qdkif&m pdwfêudufa&G;cs,frIwdkY rsm;aomtm;jzihf wk;wufvmMuonf/ d zdvpfykdi?f xdki;ESihf tif'kdeD;&Sm;EdkiiHrsm; tao;pm;ESihf f f tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;tMum; tkipwtoHk;ûyrI wdk;csUJ jcif;tay: f d f D D tm&Sazmifa';&Si; avhvmrIrsm;ujyoaom awGUjrifaeus f toHk;ûyrIyHkpHrsm;rSm atmufygtwki;jzpfonfd f 1/ todtrSwûf yxm;aom ukeusp&dwESihf pGr;aqmif&nf f f f tusK;jzpfxe;rIrsm;aMumifh e-Mail twGuf tifwmeuf d Gf udk us,jf yefUpGmtoHk;ûyjcif;/ 200 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f 2/ tGevi;a&mif;csr?I odr[kwf e-Commerce xufpmvQif f kd f Yk y½dkr;&Si;twGuf 0ufbqkursm; ydkrktoHk;ûyrIu azmfjy kd f f d f d aeonfrm ,if;Ekiirsm;&Sd tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyf S d f H ief;rsm;onf e-Commerce apmapmydki;tqifhrsm; f wGif &SaeqJjzpfonf/ d 3/ tajccHokawoetifwmeufukd toHk;csjcif;/ 4/ vHkûcHa&;ESiywfoufaeaomaMumifh e-Commerce xuf hf pmvQif Offline tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;wGif ydkrkdxawGU f d qufqH&ef tavhtusihf vdktifqE´&Sjd cif;/ e-Commerce udk vufawGUa&G;cs,jf cif;wGif uGjJ ym;jcm; em;aomtqihrsm;rSwpfqifh tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief; f f rsm;oGm;Muonf/ ,if;wkonf ukrPukvnf;aumif;? ,if;wdkY Yd Ü D d ukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;udkvnf;aumif; f f f aMumfjimNyD; y½dkrk;&Si;ûyvky&ef tajccHtm;jzifh 0ufbqkuwpfck d f f f d f zefw;jcif;ESihf pwifonf/ þodkjY zifh aemufqkH;wGif 0ufbqkuf D f d rsm;rSwpfqifh ta&mif;rsm; jzpfay:vmaomtcg ,if;tzGUJ tpnf; rsm;onf e-Commerce ESihf cswqufvkdMuonf/ d f xdkYjyif tao;pm;ESifh tvwfpm;vkyfief;rsm;twGuf tMuHÓPfESifhpGefYpm;rI pDrHcefYcGJrIud&d,mrsm;? aps;uGufESifh enf;ynm owif;tcsutvufrsm;yHhykd;jcif;onf BuD;yGm;wdk; f wufvmcJonf/ Oyrm-zGUH ûzd;qJEkiirsm;wGif aumfzEivufzuf h d f H D S hf pdkuysK;olv,form;rsm;twGuf enf;ynmrsm;yHyk;jcif;? aps;uGuf f d h d
  • 105. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 201 owif;tcsutvufrsm;yHyk;jcif;? þonfu zGUH ûzd;qJEkiirsm;&Sd f h d d f H tao;pm;ESitvwfpm; vkyief;rsm;tMum; tkipwD toHk;ûyrI hf f d f D twdki;twmudk azmfjyaeonf/ f 0efaqmifrItcef;u@wGif e-Commerce tvkyfjzpf jcif;ESiywfoufí xif&m;aomom"uwpfckrm off shore data hf S S processing centers rsm;jzpfonf/ ,if;Xmersm;wGif tcsuf tvuful;a&;jcif;udk yHhydk;ay;NyD; 0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;udk vkyief;wm0efaqmif&uay;aom ausmaxmufaemufc½kH;tjzpf f G f H yHyk;ay;onf/ 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm;jzpfaom tmrcHukrPrsm;? h d I f Ü D avaMumif;vdkif;rsm;? ta<u;0,fuwfjym;ukrÜPDrsm;ESifh bPfrsm;onf zGHUûzd;qJEkdiiHrsm;wGif ysHUESHYvsu&onf/ vkytm;c f f Sd f f YHS enf;aom zGUH ûzd;NyD;Ekiirsm;wGiyifvQif ysUH Eaeonf/ wu,fawmh d f H azmufonfyy;dk dot-coms rsm; call centers ESihf tjcm; tkipwD hH dfD /e-Commcer ukrÜPDrsm;udk ,if;EkdifiHrsm;wGif off shore 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm; tvsijf refqHk;wdk;wufaeonfh tpdwf f tydki;wpfcktjzpf rSw,Ml uonf/ tdE,ESihf zdvpfykiEkiiwku f f d´ d f d f H Yd tm&SwGif off shore data t0ifESihf uGeysLwmy½dk*&rfrif; f t"duae&mrsm;&Sdjcif;udk *kPf,laeMuonf/ ,if;udkyHhydk;&ef tdE,EkiiHonf jynfhpHkus,jf yefUaom aqmhz0JzGHUûzd;rIpGr;&nfukd ´d d f f f tvGetqifjh rifh uRr;usiaomyk*Lvfrsm;ESihf aqmif&uaeonf/ f f f d¾ G f rsuarSmufumvtxd e-Mail onf zGUH ûzd;qJEkiirsm;wGif f d f H tifwmeuft"duusNyD; ta&;tygqHk; toHk;ûyrIjzpfonf/ b*Fvm;a'h&Ekiiwif tifwmeuftoHk;ûyrI 82 &mcdkiEe;onf fS d f H G f If 202 e-Mail ukd armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f xnfhwGuMf uonf/ tar&duefwGif 5 &mckiEIe;om d f f &Sonf/ Web accounts onf tar&duefwif tifwmeuftoHk; d G ûyrI 70 &mckiEIe;cefY&Sonf/ þonfrSm zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHtrsm; d f f d d f pkwGif jrifhrm;aomtifwmeufvufcHrIp&dwf &SaeaomaMumifh d jzpfonf/ rnfodkYyifjzpfap tifwmeufonf w,fvDzkef;? zuf(pf)pufwkdYxuf aps;rBuD;vS[k ,lqMuonf/ odkYaomf ,if;wdkYavmufjynfhpHkjcif;r&Sacs/ qdkvkdonfrSm owif;tcsuf d tvufxkwvir jrifrm;aomtjrefEe;aMumifh aps;rBuD;jcif; f T hf I h If jzpfonf/ w,fvzke;ESirwlaomtcsurm ppfreaomtcsewif D f hf f S Sf df G ,if;onf tjyeftvSeESpvrf;oGm; qufoG,a&;udk yHhykd;aom f f f aMumifh rjynfhpHk[k qkvkdjcif;jzpfonf/ d
  • 106. 204 tcef; (17) tdkifpDwD awmfvSefa&;ESifh owif;tcsuftvuf pD ; yG m ;a&; owif;tcsutvufp;yGm;a&; (information economy) f D [lonf pD;yGm;a&;e,fy,f&dS ,lepfrsm; (odr[kw) at;*sirsm; kY f fh xkwvkyrpr;tm;ESihf ,SOûf ydiEkipr;taejzihf todynmtajccH f f I G f f d f G f owif;tcsutvuf (Knowledge based information) udk f pGr;f &nf&pmtoH;csNyD; vkyief;pOfaqmif&u&ef xdpr;f &nfay:wGif dS G k f G f kG t"durlwnftm;xm;aejcif;yif jzpfonf/ þwGif owif; tcsutvufukd aiGaMu;ESihf xkwukeypön;ESpckpvHk;&Saom f f f f f d pD;yGm;a&;wpf&yftaejzifhvnf; azmfjyonf/ uREkywkdYonf uREkywkdYtvkyrsm;ûyvky&efESihf uREkywkYd f f f f f f f f b0rsm; &Sioef&ef owif;tcsuzvS,jf cif;tay:wGif tpOftNrJ f f rlwnfaepOf owif;tcsutvufp;yGm;a&;onf oifawmfaom f D h tcsdefwGif ydkrdkqufET,faom owif;tcsuftvufpkaqmif; EdkirIwif uGJjym;jcm;em;pGm &Saeonf/ þpD;yGm;a&;wGif owif; f G d tcsutvuf<u,f0rIonf owif;tcsutvufEihf qufo,f f f S G a&;enf;ynm us,us,jf yefYjyefYtoHk;ûyEkijf cif;yif jzpfonf/ f d armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f owif ; tcsuf t vuf p D ; yG m ;a&;onf *vd k b ,f j zpf o nf / orki;f 0ifqef;opfaomtrSew&m;jzpfonfh *vdb,fp;yGm;a&;wGif d f k D urÇmajrpau;wpfckwif ppfreaomtcse&dS ,lepfwpfcktaejzifh G Sf df f tvkyvky&ef pGr;&nf&Sonf/ ,cktcg aumfykda&;&Si;rsm;ESihf f f f d pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;wGif uRrf;usivkyom;twGuf urÇmtESHY f f f tajccHae&mrsm;&Sonf/ t&if;tESD;onf wdki;jynfrsm;tMum; d f vGwvyfpmpD;qif;onf/ wki;jynfrsm;onf ,if;t&if;tESD;udk f G d f ppfrSeaomtcsewGif toHk;ûyEdkionf/ f df f odkY&mwGif ppfrSeaom*vdkb,fpD;yGm;a&;udk r&&Sao;[k f d a0zeftuJjzwfolwcsKUd u qdkMuonf/ EkiiHpHkaumfykda&;&Si; d f f rsm;onf ,if;wdkydkiqirrsm;ESihf r[mAsL[majrmuf trdeay; Y f kd f I Yf A[kXmersm;udk xde;odr;qJjzpfNyD; bPfvkyief;ESihf b@ma&; d f f f Oya'rsm;u t&if;tES;udk uefowfxm;qJjzpfonf/ *vdkb,f D Y vkuaZ;&Si;f onf tpd;&pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ESihf ay:vpDrsm;jzifh d f k tusKd;oufa&mufvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf EdkifiHwum e,ferwrsm;ESihf *vdkb,fpD;yGm;a&; zGJUpnf;rIukd tusK;ouf d d f d a&mufapvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ owif;tcsutvufpD;yGm;a&;vkyief; 'kw,toGif f f d tjyifvu©Pmwpfcrm jrifjh rifrm;rm; xkwvyEiryifjzpfonf/ kS h f k f dk f I D f HS I tkipwwif tusK;tjrwfjzpfxe;rIEihf &if;ES;jr§KyErtMum; quf dfD D G d Gf S oG,rr&S[k a0zeftuJjzwforsm;u tacstwifajymqkMd uonf/ fI d l owif;tcsutvuf enf;ynmawmfvSea&;onf 1970 jynfh f f vGeESpf umvapmapmydki;wGif yHkazmfcJhonf/ odkYaomf ukexkwf f f f
  • 107. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 205 vkyrIpGr;tm;onf uGJjym;jcm;em;aom½kyyHkukd azmfjycJhonf/ f f f tar&duefESihf *syefwGif ukexkwvkyrIpGr;tm;onf 1988 f f f f ESihf 1989 ckEpwif odoomomjrihwufcNhJ yD; ESppOfyQr;rQonf S f G d f f f 3 &mckiEIe;ESihf 4 &mcdkiEIe; toD;oD;&ScJhonf/ xkwvkyrIpGr; d f f f f d f f f tm;onf 1990 jynfhvGeESpf umvrsm;xuf ydkrkdvsijf refaom f ajcvSrf;odkY jrifhwufcJhonf/ pD;yGm;a&;udef;*Pef;rsm;onf owif;tcsutvufp;yGm;a&;opf vIy&m;rIrsm;udk vHkavmuf f D f S pGm r&,lEkicJhacs/ þonfrSm owif;tcsutvufenf;ynm d f f tusK;oufa&mufrIESihf qufET,aeaom tzGJUtpnf;qdki&m d f f ajymif;vJratmufwi&aeaom e,fy,faMumifjh zpfonf/ owif; I G f dS tcsutvufenf;ynm? ukexkwvkyr?I w,fvqufo,a&;? f f f f D G f ukewkduvlrIvkyief;rsm;odkY b@ma&;qdki&m 0efaqmifrIrsm;rS f f f f ysUH Er&Eionf/ NyD;vQif ,if;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; 0efaqmifrI YHS I dS kd f f rsm;odkY a&muf&SoGm;vdrhfrnf/ d owif;tcsutvufpD;yGm;a&; wwd,toGitjyif f f vu©PmrSm tusK;tjrwfrsm;&&Sjd cif;qdki&m tûytrlwif ajymif; d f G vJrjI zpfonf/ þwGif owif;tcsutvufp;yGm;a&;ESihf ,SOwJG f D f NyD; todynmpD;yGm;a&; (Knowledge Economy) pD;yGm;a&;opf (New Economy) ESihf uGe&ufp;yGm;a&; (Network Economy) f D wdkYukd od&S&efvktyfonf/ ,if;wdkY trsK;rsK;aomt,ltq d d d d rsm;onf toGitjyifvu©Pm jcm;em;aomoabmrsm;udk f OD;wnfonf/ yDwm'&yfum (Peter Drucker) url owif; tcsutvufawmfvSea&;udk todynmawmfvSea&;taejzifh f f f 206 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f azmfjyonf/ olqvaomt"dutcsurm tDvufx&Geepfr[kwbJ kd dk fS f f odjrifem;vnfaom odyÜHynmjzpfonf/ uGeysLwmrsm;twGuf f toHk;ûyaom aqmhz0onf tawGUtêuHay:wGif tajccHxm;aom f J tul;tajymif;tvkyukd jyefvnfpkpnf;onf/ ,if;udk txl; f ojzifh pepfusaom? ,kwå&aom cGjJ crf;pdwjf zmrIwif todynm d dS G toHk;csrIrSwpfqifh aqmif&uonf/ tkiwDzJGUpnf;rIukd csrSw½Hk G f d f f jzifrvHkavmufacs/ pD;yGm;a&;opfwif OD;aqmifrukd xde;odr;&ef h G I f f todynmqdki&m toufarG;0rf;ausmif;orm;rsm; vlrqi&m f I kd f vufcHrIukd tmrcHoifhonf/ pifppf todynmpD;yGm;a&;onf uGe&ufaESmifzUJG xm;aom f pD;yGm;a&;wpfckjzpfonf/ ,if;t,ltqonf pD;yGm;a&;opfwif G &Saom wpfo;yk*vrsm;? tkypkrsm;ESihf aumfyka&;&Si;rsm;tMum; d D ¾ f d f cswqufrrsm; ta&;BuD;Edkiaom ajymif;vG,jf yifv,f ûyrIEihf d f I f G S &,lrwt& ,if;uGe&ufrsm;onf tpOftNrJ pHjypkpnf;xm;aom I Ykd f ud&,mwpfck[k tajctwifajymqdkrrsm;&Sonf/ odaomf orm; d I d kY ½dk;usue&ufrsm;onf aocsmaomt&G,tpm;ESihf ½IyaxG;rIukd Gf f f ausmveí vkyief;tpdwtydi;rsm; aygif;pnf;&ef yHazmfxm;jcif; f Gf f f kf k r[kwacs/ ,if; apmapmydki;uefowfrrsm;onf tkipwpwif f f Y I d f D D rdwqufjcif;ESitwl ausmvm;cJonf/ txl;ojzifh tifwmeuf f hf f T h onf uGe&ufrsm;udk ajymif;vG,jf yifv,f ûyEkionf/ uGe&uf f G d f f rsm;udk &,lEkionf/ ,if;wdkYukd a&SUqufí ,laqmifcJhonf/ d f ,if;wdkY wjznf;jznf; BuD;xGm;jzpfay:vmaomobm0udk aMumfjimcJhonf/
  • 108. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 207 xdkYaMumifh tkdifpDwDawmfvSefa&;ESifh owif;tcsuf tvufpD;yGm;a&; rnfokdYqufpyfaeonfukd avhvmMunfhygu pdw0ifpm;zG,f awGU&onf/ tkipDwDonf tay;t,lvkyief; f d f f ukeusp&dwukd odoomom avQmhcsay;onf/ ,cktcg vl f f d tkyptrsm;tjym;onf olwvtyfaom owif;tcsutvufukd fk Ykd kd f trSewu,fv,vifwulEihf aps;oufoufomom &&SEkirnf f G f h S d d f jzpfonf/ þowif;tcsutvuf cdkirmaomqHk;jzwfcsursm; f f f ûyvky&efESihf ½IyaxG;aom vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm;udk yl;aygif; f f f f aqmif&Guf&efjzpfonf/ þodkYjzifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;tzGJU tpnf;rsm;onf jyifyrS,if;wdkYvdktyfaom t&mtm;vHk;udk 0,f,jl cif;ESihf ,if;wdkt"duusaom pGr;aqmif&nfjzifh xkwf Y f vkyrIûyvkyaomtcsuwGif t&G,tpm;avQmhcs&ef? xdkYaMumifh f f f f vlrsm;rsm;oH;aom aumfya&;&Si;rsm;tMum; vlenf;enf;oH;aom k kd f k aumfykda&;&Si;rsm; BuD;xGm;vmonf/ ,if;wdkYonf olwkdY f r[mrdwfukrÜPDrsm;twGuf xkwfvkyfrIaqmif&Gufay;onf/ þonfukd uGe&ufxkwvkyrI[k vlorsm;onf/ f f f d tcef; (18) *vk d b ,f v d k u f a Z;&S i f ; ES i f h tk d i f p D w D a wmf v S e f a &; ydraumif;rGeaom o,f,yaqmifjcif;? 0efaqmifrvyief; k kd f l Ykd I kf rsm;rS w,fvDzke;ESihf vlxkqufoG,a&;rD'D,modkY enf;ynm f f qki&mzGUH ûzd;rIonf ydkrkao;i,fNyD; ydkrkaygif;pnf;aqmif&uaom d f d d G f urÇmBuD;udk zefwD;cJhNyD;jzpfygonf/ ,ckrsuarSmufumvwGif f d tkipwawmfvea&;onf urÇmBuD;udk ydkrkao;i,fNyD; ydkrkaygif; d f D D Sf d pnf;aqmif&GuEkdicJhNyD jzpfonf/ qufoG,a&;? ukeoG,rIESihf f f f f f tvkytudi&&Sr?I yk*Kd¾ va&;ESihf Ekiia&;qki&m tay;t,lvyief; f kf d f dfH df kf rsm;onf *vdkb,fpau;taejzifh jzpfysuvmcJonf/ Edkiirsm; f h f H tMum; e,ferwrsm;udkausmjf zwfNyD; *vdkb,fvkduaZ;&Si; d d f f f jzpfay:vmcJhonf/ þwGif Ekb,fqk&Sif Joseph Stig Litz u *vdkb,f d d vdkuaZ;&Si; (Globalization) udk þodkY t"dyÜm,fzGihfqkcJhonf/ f f ]]*vdkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;nf urÇmay:&SEiirsm;ESihf jynfol d f f d kd f H rsm; ydkrke;uyfaom aygif;pnf;aqmif&urjI zpfonf/ o,f,l dD G f ydaqmifa&;ESihf qufo,a&;qdi&m BuD;rm;aomukeusp&dwrsm; Yk G f kf f f avQmhcsjcif;jzifh *vdkb,fvkduaZ;&Si;udk o,faqmifvmcJhNyD; f f jzpfonf/ ukeypön;rsm;? 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;? t&if;tESD;? f f f
  • 109. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 209 todynmA[kokwESihf vlrsm; e,ferwrsm; jzwfausmp;qif; d d f f D rIrsm;qdki&m twm;tqD;rsm;udk ûzdcGJjcif;jzifh *vdkb,fvkduaZ; f f &Si;udk o,faqmifvmcJhonf/}} f þwGif *vkb,fvuaZ;&Si;onf pD;yGm;a&;toGitjyif d kd f f f vu©Pmwpfckoufoufr[kwaMumif; od&&ef ta&;BuD;onf/ f dS ,if;onf b0toGitjyifvu©Pmtm;vHk;udk tusK;ouf f d a&mufaponf/ *vdkb,fvkduaZ;&Si;ESihf qufET,yg0ifaqmif&Guae f f f f aom taMumif;jcif;&mtenf;qHk; av;ck&Sonf/ ,if;wdkYrSmd (1) txl;ojzifh tkipDwDawmfvSea&;wGif enf;ynm d f f qki&majymif;vJrI? d f (2) aps;uGutajcûypepfrsm; ysHUESHYvmrI? f (3) jynfwGi;EdkiiHa&; (*vdkb,fvkduaZ;&Si; acwf f f f f vGefpGrf;tm;rsm;onf EdkifiHa&;t& ydkrdkodom xif&Sm;vmonf) ESihf (4) EdkiiHtwGi; ûydiqkdirIrsm;wdkY jzpfonf/ f f f f *vdkb,fvdkufaZ;&Sif;onf EdkifiHrsm;udk enf;vrf; oHk;oG,jf zifh tusK;oufa&mufaMumif; Anthony Giddens u d tMuHûywifjyxm;onf/ yxrtcsurm *vdkb,fvkuaZ; &Si; f S d f f (txl;ojzifh *vdkb,faps;uGufae&m) onf EkdifiHrsm;rS pGr;tm;rsm;udk ta0;odkU,loGm;onf/ EdkiiHrsm;onf ,if;wdkY f f tuRrf;w0if&aom pD;yGm;a&;tem*wfrsm;udk trdeay;ír&acs/ dS Yf ,if; taumif;qHk;OyrmrSm tpdk;&rsm; aiGaMu;rsm; xde;csKyf&ef f rpGr;aqmifEkirIyifjzpfonf/ Giddens u wpfcsewnf;wGif f d f df 210 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f *vdkb,fvdkufaZ;&Sif;onf a'oqkdif&m? ,Ofaus;rIqdkif&m udk,ykivkyykiciEihf udk,pm;vS,rsm;twGuf jzpfEiajctopf f d f f d f G hf S f f kd f rsm;ESihf vIHUaqmfrItopfrsm;udk zefwD;ay;onf[kqkdonf/ *vdkb,fvkuaZ;&Si; 'kw,tusK;oufa&mufrIrSm d f f d d a'oqdki&mtrsK;om;a&;0g' jyefvnfouf0ifEk;<uvmrItwGuf f d d taMumif;&if;yifjzpfonf/ urÇmqefqefûyavav a'oqki&m d f ûyrlzkdY ydkvktyfavyifjzpfonf/ d *vdkb,fvkuaZ;&Si; wwd,tusK;oufa&mufrIukd d f f d a'oqdkif&mtkyfpkzGJUrsm; ta&;wBuD;jzpfay:rItoGiftjzpf d f taumif;qHk; awGUjrif&onf/ þwGif tifwmeufESihf tkipDwD awmfvSefa&;onf pDrHtkyfcsKyfrI (governance) udk rnfodkY tusK;oufa&mufr&aMumif; odxm;&efvtyfonf/ pDrtkycsKyf d I dS kd H f rIukd aygif;pnf;xm;aom aqmif&urtm; pkpnf;xm;jcif;tjzpf G f I ½dk;&Si;pGm t"dym,fziEkionf/ tpdk;& tkycsKyfa&;wGif qHk;jzwf f Ü G hf d f f csucsjcif; vkyief;pOf[kvnf; owfrSwMf uonf/ tkipDwD f f d f f taejzifh ,if;us,jf yefYaom tjrif? usO;ajrmif;aomtjrif ESpckpvHk;wGif pDrHtkycsKyfjcif;tay: t"dutusK;oufa&mufrI f f d &Sonf/ tkipDwDvkyief;rsm;onf tpdk;&u EdkiiHom;rsm;ESihf d d f f f rnfokdYtjyeftvSeaqmif&GuonfESihf 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;ukd f f f f rnfokYd ydkaqmifoifonfqkaom tcsursm;ESiywfoufí EdkiiH Y h d f hf om;rsm;tMum; arQmfvifhxm;rItopfrsm;ukd zefwD;ay;onf[k pDrtkycsKyfrI odyHÜ (uae'g) u ,HkMunfxm;onf/ tifwmeuf H f enf;ynmESihf toHk;csrrsK;½k;ADZqki&m rMumao;rDu wk;wufrI I d d d f d rsm;onf yk*¾Kd vfa&;&ma&G;cs,rIESihf yk*¾vuvTr;rdk;rIqkdi&m f d f f
  • 110. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 211 e,ferwrsm;udk xl;jcm;pGmjyefvnft"dyÜm,fowfrSwaeonf/ d d f f jynfolvlxkta&;ygrI udpö&yfrsm;ay:wGif pkpnf;xm;aom qHk;jzwfcsucsjcif;qdki&m e,ferwrsm;udk jyefvnfowfrSwf f f d d f aeonf/ tqifhwpfckwGif tkipDwDtoHk;ûyaom tpdk;&rsm;onf d f ydkraumif;rGepm pDrtkycsKyfEkivrrnfjzpfonf/ e-Government kd f G H f d f d hf odkYr[kwf EdkifiHom;rsm; tusKd;&Sd&ef tpdk;&vkyfief;rsm; vufcrEiyiqirujkd r§iwif&ef tdipwtoH;ûyrIonf aumif;rGef H I S h f kd f dk f I hf kfD D k aompDrtycsKyrtwGuf tpd;&armif;ESirwif vktyfaomt&m H kf fI k fI G d wpfckjzpfonf/ 21 &mpkwGif owif;tcsutvufenf;ynmudk us,f f jyefpmt"dym,fziq&mwGif ta&;tBuD;qHk; yg0gt&if;tjrpf[k Y G Ü G hf kd Robert Keo Heo Hane ESihf Joseph Nye.Jr wdkYu oabmwl xm;onf/ *vdkb,fvdkufaZ;&Sif;u xl;jcm;aomoGifjyif vu©Pmudkazmfjyonfh owif;tcsutvufEihf qufo,a&; f S G f u yHkazmfxm;onfh urÇmBuD;wGif owif;tcsutvufpD;qif; f rIrsm;ESihf rD',may;ydrrsm;ay:wGif ûyrIaqmif&u&efpr;&nfonf D kY I G f G f Edkiia&;qdki&mtpDtpOfukd tm;ay;jr§iwifjcif;twGuf r&Srjzpf f H f hf d d vktyfaom ud&,mwpfckjzpfonf/ ,cktcg oHcif;wrefcif; d (Diplomacy) wGif tpdk;&rsm;omru ,if;wdkY udk,pm;ûyaom f vlrItzGJUtpnf;rsm;vnf; yg0ifonf/ ûcHíqdk&aomf *vdkb,f vkuaZ;&Si;onf tkipDwDawmfvSea&;ESihf qufE,rI&aMumif; d f f d f f T f Sd odomxif&Sm;vSayonf/ tcef; (19) e-Commerce zG H Y N zd K ; rI E S i f h tpk d ; &tcef ; u@ yk*¾vdutcef;u@onf e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIESifh toHk;ûyrIwGif OD;aqmifaomtcef;u@rS yg0ifoifhonf[k a,bk,stm;jzifh oabmwlMupOf tpdk;&taejzifh uspvspNf yD; f vufawGUtoHk;0ifaom aqmif&urrsm;rSwpfqifh e-Commerce G f I wk d ; wuf r I t m;ay;jcif ; wG i f ta&;ygaomtcef ; u@rS yg0ifaeonf/ f dk G f 1/ e-Commerce twGuf ESpvz,&maumif;aom ay:vpD ywf0ef;usiwpfck zefwD;jcif;ESihf f 2/ e-Commerce udk OD;aqmiftoH;ûyoljzpfvmjcif;? ,if; k vkyief;aqmifwmrsm;wGif e-Commerce toHk;csrIrsm; f f &Svmjcif;? e-Grovernment vkyief;rsm; toHk;ûyrIukd d tm;ay;&ef ,if;wGiyg0ifaom EdkiiHom;rsm;udk yHhykd;ol f f jzpfvmjcif;wdkY jzpfonf/ e-Commerce twGuf ESpvkdzG,&maumif;aomay:vpD f f e-Commerce qdki&m jynfolYa&;&may:vpDupö&yfrsm; f d teuf tpdk;&rsm; tav;xm;*½kpkduoifhaom tcsursm;rSm f f wpfzufazmfjyygwdkYjzpfonf-
  • 111. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 213 1/ 'pf*spw,fum[rIukd cswqufjcif;? odkr[kwf owif; f G d f Y tcsutvufuGe&ufrsm;udk aps;rBuD;bJ vG,ulpGm f f f vufcHrI&&S&ef wdk;jr§ihfaqmif&Guay;jcif;/ d f f 2/ e-Commerce a&mif;a&;0,fwmvkyief;rsm;udk Oya' aMumif;t& todtrSwûf yjcif;/ 3/ vdrvnfrIrsm;rS oHk;pGJolukd tumtuG,ay;jcif;/ f f 4/ oHk;pGJolrsm;tcGihfta&;udk taESmifht,SurS at;Nidr; f f ap&ef tumtuG,ay;jcif;/ f 5/ uGeysLwmpepfrsm;wGif tcGitmPmr&Saom vufcrukd f hf d H I qefusiaom Oya'aMumif;t& tumtuG,ay;jcif;ESihf Y f f 6/ todÓPfynmqdi&m rlyiciukd tumtuG,ay;jcif; kf kd f G h f f wdkYjzpfonf/ ,if;udp&yfrsm;udk &ifqiajz&Si;f &ef aqmif&urrsm;onf ö dk f G fI e-Commerce toHk;ûyolrsm;tMum; ,HkMunfrIwkd;jr§ihfa&;udk kf kfH tm½Hpu&rnfjzpfonf/ xkjYd yif e-Commerce qdi&m Ediiwum k kd f pHcsepHñTe;rsm;ESihf o[Zmwjzpfaom trsK;om;tqifhabmif df f d twdki;twmuefYowfcsuf zGHUûzd;a&;udkvnf; tm½Hkpkdu&rnf f f jzpfonf/ ,if; EdkiiwumpHcsepñe;rsm;wGif pmcsKyfpmwrf;udk f H df H Tf Oya'aMumif;t& jzpfapjcif;? pm;oHk;ol (oHk;pGJol) tum tuG,fay;a&;? todÓPfynmqkdif&m rlydkifcGifh? e,fedrdwf jzwfausmukeo,rIESihf tajccHtaqmufttHkqkdi&m ydkYaqmifrI f f G f f jrifhrm;wdk;wufa&;wdkY yg0ifonf/ 214 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tpdk;&taejzifh toHk;ûyEkiaom d f e-Commerce tpdk;&taejzifh e-Commerce udk atmufygenf;vrf; rsm;jzifh toHk;ûyEdkionff 1/ e-Procurement (tDvufx&Geepfenf;t& 0,f,la&;) f tpdk;&Xmersm;onf at*sipDpGr;aqmifrI tpDtpOfrsm;? f f ypön;ay;oGi;ol pGr;aqmifrItpDtpOfrsm;ESihf tDvufx&Geepf f f f f enf;t& 0,f,la&; (e-Procurement) owif;tcsutvuf f pepfrsm;rSwpfqifh zGihxm;aom pHcsepHñe;rsm; toHk;ûyaeonfh f df Tf f ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm; (Suppliers) tm;vHk;ESihf tDvufx&Geepf f f enf;t& ukeoG,rIûyEdkipGr; &Soifhonf/ f f f f d 2/ taumufcGe&Si;vif;jcif; (Customs Clearance) f f taumufcevkyief;pOfrsm;ESihf vkyief;aqmif&urrsm;udk Gf f f G f I uGeysLwm enf;pepftoH;ûyjcif;ESitwl taumufce&i;vif;a&; f k hf GfSf tcseESihf oabFmwif ydkYaqmifa&;udpö&yfrsm;? jrifhrm;wdk;wuf df vmaom w&m;0if 0ifaiGrsm;ay:wGif ydkrkdcefYrSe;EdkiNf yD; ydkrkd f wdusaom owif;tcsutvufrsm;&&S&ef arQmfvifhEkdionf/ f d f taumufcGevkyief;pOfrsm;ESihf atmfya&;&Si;rsm;udk uGeysLwm f f f f enf;jzifh toHk;ûyaqmif&Guf&mwGif tDvufx&Gefenf;jzifh tqkûd yvTm wifoi;jcif;? vkyief;pOfaqmif&ujf cif;ESihf tDvuf G f f G x&Geepfenf;jzifh aiGay;acsjcif;? taumufce½k;pm;yGrsm;? ukw'f f Gf H J f eHygwfrsm;ESifh êudwifvufcHrIrsm; aygif;pnf;aqmif&Guf&ef? tcsutvufoGi;&ef tvdktavQmufpepfrsm; yg0ifonf/ f f
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  • 117. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 225 ckESpf aiGa&;aMu;a&;tusytwnf; awGUêuHNyD;aemuf 1987 f ckESpuwnf;u tm;aumif;aom wdk;wufrIEIe;&ScJhonf/ f f d tmqD,HpD;yGm;a&;udk vufwiftar&du? tmz&du? taemufESihfawmif tm&SpD;yGm;a&;rsm;ESihf EIi;,SOMf unfh&mwGif d f a&&Snwkd;wufrIonf qef;opfzefwD;rIrsm;udk vIHYaqmfay;&ef f tzGUJ ponfh qdki&mwnfaqmufray:wGif rlwnfonf/ ajrmuf f I tar&du? Oa&my,le,Eihf ta&SUajrmuftm&Swonf tif'e;&Sm;? D HS Ykd kd D rav;&Sm;? zdvpfykdiESihf xki;EkiiHwkdYa&SUokdY a&mufaeonf/ f d f d f pifumylEiiomvQif tcsKUd zGUH ûzd;NyD;Ekiip;yGm;a&;rsm;udk ausmwuf dk f H dfHD f cJhNyD; uGm[rIukd eD;uyfapcJhonf/ pifumylu a&SUrajy;aepOf rav;&Sm;u ydkrkrsm;jym;aom S d okawoeESihf zGHUûzd;rI aqmif&GurItajctaersm;udk zefwD;&ef f êud;yrf;aeqJjzpfonf/ rav;&Sm;wGif aumif;rGeaomtajccH f taqmufttHk&onf/ Ekiia&;wnfNidrr&onf/ tqifjh rifyukef dS d f H f I dS h kYd OD;pm;ay; EdkiiHpHkaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;ESihf Mum&SnvkyukdicJhaom f f f f f tawGUtêuH&Sdonf/ rnfodkYyifjzpfap tkdifwDqufET,faom vkyief;rsm;tygt0if ydkrkdjrifhrm;aom xyfwkd;wefzkd;&&Sonfh f d ukeypön;atmfya&;&Si;rsm; aqmif&Gu&ef EdkiiHtwGuf ydkrkd f f f f f pGr;aqmifEkiaom ypön;ud&,mrsm;wGif rsm;jym;aom &if;ESD; f d f f d ûr§yErukd toGiajymif;&ef vktyfonf/ tif'ke;&Sm;? zdvpfykiEihf f HS I f d dD d f S xkdif;EkdifiHonf rav;&Sm;xufomí jrifhrm;aom vlom; t&if;tESD;yHhykd;rIrsm; ESpouf[ef&onf/ AD,uferfrSmrl jrifhrm; f Sd aom vlom;t&if;tES;yHyk;rIrsm;udk ESpoufaomfvnf; ,if; D h d f 226 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tkiwDtajccHtaqmufttHkrSm tvGetm;enf;aeqJjzpfonf/ d f f tmqD,HpD;yGm;a&;twGif;wGif wpfOD;csif; GNP ESifh yDptoHk;ûyrItMum; wku½kutcsK;usaom qufo,r&onf/ D d f d f d G f I dS pifumylu xdywi&NdS yD; ,if;aemuf rav;&Sm;u vkuaeonf/ f G f d f atmufqHk;wGif uarÇm'D;,m;ESihf vmtk&Sonf/ ½kyykdi;qki&m d d f f d f tajccHtaqmufttHktjyif tmqD,p;yGm;a&;rsm;onf pD;yGm;a&; H D wdk;wufrIudk vsifjref&eftvdkYiSm tkdifwDtaqmufttHkudk tm;aumif;aprnfjzpfonf/ pifumylonf pufrIxGef;opfpEdkifiHtjzpf &yfwnf aeonf/ rav;&Sm;uawmh 'kw,ae&mwGif &Saeonf/ pifumyl d d taejzifh vlom;t&if;tESD;uJhokdY tdkiwDtajccHtaqmufttHk f yHhykd;rIrsm; &&SrIwGif odomxif&Sm;vSonf/ rav;&Sm; tdkiwD d f tajccHtaqmufttHkonf 1990 jynfhESpaESmif;ydki;wGif odod f f omom jrifwufconf/ tifwmeufEihf yDptoHk;csronfvnf; h hJ S D I jrifhwufcJhonf/ ukeoG,rIwGif avQmhayghay;rIrsm;onf *vdk f f b,faps;uGursm;wGif tcGihftvrf;rsm;udk vufcHEkdi&ef ulnD f f vdrhfrnf/ tkiwDtajccHtaqmufttHkonf vdktyfaom tajc d f taewpfckjzpfvmaomtcg vlom;t&if;tESD;onf enf;ynm ajymif;vJrIESihf EdkiiHwum,SOûf ydirIukd armif;ESiaom ta&; f f f ygonfhtcsufjzpfonf/
  • 118. 228 tcef; (21) e-Commerce tem*wf v rf ; aM u mif ; *vkb,fvkduaZ;&Si;aMumifh urÇmBuD;onf &Gmjzpfvm d f f onf/ 21 &mpkonf enf;ynm plyg[dkua0;ay:odkY a&muf&Sd f vmcJhonf/ 20 &mpktawmtwGi; uRefywkYonf ta&twGuf f f d rsm;jym;aom twki;twm&Sprf;oyfrIukd aqmif&GucJhonf/ d f d f 'pf*spw,fowif;tcsutvuf tajccHtaqmufttHktm;jzifh f f vlrItzGJUtpnf;ESihf uREkywkdYaeYpOfb0rsm; rnfokdYxa&muf f f d tusK;&SEkdionfukd Munfh½Iaom prf;oyfrIyifjzpfonf/ vGecJh d d f f aom&mpkESptwGi; tifwmeufonf a&SUajy;yHkpHxuf ydkrkdrIr&Sd f f cJacs/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf orm;½d;usp;yGm;a&;vkyief;wGif h f k D f f taxmuftulûyonfhtaejzifh e-Commerce udk aqmif&GucJh onf/ ynma&;taejzifh rsm;pGmae&m,lcJhaomfvnf; c&D;a0; tGevkdi;avhvmrIukd prf;oyfrItajccHtjzpfom toHk;ûycJhonf/ f f 21 &mpkonf tm½Hkpl;pdkurItay: a&TUajymif;cJhonf/ prf;oyfrI f acwfonf ausmvGecJhNyDjzpfonf/ pifppf tifwmeufonf f f &ifhusuNf yD; jynfhpHkaom xkwukeypön;wpfcktjzpfokdY a&S;½I f f f a&GUvsm;vmrnfjzpfonf/ 20 &mpktifwmeufonf qufoG,f xm;aom uGeysLwmrsm;udk zefwD;cJhonf/ 21 &mpk ppfrSeaom f f armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f urÇmhtifwmeufonf obm0usaom vufawGUb0jzpfvm rnfh t&m&mwdki;udk cswqufonf/ tDvufx&GeepfpD;yGm;a&; f d f f taMumif;udkavhvmvQif e-Commerce udk pepfwusavhvmí toH;csvQif urÇmvom;tm;vH;twGuf tusK;rsm;zG,&ygonf/ k h l k d f dS uGeysLwmxkwpuf½kHvkyief;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tajc f f f f pdkupme,fZif;wdonf tD;-aumrmhptaMumif; aqmif;yg;rsm;udk f kY f yHkrSefxkwfa0vsuf&Sdonf/ taxGaxGowif;r*¾Zif;rsm;ESifh owif;pmrsm;uvnf; olwkdYpD;yGm;a&;u@ü tD;-aumrmhpf owif;aqmif;yg;rsm;udk jznfhpuazmfjyMuygonf/ Dowjones G f pawmhtñTe;rsm; (stock indexes) u tifwmeuftñTe;rsm; f f (internet Indexes) udk tifwmeufay:rS ukrÜPDrsm; b@m a&;&yfwnfcsursm;tm; cseqEdi&eftwGuf jznfpuwifjyay;ae f df kf hG f ygonf/ a'ocH pmMunfwkursm;ESihf pmtkyqkirsm;ü &Ekionfh h d f f d f d f ESppOfwkd;wufvmaeaom pmtkyrsm;uvnf; tD;-aumrmhpf f f taMumif; xkwa0azmfjyvsu&Sonf/ tifwmeufay:rSmom f f d &Sonfh pmapmifrsm;jzpfaom tD;-Zif; (e-zines) onf tD;d aumrmhpjf yóemqki&m aqG;aEG;yGtrsm;pkrsm;ESihf pum;0di;rsm;udk df J kf wm0ef,azmfjyay;aeygonf/ [mh'0Eiaqmhz0J xkwvkyorsm; l f J S hf f f f l uvnf; olwk0ufbqkursm;ü owif;ESihf taxGaxGowif; Yd f d f tcsutvufrsm;udk rMumcP xkwjf yefay;aeygonf/ tD;f aumrmhptwGuf tifwmeufvrf;ñTersm; (online guides) u f f &if;jrpfrsm; (resources)? enf;jywef;rsm; (tutorials) ESifh tquftoG,rsm; (links) wkYdukd azmfjyay;ygonf/ f
  • 119. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 229 tD;-aumrmhponf ESD;ET,&m toufarG;0rf;ausmif;rI f f rsm;twGuf tcGihftvrf;rsm;udk zefwD;ay;ygonf/ wuúokdvf trsm;tjym;ü ,cktcg tD;-aumrmhpoifMum;rIrsm;udk pD;yGm; f a&;vkyief; oif½k;ñTe;wrf; tpdwtydki;tjzpf vkyaqmifay; f d f f f f vsuf&Sdygonf/ pmoifausmif;tcsKdUyifvQif tD;-aumrmhpf r[m0dZÆmbGJU odkYr[kwf tD;-aumrmhptxl;ûy MBA bGJUwpfckukd f ay;vsu&ygonf/ tpdk;&tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;? toufarG;0rf;ausmif; f dS tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifh tusKd;tjrwfr,lonfh tkyfpkrsm;onf 0ufbqkdursm;udk qufvufxe;odr; zGihvSpxm;Muygonf/ f f df f f f ,if;wdkYu tD;-aumrmhpf wdk;wufjrifhrm;vma&;udk axmuful &ef tcrJhowif;tcsutvufrsm; jzefYa0ay;Muygonf/ tzGJU f tpnf;wcsKUd qkvQif pufrIu@jrifhrm;atmif aqmifMuOf;onfh d tkypkrsm; (industry watchdogs) toGif vkyaqmifMuygonf/ f f þtkypkrsm;u aqG;aEG;yGrsm;? tvky½kaqG;aEG;yGrsm;udk OD;aqmif f J f H J wm0ef,l usi;yay;Muygonf/ f pifppf e-Commerce tem*wfonf m-Commerce jzpfonf/ t"dyÜm,frSm rdkbki;vfzke;rsm;? PDAs Wallet PCs d f f wdkYjzifh vkyief;rsm;aqmif&Gujf cif;udk qdkvkygonf/ f d ,if;vkyief;rsm;rSm atmufygwkYdjzpfonff M-SHOPPING ukeypön;rsm;udk rSm,lonf/ toHk;0ifrI? wefzkd;ESihf f f ay;xm;onfhowif;tcsutvuf ponfwkdYukd ppfaq;onf/ f 230 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f M-SIGN trSmpmrsm; (Orders)? aiGay;acsjcif;rsm; (Payments)? vufrSwa&;xk;&ef vktyfaomñTeMf um;csursm; (instructions f d d f requiring signatures) udk twnfûyay;onf/ M-TRAVEL c&D;oGm;vufrSwfrsm;ESifh [kdw,ftcef;rsm; csefxm; ay;jcif;? vnfywfrnfae&mrsm;ESiywfoufonfh owif;tcsuf h hf tvufrsm;udk ay;onf/ M-BANKING vufuseaiG&Si;wrf;udk ppfaq;onfh (check statef f ments)? aiGay;acsonfh (make payments)? tD;-uuf&rsm;udk fS xkw,lonf? ½kyor;onf (withdraw e-cash)/ f f d f M-TRADING aiGvJEIe;? pawmhrsm;ESihfywfoufonfh owif;tcsuf f tvufrsm; (pawmhrsm;udk a&mif;) 0,fonf/ m-Commerce onf zke;rsm; odkYr[kwf pmtkyrsm; f f odkYr[kwf *si;abmif;bDrsm; rSm,lay;aeaom e-Commerce f xufyif ausmvGeoGm;Ekionf/ m-Commerce wGif azmuf f f d f onftwGuf olvcsionftcgwki; olqE´&onfae&mwdki;odkY kd f h d f Y dS h f aqmif&Guay;Edkionfh 0efaqmifrIrsm;ESihf ukepnfjzefYjzL;a&; f f f oabmw&m;rsm; yg0ifonf/
  • 120. &nfñe;f ud;k um;csursm; T f 1. Information Economy Report 2006,The Development perspectives,UNCTAD Secretatriat, United Nations Publication. 2. The Information Age (May 2003),Emmanuel C.Lallance,Ph.D,e-ASEAN Task Force, UNDPAPDIP. 3. Information Technology in ASIA (New Development Paradigms) (2002),Chia Siow Yue and Jamus jerome Lim,Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,Singapore. 4. Towards a Knowledge based Economy (East Asia's Changing Industrial Geography) (2003),Seiichi Masuyama and Donna Vandenbrink,Momura Research institute (NR),Tokyo,Japan. 5. e-Commerce and e-Business (May 2003) Zorayda Ruth Andam,e-ASEAN Task Force, UNDP-APDIP 6. Dictionary of Computing (S.M.H Collin),Peter Collin Publishing Ltd,UK (1994) 7. vlwkdi;twGuf f 8. jrefrmhtvif;? aMu;rHk aeYpOfowif;pmrsm; tifwmeufowif;rsm; 9. E-commerce (armifxl;cRef) All in one publishing,Yangon. (2001)