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Mg mg myint-thein
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Mg mg myint-thein

  1. 1. 2007 ckESpf? pmayAdrmefpmrlqk okwya'om (odyÜHESihf toHk;csoyÜH) 'kw,qk& d d odaumif;p&m e-Commerce armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pDpOfwnf;jzwfol - OD;pef;wifh (wuúokvf qef;wifEi) d h kd f pmwnf; (wm0efcH) pmayAdrmefxkwf jynfolUvufpGJpmpOf
  2. 2. 2009 ckESpf? yxrtBudrf? tkyfa& - 1500 'dkYwm0efta&;oHk;yg; jynfaxmifpk rûyduGJa&; 'dkYta&; wki;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDñGwrI rûyduGJa&; 'kYta&; d f f d tcsKyftjcm tmPm wnfwHhckdiNf rJa&; wefzdk; ( 500 ) usyf 'dkYta&; jynfolYoabmxm; jynfytm;uk;ykqe½; tqk;jrif0g'Drsm;tm; qefusiMf u/ d d f kd d Y Edkiiawmf wnfNidrat;csr;a&;ESihf Ekiiawmfw;wufa&; f H f f d f H kd udk aESmifh,SuzsuqD;olrsm;tm; qefYusiMf u/ f f EdkiiHawmf jynfwGi;a&;udk 0ifa&mufpGuzuf aESmifh f f f ,Suaom jynfyEdkiiHrsm;tm; qefYusiMf u/ f f yHkESya&;ESihf pmtkyxkwa0a&;vkyief; d f f f f pmayAdrmef pmwnf;rª;csKyfu rSwyHkwiftrSwf (07492) jzifhf yHkESyí f d f rSwykHwiftrSwf (03911) jzifh xkwa0onf/ f f jynfwGif;jynfy tzsuform;rsm;tm; bHk&efoltjzpf owfrSwacsrIe;Mu/ f f
  3. 3. rmwd u m EdkifiHa&; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf EkiiawmfwnfNidra&;? &yf&mat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf w&m;Oya' dfH f G pdk;rdk;a&;/ trsK;om; jyefvnfpnf;vHk;nDñwa&;/ d G f cdkirmonfh zGUJ pnf;yHktajccHOya'opf jzpfay:vma&;/ f jzpfay:vmonfh zGUJ pnf;yHtajccHOya'opfEitnD acwfrD zGUH ûzd; k S hf wdk;wufaom EdkiiHawmfopfwpf&yf wnfaqmufa&;/ f pD;yGm;a&; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf tcef ; 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ pdkuysK;a&;udk tajccHí tjcm;pD;yGm;a&; u@rsm;ukvnf; f d d bufpHk zGHUûzd;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ aps;uGup;yGm;a&;pepf yDjyifpm jzpfay:vma&;/ f D G jynfwGi;jynfyrS twwfynmESihft&if;tESD;rsm; zdwac:í f f pD;yGm;a&; zGHUûzd;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ EdkiiHawmfpD;yGm;a&;wpf&yfvHk;ukd zefwD;EdkirI pGr;tm;onf f f f EdkiiawmfEihf wdki;&if;om;jynfowkvuf0,fwi&a&;/ f H S f l Yd G f dS vlrIa&; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf wpfrsK;om;vHk; pdw"mwfESihf tusihpm&dwå jrifhrm;a&;/ d f f trsK;*kP?f Zmwd*kPjf rifrm;a&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rItarGtESprsm;? d h f trsK;om;a&;vu©Pmrsm; raysmufysuatmif xde;odr;apmifh d f f f a&Smufa&;/ rsK;csppw"mwf &Sioefxufjrufa&;/ d f d f f wpfrsK;om;vHk; use;rmBuYckia&;ESihf ynm&nfjrifrm;a&;/ d f H d f h 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ taMumif ; t&m pmrsuf E S m todynmtajccH pD;yGm;a&;vrf;aMumif;ay:rS tkipDwD d f *vdkb,fvkduaZ;&Si;ESihf tdkipDwDawmfvSea&; f f f f tkipDwDtajccHtaqmufttHk zGHUûzd;rItpDtpOf d f tDvufx&Geepf ul;oef;a&mif;0,frI f (e-Commerce) qkonfrm d S - pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf e-Commerce f tm;omcsursm; f - e-Commerce toHk;csrIenf;vrf;rsm; - e-Commerce rSwpfqifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f qufoG,rIrsm; f - atmifjrifaom e-Commerce vkyief; f uGi;qufrsm; f - e-Commerce tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm; d f e-Commerce,e-Business ESihf tifwmeuf pD;yGm;a&; tifwmeufESihf tD;-pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f B2B e-Commerce [lonfrSm B2B e-Commerce tcef;u@ ta&SUtm&S B2B e-Commerce jrifuGi; f 1 8 13 18 44 50 55 60 67
  4. 4. tcef ; 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ taMumif ; t&m pmrsuf E S m - w½kwEkiiH tD;aumrmhpjf rifuGi; f d f f - *syefEkdifiH B2B e-Commerce aqmif&GurIrsm; f - *syefEkiiH B2B e-Commerce tvm;tvm d f - awmifuk&D;,m;EkiiH tD;aumhrmhptajctae d d f f - a[mifaumif tD;aumrmhptajctae f ta&SUtm&S B2B e-Commerce tajctae 102 zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;ESihf e-Commerce tajctae d f 109 ta&SUawmiftm&S tD;aumrmhpf tajctae 115 ta&SUawmiftm&S tD;aumrmhpf jyóemrsm; 122 tmqD,HEkiiHrsm;twGi; tdkipDwDtajctae d f f f 128 - *vdkb,fuGe&ufpD;yGm;a&;ESihf xdki;tD;aumrmhpf f f - pifumylEkiiH e-Commerce azmfaqmifrI d f - rav;&Sm;EkiiH e-Commerce aqmif&GurIrsm; d f f - zdvpfykdiEkdiiH e-Commerce jrifui; f f G f - AD,uferfEkiiH tdkipDwDtqifhtwef;ESihf d f f e-Commerce tajctae e-Commerce zGUH ûzd;wk;wufrI d 170 - tifwmeufay:rS pD;yGm;a&;qki&m d f tm;omcsursm; f e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIESihf? tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm; f 194 tcef ; taMumif ; t&m pmrsuf E S m 17/ tkipDwDawmfvSea&;ESihf owif;tcsutvuf d f f f pD;yGm;a&; 203 18/ *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;ESihf tkipDwDawmfvSea&; 208 d d f f d f f 19/ e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIESihf tpdk;&tcef;u@ 212 - e-Commerce twGuf ESpvkdzG,&m f f aumif;aomay:vpD - tpdk;&taejzifh toHk;ûyEkiaom e-Commerce d f - atmifjrifaom e-Commerce tajccHtaqmuf ttHkqki&m t"duvdktyfcsursm;ESihfpyfvsO;aom d f f f tjcm; ay:vpDupö&yfrsm; d 20/ tmqD,H vlUpGr;tm;t&if;tESD;ESihf tkiwD f d f zGHUûzd;wk;wufrIoHk;oyfcsuf d 219 21/ e-Commerce tem*wfvrf;aMumif; 227 &nfñTe;udk;um;csursm; f f
  5. 5. 2 tcef; (1) tod y nmtajccH pD ; yG m ;a&;vrf ; aMumif ; ay:rS td k i f p D w D vGecJhaom 25 ESpausmu owif;tcsutvufESihf f f f f qufoG,fa&;enf;ynmwkd;wufrIrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;tusKd; oufa&mufrrsm; &&SapcJonf/ pifppf tkipwawmfvea&;onf I d h d f D D Sf topfjzpfxGe;aom 'pf*spw,fqufoG,a&;enf;ynmrsm;yif f f f jzpfonf/ ,if;enf;ynmrsm;onf uGeysLwm ½k;½dk;aqmif&uf f d G Ekipr;xuf ausmvecJhonf/ þenf;ynmrsm;onf xkwvkyf d f G f f Gf f rI? jzefjY zL;rIEihf qef;opfzefw;rIvyief;pOfrsm; pGr;f aqmif&nfukd S D kf odoomomjzifh wufapcJonf/ xkwvkyrpr;tm; wdk;wufrI d h f f I G f udkwe;wifjcif;jzifh tkipwawmfvea&;onf *vdkb,fp;yGm;a&; Gf d f D D Sf D a&&Sntif*sijf zpfvm&ef arQmfvifhxm;onf/ f tdkipDwDawmfvSea&;onf pD;yGm;a&; toGivu©Pm f f f tm;vHk;okYd a&muf&Sonf/ tifwmeufvkyief;rS vkyief;okYd d f f (B2B) ESihf vkyief;rS pm;oHk;olokYd (B2C) udk avQmYcsay;onf/ f a&mif;vktm; uGi;f quf pDrcefcrrwpfqifh pDrcefcrpr;f &nfrsm;udk d H Y JG I S H Y JG I G armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jrifwufapcJonf/ todynmqki&m ynmay;jcif;ESihf Ekiiwum h h df dfH yl;aygif;aqmif&ujf cif; pGr;aqmif&nfjr§iwifjcif;jzifh qef;opf G f hf zefw;rIukd vG,uacsmarGUaponf/ tifwmeufrS 0,f,ronf D f l l I udk,wki0,f,lrIxuf q,fyHkwpfyHkom ukeusonf[k qkMd u f d f f onf/ tdkipDwD tajccHpDrHcefYcGJrIESihf ypön;0,f,lxe;odr; f f df f axmufya&;pcef;rsm; tusK;aus;Zl;rsm;onf zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm; hH d dk f H pD;yGm;a&;rsm;wGiyifvQif ydkrkBd uD;rm;rsm;jym;vmEkionf/ xkjYd yif f d f tkipwawmfvea&;onf todynmzefw;jcif;ESihf ynmay;jcif; d f D D Sf D p&dwEihf tcseavQmcsjcif;jzifh ukepnfopfzUHG ûzd;rIEihf okawoeESihf fS df h f S zGHUûzd;rIuJhokYdaom qef;opfzefwD;rI? vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm; f f pGr;aqmif&nfukd jr§ihfwifay;onf/ f tdkipDwDawmfvSea&;udk qufvufaqmif&GurIaMumifh f f f 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm;twGuf 0,fvtm;onf [mh'00,fvtm; I f kd f J kd xuf ydrrsm;jym;onf/ tkipwjD zifh owif;tcsutvufvyief; k kd dfD f kf pOf aqmif&ujf cif;onf Codified Knowledge twGuf 0,fvkd G tm;udk jrifhwufaponf/ Codified Knowledge qkonfrSm d tcsutvuf yHk&yrsm;ESihf oauFwrsm;yHkpEi&aeaom owif; f d f H S hf dS tcsutvufyifjzpfonf/ uGeysLwmaqmhz0J? okawoeESihf f f f zGUH ûzd;rIenf;ynmyg0ifrEihf aiGa&;aMu;a&;qki&m xkwukeypön; I S d f f f f rsm;onf 0,fvktm;taejzifh wpfpwwpfykdi; ydkrkdrsm;jym;vm d d f f onf/ tb,faMumifqaomf ,if;wdkukd Codified yHkpwpfckwif h h kd Y H G vkyief;pOfaqmif&uEiNf yD; jzefjY zL;EkiaomaMumifjh zpfonf/ ,if; f G f kd d f xkwvkyrIESihf jzefYjzL;rIonf tkipDwDtoHk;csrIESihftwl ydkrkd f f d f
  6. 6. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 3 pGr;aqmif&nf&vmonf/ xkjYd yif ,if;wkonf todynm tajccH f dS Yd pD;yGm;a&;u vktyfaom qef;opfzefwD;rI vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurI d f f trsK;d tpm;rsm;vnf; jzpfMuonf/ tjrifEitMum;tm½Hypön;f rsm; S hf k twGuf 0,fvktm;onf broadband w,fvDqufoG,a&; d f 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm; ysUH EUHS rjI zif,aqmifvmaom ykrkBd uD;rm; I f h l d aom ykYdaqmifa&;vrf;aMumif;trsK;rsK;ESihf jrifhwufaeonf/ d d b@ma&; 0efaqmifrvyief;rsm;twGuf 0,fvtm;onf tem*wf I kf kd twGuf pdwêf udua&G;cs,p&mrsm;uJhokYdaom aiGa&;aMu;a&; f f qki&m qef;opfzefw;rIrsm;ESihf &Saeaom tdkipwwukd a&maESm d f D d f D D Ykd jcif;jzifh jrifhwufvmcJhNyD jzpfonf/ 0efaqmifrIvkyief;wk;wufrIukd [mh'0JrS aqmhz0Jukd f d f f cGJxkwfjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? qef;opfzefwD;rIvkyfief;pOfrS xkwvkyrIvkyief;pOfukd cGJjcm;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? yg0ifrI f f f twGuf 0,fvktm;udk jr§ihwifjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? b@ma&; d f vkyief; jrifhrm;aomwk;wufrIjzifhvnf;aumif; wGe;wifcJh f d f onf/ tkipwawmfvea&;ESitwl ukw'f (Code)? vkyief;pOf d f D D Sf hf f f ESihf todynmydkaqmifrwukd cGjJ cm;Edki&efjzpfvmonf/ qef;opf Y I Ykd f zefw;rI vIy&m;aqmif&ur&v'frsm;onf 0efaqmifrI yHkprsm;udk D f S G f I H jzpfaponf/ aqmhz0J? todÓPfynmqki&m ykiqkirIypön;? f d f d f d f f okawoe? zGHUûzd;rIESihf enf;ynmulnDyHhykd;rI paom 0efaqmifrI yHkpHrsm;udk jzpfaponf/ tkipwD awmfvea&;onf ,SOûf ydiEipr; t"dut&if; dfD Sf f dk f G f tjrpftaejzifh todynmqufE,aom vIy&m;aqmif&urrsm; T f f S G f I 4 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f okYd a&GUvsm;&ef tqifajyatmif aqmif&uay;aeonf/ pD;yGm;a&; G f zGJUpnf;rIqki&m toGiajymif;jcif;onf todynmtajccH d f f pD;yGm;a&;okYd a&GUvsm;aeonf/ pifppf todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&; D [lonf todynmudzefw;aom pD;yGm;a&;yifjzpfonf/ pD;yGm;a&; k D vkyief;taejzifh wpfO;csi;jzifvnf;aumif;? tzGUJ tpnf;taejzifh f D f h vnf;aumif; todynmudk&,lonf/ ykaqmifay;onf/ pGr;&nf Yd f jynfh0pGm toHk;csay;onf/ a[mif;EGr;aeaom todynmudk f pOfqufrjywf tpm;xk;ay;onf/ todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&; d twGuf ta&;ygaomtcsursm;rSm pGr;aqmif&nf&aom tkipwD f f dS dfD vkyief;rsm;ESihf tdipwtajccHtaqmufttH?k pGr;f aqmif&nf&aom f kfD D dS Ekiiwumxkwvkyrue&ufrsm;? yg0g&Saom qef;opfzefw;rI d f H f f I Gf d D pepfrsm;? vlom;&if;jrpfvkyief;ESihf tzGJUtpnf;qki&m topf f d f jyefvnfûyvkyrIwkYdyif jzpfonf/ f pifppf tkipDwDtcef;u@ESihf tajccHtaqmufttHkwkYd d f onf todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;yvufazmif;jzpfonf/ ,if; yvufazmif;onf todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&;twGuf todynm D udk zefwD;jcif;? ynmay;jcif;ESihf toHk;csjcif;twGuf enf;vrf; rsm;udk ulnyy;dk ay;onf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;pGmonf trsK;d om; D hH f owif;tcsuftvuf tajccHtaqmufttHkwpfckudk wnf aqmufí wGe;wGe;wkuwkduf aqmif&GuaeMuonf/ þonf f f d f f rSm todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;odkY ,if;wkYd toGiajymif;rIukd f vG,ulacsmarmap&efjzpfonf/ owif;tcsutvuf tajccH f f taqmuf t tH k (Infor-structure) wG i f w,f v D u G e f j rLeD
  7. 7. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 5 au;&Si; uGe&ufrsm; yg0ifonf/ xkYdjyif r[mAsL[majrmuf f f owif;tcsutvufpepfrsm;? taxmuftulûyay:vpDEihf Oya' f S pepfrsm; yg0ifonf/ tajccHtaqmufttHkukd toHk;cs&efESihf zGHUûzd;wkd;wuf&ef vl;om;&if;jrpfvnf; yg0ifonf/ tDvuf x&Geepf pD;yGm;a&;onf owif;tcsutvuf zGUJ pnf;rIykHoP²mef f f wk;wufaeaom tpdwtydki;wpfcktjzpf yg&S&ef arQmvifxm; d f f d f h onf/ tod y nmtajccH p D ; yG m ;a&; tBuD ; rm;qH k ; tusKd ; oufa&mufronf Ekiiwumxkwvkyrue&ufrsm; zGUJ pnf;rI I d f H f f I Gf jzpfEkionf/ tjyeftvSetm;jzifh todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;&Sd d f f Edkiiwum xkwvkya&;uGe&ufrsm;udk aygif;pnf;aqmif&uEif f H f f f G f kd onf/ ,if;xkwvkyrIuGe&ufrsm;onf tao;pm;ESihf tvwf f f f pm;vkyfief;rsm;tygt0if pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk pkpnf;&ef &nf&,onf/ xkwvyrue&uf todynm? tajccHp;yGm;a&; G f f kfI Gf D yHp yHpusaom Oyrmwpfcukd aqmhz0J tcef;u@wGif awGUEif kH kH k f dk onf/ ,if;u@wGif qDvDuGeawmifMum;&Sd qef;opf zefwD;rI f A[dkXmeonf bef*vdk? tdE´,&Sd xkwvkyrItajcpcef;rsm;ESihf d f f csdwfqufxm;onf/ todynmzefwD;jcif;wGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIonf todynm tajccHpD;yGm;a&;wGif pD;yGm;a&;wk;wufrI tajccHt&if;tjrpf d wpfckjzpfonf/ qef;opfzefw;rI vIy&m;aqmif&urrsm;twGuf D f S G f I têuducsi;wlaomywf0ef;usiwpfcktm; ulnyyk;&ef pD;yGm;a&; f f f D hH d pGr;tifwpf&yfonf ,if;Ekiiwum ,SOûf ydiEipr;udk qH;jzwf f dfH f dk f G f k 6 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ay;onf/ qef;opfzefwD;rIpGr;&nfonf zGHUûzd;NyD;pD;yGm;a&;rsm; f atmifjrifrItwGuf txl;ta&;BuD;vmonf/ qef;opfzefwD;rI vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm;udk ukexkwvkyrIrS cGJjcm;vkuonf/ f f f f f d f ukexkwvkyrI vIy&m;aqmif&urrsm;udk zGUH ûzd;qJp;yGm;a&;rsm;odkY f f f f S G f I D a&TUajymif;onf/ qef;opfzefwD;rI ta&;BuD;aom tpdwftydkif;onf EkiiHwum&Sd ,SOûf ydiEkipGr;&Saom wuúokdvrsm;yifjzpfonf/ d f f d f f d f ,if;wuúovrsm;u todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&;twGuf odyenf; kd f D HÜ usaom todynmudk zefwD;onf/ ausmif;oifynma&;ESihf pufrIvkyfief;tMum; tjyeftvSeftusKd;oufa&mufrIonf aemufxyf tpdwtydki;wpfckjzpfonf/ ,if;onf todynm f f zefw;ouJoYkd ynmay;jcif;udkvnf; zefw;ay;onf/ b@ma&; D h D pepfonf qef;opfzefwD;jcif;udk OD;pm;ay;onfh vkyief; pwif f aqmif&Guaom tzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk tultnDay;onf/ zGHUûzd;NyD; f pD;yGm;a&;rsm;onf aps;uGursm;udk zGHUûzd;wk;wufapcJhonf/ f d todynmudk½kyfvHk;azmfaom vlom;t&if;tjrpfonf tod y nmtajccH p D ; yG m ;a&;twG u f r&S d r jzpf v k d t yf o nf / todynmtajccH pD;yGm;a&; vktyfrIrsm;onf pufrIvkyief; d f acwf vdktyfrrsm;ESihf rwlnacs/ pufrvkyief;qki&m pD;yGm;a&; I D I f d f rsm;onf yl;aygif;aqmif&Guaom tzGJUtpnf;wpfckwGif tvkyf f vkyaeaom uRrf;usirI trsm;tjym;&Svmaom tvkyorm;rsm; f f d f tay:wGirwnfonf/ todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&;onf qef;opff f l D zefwD;rIpepfrsm;udk a&&Snxe;odr;xm;Eki&ef zefwD;wwfaom f df f d f
  8. 8. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 7 yg&rDESifh owif;tcsuftvufESifh w,fvDuGefjrLeDau;&Sif; uGe&uf tajccHtaqmufttHkukd ulnyyk;&ef tkipwD vkyom; f D hH d d f D f rsm;ay:wGif rlwnfonf/ xkYdjyif todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;&Sd qef;opfzefwD;rI vsijf refaomajcvSr; qdkvk&if; oabmrSm f d todynmonf vsifjrefpGm acwfukefoGm;NyD; vltrsm;u vktyfaomtodynmay:wGif aemufqHk;tcsetxd xde;odr; d df f f xm;NyD; ,if;wkYduRrf;usirIrsm;onf jyefvnfvef;qef;ap&ef f vdktyfonf/ xkYaMumifh todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;&Sd tzGJUtpnf; d rsm;udk 0efaqmifrIay;aom vkyom;tiftm;udk jznfhwif;ay;&ef f tvdim tzGUJ tpnf; ynma&;armf',fykpukd wpfo;yk*vzefw; kY S H H D ¾ D rIESihf b0wpfoufwm avhvmrItay: yGihvif;rI&&ef xde;odr; f Sd ff f xm;&rnfjzpfonf/ todynmtajccHp;yGm;a&; vktyfrrsm;&&Sd D d I &ef tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;onf ,if;wkynma&; f Yd ESihf oifwef;tpDtpOfrsm;udk yHkazmf&efvktyfonf/ d tcef; (2) *vd k b ,f v k d u f a Z;&S i f ; ES i f h td k i f p D w D a wmf v S e f a &; ydraumif;rGeaom o,f,yaqmifjcif; 0efaqmifrvyief; k kd f l Y dk I kf rsm;rS w,fvDzke;ESihf vlxkqufoG,a&;rD'D,mokYd enf;ynm f f qki&mzGHUûzd;rIonf ydkrkdao;i,fNyD; ydkrkdaygif;pnf;aqmif&uaom d f G f urÇmBuD;udk zefwD;cJhNyD;jzpfygonf/ ,ckrsuarSmufumvwGif f tkdifpDwDawmfvSefa&;onf urÇmBuD;udk ydkrdkao;i,fNyD; ydkrdk aygif;pnf;aqmif&uEicNhJ yD jzpfonf/ qufo,a&;? ukeo,rI G f kd f G f f G f ESihf tvkytudki&&SrI? yk*K¾d vfa&;ESihf EkiiHa&;qki&m tay;t,l f f d d f d f vkyief;rsm;onf *vdkb,fpau;taejzifh jzpfysuvmcJhonf/ f f EkiiHrsm;tMum; e,ferwrsm;udk ausmjf zwfNyD; *vdkb,fvkuf d f d d f d aZ;&Si; jzpfay:vmcJhonf/ f þwGif Ekb,fqk&Sif Joseph Stig Litz u *vdkb,f d vkuaZ;&Si; (Globalization) udk þodkY t"dyÜm,fzGihqkcJhonfd f f f d ]]*vdkb,fvkdufaZ;&Sif;onf urÇmay:&SdEdkifiHrsm;ESifh jynfolrsm; ydkrkdeD;uyfaom aygif;pnf;aqmif&GurIjzpfonf/ f o,f,lykYaqmifa&;ESihf qufo,a&;qki&m BuD;rm;aomukeus d G f d f f
  9. 9. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 9 p&dwrsm; avQmhcsjcif;jzifh *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;udk o,faqmif f d d f f vmcJhNyD;jzpfonf/ ukefypönf;rsm;? 0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;? t&if;tESD;? todynmA[kokwESifh vlrsm;e,fedrdwfrsm;? jzwfausmpD;qif;rIrsm;qki&m twm;tqD;rsm;udk ûzdcGJjcif;jzifh f d f *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;udk o,faqmifvmcJhonf}} d d f f dk f f f þwGif *vkb,fvuaZ;&Si;onf pD;yGm;a&;toGitjyif d vu©Pmwpfckoufoufr[kwaMumif; od&&ef ta&;BuD;onf/ f dS ,if;onf b0toGiftjyifvu©Pmtm;vHk;udk tusKd; oufa&mufaponf/ *vdkb,fvkuaZ;&Si;ESihf qufET,yg0ifaqmif&Guae d f f f f aom taMumif;jcif;&mtenf;qHk; av;ck&Sonf/ ,if;wkYdrSmd (1) txl;ojzifh tkipDwDawmfvSea&;wGif enf;ynm d f f qki&majymif;vJrI? d f (2) aps;uGutajcûypepfrsm; ysHUESHUvmrI? f (3) jynfwi;Ekiia&; (*vkb,fvuaZ;&Si; acwfvef G f d f H d kd f f G pGr;tm;rsm;onf EkiiHa&;t& ydkrkdoomxif&Sm; f d f d vmonf) ESihf (4) EdkiiHtwGi; ûydiqkirIrsm;wkYdjzpfonf/ f f f d f *vdkb,fvkdufaZ;&Sif;onf EdkifiHrsm;udk enf;vrf; oHk;oG,fjzifh tusKd;oufa&mufaMumif; Anthony Giddens u tBuHûywifjyxm;onf/ yxrtcsurSm *vdkb,fvkduaZ; f f &Si; (txl;ojzifh *vkb,faps;uGuae&m) onf EdkiiHrsm;rS f d f f 10 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pGr;tm;rsm;udk ta0;odkU,loGm;onf/ EkiiHrsm;onf ,if;wdkY f d f tuRr;f w0if&aom pD;yGm;a&; tem*wfrsm;udk trdeay;í r&acs/ dS Yf ,if; taumif;qHk;OyrmrSm tpk;&rsm; aiGaMu;xde;csKyf&ef d f rpGr;aqmifEkdirIyifjzpfonf/ Giddens u wpfcsewnf;wGif f f df *vdkb,fvkdufaZ;&Sif;onf a'oqkdif&m? ,Ofaus;rIqkdif&m uk,ykivkyykiciEihf udk,pm;vS,rsm;twGuf jzpfEkiajc topf d f d f f d f G hf S f f d f rsm; vIYHaqmfrItopfrsm;ukd zefwD;ay;onf[kqkonf/ d *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si; 'kw,tusK;oufa&mufrIrSm d d f f d d a'oqki&mtrsK;om;a&;0g' jyefvnfouf0ifEk;<uvmrItwGuf d f d d taMumif;&if;yifjzpfonf/ urÇmqefqefûyavav a'oqki&m d f ûyrlzkdY ydkvkdtyfavavyif jzpfonf/ *vkb,fvkuaZ;&Si; wwd,tusK;oufa&mufrIukd d d f f d a'oqkdif&mtkyfpkzGJUrsm; ta&;wBuD;jzpfay:rItoGiftjzpf taumif;qHk;awGUjrif&onf/ þwGif tifwmeufESihf tkdipDwD f awmfvea&;onf pDrtkycsKyfrI (governance) udk rnfotusK; Sf H f Ykd d oufa&mufrI&SaMumif; odxm;&efvktyfonf/ pDrHtkycsKyfrIukd d d f aygif;pnf;xm;aom aqmif&GurItm; pkpnf;xm;jcif;tjzpf f ½dk;&Si;pGmt"dym,fziEionf/ tpk;&tkycsKyfa&;wGif qHk;jzwf f Ü f G hf kd f d f csucsjcif;? vkyief;pOf[kvnf; owfrwMf uonf/ tkipwtae f f S d f D D jzifh ,if;us,jf yefaomtjrif? usO;ajrmif;aomtjrif ESpcpvH; k Y f fk k wGif pDrHtkycsKyfjcif;tay: t"du tusK;oufa&mufrI&Sonf/ f d d tkipwvkyief;rsm;onf tpdk;&u Edkiiom;rsm;ESihf rnfoktjyef d f D D f f H Yd tvSefaqmif&GufonfESifh 0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;udk rnfodkY
  10. 10. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 11 ykYaqmifoifhonfqkaomtcsursm;ESihf ywfoufí EkiiHom;rsm; d d f d f tMum; arQmfvifhxm;rItopfrsm;udk zefwD;ay;onf[k pDrH tkyfcsKyfrIodyÜH (uae'g) u,HkMunfxm;onf/ tifwmeuf enf;ynmESihf toH;csrsK;½d;ADZqki&m rMumao;rDu wk;wufrrsm; k d k df d I onf yk*¾Kd vfa&;&ma&G;cs,rIESihf yk*¾vuvTr;rk;rIqki&m e,f f d f d d f edrdwfrsm;udk xl;jcm;pGm jyefvnft"dyÜm,fowfrSwfaeonf/ jynfolvlxkta&;ygrI udpö&yfrsm;ay:wGif pkpnf;xm;aom qHk;jzwfcsucsjcif;qki&m e,ferwrsm;udk jyefvnfowfrSwf f d f d d f aeonf/ tqifhwpfckwGif tkipDwDtoHk;ûyaom tpdk;&rsm;onf d f ykrkaumif;rGepm pDrtkycsKyfEkivrrnfjzpfonf/ e-Govermemt d d f G H f d f d hf (odkY) EdkiiHom;rsm;tusK;&S&ef tpdk;&vkyief;rsm; vufcHrIESihf f d d f ydkiqkirIukd jr§ihfwif&ef tkipDwDtoHk;ûyrIonf aumif;rGeaom f d f d f f pDrHtkycsKyfrItwGuf tpdk;& armif;ESirIwGif vktyfaomt&m f f d wpfckjzpfonf/ 21 &mpkwif owif;tcsutvufenf;ynmudk us,jf yefY G f pGm t"dyÜm,fzGihfqkd&mwGif ta&;tBuD;qHk;yg0gt&if;tjrpf[k Rovert Keo Hane ESifh Joseph Nye.Jr wkYdu oabmwlxm; onf/ *vkb,fvuaZ;&Si;u xl;jcm;aomoGijf yif vu©Pmudk d kd f f azmfjyonfh owif;tcsutvufEihf qufo,a&;u yHkazmfxm; f S G f onfh urÇmBuD;wGif owif;tcsutvuf pD;qif;rIrsm;ESihf rD',m f D ay;ydkYrIrsm;ay:wGif ûyrlaqmif&Gu&ef pGr;&nfonf EdkiiHa&; f f f qkdif&m tpDtpOfudk tm;ay;jr§ifhwifjcif;twGuf r&Sdrjzpf 12 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f vktyfaom ud&,mwpfckjzpfonf/ ,cktcg oHcif;wrefcif; d d (Diplomacy) wGif tpdk;&rsm;omru ,if;wkYd udk,pm;ûyaom f vlrItzGJUtpnf;rsm;vnf; yg0ifonf/ ûcHíqk&aomf *vkb,f d d vkuaZ;&Si;onf tdkipDwDawmfvSea&;ESihf qufET,rI&SaMumif; d f f f f f d odomxif&Sm;vSayonf/
  11. 11. 14 tcef; (3) tdkifpDwD tajccHtaqmufttHk zGHYNzKd;rItpDtpOf ta&SUtm&SEdkifiHrsm;onf todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&; (Knowledge- based Economy) toGiajymif;&ef atmufyg f taxmuftulûyvkyief; tpDtpOfig;rsK;udk vkyaqmif&rnfjzpf f d f onf/ ,if;wkYdrSm(1) tkipwtusK;u@zGUH ûzd;apjcif; (,if;wGif tkipwD d f D D d d f D qufE,0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm;ESihf tkipwD tajccH T f I f d f D taqmufttHkwYkd yg0ifonf/ ,if;onf todynm tajccHp;yGm;a&; tcsutvufaumif;wpfcjk zpfonf) D f (2) EkiiHwum xkwvkya&;uGe&ufrsm; &,ljcif;? d f f f f (3) qef;opfzefwD;rIpepfrsm; tm;aumif;apjcif;? (4) vlom;t&if;tjrpfrsm; tqifhjrifhjcif;ESihf (5) pufrIvkyief;rsm;ESihf aumfyka&;&Si;rsm; jyefvnf f d f zGJUpnf;xlaxmifjcif;wkYd jzpfonf/ xkjYd yif tm&SEiirsm;onf tkipwukd taumif;qHk;ûyvkyf kd f H d f D D &ef vktyfonf/ tb,faMumifqaomf ,if;xkwvkyrykrk&Edkif d h h kd f f I d d armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f aom tkipDwD awmfvSea&; tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm;aMumifh jzpf d f f d f onf/ a'oqki&m qef;opfzefwD;rI vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm; d f f f tm½Hkpkujf cif;jzifh ,if;wkYd tiftm;pkrsm;wGif todynmA[k d okwrQa0a&; jrifrm;wk;wuf&ef vktyfonf/ ,if;vIy&m;rIrsm; h d d f S udk tkdifpDwD qufET,faeaom 0efaqmifrItcef;u@jzifh taxmuftulûy&ef vktyfonf/ d ta&SUtm&SEiirsm;wGif txufygwlnaom tpDtpOfrsm; kd f H D &Saomfvnf; wpfEkiiHcsi;pD zGHUûzd;rItqifht& OD;pm;ay;rIrsm; d d f f onf uGJjym;jcm;em;Ekdifonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh aemufusaom zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;onf ,if;wkYpD;yGm;a&;udk taxmuftulûy&ef d f d tudki;tcufrsm;udk tm½Hkpku&ef &nf&G,Mf uonf/ EkiiHwum f d f d f f xkwvkyrIuGe&ufrsm;ESihf qufoG,&,l&ef &nf&G,Mf uonf/ f f f w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; tajccHtaqmufttHkukd jrifrm;wk;wuf D G f h d apjcif;ESihf pufrIvkyief; tcsutjcmae&mrsm; zGHUûzd;apjcif;jzifh f f 'pf*spw,fuGm[rI ay:aygufvmrIukd umuG,&ef&nf&G,Mf u f f onf/ tjcm;wpfzufwGif pufrIxGe;opfpEdkiiHrsm; xdywef; f f f OD;pm;ay;rIonf a,bk,stm;jzifh zGUH ûzd;NyD;Edkiirsm;ESihf twlwyif f H l jzpfonf/ ,if;OD;pm;ay;rIum; qef;opfzefwD;rI vIy&Sm;aqmif f &GurIrsm; jr§ihfwifjcif;yifjzpfonf/ tu,fí pufrIxGe;opfp f f EkiiHrsm;onf todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;udk ydkrkdvsijf refpGm &,l d f jcif;jzifh Ekiirsm;odkY wufvr;&ef tkipwawmfvea&; yg&m'ki; d f H S f d f D D Sf d f d f ta&GUtm;omcsuukd &,lvQif ,if;EkiiHrsm;onf tkipDwD f d f r[mAsL[mrsm; vkdtyfvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ ,if;EkdifiHrsm;onf
  12. 12. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 15 ydkrkdzefwD;wwfaom vlom;t&if;tjrpfrsm; &,laqmif&Gujf cif; jzifh qef;opfzefwD;rIpepfrsm; tm;aumif;jcif;udk tm½Hkpkuaom d f jynfhpHkus,jf yefYonf csO;uyfrIwpfck ûyvkyoifhonf/ f f todynmtajccHpD;yGm;a&;ESSihywfoufí ta&SUtm&SEkiiH f d f rsm; r[mAsL[mqki&m aemufxyfta&;ygaom toGitjyif d f f vu©PmrSm EdkiiHwum cswqufrIrsm;yifjzpfonf/ ypdzwf f d f d a'owGif BuD;rm;aom pD;yGm;a&;&Sonfh tar&duefESihf w½kwf d ESpEkdiiHESihf ,if;wkY cswqufrIrsm; &Sioeftm;aumif;&efESihf f f d d f f wdk;csUJ &ef ,if;Edkiirsm;twGuf tvGetrif;ta&;BuD;onf/ *syef f H f EkiiHESihf cswqufjcif;um; tenf;i,fta&;ygrI toGioabm d f d f f d f D om&Sonf/ ta&SUtm&SEiirsm;tMum; uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIukd tkipwD d kd f H tajccHtaqmufttHktydki;rS MunfvQif us,jf yefvonf/ trSef f h Y S pifppf xGe;opfp pufrEiirsm;onf aumif;pGmzGUH ûzd;NyD; w,fvD f I kd f H uGefjrLeDau;&Sif;pepfrsm; &SdMuonf/ Broadband w,fvD uGejf rLeDau;&Si; tajccHtaqmufttHkwGif awmifukd&D;,m;? f a[mifaumifESihf pifumylwkYonf *syefa&SUokdY a&mufaeonf/ d ,if;tajccHtaqmufttHkonf e-Commerce twGuf ta&;yg H d D d f H onf/ OECD tpD&ifcpmt& awmifuk&;,m;Ekiionf Broadband tifwmeuf qufoG,rIrsm;wGif urÇmay:ü OD;aqmifol f jzpfonf/ odkYaomfvnf; tjcm;ta&SUtm&SEkiiHrsm;wGif yHkao d f w,fvDzke;vdki;rsm;ESihf rdkbki;zke;rsm; edrhfaomxk;azmufrI f f d f f d EIe;rsm;onf tifwmeufysUH EUHS rukd aESmifaES;apcJonf/ tmqD,Eihf f I h h H S w½kwEiiwwirl tajccHtaqmufttHktajctaeonf tav; f kd f H Ykd G f teufxm;&rnfh jyóemwpfckjzpfonf/ 16 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tif'kdeD;&Sm;? zdvpfykdiESihf xdki;EkiiH&Sd tajccHw,fvD f f d f uGejf rLeDau;&Si; taqmufttHk rvHkavmufrIonf ,if;wdkY f tifwmeuftoHk;ûyrIEihf tifwmeufqufE,vkyief;rsm; zGUH ûzd;rI S T f f udk usO;ajrmif;apcJhonf/ rvHkavmufaom tajccHw,fvD f uGejf rLeDau;&Si; 0efaqmifrIvkyief; yHUyk;jcif;onf txl;ojzifh f f d dk f kd f H Ykd J tif'e;&Sm;ESihf zdvpfyiEiiw yx0D0iftaetxm;udk cufcap dk D d onf/ ,if;EkiiHrsm;wGif tifwmeuf access ajymif;vJEkif d f aom w,fvDuejf rLeDau;&Si;pepfrsm;ESihf EkiiHwi;yHkpHrsm;onf G f d f G f BuD;xGm;vmcJhonf/ tif'keD;&Sm;tpdk;&onf uRef;pkrsm;twGuf d EkiiHwGi; w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si;rsm;udk yHhykd;&ef û*d[wkrsm; d f f f f toHk;ûyjcif;wGif a&SUaqmifvrf;jyûyvkycJhonf/ w,fvDzke;ESihf f f tifwmeufvkyfief;rsm; vufcHrIyHhydk;jcif;onf tao;pm;ESifh f f f tvwfpm;t&G,f tif'kdeD;&Sm; pGeYOD;vkyief;&Sirsm;twGuf pD;yGm; a&;vkyief;rsm;udk vsijf refpGmwk;wufvmapcJhonf/ tif'keD;&Sm; f d d wGif tifwmeufqkdiaygif; 2000 rS 25000 &S&m ,if;ta& f d twGuonf tm&Sypdzwf a'o&SEkiirsm;wGif trsm;qHk;jzpfonf/ f d d d f H zdvpfykdivlrsK;rsm;onfvnf; w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si; tajccH f d f f taqmufttHk csKUd wJhaerI0ef;usiwGif enf;vrf;wpfcktaejzifh tifwmeufuzD;rsm;ESihf rdkbki;rsm;bufokYd vSnhfvmMuonf/ d f wpfzufwGif ta&SUtm&Sü a&&SnOD;aqmifaeaom *syef f Ekiiu pufrxe;opfpEdkiirsm;udk a&SUoqwifaeonf/ tjcm; d f H I Gf f H Ykd JG wpfzufwif a&SUoa&mufaeaomEkiirsm;ESihf tjcm;zGUH ûzd;qJEiirsm; G Y dk dfH dk f H S I Gf dfH Mum; uGmjcm;rI&aeonf/ *syefEihf pufrxe;opfpEkiirsm;tMum; dS
  13. 13. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 17 zGHUûzd;rI tpDtpOfESihf tjcm;zGHUûzd;qJEkdiiHrsm;ESihf pufrIxGe;opfp f f Edkiirsm;tMum; uGm[rIus,jf yefaejcif;udk jyefvnfok;oyfronf f H Y H I ,if;Ekiirsm;tMum; uGmjcm;rIrsm;udk a&mifjyef½kucwfay;onf/ d f H d f w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si;rsm;wGif pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;rsm; vGeurI D G f f f J aMumifh rvHkavmufaom ,SOûf ydironf tcsKUd Ekiirsm;wGif tajccH f I d f H taqmufttHkwpfck wnfaqmufjcif;udk avsmyg;aponf/ xki; h d f Ekiiwif tifwmeuf qufo,rtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;tMum; ,SOûf ydirI d f H G G f I f avsmhenf;jcif;onf jrifhrm;aomtqifhrsm;wGifuscH&aom tifwmeuf access udk xdef;odrf;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si;tcef;u@wGif ,SOûf ydirItcif;tusi; f f f onf ta&SUtm&SEkdiiHrsm;twGuf t"duusaom tpDtpOftrsK; f d tpm;jzpfNyD; tpdk;&rsm;onf ,if;e,fy,fwif ,if;wd êud;yrf; G kY rIrsm;udk jrifrm;wk;wufatmif aqmif&uaeonf/ xki;Ekiiwif h d G f d f d f H G w,fvDuGejf rLeDau;&Si; tcef;u@ü tpdk;& vuf0g;BuD; f tkyronf tifwmeufxk;azmufrEihf tifwmeuf tajccHvkyief; f I d I S f rsm;ESihf toHk;csrIrsm; ta&;wBuD;jzpfay:rItwGuf tcuftcJ wpf&yfjzpfonf/ tmqD,HEkiiHrsm;onf e-Commerce twGuf d f pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;ESihftnD Oya'twki;twm abmiftwGi; f d f f &&S&ef ASEAN Frame work agreement vktyfrukd todtrSwf d d I ûycJhNyD;jzpfonf/ xdkYjyif e-Commerce zGHUûzd;rIokdYaqmif&Guaom f ywf0ef;usiwpf&yfukd tm;ay;jr§ihfwif&ef ta&;ygonf/ f tcef; (4) tD v uf x &G e f e pf ul ; oef ; a&mif ; 0,f r I (e-Commerce) qk d o nf r S m .... tD;aumrmhpftjzpf vlodrsm;aom tDvufx&Gefepf ul;oef;a&mif;0,frI (Electronic commerce) (e-Commerce) qkonfrm tDvufx&Geepfue&ufwpfckay:ü ae&m ,lvmaom d S f Gf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;aqmifwm wGucsurI okYr[kwf qufoG,rI f f f d f enf;ynmwkukd toHk;ûyonfh vkyief;aqmif&urrsm; jzpfonf/ Yd f G f I þodjkY zifh tD;aumrmhpwif tD;vfar;pmyd?kY owif; tcsutvuf f G f f hf wku½uy,vyief; yDpueysLwmjzifh wku½uf zke;vSnac:,l d f kd f Ykd l k f D Gf d f dk qufoG,pepf? EDI ( Electronic Data Interchange) [kac: f aom tDvufx&Geepf tcsutvuf zvS,a&;pepfwkYd yg0if f f f aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; vkyukdiaqmif&GurIrsm; yg0ifMuyg f f f f onf/ pifppf tD;-aumrmhptwGuf txif&Sm;qHk;ESihf pGr;tm; f f txufjrufqHk;qufoG,rIpepfrSm tifwmeuf jzpfygonf/ f xdkYaMumifh tD;-aumrmhpukd wpfcgwpf&H tifwmeuf aumrmhpf f okr[kwf tki-aumrmhpf (Internet commerce (or) iCommerce) Yd df [kvnf;ac:Muonf/
  14. 14. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 19 trSetm;jzifh tD;-aumrmhponf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; f f f vkyfief;aqmif&GufrIenf;vrf;udk ajymif;ypfcJhNyDjzpfygonf/ 0ufbqk'f r&Sonfh vkyief;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk tkwt*Faw? f d d f f tajccHpD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;rsm;[kac:Muonf/ uGefysLwmESifh tifwmeufqufoG,rIrsm; &Sonfhvkyief;rsm;udkrl cvkwESihf f d f f f dk f ñTeMf um;rI pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;[k trnfwyfMuygonf/ ½kyyi; f jynfprEihf tifwmeufqufo,rI ESprsK;pvH;&Saeonfh pD;yGm;a&; h kH I S G f f d k d vkyief;rsm;udk cvkwESihf t*FawpD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; (click f f f an mortar) [kac:wGionf/ tD;-aumrmhponf a&S;½dk;pD;yGm;a&; f f vkyief; qufoG,vkyukdirIrsm;wGif aES;auG;av;vHapcJhonfh f f f f tcseESihf c&D;wmtuGmta0;wkYd tuefYtowf? twm;tqD; df rsm;udk trSeyif y,f&m;Edkiygonf/ ,cktcg tD;-aumrmhpjf zifh f S f vkyief;aqmif&urrsm;udk urÇmtESUH csucsi;vufiif; vkyukif f G f I f f f d f Ekiojzifh yg0ifaqmif&GuolESpOD;pvHk;udk aiGaMu;tuketus d f f f oufomapygonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk omreftvkyae&m f f rsm;wGiyif vpOf taumiftxnfazmfEkionf/ uGeysLwm f d f f wpfvHk;? tifwmeuf qufoG,rIwpf&yfwkYd&Sxm;vQif vkyief; f d f aqmif&urrsm;udk ae&mra&G;üaqmif&uEkiygonf/ qk&ygvQif G f I G f d f d tD;-aumrmhponf ukeypön;0,f,jl cif;uJoYkd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f f f h f taumiftxnfazmfrIrsm;udk ½dk;&mtkwfESifh t*Fawvkyfief; taqmufttHk tjyifbufü jzpfay:vmaponf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf e-Commerce tm;omcsursm; f f aumfy&wXmetwGi; owif;tcsutvufprcefcrwif kd d f f f D H Y JG I G tifx&meuf tultnDay;rIrsm;onf ukrÜPDwpfck e-Com- 20 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f merce tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;ESihf f tjyeftvSequfpyfEkionf/ f d f xkjYd yif tifx&meuf jyifyqufpyfaeaom tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; f ESihvnf; tjyeftvSequfpyfaeonf/ XmewGi;owif;tcsuf f f f tvufqi&m wpfûydieufp;qif;rItwGuf tifx&meufukd cGiûhf y kd f f D aomaMumifh ta&;ygaom owif;tcsutvufukd vkyief;pOf f f 0ifNyD; jyify e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyief;rS pD;qif;aeaom f tcsutvufESihf vkuzufatmif aqmif&Guonf/ wpfzef f d f f aumfya&;&Si; tzGUJ tpnf;qki&m vkyief;pOfrsm; pGr;&nf&dS kd f d f f f NyD; xda&muftusK;&Saom aygif;oif;aqmif&urukvnf; cGiûhf y d d G f I d xm;onf/ tifx&meufrsm; wpf[ex;kd wk;d wufvmjcif;onf txuf kf atmuftqifhqifh trdeYay;xde;csKyfaom tzGJUtpnf;rS owif; f f tcsutvuf tajccHaomtzGJUtpnf;odkY a&TUajymif;rIjzpfapcJh f onf/ ,if;a&TUajymif;rIwGif pDrHcefYcGJrIqki&m wm0ef,lrIrsm;? d f qufo,a&;ESihf owif;tcsutvufp;qif;rIrsm;ESihf vkyief; G f f D f tkypkzUJG pnf;rIrsm;twGuf yg0ifywfoufrrsm;&Sonf/ þonf f I d rSm e-Commerce wGif cswqufaeaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; d f f twGuf tifx&meuf ta&;ygrIyif jzpfonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf e-Commerce tm;om f csursm; &Sonf/ þonfrSm pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;aqmif&Gujf cif;? f d f ukeusp&dwf avQmhcsjcif;tjyif tjcm;tm;omcsuukd qkvkjd cif; f f d jzpfonf/ e-Commerce onf equalizer wpfcktaejzifh aqmif&Guonf/ ,if;onf pwifaqmif&Guonfhvkyief;opf f f f rsm;ESihf tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm;udk *vdb,faps;uGuf f k
  15. 15. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 21 odkYa&muf&S&ef pGr;aqmifay;onf/ tm;aumif;aom e-Busid f ness plan onf a&S;qefaom pD;yGm;a&;wefzk;rsm;udk vHk;0rSw,l d f jcif;r&Sacs/ d e-Commerce onf 0,folUpwêf uduf rsm;rsm;pm;pm; d toHk;ûyjcif;udk ûyvkyay;onf/ þe,fy,fwif e-Commerce f G toHk;csjcif;rsm;wGif toHk;ûy&efvG,ulaom atmf'grSmpepfrsm; f yg0ifonf/ azmufonfrsm;onf olwkdY yk*¾Kd vfa&;qki&m d f txl;a&G;cs,rIt& xkwukeypön;rsm;udk a&G;cs,rSm,lcGihfukd f f f f f ,if;pepfrsm;u cGihfûyxm;onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh e-Commerce r[mAsL[m toHk;ûyonfh um;xkwvkya&;ukrÜPDwpfckonf f f tGevki;trSmrsm; cGihûf yxm;NyD; &uftenf;i,ftwGi; um;opf f d f f rsm;rSm,lEkdi&ef pDpOfxm;onf/ þonfrSm azmufonfrsm; f txl;rSm,lrI vkyief;pOfonf wk;wufrI&NSd yD; atmf'grSmpepfukd f d aygif;pnf;aqmif&ucvQif ,if;pepfonf ydkrkxa&muf tusK; G f hJ d d d &SpGm tvkyvkyEkionf/ d f f d f e-Commerce onf uGe&ufxkwvkyrI (network prof f f duction) udk cGihfûyxm;onf/ yx0D0iftaetxm;t& ysHUESHU aeaom uefx½duwmrsm;onf uGeysLwmuGe&ufrsm;rS wpfqifh k f f f wpfO;ESiwpfO; cswqufMuonf/ uGe&ufxkwvkyr tusK; D hf D d f f f f I d jzpfxe;rIrsm;wGif ukeusp&dwrsm; avQmhcsay;onf/ ydkrkd r[m Gf f f AsL[mqefaom ypfrwrm;uufwif;vnf;yg0ifonf/ xyfqifh S f f I f wefzk;jr§iukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrrsm;a&mif;csjcif;? vG,ul d hf f acsmarGUap&efvnf; aqmif&uay;onf/ vktyfaom pepfopfrsm; G f d 22 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f vnf;yg0ifonf/ uGe&ufxkwvkyjf cif;ESihftwl ukrÜPDwpfck f f onf urÇmtESUH tjym;&Sd puf½krsm;odkY vkyief;rsm;owfrway;Ekif H f S f d onf/ Oyrm- wdusaomtpdwtydki;rsm; wyfqifjcif;uJhokYd f f tvkyrsm;udk txl;owfrSway;Ekionf/ f f d f Amazon.com onf virtual pmtkyqkiBf uD;jzpfonf/ f d 4if;pmtkyqkiBf uD;onf ESppOfta&mif;EIe; cefYrSe;ajc a':vm f d f f f 1 'or 2 bDvsH &Sonf/ 0ufbay:wGif a&mif;csaeaom d f f d f pGr;aqmif&nfrsm;t& Amazon onf yHkaoydkiqkirIrsm;wGif f a':vm 56 oef;cefY oHk;pGJcJhNyD;jzpfonf/ þwGif dot.com Frenzy rS oifcef;pmrsm;udk wifjyvkonf/ &if;ES;jr§KyErbPfrsm; d D f HS I qki&m ½IaxmifhrSMunfhvQif dot.com Frenzy onf aiGaMu; d f BuD;BuD;rm;rm; upm;wwfolrsm; (vkyief;&Sif t&if;&Sirsm;) f f &Sonfh avmif;upm;jcif;ESihf cswqufxm;onf/ tifwmeuf d d f pGeYfOD;vkyief;&Sirsm;onf vkyief;xlaxmifonfh t&if;tESD; f f f xkway;olrsm; qGaqmif&efEihf aps;uGua0pk&&S&eff tvGeeraom f J S f d f d hf tqifhrsm;wGif ,if;wkY ukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrIvkyief; d f f f rsm; aps;EIe;rsm;udk owfrSwxm;onf/ jrifhrm;aom wefzkd; f f owfrwjf cif;rsm;twGuf &if;ES;jr§KyfEorsm;u cufcaom 0ifaiG S D HS l J rsm; awmif;qkjd cif; pwifaomtcg aps;EIe;xk;usrI pwifcJh f d onf/ tifwmeuf ukrÜPDrsm;onf aps;uGufa0pkr&&Sdcif taxGaxGtoHk;p&dwrsm; tvGetrif; oHk;pGJcJh&onf/ f f e-Commerce onf azmufonfrsm;ukd rsm;pGmtultnD ay;onf/ C2B tay;t,lvkyfief;rsm;wGif azmufonfrsm;
  16. 16. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 23 (pm;oHk;olrsm;) onf xkwukeypön;rsm; rnfokYd ûyvkyonf/ f f f f 0efaqmifrIrsm; rnfokYd ydkYaqmifrItay:ydkrkdvTr;rdk;rI ay;pGr;Mu f f onf/ azmufonfrsm;udk ykrkdBuD;rm;pGmxde;csKyfEkirIESihtwl ed f d f f Commerce onf ykdrdkjrefqefNyD; ydkrdkyGifhvif;vkyfief;pOfudk f cGihfûyxm;onf/ e-Commerce onf tvHk;pHk vG,vifhwul &&SEkirEihf vufcrtaejzifh aps;uGuEihf xkwukeypön;rsm;udk d d f I S H I f S f f f owif;tcsutvufrsm; ûyvkyay;onf/ aps;EIe;yGihfvif;rIukd f f f wk;wufaponf/ þonfu azmufonfrsm;udk ykrkdoifhawmf d d aom 0,f,lrIqHk;jzwfcsursm; ûyvky&efpGr;aqmifay;onf/ f f f e-Commerce toHk;csrIenf;vrf;rsm; trsK;rsK;aom toHk;csrIrsm;onf ed d f d f f f Banking, e-Tailing ESihf tGevki; publishing ? tGevkdi; retailing tygt0if tifwmeufay:&Sd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;twGuf f vrf ; aMumif ; rsm;ES i f h tvm;tvmrsm;ud k pOf q uf r jywf oufa&mufrI&Saeonf/ orm;½k;us aiGay;acsrIenf;vrf;rsm; d d (aiGaMu;ppfaq;rIrsm;? pm&Gupmwrf;puúLtoHk;ûyrIukd tajccH f aom w&m;0ifwif'gyHkpH) rS tDvufx&Geepfqki&m tjcm; f d f a&G;cs,p&menf;vrf;rsm; (e-Payment pepfrsm;) odkY a&TUajymif;rI f udk tm;ay;jcif;jzifh ydkrdkzGHUûzd;NyD; &ifhusufaom e-Banking ywf0ef;usionf e-Commerce wGif ta&;ygaom tcef;u@ f okYd a&muf&Svmonf/ d þokYqkvQif tGevki;ay:wGif 0,f,ljcif;ESihf aiGay;acs d d f d f jcif;ESifhpyfvsOf;í zGHUûzd;qJEkdifiHrsm;wGif vuf&Sdwnf&Sdaeaom tavhtusihftawGUtêuHrsm;u rnfokYd&Sygoenf;/ d e-Commerce 24 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f zGHUûzd;qJEkdifiHrsm;wGif tGefvdkif; tay;t,lvkyfief;rsm; twGuf &&SEkiaom aiGay;acsrIpepfrsm;rSm atmufygtwki; d d f d f jzpfygonf(u) orm;½dk;us aiGay;acsrIenf;vrf;rsm; 1/ aiGom;ydkYaqmifrI rsm;pGmaom tGevki; tay;t,lvkyjf cif;rsm; f d f onf tGefvdkif;ay:wGif 0,f,la&;atmf'grsm; wifoi;jcif;ESihf yg0ifywfoufonf/ aiGay;acsrI G f f onf ½ky0w¬Kypön;rsm; ydkYaqmifrItay:rlwnf f aom aiGaMu;jzpfonf/ 2/ bPfaiGay;acsrIrsm; tGevi;ay:wGif ukeypön;rsm;rSm,lNyD;aemuf f kd f f f rSm,laomukrP bPfaiGpm&if;odkY aiGom;p&ef Ü D f aiGay;oGi;jcif;jzifh Payment udk ûyvky&onf/ f ydkaqmifrI (Delivery) udk orm;½dk;usenf;vrf;rsm; Y twki; ûyvky&onf/ d f f (c) tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrIenf;vrf;rsm; f pm;oHk;olrsm;udk tusK;oufa&mufapaom qef;opf d zefwD;rIrsm;d ,if;wGif Redit ESihf Debit uwfrsm;? tvktavsmuf f aiGxkwpufrsm; (ATMs) odr;qnf;xm;aom value cards ESihf f e-Banking wkYd yg0ifonf/
  17. 17. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 25 f f f f * tGevkdi;aumrmhpukd pGr;aqmifay;aom qef;opfzefwD; rIrsm;- ,if;wdkonf e-Cash, e-Checks, smart cards ESihf enY crypted credit uwfrsm;jzpfMuonf/ ,if; payment enf;vrf; rsm;onf zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;wGif tvGetrif; ay:jyLvm rjzpfacs/ d f f tay;t,lvkyief; tajccHtay:wGif vHkûcHpwcs&aom csee,f f d f f rsm;ü BuD;rm;aomukrÜPDtenf;i,fu ,if;wkYdukd toHk;ûyMu onf/ Ü D I dS * ukrPrsm;udk oufa&mufr&apaom qef;opfzefw;D rIrsm;,if;wkYdonf aiGay;acsrI,EÅ&m;rsm;ESihf qufpyfonf/ þwGif wku½kup&efaiGxm;jcif;jzifh cGiûhf yxm;aom automated d f d f clearing houses rSwpfqifh bPftwGi; vTJajymif;rIrsm; yg0if f onf/ f * tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrIpepf ta&;BuD;yHk tDvufx&GeepfaiGay;acsrIpepf (EPS) onf tGevki; f f d f ywf0ef;usi&Sd 0,f,lolrsm;ESihf a&mif;olrsm;tMum; b@ma&; f qki&m zvS,rIpepfwpfck jzpfonf/ ,if;udk bPfwpfbPf d f f Mum;cHqufo,ay;ol? okr[kwf Oya'ESitnD aqmif&uaom G f Yd hf G f wif'gtm;jzifh ay;ol? okYr[kwf Oya'ESihtnD aqmif&Guaom d f f wif'gtm;jzifh ausmaxmufaemufcHûyxm;aom 'pf*spfw,f b@ma&;ud&,mwpfck (Oyrm electronic checks,or digital d cash) jzifh vG,ulacsmarmaponf/ f 26 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrpepfonf e-Commerce wGif f I t&;BuD;aomtcef;u@ü yg0ifonf/ tb,faMumifhqkaomf d ,if;onf e-Commerce loop ukd ydwapaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ f zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;wGif zGHUûzd;rIatmuftqifha&mufaeaom tDvuf d f x&Geepf aiGay;acsrpepfonf e-Commerce wdk;wufrI twGuf f I av;eufaom t[eftwm; 0efxky0efyk;jzpfonf/ ,if;Ekiirsm; Y f d d f H wGif pGeO;wDxivyief;&Sirsm;onf Oya'taMumif;ESihf pD;yGm;a&; Yf D Gf kf f qufpyfrIt& tifwmeufay:wGif ta<u;0,f uwfjzifh aiGay; acsrukd vufrcHEkiMf uacs/ t"dujyóemrSm aiGay;aiG,vkyief; I d l f vHkûcHrIyifjzpfonf/ e-Payments aqmif&GurIukd pDrHtkycsKyfaeaom Oya' f f aMumif;qki&m tajccHtaqmufttHkr&SrI odr[kwf rvkavmufrI d f d kY H onfvnf; yg0ifywfoufvsu&onf/ xkaMumifh e-Banking f dS Yd atmfya&;&Sif;rsm; aqmif&GufonfhbPfrsm;onf ,if;wkdY uk,wkiESihf ,if;wkYd azmufonfrsm;tMum; 0efaqmifrI? d f d f oabmwlnDrIrsm; toHk;ûyMuonf/ zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm;pGmwGif EIi;,SOcsutm;jzifh rzGHUûzd;ao; d f d f f f aom ta<u;0,fuwfvkyief;onfvnf; e-Commerce twGuf f twm;tqD;wpfcjk zpfonf/ vlO;a& ao;i,faom tpdwtydi;f D f k wpfckomvQif ao;i,faom ta<u;0,fuwfjym; aps;uGuf tajccHt& tifwmeufay:wGif ukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrrsm; f f I 0,f,EiMf uonf/ aiGay;aiG,vkyief;udk usK;aMumif;nDñwNf yD; l kd l f d G Oya'aMumif;t& vktyfr[krpOf;pm;rD uwfyi&i tao;pdwf d I kd f S f
  18. 18. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 27 azmfjyxm;aom oabmwlncsuf (Oyrm- xd;NrJvufrw) qki&m D k S f df vdktyfrjI yóemvnf; &Sao;onf/ ,if;vktyfronf tar&duef d d I ESihf tjcm;zGHYûzd;NyD;EkiiHrsm;wGif r&Sacs/ d f d f * tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrIpepf toHk;ûyjcif;wGif oHk;pGJolrsm; ,HkMunfrItqifhtwef; zGûYH zd;qJEiitrsm;pkwif aiGom;tajccH pD;yGm;a&;rsm;&SaeqJ dk f H G d jzpfonf/ aiGom;udk vHkûcHrIrQomru trnfvQKdU0Suxm;jcif; f t&yg aiGay;acsrI ydkrkdESpvkzG,&maumif;aom tajctae[k f d f rSw,xm;Muonf/ tjcm;Ekiirsm;twGurl aysmufqk;oGm;aom f l d f H f H odkYr[kwf ckd;,lcH&aom ta<u;0,fuwfESifh qufpyfaom ay;qyf&efwm0ef (Lia bility) tay:wGif Oya'aMumif;t& uefowfrraocsmrIEihf vdrvnfrukd pD&ifqkH;jzwfjcif;twGuf Y I S f I Oya'abmiftwki;twm tm;enf;rIESihf ûyvky&efrsm;jym;rIonf d f f vHkûcHa&;ESihf yg0ifqufpyfaeonf/ ûcHíqkd&vQif tDvufx&Gefepf aiGay;acsrIpepfESifh pyfvsO;í oufqki&mjyóemrsm;udk ajz&Si;&ef vdktyfonf/ f d f f ,if;wkonf rSwwrf;xde;odr;jcif;wGiyg&Saom pGr;aqmif&nf Yd f f f f d f rSwpfqifh vdrvnfrtay: oHk;pGotumtuG,ay;jcif;? tay; f I J l f t,lvkyief;oD;oefYwnf&SNd yD; taESmifht,Suuif;rIESihf vHkûcHrI&Sd f f jcif;? oHk;pGJolrsm;tm;vHk;odkY nDrQaom vufcHrIukd aocsmap&ef ,SOûf ydiEkiaom aiGay;acsrIvkyief;rsm;ESihf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESihf f d f f aiGay;acsrenf;vrf;rsm; a&G;cs,rtcGita&;wkjYd zpfonf/ zGUH ûzd;qJ I f I hf Ekiirsm;&Sd Oya'abmiftwki;twmonf tDvufx&Geepfenf;jzifh d f H d f f 28 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tay;t,lvkyjf cif;rsm;ESihf aiGay;acsrIrsm; tpDtpOfrsm;udk tod trSwûf y pwifoifhonf/ rS wpfqifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;qufoG,rIrsm; f f e-Commerce onf end-to-end qufqHa&;pDrHcefYcGJrI tajzrsm;jzifh azmfaqmifaom pD;yGm;a&;opfqufqHa&;odkY pD;yGm;a&;a[mif;qufqHa&; (a'gifvku^tvsm;vdkuf qufqH d f a&;) udk toGiajymif;onf/ þonfrSm e-Commerce rS f wpfqifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; qufqHrIrsm; toGiajymif;jcif;yif f f jzpfonf/ e- Commerce onf tzGJYtpnf;uGef&ufrsm;udk vG,ulacsmarmaponf/ þuGe&ufrsm;wGif tao;pm;vkyief; f f f rsm;onf azmufonf0,fvktm;rsm;udk ydkrkdxa&muftusK;&SpGm d d d d ukiwG,ajz&Si;&ef ypön;ay;oGi;rIrsm;ESihf xkwukeypön; d f f f f f f f f jzefYcsa&;twGuf vufwGJazmf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tay:wGif rlwnf d onf/ f azmufonfrsm;? tvkyorm;rsm;? ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;? f f jzefYcsolrsm;ESihf ,SOûf ydibufrsm;ESihf cswqufxm;aom uGe&uf d f d f f rsm; uGi;qufukd pDrHcefYcGJ&ef aygif;pnf;xm;aom odkYr[kwf f H Y JG f d wk;csUJ xm;aom Supply Chain pDrcefcrI tajz&Si;rIrsm; vktyf d f f onf/ Supply Chain Management (SCM) udk ukeypön;rsm;? owif;tcsutvufESihf b@ma&;udk BuD;Muyfjcif;taejzifh f t"dyÜm,fowfrSwonf/ ,if;wkYdonf ypön;ay;oGi;olxHrS f f f ukexkwvkyook?Yd ,if;rS vuúm;a&mif;olok?Yd vuúm;a&mif;olrS f f f l vufvDa&mif;olokY?d vufvDa&mif;olrS pm;oHk;olxHokYd a&GUvsm; e-Commerce
  19. 19. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 29 jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf ukrPrsm;tMum; ,if;wdkY pD;qif;rIrsm; Ü D yl;aygif;aqmif&Gujf cif;ESihf aygif;pnf;aqmif&Gujf cif;wkYd yg0if ywfoufonf/ 0ifa&muftusK;&Saom Supply Chain Mand d Sf f f G d f agement &nfre;csuonf uGi;xJwif aemufxyfcswquf aom ukeypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrIrsm;udk tcseukuf yHhykd;ulnD f f df d jcif;jzpfonf/ Supply Chain Management (SCM) wGif t"du pD;qif; rI oHk;ck&Sonf/ ,if;wkYdrSmd 1/ xkwukeypön; pD;qif;rI (The Product Flow) f f f ,if;pD;qif;rIwGif Supplier rS azmufonfwpfOD; xHokdY ukeypön;rsm; a&GUvsm;rIyg0ifonf/ xkYdjyif f f azmufonfxHrS wkHYjyefrI odkYr[kwf 0efaqmifrI vktifrsm; yg0ifonf/ d 2/ owif;tcsutvuf pD;qif;rI (The Informaf tion Flow) ,if;wGif trSmvTmrsm; xkwvway;ydkjY cif;ESihf ydkaqmifrI f T f Y tqifhtwef; aemufqHk;tajctaewkYd yg0ifonf/ 3/ b@ma&;pD;qif;rI (The Finances Flow) ,if;wGif ta<u;ay;pepf? aiGay;acsrItpDtpOfrsm;? tyfukepepfEihf aiGaMu;acgif;pOftvkuf ykiqirI pDpOfrI f S d d f kd f rsm; yg0ifonf/ 30 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tcsKdU SCM toHk;csrIrsm;onf zGifhxm;aom tcsuf tvufyHkpHrsm;tay:wGif tajccHonf/ ,if;wkYdonf tifwm y½dkuptwGi;ESihftjyif tcsutvufESpckpvHk; rQa0jcif;udk f f f f f yHhykd;ay;onf/ ,if;udk wk;csJUxm;aom tifwmy½dkup[kac: d f f onf/ ,if;tifwmy½dkufpfwGif t"duypönf;ay;oGif;olrsm;? ukexkwolrsm;ESihf wdusaom ukrÜPDwpfck aemufqHk;azmuf f f f d d onfrsm; yg0ifonf/ rQa0ay;aom tcsutvufwkYd trsK;rsK; uGJjym;aom tcsutvufpepfrsm; odkYr[kwf tcsutvuf f f odkavSmif½kHrsm;wGif xm;&Sonf/ ,if;wkonf rsm;pGmaom uGjJ ym; d Yd jcm;em;aom ae&mrsm;ESihf ukrÜPDrsm;wGif &SMd uonf/ ukrÜPD ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf ,if;tcsutvufrQa0jcif;ESihf ukrPD f f f Ü azmufonfrsm;ESifh ,if;tcsuftvufrQa0jcif;wdkYonf xkwukeypön;wk;wuf&ef SCM toHk;csrIrsm;udk cGihfûyonf/ f f f d xkYdjyif ukeusp&dwrsm;avQmhcs&efvnf; cGihfûyonf/ ,if;onf f f tem*wfvkdtifrsm;twGuf vuf&t&if;tjrpfrsm;ESihf pDrHcsuukd Sd f ydkrkaumif;rGe&ef Supply Chain tzGUJ tm;vHk;udkvnf; cGiûhf yonf/ d f þonfrSm e-Commerce onf azmufonfrsm;? vkyom;rsm;? f ypön;ay;csiolrsm;? jzefYcsolrsm;ESihf ,SOûf ydibufrsm;udk rnfokdY f f d f cswqufaMumif; azmfjyonf/ d f e-Business model oufqiaom tpdwtydi;rsm; dk f f kf e-Business armf',fyHkpHwpfckwGif wpfzufazmfjyygwkYd yg0if&rnfjzpfonf/
  20. 20. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 31 1/ rQa0xm;aom 'pf*spw,f bdZeuf tajccHtaqmuf f ttHk ,if;wGif 'pf*spw,fxkwvkyrIESihf jzefYcsa&;enf; f f f d ynmrsm; (broadband/ 0g,mvufue&ufrsm;? conGf tent/ zefwD;jcif;enf;ynmrsm;ESifh owif;tcsuf tvufpDrHcefYcGJrIpepfrsm;) yg0ifonf/ ,if;wkYdonf rsm;rsm;pm;pm; xkwvkyrIue&ufESihf e,fy,fzefwD; f f Gf &efESihf toHk;cs&ef vkyief;yg0ifaqmif&Guolrsm;udk f f cGihfûyrnfjzpfonf/ 2/ atmfya&;&Si;f rsm;twGuf acwfrqef;jym;aom armf',fypH D kH þyHkpHwGif Supply Chains ESihf Buy Chains ESpfck pvHk; yg0ifaom aygif;pnf;aqmif&Guaom Value f Chain rsm;yg0ifonf/ 3/ e-Business pDrHcefYcGJrI armf',fyHkpH pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tzGUJ rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyazmfuizuf f f kd f rsm; þyHkpHwGif yg0ifonf/ 4/ ay:vpD? pnf;rsO;ESihf vlrIa&;pepfrsm; f þpepfrsm;wGif e-Commerce Oya'rsm;? uGe&uf f ûyvkyjf cif;vkyief;? ta0;oifavhvma&;? rufvkH;ay; f tpDtpOfrsm;ESihf udkunr&aom bdZeufay:vpDrsm; f D I dS yg0ifonf/ 32 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f þwGif e-Business r[mAsL[mqki&m zefw; d f D wwfaom ae&m,lrI om"uwpfckukd wifjycsif ygw,f/ ,if;rSm Dawson a&S;a[mif;ypön;vkyief; f f ESifh Sotheby tGefvkdif;avvHyGJae&mrsm;yif jzpfonf/ Dawson's a&S;a[mif;ypön;vkyief;onf f f 23 ESpfMum oufwrf;&SdNyDjzpfaom a&S;a[mif; bdZeufvkyief;jzpfonf/ tGevki;avvHwif Site f f d f rsm; xGuay:vmrIESihftwl Linda Dawson onf f ,if;vkyief;&Sionf vGwajrmuf&eftvdim ,if; f f f Yk S bdZeufr[mAsL[mwGif tifwmeufukd xnfhoGi; f pOf;pm;&ef vktyfrIukd êudjrif½HkrQru tm;omcsuf d &,l&efvnf; êudjrifcJhonf/ xdktawmtwGi; Sotheby's trnf&dS wk;wuf f d aeaom tGevkdi;avvHae&monf tifwmeufay: f f wGif ydkrkBd uD;rm;aom y&dowfukd qGaqmif&ef ,if; J avvHypön; xm;okxe;odr;rI pepfukd jr§iwifjcif; f d df f hf tusK;aus;Zl;tm; od&SoabmaygufMuonf/ d d Sotheby's onf tBuD;rm;qHk; tGevkdi; avvHyGJ f f usif ; yae&mrsm;jzpf o nf / ,if ; onf ,if ; Website uk d zG i f h j cif ; jzif h ,if ; tif w meuf r[mAsL[mudk jyefvnfoHk;oyfcJhonf/ ,if; 0ufbqkufr S m Sothebys.com jzpfonf/ ,if; f d
  21. 21. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 33 0ufbqkuukd tGevkdi;avvHwifae&mrsm; twGuf f d f f f ydkrkdao;i,faom udk,pm;vS,rsm;ESihf avvHwif f f ae&mrsm;twGuf zGivpay;onf/ ,if;csO;uyfrEihf hf S f f I S twl Sotheby onf ,if; ukeypön;odkavSmif f f xkway;rIpepfwif tawGUG têuH&&Sconf/ ,if;onf f G d hJ ykrkBd uD;rm;aom aps;uGuukd qGJaqmifcJhonf/ ydkrkd d f vG,ulap&ef Sotheby's onf ,if; tzGUJ 0ifrsm; f twGuf 0ufbqufudk yHhydk;½HkrQru Dawson's f kd tzGUJ om;rsm;udk ulnconf/ bDvtm;vHk;ESihf pkpnf; D hJ f aumuf,rtm;vH;udvnf; udiw,ajz&Si;f &ef pDpOfchJ lI k k kf G f onf/ ,if; r[mAsL[m atmufwif tzGJU0if 4660 G OD; pm&if;ay;oGi;cJhonf/ Dawson twGurl ef f business ta&mif;onf 2000 jynfEpv,fyi;wGif h S f kd f pkpkaygif; ta&mif; 25 &mcdkiEIe; &&ScJhonf/ f f d 2001 ckEp?f Zefe0g&Dv wGif 50 &mcdiEe; &&Sconf/ S k f I f d hJ atmifjrifaom e-Commerce vkyief;uGi;qufrsm; f f e-Commerce onf orm;½dk;us pD;yGm;a&;tay;t,l vkyief;wGif ,SOûf ydiEiaom tjcm;a&G;cs,p&m enf;vrf;jzpf&efvkd f f dk f f onf/ tzGJUtpnf;wpfckonf e-Commerce tusK;aus;Zl; d rsm; trsm;qHk;&&S&eftwGuf enf;ynmudpö&yfrsm; pOf;pm;&efvkd d onf/ xdkjY yif pGr;aqmifay;Ekiaom udp&yfrsm;udk pOf;pm;&efvkd f d f ö onf/ yHkpHusaom e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyief; uGi;quf f f 34 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f wGif atmufygt"duaqmif&Gufolrsm;ESifh qufpyfaeaom vktyfcsursm; yg0ifonfd f f d a&mif;csol (Seller) wGif atmufygtcsursm; &Soifh onfe- Commerce pGr;* f aqmif&nfyg&Saom aumfykd&wf d d 0ufbfqkduf (Oyrm-vHkûcHrI&Sdaom tay;t,l vkyief; Server) f aumfyk&wtifx&meuf (odkYrSom atmf'grsm;udk d d f * pGrf;&nf&Sdaom toGifjzifh vkyfief;pOfaqmif&Guf Ekirnf/) d f owif;tcsutvuf pD;qif;rIrsm;udk pDrcefc&efEihf f * H Y JG S e- Commerce pepfukd xde;odr;&ef tkiwD em;vnf f f df wwfuRrf;aom 0efxrf;rsm;/ tay;t,lvkyfief; pD;yGm;zuf (ygwem) rsm;wGif atmufygwkYdyg0ifonftay;t,lvkyfief;* &Sif;vif;a&;udk aqmif&Guf ay;pGr;aom bPftzGUJ tpnf;rsm; (ta<u;ay;uwf f aiGay;acsrIESihf tDvufx&Geepf &efyHkaiGvTJajymif; f * rIrsm;qki&m vkyief;pOfaqmif&Gujf cif;) d f f EkiiHtwGi;? EkiiH0ef;usiESihf EkiiHjyifywGif ukef d f f d f f d f ypönf;a&GUvsm;rIudk pGrf;aqmifay;&ef trsKd;om; tqifhESihf tjynfjynfqki&m ukeypön;wifykdYonfh f f * d f ukrÜPDrsm;? vkyief;rS pm;oHk;olokdY tay;t,l f vkyief;twGuf pepfonf tao;pm;xkyyk;rIrsm; f f d
  22. 22. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 35 uke&usK;eyfaom ydkaqmifrtwGuf enf;vrf;wpfck f d Y I udk ay;pGr;&rnf/ f f f * tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; aygif;pnf;aqmif&GurIESihf vHûk cHrudk tmrcH&ef ,HMk unf&aom wwd,tzGUJ (Third I Party) taeES i f h aqmif & G u f a om ppf r S e f o nh f MoZmtmPm&SrI/ d f pm;oHk;olrsm; (Consumers) (vkyief;rS pm;oHk;olokYd tay;t,lvkyief;) (B2C) f * ta<u;0,fuwfjym;rsm; us,jf yefYaom toHk;ûyrIukd pGr;aqmifay;Ekiaom? oH;pGEiaom 0ifaiGEihf tifwm f df k J dk f S eufukd vufcHaom? ta&;ygaom vltawmfrsm;rsm; udk zGJUpnf;xlaxmif&rnf/ f d f * rsujf rifukd,wkif ypön;rsm;0,f,ljcif;xufpmvQif tifwmeufay:rS xkwukeypön;rsm;? 0,f,ljcif; f f f twGuf tawG;tac:wpfckukd ydkiqki&rnf/ f d f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; (Firms/Business) f vkyief;rSvkyief;odkY tay;t,lvkyief; B2B wGif tifwm f f f eufvufcrEitwl txl;ojzifh Supply Chains twGi; ta&; H I S hf f ygaom ukrPrsm;udk zGUJ pnf;xlaxmifpkpnf;&rnf/ tifwmeufrS Ü D atmf'grsm;udk rSm,lEkiaom pGr;&nfukd ,if;ukrÜPDrsm;wGif d f f &S&rnf/ d 36 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tpk;& (Govermment) d d f * tpk;&taejzifh e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyief;udk pDrHtkycsKyfaom w&m;0ifabmif twki;twmwpfck f d f xlaxmif&efjzpfonf/ ,if; e-Commerce tay; t,lvkyief;rsm;wGif tDvufx&Geepf pm&Gupmwrf; f f f rsm;? vufrSwrsm; yg0ifonf/ f d f * w&m;0iftzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf Oya'abmif twki; twmudk wGe;tm;ay;vdrhfrnf/ ,if; abmiftwki; f d f twmwGif Oya'rsm;ESihf pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;rsm;wGif f yg0ifonf/ ,if;w&m;0iftzGUJ tpnf;rsm;onf tjcm; olrsm;tMum; vdrvnfrIrS pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf f f f pm;oHk;olrsm;udk tumtuG,ay;onf/ tifwmeuf (Internet) aemufqHk;wGif tifwmeufonf atmifjrifaom toH;ûyrIjzpfvmonf/ ,if;onf atmufygtcsursm; k f wGif rlwnfonfD d f * tm;aumif;Ny; ,HMk unfpwcstm;xm;&aom tifwmeuf tajccHtaqmufttHk/ f f d ∗ tifwmeufay:wGif ukeypön;rsm;0,f,jl cif;ESihf tcsef ukeaom pm;oHk;olrsm;udk 'ku©ray;onfh aps;EIe; f f owfrSwzGJUpnf;rI/ (Oyrm-a'owGi; zke;ac:rIrsm; f f f fk k k S f ESihf ISP access ESpcpvH;twGuf yHao owfrwxm; aom vpOfEIe;xm;/) f
  23. 23. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 37 &SifoefBuD;xGm;&eftwGuf txufyg tcsutvufrsm; vdktyfonf/ þwGif tifwmeufonf ef Commerce ESihf qufpyfaeonfukd &Si;jyvdkonf/ tifwmeuf f onf aps;rBuD;bJ ,HkMunfpwcstm;xm;pGm cswqufEki&ef d f d f d f urÇmtESHUtjym;rS vlrsm;udk aqmif&Guay;onf/ enf;ynm f qki&m tajccHtaqmufttHktaejzifh ,if;onf urÇmvHk;qki&m d f d f uGe&uftzGUJ tpnf; jzpfonf/ y½kwaum tpkta0;toHk;ûyvsuf f d kd owif;tcsurQa0&ef cswqufay;onf/ vlESihf owif;tcsuf f d f tvuf uGe&ufrsm;taejzifh tifwmeufonf e-Commerce f udk pGr;aqmifay;onf/ tGevki;ay:wGif ukeypön;rsm;ESihf f f d f f f 0efaqmifrrsm;udk a&mif;cs&ef tifwmeufu vkyief;rsm; aqmif&uf I f G ay;onf/ tifwmeufukd pD;yGm;a&;&nf&G,csursm;twGuf toHk; f f rcsrD ukrÜPDrsm;onf EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) uJhokdYaom yk*¾vuuGe&ufrsm; toHk;ûyonf/ ,if;onf ed f Commerce apmapmydki; yHkpHjzpfonf/ odkYaomf yk*¾vu f d uGe&ufrsm; wyfqifjcif;ESihf xde;odr;jcif;onf tvGeaps;BuD; f f f f onf/ tifwmeufESihftwl e-Commerce onf vsijf refpGm ysHUESHYcJhonf/ tifwmeufonf Open Stardards rsm;tay:wGif tajccHaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ e-Commerce e-Commerce tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm; d f tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm;ukd avhvmMunfh d f vQif ypön;ay;oGi;ol? xkwvkyol (Supplier/Producer) ? f f f f e-Commerce 38 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pm;oHk;ol (oHk;pGJol) (Consumer) ESihf vlrItzGJUtpnf; ety) tcsuoHk;csujf zifh ½IjrifEkionf/ f d f (Soci- ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm* xkwvkyorsm; (Suppliers/ f f ;? f f l Producers) ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;bufrS ½IjrifvQif e-Commerce f f tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm;wGif tcsuajcmufcsuwkYd yg0ifonf/ d f f f yxrtcsurm urÇmtESa&muf&jdS cif;jzpfonf/ 'kw,tcsurm f S YH d f S wpf&ufvQif 24 em&D? wpfywfvQif ckepf&uf&aejcif;jzpfonf/ Sd wwd,tcsurSm Mum;vlrsm;z,f&Sm;&ef tvm;tvm&Sjd cif;jzpf f onf/ pwkwtcsurm ppfreaomtcsewif uwfwavmufrsm; ¬ f S Sf df G udk aemufqHk;tajctaetxd &&S&efpGr;&nfjzpfNyD; wpfOD;csi; d f f ay;pGr;EkirIrsm;twGuf tvm;tvm&Sjd cif;yifjzpfonf/ yOör f d f tcsufrSm tay;t,lukefusp&dwfrsm; omíenf;yg;jcif;jzpf onf/ q|rtcsurSm atmf'g (trSmvTm) vrf;aMumif;yHkpHwGif f wk;wufr&aom azmufonftultnDay;rI? udk,wi0efaqmifrI d I dS f kd f ay;aom owif;tcsutvuf jyefvnfxkw,ljcif;ESihf oD;jcm; f f ajymqkd aqG;aEG;rIrsm;jzpfonf/ tifwmeufonf aemufqHk;oHk;pGJolrsm;ESifh wkduf½dkuf qufo,&ef trnfay;oGi;rIwif yg0ifotm;vHk;udk pGr;aqmif G f f G l f ay;onf/ ,if;onf Mum;cHqufoG,rIuif;a0;&ef OD;wnf f ay;Ekionf/ aemufqk;azmufonfEihf wku½kuqufo,ronf d f H S d f d f G f I tifwmeufu pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; tay;t,lvkyfjcif;rsm;udk ,laqmifaom t"duawmfvSea&;yifjzpfonf/ f
  24. 24. odaumif;p&m e-commerce 39 tpD&ifcHcsut& tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwif f G e-Commerce jzefYcsda&;ukefusp&dwftay: tusKd;ouf a&mufrI &Sconf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh avaMumif;vufrwrsm;twGuf d hJ S f orm;½dk;usESihf tifwmeuftajccHa&mif;csrItMum; pkaqmif;rI rsm;onf bPfvkyief;twGuf 87 rS 89 &mckiEe; txd&onf/ f d f If dS bDvay;acsrtwGuf 67 rS 71 &mckiEe;&Sonf/ touftmrcH f I d f If d twGuf 60 &mckiEIe;&Sonf/ aqmhz0JjzefYcsrItwGuf 97 rS d f f d f d 99 &mckiEIe; txd&Sonf/ d f f d oHk;pGorsm;ESihf wku½kuxawGUrtydki;rSMunfvQif azmuf J l d f d f d I f h onfqufqa&;? pDrcefcrukd tifwmeufu awmfveypfcNhJ yDjzpf H H Y GJ I Sf onf/ atmf'grsm;udk wu,fvkcsiaomtcsewGif &Ekionf/ d f df d f xkaMumifh pHprf;ar;jref;rIrsm;udk êud;yrf;rItenf;i,frQEihf wduspm Yd k S G ajzqkEionf/ aumif;pGmyHazmfxm;aom online help pepfrsm;ESihf d dk f k vlom;Mum;0ifrIryg&SbJ oHk;pGJrIrsm;ar;cGe;rsm;udk wpfOD;csi; d f f ajzMum;Ekionf/ aemufqHk;wGif azmufonfrsm;ESihf oD;jcm; d f aqG;aEG;ajymqkrItwGuf tvm;tvmudk BuD;rm;pGm jr§ihfwifEkif d d cJhonf/ tifwmeufrwpfqifh tD;aumrmhponf 0ifa&mufrueus S f I kf p&dwEihf tay;t,lukeusp&dwEpckpvHk;udk enf;yg;ap&ef ulnD f S f f S f f kd f yHyk;ay;onf/ xkjYd yif ydkrkBd uD;rm;aom aps;uGuokYd yx0D0ifqi&m h d a&muf&rukw;csUJ &ef pGr;&nfukjd znfqnf;ay;onf/ þtcsuu dS I d kd f h f tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm; (SMES) ukd vG,vifwul f f h &&Sdaponf/ OECD 40 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f oHk;pGJolrsm; (Consumers) * oHk;pGJolrsm;twGuf tusK;aus;Zl;rsm;wGif atmufygwkYd d yg0ifonf1/ aetdrrS oufaomifhoufom aps;0,fEkdionf/ f f 2/ urÇmtESHY a&G;cs,rIrsm;udk vufcHEkionf/ f d f 3/ ukeusp&dwf ,SOûf ydirIrsm;udk vufcH&&SEkionf/ f f d d f 4/ rm;uufwif; owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk vufc&&Sd f H onf/ 5/ 'pf*spw,fukeypön; (Oyrm-aw;*Dw) ukd prf;oyf f f f &ef tcGihftvrf;&Sonf/ d 6/ tcsera&G; aps;0,f&ef pGr;&nf&Sonf/ df f d 7/ 'pf*spw,fukeypön;rsm;udk csucsi; download f f f f f ûyvkyEkionf/ f d f 8/ wpfukd,a& 0efaqmifrI ûyvkyEkionf/ f f d f 9/ zke;vdki; apmifhqki;aep&mrvkacs/ f f d f d 10/ ta&mif;orm; rvkacs/ d 11/ a&mif;csrukd vG,uacsmarmap&ef todÓPf&aom I f l dS at;*sihfrsm;&Sonf/ d xkwukeypön;o,f,lykdYaqmifrI qef;opfzefwD;aom f f f enf;vrf;rsm;onf BuD;xGm;vmcJNh yD jzpfonf/ ,if;onf r0,f,l &ef xkwukeypön;udkprf;oyf&ef pm;oHk;olrsm; t&nftaoG; f f f udk jr§ihfwifay;aeonf/
  25. 25. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 41 * tzGJUtpnf; pD;yGm;a&;ylaygif;aqmif&urEihf zGUH ûzd;rItzGUJ tpnf; (OECD) G fIS u us,fjyefYaom &nfrSef;csufig;&yfokdY e-Commerce pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlrIa&;tusK;oufa&mufukd tESpcsKyfazmfjyxm; d f onfrSm þodkYjzpfonf1/ e-Commerce onf aps;uGuae&mudk toGiajymif; f f ay;onf/ 2/ ,if;wGif "mwfulypön; tusK;oufa&mufrI&onf/ f d Sd 3/ ,if;onf pD;yGm;a&;wGif tjyeftvSeaqmif&GurIukd f f jrifhwufaponf/ 4/ ,if;onf yGihfvif;rIukd tajccHonf/ 5/ ,if;onf qufpyfvsu&aom tcseta&;ygrIukd f Sd df ajymif;vJay;onf/ ,if;&nfrSe;csursm;onf e-Commerce t&mxifrI f f us,jf yefYrIukdazmfjyonf/ ,if;&nfrSe;csursm;udk tav;teuf f f azmfjyjcif;onf xkwvkyorsm;? Mum;vlrsm;ESihf aemufqk;oHk;pGol f f l H J rsm;tMum; tjyeftvSeaqmif&GurIukd jrifhwufaponf/ f f Intelligent software agent rsm; tultnDEihf e-ComS merce onf xkwfvkyfolrsm;? Mum;cHvlrsm;ESifh aemufqHk; oHk;pGorsm;tMum; tjyeftvSeaqmif&urukd jrifwufaponf/ J l f G f I h ,if;onf xkwfukefypönf;rsm;ESifh ykdrkdESpfoufzG,f&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufaom tcsutvufukd ar;jref;&efuJhokdY ulnDyhHyk;&ef f d vnf; ,cktcg ykívG,ulvmonf/ d f 42 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ukepnfopfrsm; yHkazmfjcif;vkyief;pOfwGif pm;oHk;olrsm; f f yg0ifaqmif&Gujf cif; jrifhwufvmrIonf pm;oHk;olykrkdESpoufrI d f rsm;ESihf ykrkdaumif;rGeaom vkuzufrI&&S&ef 0,folUpwêf uduf d f d f d d aqmif&ujf cif;qki&m tcGitvrf;rsm;udk udk,pm;ûyonf/ ,if; G fd f hf f onf acwfa[mif;pD;yGm;a&; ukeoG,rItrSwtom;jzpfaom f f f pHowfrSwjf cif;ESihf qefYusibufjzpfonf/ aemufqHk;wGif ,if; f onf yGihfvif;rI,Ofaus;rIukd arG;zGm;&ef arQmfvifh&onf/ þonfyifvQif tifwmeuftajccHtoGitjyifvu©Pmyif f jzpfayonf/ e- Commerce onf rnDrQrI t&if;tjrpfopfwGif u@opfwpfckzivprnfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf ay:jyLvmjzpfae G hf S f aom digital devide yifjzpfonf/ xkwvkyrIbufrSMunfhvQif f f tifwmeufonf tao;pm;ESifh tvwfpm;vkyfief;rsm; xkwukeypön;rsm; tGevi;ay:wGia&mif;cs&ef tcGitvrf;rsm; f f f f kd f f hf udk ulnDyHhykd;ay;onf/ odkY&mwGif pm;oHk;olbufrSMunfhvQif tifwmeufukd vufcHEkiaom yDpDESihf w,fvDzke;vki;ydkiqki&ef d f f d f f d f wwfEkiaom olrsm;omvQif trSetuefjzpfonf/ xkYdjyif ydkrkd d f f aumif;rGeaom w,fvDzke;tcif;tusi;&Sonfh EkiiHrsm;wGif f f f d d f tGevki;tay;t,l vkyjf cif;rsm; tusK;aus;Zll;rsm;udk pl;prf; f d f d avhvmjcif;qki&m uGjJ ym;aom tm;omcsu&vrrnf jzpfonf/ d f f dS d hf aemufxyftusK;aus;Zl;rSm e-Government jzpfonf/ d tpd;&vkyief;rsm;wGif tifwmeuftoH;ûyjcif;rS tzGUJ tpnf;u&Ekif k f k d aom tenf;qHk;e,fy,fEpck&onf/ yxre,fy,frm 0efaqmifrI S f dS S
  26. 26. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 43 vkyief;rsm;udk tDvufx&Geenf;tm;jzifh o,f,lykdYaqmifEkirI f f d f e,fy,fjzpfonf/ aemufxyfwpfckrm tDvufx&Geepf 0,f,rI S f l pepfrSwpfqifh &&Saome,fy,fjzpfonf/ pifumylEkiiHonf d d f urÇmtpdwtydki;taejzifhvnf;aumif;? urÇmtESHYtjym;wGif f f vnf;aumif; ajrprf;c&rf;ysK;aeaom EdkiiHjzpfonf/ d f tmqD,HtwGuf ,if;tusKd;oufa&mufrItm;vHk;udk toHk;csoifhonf/ rsufarSmufacwf tmqD,HtwGuf odod omomta&;ygrIrSm e-Commerce taejzifh tifwmeufrS wpfqifh tao;pm;ESihf tvwfpm;vkyief;rsm; (SMEs) ulnyyk; f D hH d aom tcGihftvrf;rsm;yifjzpfonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;armf',f f wpfckukd zdvpfyiEkiiwif pwifconf/ Ekiiwum b@ma&; kd f d f H G hJ d f H aumfya&;&Si;ESitwl Planters Development Bank (jynfwi; kd f hf G f zGUH ûzd;rIbPf)? e Vicor (Silicon valley tif*sie,mESihf twkiyifcH fD d f tzGJUtpnf;)? zdvpfykdipufrIvufrIESihf ukeonfBuD;rsm;toif;? f f tm&SpDrHcefYcGJrI odyÜHwkYdonf e-Planters [kac:aom SMEs twGuf Portal wpfckukd xlaxmif&ef yl;aygif;aqmif&GucJh f Muonf/ 0efaqmifrI vkyief;rsm;wGif Web hosting ESihf aiGay; f acspepfrsm; yg0ifonf/ 0efaqmifrIukd aumfr&SitajccHjzifh f ay;onf/ tmqD,a'otaejzifMh unfvQif tmqD,Eiirsm;tMum; H h H kd f H ,SOûf ydiEiaom tm;omcsuwif uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIukd pl;prf;avhvm f dk f f G &SmazG&ef xkwvkyrue&ufrsm;udk ulnyyk;a&;twGuf tifwm f f I Gf D hH d eufukd toHk;ûy&OD;rnfjzpfonf/ tcef; (5) e-Commerce, e-Business ES i f h tifwmeufpD;yGm;a&; tD;aumrmhpf (Electronic commerce) onf xkwukef f ypön;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm;twGuf tGevi;tifwmeuf f I f f kd f vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm; us,jf yefYaomtrsK;tpm;udk &nfñTe; f f d f ay;onf/ ,if;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tay;t,lvkyaom ESpO; f f f D ESpzufonf ½kyykdi;qdki&mzvS,rI odkYr[kwf wku½kduzvS,rI f f f f f d f f f f f f xuf tDvufx&Geepfenf;t& tjyeftvSequfoG,onf/ e-Commerce onf rsm;aomtm;jzifh tifwmeufay: wGif 0,fjcif;? a&mif;jcif;ESifh ywfoufonf/ ,if;onf uGeysLwmu yHkazmfay;aom uGe&ufrSwpfqifh ukeypön;rsm; f f f f odkYr[kwf 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm;toHk;ûy&ef ykiqkirI odkYr[kwf f d f d f tcGihfta&;rsm; vTJajymif;jcif;ESihfywfoufaom ta&mif;t0,f vkyrI wpfpHkwpf&mudk aqmif&Gujf cif;ESihfywfoufonf/ ef Commerce ESihf ywfoufí ykrkjd ynfhpHkaom t"dyÜm,frSm þodkY d jzpfonf/ e-Commerce onf tDvufx&Geepfqufo,a&;ESihf f G f 'pf*spw,f owif;tcsutvuf vkyief;pOfenf;ynm toHk;ûyrI f f f yif jzpfonf/
  27. 27. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 45 þae&mwGif e-Commerce ESifh e-Business wdkYü uGJjym;aom t,ltqrsm;&Sonf/ e-Commerce wGif owif; d tcsutvufEihf qufo,a&;enf;ynm (tkipw) udk vkyief; f S G f d f D D f rsm; tMum;wGivnf;aumif;? tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tMum;wGivnf; f f aumif; toHk;ûyonf/ xdkYjyif vkyief;rSpm;oHk;ol (businessf to-consumer) tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;wGif toHk;ûyonf/ tjcm; f wpfzufwif e-Business wGif tkipwonf wpfO;wpfa,muf G d f D D D bdZeufukd jr§ihwif&eftoHk;ûyonf/ ,if;wGif uGeysLwmu f f azmfaqmifaom uGef&uftay:wGif vkyfief; tzGJUtpnf;u aqmif&uaom vkyief;pOfwpfckckyg0ifonf/ e-Business G f f jynfhpHkus,jf yefYaom t"dyÜm,frSm þodkYjzpfonfpifppf e-Business [lonfrSm enf;ynmrsm;toHk;csrI? pD;yGm;a&;opf tawG;tac:rsm;ESihf wGucsuaeaom yg&mEkiiH f f df wkrwpfqifh tydkjznfpuaom azmufonfwefzk;udk ydkaqmif&ef Yd S h G f d Y tzGUJ tpnf;wpfck vkyief;pOfrsm;toGiajymif;jcif;yifjzpfonf/ f f e-Business wGif tajccHvkyief;pOfoHk;&yfukd tqifhjr§ihf f xm;onf/ ,if;wkYdrSm1/ xkwvkyrIvkyief;pOfrsm; (Production Processes) f f f 2/ azmuf o nf u d k tm½H k p k d u f o nf h v k y f i ef ; pOf r sm; (customer-focused processes) 3/ XmewGi;pDrHcefYcGJrI vkyief;pOfrsm; (Internal Manf f agement Processes) wkYdjzpfonf/ 46 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f xkwvyrvyief;pOfrsm;wGif 0,f,a&;? atmf'g&&Sa&;ESihf f kfI kf l d ukepnfrsm; xkwvkyxe;odr;a&;wkyg0ifonf/ xkjYd yif aiGay; f f f df f Yd acsa&;vkyief;pOfrsm;? ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf tDvufx&Geepf f f f f cswqufrrsm; xkwvkyrI xde;csKyfrvkyief;pOfrsm; yg0ifonf/ d f I f f f I f azmufonftm½Hpuonfh vkyief;pOfrsm;wGif y½dr;dk &Si;f ESihf k kd f f k rm;uufwif;êud;yrf;rIrsm;? tifwmeufay:wGif a&mif;csjcif;? azmufonf0,f,lrIatmf'grsm;ESihf aiGay;acsrIvkyief;pOfrsm;? f azmufonfyHhykd;a&;vkyief;pOfrsm; yg0ifonf/ f XmewGi; pDrcefcrvkyief;pOfrsm;wGif 0efxrf;0efaqmifrI f H Y JG I f f D rsm;? oifwef;? XmewGi; owif;tcsutvufrQa0jcif;? AD',kd f uGez&ifhûyvkyjf cif;ESihf 0efxrf;opfcefYxm;jcif;wkYd yg0ifonf/ f tDvufx&GeepftoHk;csrIrsm;onf ta&mif;tiftm; xkwvkyrI f f f pGr;f tm;jr§iwif&ef xkwvyrEihf ta&mif;tiftm;tMum; owif; hf f kfIS tcsutvufpD;qif;rIukd jr§ihfwifay;onf/ f pifppf tifwmeufpD;yGm;a&;onf e-Commerce ESihf eBusiness xuf ydkrkdus,jf yefYaom t,ltqwpfckjzpfonf/ ,if;wGif e-Commerce ESihf e-Business yg0ifonf/ pD;yGm;a&; ESihf ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;twGuf Mum;cHrD'D,rfwpfcktaejzifh tDvufx&GeepfuGe&ufrsm; toHk;ûyvsuf pD;yGm;a&;vIy&Sm; f f f aqmif&urrsm;tm;vHk;udk qufpyfr&onf/ xdkjY yif tifwmeuf G f I I dS odkY cswqufxm;aom uGe&ufrsm;wnfaqmufjcif;ESihf toHk;cs d f f 0efaqmifrvkyief;rsm; 0,f,jl cif; ESpckpvHk;wGif yg0ifywfouf I f f aom vIy&Sm;aqmif&GurIrsm;ESihf qufET,onf/ ,if;onf f f f
  28. 28. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 47 t"duusaom t"dutuefok;ckukd zefw;ûyvkyay;onf/ ,if; Y H D f wdkYrSm ½kyykdi;qki&m tdkipDwDtajccHtaqmufttHk? pD;yGm;a&; f f d f f vkyfief; tajccHtaqmufttHkESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;wdkY jzpfonf/ þwGif wuúquf(cf) wuúodkvf&Sd okawoeESifh tDvufx&GeepfA[kXme (CREC) onf tifwmeufpD;yGm;a&; f d rnfokdYtvkyvkyonfukdazmfjyaom t,ltqqdki&m abmif f f f twki;twmwpfckukd azmfaqmifw;wufapcJonf/ ,if;abmif d f kd h twki;twm tifwmeufp;yGm;a&; tvTm (4) vTmudk azmfjycJh d f D onf/ ,if;wdkYrSmtvTm 1/ tifwmeuftajccHtaqmufttHk (Internet Infrastructure) tvTm 2/ tifwmeuftoHk;csrItaqmufttHk (Internet Applications Infrastructure) tvTm 3/ tif w meuf M um;cH q uf o G , f a y;ol r sm; (Internet Intermediaries) tvTm 4/ tifwmeufaumrmhpf (Internte Commerce) wkYd jzpfonf/ tvTm (1) wGif ukrÜPDrsm;onf tifwmeufESihf World f d fJ f Wide Web twGuf uGe&ufûyvkyjf cif;ud&,mESihf [mh'0? aqmhz0J pGr;aqmifrIrsm;twGuf yHhykd;Muonf/ f tvTm (2) wGif aqmhz0xkwukersm;ûyvkyaom ukrPD f J f f f Ü rsm;yg0ifonf/ ,if;wdkYonf 0ufbtay;t,lvkyief;rsm;udk f f 48 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f vG,ulacsmarGUatmif ûyvkyay;onf/ xkYdjyif Web developf f ment 'DZkdi;ESihf twkiyifcHvkyief;rsm;udk yHhykd;ay;aomukrÜPD f d f f rsm; yg0ifonf/ tvTm (3) wGif e-Commerce 0,folrsm;ESihf a&mif;ol h d rsm;udk cswqufay;aomukrPrsm;? Web Content udk yHyk;ay; d f Ü D aom ukrPrsm;yg0ifonf/ e-Commerce tay;t,lvkyjf cif; Ü D jzpfysuEiaom aps;uGursm;udk yHy;onfurPrsm;vnf; yg0if f dk f f h kd h kÜ D onf/ tvTm (4) wGif oHk;pGJolrsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;odkY f xkwukeypön;rsm; odkYr[kwf 0efaqmifrIvkyief;rsm; wku½kduf f f f f d f a&mif;csaomukrÜPDrsm; yg0ifonf/ txufazmfjycsursm;onf tifwmeufpD;yGm;a&;tvTm f (Internet Economy Layer) yif jzpfonf/ þwGif tifwmeuf f pD;yGm;a&;tvTm (1) wGif Netwotking ukrÜPDrsm;? [mh'0J? f aqmhz0JukrÜPDrsm;? Line Acceleration ukrÜPDrsm;? [mh'0J f f f xkwvkyolrsm;? yDpDESihf Server xkwvkyolrsm;? tifwmeuf f f Backbone Providers, tifwmeuf0efaqmifryyk;olrsm; (ISPS), I Hh d Security Venders rsm;ESihf Fiber Optics xkwvkyorsm; yg0if f f l onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh jy&aomf Cisco, AOL, AT& T ESihf Qurest wkdYyg0ifonf/ tvTm (2) wGif tifwmeufaumrmhptoHk;csrrsm; Web f I development aqmhzf0J? tifwmeuftwkdifyifcHukrÜPDrsm;? f f f tGevi;oifwef;? Search Engine aqmhz0?J 0ufbu pGr;aqmif f dk f
  29. 29. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 49 ay;aom tcsutvufrsm;? rmvfwDrD'D,mtoHk;csukrÜPDrsm; f yg0ifonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh Adobe rkuú½aqmhz?f IBM ESihf Oracle d kd wkYd yg0ifonf/ f tvTm (3) wGif Ventical vkyief;rsm;wGif aps;uGuf zefw;olrsm;? tGevi;c&D;oGm;vma&;at;*sirsm;? Brokerages, D f kd f hf Content Aggregators tGevi;aMumfjimolrsm; Internet Ad Brof dk f kers, Portals/Content Providers ukrÜPDrsm; yg0if onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh e-STEEL, Yahoo, Travelocity e-Trade ESihf ZDNet ukrÜPDrsm; yg0ifonf/ tvTm (4) wGif E-Tailers, tGefvkdif;azsmfajza&;ESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;qki&m vkyief;rsm;? xkwvkyolrsm;? d f f f f tGevki;a&mif;csaom ukrÜPDrsm;? avaMumif;vdki;a&mif;cs f d f f aeaom ukrÜPDrsm;? tGevki;vufrSwrsm;? Fee/Subscripf d f f tion Based ukrÜPDrsm; yg0ifonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh Amazon. com ESihf Dell wkYdyg0ifonf/ * * * * * tcef; (6) tif w meufESSi f h tD ; -pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; -pD ;a&;vk E tifwmeufonf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;ukd ykrkpr;aqmif&nf f d d G f jynfh0pGm aqmif&Gujf cif;twGuf jzpfEkiajctopfrsm;udk tBuD; d f tus,ay;pGr;Ekionf/ oifbmvkyEiovJ? oifbmvkyray; f f d f f kd f f EkiovJqkwm Munfh&efvkonf/ oifhtaejzifh oifhukrÜPDESihf d f d d ukeypön;rsm;taMumif; owif;tcsutvufrsm;pGmudk jyoEkif f f f d onf/ NyD;vQif ,if;ukeypön;rsm;udk a&mif;csEionf/ Website f f kd f ay:wGif wpfaeYvQif 24 em&D? wpfywfvQif (7) &uf a&mif;csEif kd onf/ oifhtaejzifh ydkrkdxa&muftusK;&SpGm 0,f,lEkionf/ d d d d f tb,faMumifqaomf ypön;ay;oGi; a&mif;csorsm;pGmudk azmfjy h kd f f l d I &ef tifwmeufukd toHk;ûyEkionf/ Online ay:wGif vktyfrrsm; d f udk xkwjf yEkionf/ aps;uGuzvS,rIrsm;ûyvkyNf yD; 0,f,lEkif d f f f d onf/ tGevkdi;avvHaps;uGursm;ESihf toHk;ûyNyD; ukeypön; f f f f f aps;uGursm;wGif avQmhaps;ESihf0,f,lEkionf/ f d f oifonf atmf'grsm; rSm,lEionf/ tay;t,l vkyEif kd f f kd onf/ oifhtaejzifh ukeypön;a&mif;olrsm;ESihf jzefYjzL;a&mif;cs f f
  30. 30. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 51 ay;olrsm;udk ykrkdjrefqefpGm aiGay;acsEkionf/ oifhvkyazmf d d f f ukizufrsm;ESihf Extranet xlaxmifaqmif&Gujf cif;jzifh ukeus d f f p&dwukd enf;yg;aponf/ tGevi;tvkypm&if; 0efaqmifrrsm; f f kd f f I ESihf tD;ar;vftifwmAsL;rsm; toH;ûyjcif;jzifh ydrxa&muf tusK;&Sd k k kd d d pGm oiftvkycefYEkionf/ f d f tifwmeufrSwpfqifh ydkrkdaumif;rGeaom owif;tcsuf f tvufEihf avhusioifMum;jcif; (oifwef;) udk 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf S hf oif uk,pm;vS,rsm;xHokdY ulnDyhHyk;Ekionf/ oifonf d f f d d f oifh0efxrf;rsm;tMum;udkvnf;aumif;? olwkdYtcsif;csif;udk vnf;aumif;? ½Hk;csKyfokvnf;aumif; qufo,a&; vdkavao; Yd G f r&Sd aqmif&u&ef tifx&meuf (Intranet) wpfckukd wnfaxmif G f aqmif&uEionf/ tifx&meufonf owif;vTmrsm;? 0efxrf; G f kd f a&;&mtcsutvuf? xkwueypön;tcsutvuf? tD;-avhvm f f kf f f rI tpDtpOfrsm;? ukrPjD yu©'ersm;ponfwukd xnfoi;pOf;pm; Ü df Ykd h G f Ekionf/ oiftaejzifh ydkrkrsm;jym;us,jf yefaom yx0D0ifrsm;odkY d f h d Y f f d f oifhukeypön;rsm;udk y½dkrkd;&Si;ûyvkyEkionf/ f f tifwmeufay:wGif avhvmpl;prf;olrsm;ESihf csO;uyftm½Hk f pdkutkypkrsm; aqmif&Gujf cif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? tifwmeufay: f f wGif <u,f0aom owif;tcsutvufrsm; &,laqmif&ujf cif; f G jzifhvnf;aumif; oifhtaejzifh aps;uGursm;? azmufonfrsm;? f h tvm;tvm&Sorsm;ESihf ,SOûf ydibufrsm;udk ydkrkpr;&nfjynf0pGm d l f d G f okawoeûyvkyEkdionf/ ay;ydkYEkionf/ arwåm&yfcHEkionf/ f f d f d f oD;jcm;azmufonfrsm;okYd owif;rsm;? 0efaqmifrrsm; ay;pGr;jcif; I f 52 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jzifh azmufonfrsm; xyfrH&&Sdatmif aqmif&GufEkdifonf/ tifwmeufukd toHk;ûyjcif;jzifh oifaxmufyHhykdYaqmifa&; pDrH zGJUpnf;rIrsm;ESihf atmfya&;&Si;rsm;udk oifhtaejzifh rnfrnf&& f wk;wufapEkionf/ pifppf tifwmeufonf qufoG,a&;? d d f f 0,f,ljcif;ESihf a&mif;csjcif;twGuf xl;cRefajymifajrmufaom yvufazmif;topfukd ulnyy;onf/ ,if;tusK;aus;Zl;rsm; D Hh kd d onf tcseEitrQ BuD;xGm;wk;wufaeonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; d f S hf d f acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ,if;tvm;tvmrsm;udk csD;usL;cJhMu onf/ GE ukrÜPDBuD;udk OD;aqmifol *su(cf)0Jv(cs) (Jeck f f f Welch) u Website wpfckxuf ydkrkdxkwvky&ef olUvlrsm;udk f f wkuwGe;EdI;aqmfcJhonf/ d f f ]]tifwmeufukd vufc,kHMunfyg/ tifwmeufquukd H kd f jznfhpGuxm;onfxufausmvGeí oifhvkyief;udk oif rnfokdY f f f f toGiajymif;rnf[onfh pDrcsuwpfck uReawmfxoYkd ,laqmif f l H f f h H vmyg}} CIS ukrÜPDBuD; CEO jzpfol *Refcsr;bm;(pf) (John d f f G Chanbers) u Web-ify Cisco pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;udk &nf&,f ajymqkcJhonf/ d 0efxrf;wpfOD;u ]]ulnDyHhydk;wJh azmufonf qufqHrI Seb-based wki;[m vkyief;tpdwtydki;u tpm; d f f f f xk;oifwvyief;udk wefz;dk rjznfpuEiyg}} rduúaqmhz Ouú| d h hJ k f h G f dk f k f jzpfol bDv*wu tifwmeufukd ukrÜPDrsm;twGuf r&Srjzpf f d f d aomt&m[k ½Ijrifxm;onf/ Cisco
  31. 31. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 53 ]]tifwmeuf[m aemufxyf a&mif;csjcif;vrf;aMumif;rQ om r[kwbl;/ tem*wfukrÜPD[m Digital Nervous Sysf tem eJY aqmif&Gu&vdrhfr,f}} [k qkum ukeusp&dwrsm;udk f d f f tBuD;rm;qHk; avQmhcscJhNyD;jzpfonf/ ukefusp&dwfenf;yg;aom w,fvDqufoG,fa&;ESifh Web vrf;aMumif;rsm;rSwpfqifh uGeysLwmrsm;udk azmufonfrsm; f Ü okYd wku½kua&mif;cscaom Dell ukrPBD uD;onf HP/Compaq, d f d f hJ IBM ES i f h Apple wk d Y x uf pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; ûyvk y f & mwG i f ukefusp&dwfenf;yg;oufomcJhonf/ Dell onf ,cktcg tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif ygpife,fuGefysLwma&mif;cs&mü OD;aqmifaeaom ukrÜPDBuD;jzpfvmcJhonf/ GE ukrÜPDBuD;onf ,if;ukeoG,rIvkyief;pOf Netf f f work udk pwifwnfaxmifjcif;ESifh tifwmeufrSwpfqifh xkwfukefypönf;rsm;udk &SmrSD;&,ljcif;jzifh ,if;0,f,lrI bwf*sua':vm oef;&maygif;rsm;pGmudk oufomapcJhonf[k f qkdonf/ tifwmeuf tusK;aus;Zl;rsm;pGm&Saomfvnf; e-Comd d merce onfvnf; vlxkpdw0ifpm;rIukd &&Saeonf/e-Comf d merce onf tifwmeufukd a&mif;csrIvrf;aMumif;odkY toGif ajymif;&ef tcGihtvrf;udk qkvkonf/ e-Commerce dot.com f d d onf pmtkyrsm;? aw;*Dwrsm;? pmtkyrsm;? tDvufx&Geepfypön; f f f f rsm;? pawmh0,f,ljcif;? tmrcHESihf avaMumif;vufrSwrsm;? f y&dabm*rsm;? toHk;taqmifypön;rsm; tdrta&muf tpm;tpm f f 54 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f ay;ydr?I tBuHay;vkyief; ponfwukd a&mif;csaqmif&uay;jcif; kY f Ykd G f jzifh pwifcJhonf/ Wal-Mart ESifh Levi uJhokdYaom vufvDorm;rsm;udk tajccHonfh Smart pwdk;qkiBf uD;rsm;onf Online ta&mif; d vrf;aMumif;rsm;udk xlaxmifMuonf/ Dot.Com rsm;pGmonf 1991 ck aemufyi;umvrsm;wGif ûydvcaomfvnf; ,if;wkonf dk f J hJ Yd dot.bomb rsm;odkY ajymif;vJconf/ ,cktcg dot.om yl;aygif; hJ aygufuGJcJhaomf ukrÜPDwki;onf ukrÜPDt&nftaoG;udk d f d a&mifjyef[yf&ef website wpfck vktyfonf/ azmufonfrsm; onf jyocsdefudk tvkdr&Sdacs/ owif;tcsuftvufudkom tvk&SMd uonf/ azmufonfrsm;onf &Si;vif;aom owif; d f tcsutvufukom tvk&MdS uonf/ vG,uaom atmf'grSm,l f d d f l jcif; vkyxkH;vkyenf;udkom tvdk&onf/ þodkjY zifh Marketing f f dS azmfaqmif&mwGif tifwmeufESihf tD;-pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;onf f ta&;BuD;aom tcef;u@odkY a&muf&SaeNyDjzpfonf/ d
  32. 32. 56 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f - tcef; (7) B2B e-Commerce [l o nf r S m e-Commerce e-Share, Netsales,ixl Enterprises and Universal Access uJhokYdaom outsourcing providers) yHkpHrsm;rSm B2B (Business-to-Business), B2C (Business-tosumer-to-Consumer) ESifh rdkbki;pD;yGm;a&; d f (m-Commerce) wkdYjzpfonf/ B2B e-Commerce [lonf ukrPrsm;tMum; e-ComÜ D merce taejzifh owfrwxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf bdZeuf S f rsm;tMum;qufqHrIrsm;ESihf tay;t,lvkyaom e-Commerce f yHkpHjzpfonf/ þ B2B e-Commerce onf e-Commerce 80 &mckiEIe;cefY&onf/ uRrf;usiynm&Sif trsm;pku B2B ed f f Sd f Commerce onf B2C tuefYxuf ydkrkd jrefqefpGm qufvuf wk;wufvmvdrhfrnf jzpfonf/ d B2B aps;uGufwGif tajccHtpdwftydkif;ESpfck&Sdonf/ ,if;wkYdrSm e-Frastructure ESihf e-Markets wkYdjzpfonf/ pifppf e-Frastructure onf B2B Adokumjzpfonf/ ,if;wdkYwGif wpfzufazmfjyygwkYdyg0ifonf- o,f,ykaqmifa&;? odkavSmifa&;ESijhf zefcsd l Yd Y a&; (e-g procter and gamble) - toHk;cs0efaqmifrIyHhydk;olrsm; - central facility rS packaged software pDrHcefYcGJrI/ f G f f kf - e-Commerce vkyief;pOfwif vkyief;tpdwtydi;rsm; jyifyt&if;tjrpf&mazGvkyukir/ ,if;wGif WebS f d f I housing security ESihf customer care solutions (e.g t"duusaom? uGJjym;jcm;em;aom Consumer), B2G (Business-to-Government), C2C (Con- logistics - tifwmeuf&dS real-time auctions atmfya&;&Si;ESihf f ûyjyifxe;odr;rItwGuf auction solutions aqmhz0/ df f f J (e.g Moai enf;ynmrsm;ESihf opensite enf;ynmrsm;) - 0ufbquf content pDrcefcrEihf ykaqmifr vG,ul f dk H Y JG I S Y d I f acsmarGYrItwGuf content pDrHcefYcGJrIaqmhz0J/ (e.g Inf - terwoven and Procure Net) - 0ufbtajccHaumrmhpf f enablers (e.g commerce one browser-based, XML-enabled 0,f,la&; atmfwkar;&Si; aqmhz0J/) d f f e-Markets rsm;udk 0ufbqkursm;taejzifh ½dk;pif;pGm f d f t"dym,fowfrwxm;onf/ ,if;0ufbqursm;wGif a&mif;ol Ü S f f kd f ESihf0,folrsm;onf wpfOD;ESihfwpfOD; tjyeftvSequfoG,Nf yD; f tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; aqmif&GuMf uonf/ ykrkdawGUjrifaeus f d B2B Oyrmrsm;udk azmfjy&aomf IBM, Hewlett-Packard (HP),
  33. 33. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce Cisco onf 57 tifwmeuftay:wGif ,if;xkwukeypön;atmf'g f f f rsm; 90 &mckiEIe;ausmf vufcH&&Sonf/ d f f d f f pifppf B2B toHk;csrIrsm;onf ypön;oGi;,lpDrHcefYcJGrI (txl;ojzifh 0,f,lrIatmf'gvkyief;pOf)? inventory pDrHcefYcGJrI f (Oyrm-order-ship-bill cycles pDrHcefYcJjG cif;)? jzefYcsa&;pDrHcefYcJrI d G (txl;ojzifh oabFmwifpm&Gupmwrf;rsm; wpfqifay;ydkjY cif;)? f h csee,fpDrHcefYcGJrI (Oyrm-atmfya&;&Si; tajctaersm;qki&m f f d f ajymif;vJrrsm;wGif owif;tcsutvufjzefcsjd cif;) ESihf aiGay;acs I f Y rI pDrcefcrI (Oyrm-tDvufx&Geepf aiGay;acsrpepfrsm;-EPS) H Y JG f I ponfh e,fy,frsm;wGif &SMd uonf/ tvHk;pHk *vdkb,f e-Commerce &S,,mwGif ef Marketer y½dk*sursm;onf 2000 jynfhESpwGif 79 'or 2 f f &mckiEIe;rS 2004 ckESpwGif 87 &mckiEIe;odkY jrifhwufcJhonf/ d f f f d f f B2C e-Commerce &S,,mwGif tusK;qufjzpfaomusqif; f d rIonf 2000 jynfhESpwGif 20 'or 8 &mckiEIe;rS 2004 f d f f ckESpf wGif 13 &mckiEIe;odkY a&muf&ScJhonf/ tvm;wlyif d f f d B2B onf tm&Sypdzdwfa'owGif B2C wkd;wufrIa&SUodkY a&muf&cJh onf/ zGHUûzd;qJaps;uGursm;wGif B2B e-Commerce Sd f tusK; jzpfxGe;rIrsm;udk avhvmMunfhygu pdw0ifpm;zG,f d f f awGU&S&onf/ zGHUûzd;qJEkiiHrsm; pD;yGm;a&;wGif B2B aps;uGuf d d f rsm; t&mxifrIudk wpfzufyg taxmuftxm;rsm;wGif awGU&Sd&onf- 58 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f tay;t,l ta&mif;t0,fp&dwrsm; f B2B e-Commerce aqmif&GurIrSm wpfqifh odom f xif&Sm;pGm avQmhcsEkiaom ukeusp&dwf e,fy,foHk;ck&Sonf/ d f f d f f f yxrtcsurSm search ukeusp&dwrsm; avQmhcscsuyifjzpf f onf/ êud;yrf;rI? tcsdefESifh aiGaMu;oHk;pGJrIt&MunfhvQif tifwmeufonf ydrpr;&nf&aom owif;tcsutvuf csee,f k kd G f dS f f vrf;aMumif; jzpfonf/ B2B aps;uGursm;wGif 0,f,orsm;ESihf f l l a&mif;olrsm;onf wpfckwnf;aom tGevki;ukeoG,rI vlrI f d f f f todkutûrHwif twlwuG pkpnf;aeMuonf/ xdjkY yif qufvuf f G í search ukeusp&dwrsm; avQmhcsaeonf/ 'kw,tcsurSm f f d f vkyief;pOf aqmif&ur?I tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; ukeusp&dwf f G f f f rsm;avQmhcsrI jzpfonf/ Mum;cHaqmif&GurI avQmhcsjcif; f B2B e-Markets rSwpfqifh ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;onf f f 0,forsm;ESihf wku½kutjyeftvSef qufo,Mf uonf/ Mum;cH l d f d f G aqmif&Guolrsm;ESihf jzefYcsolrsm; avQmhcsMuonf/ okYd&mwGif f d Mum;cHaqmif&uorsm;yHkptopfrsm;onf ay:aygufaeNyD jzpf G f l H onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh e-Markets rsm;udk Mum;cHaqmif&uorsm; G f l taejzifh pOf;pm;Ekionf/ tb,faMumifhqkaomf ,if;wdkYonf d f d supply chains &Sd ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf azmufonf rsm;jym; f f vmaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ e-Markets rsm; ydkrkdtaxmuftxm;&&Saom tusK; d d jzpfxGe;rIrsm;teuf aps;EIe;yGihvif;rIwGif jrifhwufvmrIvnf; f f f
  34. 34. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 59 yg0ifonf/ e-Market wGif 0,folrsm;ESihf a&mif;olrsm; pkpnf; jcif;onf aps;uGuaps;EIe;? owif;tcsutvufESihf yg0if f f f aqmif&uolrsm;odkY tay;t,lvkyief;aqmif&ujf cif;udk azmfjy G f f G onf/ tifwmeufonf wpfOD;csi;0,f,lrI? okYdr[kwf tay; f t,lvkyjf cif;qki&m owif;tcsutvufxkwa0jcif;udk cGiûhf y d f f f onf/ e-Market &Sd tzGJUom;tm;vHk;twGuf owif;tcsuf tvuf vsijf refpm vufcrEihf &&Srukd ûyvkyxm;onf/ xkjYd yif G H I S d I f pG,pkH0,forsm;ESihf ausmif;olrsm; pkaygif;yg0ifaqmif&uaom f l G f aps;EIe;owfrSwjf cif;wGif oGuvufNyD; aphpyfñ§EIi;Ekiaom f f d d f d f aps;EIe;owfrSwjf cif;twGuf B2B e-Markets rsm;u e,ferwf f d d rsm; wk;csJUay;onf/ xkYdaMumifh e-Mark place rsm;wGif 0,fol d rsm;ESihf a&mif;olrsm; vktyfcsursm;udk pkaygif;xm;onf/ d f ,if;aps;EIe;rsm;onf wpfOD;csi;aqmif&GurIrsm;rS &&Saeaom f f f d aps;EIe;rsm;xuf omíenf;yg;onf/ f rsm;rsm;pm;pm;xkwvkyrIESihf uGe&uftusK;oufa&mufrIrsm; f f f d B2B e-Markets vsifjrefaom wkd;wufrIonf tpOftvmjzpfaom supplys-side ukeusp&dwtajccH rsm;rsm; f f pm;pm; xkwvkyrI zefwD;ay;onf/ xdkYjyif 0,folrsm;ESihf f f a&mif;olrsm; xl;jcm;aom ta&twGufudk twlwuG ,laqmifvmjcif;onf demand-side rsm;rsm;pm;pm;xkwvkyr?I f f odkYr[kwf uGe&uftusK;oufa&mufrIrsm;udk yhHykd;ay;onf/ f d tcef; (8) B2B e-Commerce tcef ; u@ onf urÇmt0ef;ysHUESHYvmcJhNyDjzpfonf/ tifwmeufenf;ynm? tD;aumrmhpw vsijf refaom wk;wufrI f Ykd d todynmay;rIwkEitwl B2B [kac:aom business to busiYd S hf ness tD;aumrmhponf ta&SUtm&SwGif ysHUESHYvmcJhNyDjzpfonf/ f yHretm;jzifh ukrPrsm;onf tifwmeufay:odYk pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; kSf Ü D f tay;t,lrsm; a&GUvsm;vmaomtcg ,if;wkdYonf tjcm; ukrPrsm;ESihf ,if;wk XmewGi; tzGUJ tpnf;qki&m zGUJ pnf;rIEihf Ü D Yd f df S ,if;wdkY qufoG,rIrsm;udk xl;xl;jcm;jcm;zGihfvSp&ef vdktyf f f onf/ e-Commerce B2B e-Commerce toGivu©Pmrsm; f onf tifwmeufay:wGif ae&m ,lxm;aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;tMum; ukeypön;rsm;ESihf f f f 0efaqmifrvyief;rsm;twGuf pD;yGm;a&;qki&m tay;t,lvyief; I kf df kf rsm;udk udk,pm;ûyonf/ urÇmtESHY ukrÜPDrsm;udk odoomom f d tm½kpkurrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tay;t,luprsm;twGuf H d f I f d ö ,if;wk tifwmeuftoHk;ûyrIukd vsijf refpm wk;csUJ vmvdrrnf Yd G d hf B2B e-Commerce
  35. 35. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 61 jzpfonf/ ,if;tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;onf B2B e-Commerce f ukzGihfvSpay;aom pGr;aqmif&nf&Sd wku½kdutjrwftpGe;rsm; d f f d f f f tay:wGif tajccHonf/ tar&duefqufoG,fa&;ud&d,m xkwvkyoljzpfaom U3W systems ukrÜPDBuD;onf 1996 f f ckEpwif supply chain management (SCM) okYd B2B e-ComS f G merce toHk;csjcif;udk pwifcNhJ yD;aemuf xkwvkyrI raqmif&uf f f G aom ukeypön;rsm;udk 0,f,l&ef ,if;ysr;rQtcseonf 13 f f f df &ufrS 17 &ufokdY avsmhenf;oGm;onf/ ,if; ysrf;rQ wpf,epf xkwvkyrp&dwonf ajcmufykHwpfykHusqif;cJh onf/ l f f I f B2B e-Commerce pwifaqmif&ujf cif;onf zGUH ûzd;qJ pD;yGm;a&; G rsm;wGif xkwvkyrpr;tm;ESihf ydkrkBd uD;rm;aom jrifrm;wk;wufrI f f I G f h d rsm;udkyifvQif xkwvkyay;Ekipr;&Sonf/ tb,faMumifqaomf f f d f G f d h kd ,if;wkYdonf tvHk;pHkaom? tusenf;yg;aom pGr;aqmif&nfrS f pwifaeaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ tifwmeuftajccH pD;yGm;a&;tay;t,lvkyief;rsm; toGif f vu©Pmrsm; 0,f,la&;? xkwfvkyfrI? ta&mif;? ydkYaqmifa&;ESifh 0efaqmifrIvkyief;twGuf ,if;wdkY internet value chain okYd f tajccHtm;jzifh wefzk;jr§ihfwif&ef r[mAsL[majrmuf ud&,m d d rsm;taejzifh uGeysLwmrsm;ESihf tkiwukd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;u f d f D f q,fpkESpfrsm;MumMum toHk;ûyaeMuonf/ 1980 jynfhESpf aESmif;yki;umvrsm;uwnf;u tDvufx&Geepf tcsutvuf d f f f zvS,rI (EDI) pepfrsm;rSwpfqifh ukrPe,ferwrsm;twGi;ESihf f Ü D d d f f 62 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f jynfywGiatmf'grSmjcif;? invoice ûyvkyjf cif;ESihf oabFmwifjcif; f owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk tzGJUtpnf;rsm;u tDvufx&Geepf f f enf;jzifh toGiajymif;Ekionf/ tkiww;wufrrsm;onf 0,f,l f d f d f D kd I a&; (Supply Chain Management SCM)? xkwvkyrprcefcrI f f I D H Y JG IS (vkyief;t&if;tjrpfprcsucsjcif; ERP ) ESihf ta&mif;0efaqmifrEihf f DH f ydkaqmifa&; (azmufonfqufqa&; pDrcefcrI CRM ) vkyief; Y H H Y JG f wm0efrsm;twGuf owif;tcsutvufpepfrsm; zGUH ûzd;rIukd vkav f d ao;r&SacsmarGUatmif aqmif&Guay;onf/ 1990 jynfhESpf d f aESmif;yki;umvrsm;wGif tifwmeufysUH EvmrIonf jyifypD;yGm;a&; df YHS vkyazmfuizufrsm;pGmESivnf;aumif;? jynfwi;qufo,a&; f kd f hf G f G f rsm;ESihf owif;tcsutvufpepfrsm;ESihfvnf;aumif; tDvuf f x&Geepfenf;jzifh qufo,jf cif;rS tusK;tjrwfrsm; wk;yGm;apcJh f G d d k f onf/ Web tajcpduenf;ynmonf pD;yGm;a&;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;udk ukeusp&dwf omíavsmhenf;atmif ulnDay;onf/ aiGpm&if; f udp?ö atmf'grSm,ljcif;? yduepm&if;vTmûypkjcif;paom yHrevyief; Yk k f kSf kf rsm;wdusrIukd wk;wufaponf/ xkYdjyif tifwmeufonf d jynfyESihf jynfwi; pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf uGe&ufcswquf&ef G f f f d f ukeusp&dwoufomNyD; ydkrkajymif;vG,jf yifv,enf;jzifh aqmif f f d G f &GuEkionf/ us,us,jf yefYjyefYqk&vQif B2B e-Commerce f d f f d udk trsK;tpm;ESpck cGjJ cm;Ekionf/ yxrtrsK;tpm;rSm tvsius d f df d f aom ypön;ay;oGi;rI odkYr[kwf azmufonf0efaqmifrItcsKUd &Sd f f onfh wdusaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;tMum; closed end tay;t,l f vkyief;rsm;jzpfonf/ 'kw,trsK;d tpm;rSm e-Marketplace rSwpfqifh f d
  36. 36. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 63 rwdusaom? vlorrsm;aom yg0ifolrsm;tMum; aps;uGuzGihf d f tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;jzpfonf/ f pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf ½k;&Si;aomvkyief;twGuf f d f f yxrOD;pGm tifwmeufukd &,l&ef &nf&,Mf uonf/ BuD;rm;aom G pD;yGm;a&;tusK;jzpfxGe;rIrsm;udk aqmif&Guonfh tay;t,l d f f vkyief;rsm;twGuvnf; tifwmeufukd toHk;ûy&ef &nf&,xm; f f G f d I f Muonf/ onfaemuf ,if;wkonf ydkrk½yaxG;aom tay;t,l h Yd pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;okYd a&TUajymif;Muonf/ f ,aeYacwfwif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf tifwmeufrS G f wpfqifh wdusNyD; oduRr;aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyazmfukizufrsm;ESihf f f d f aphpyfaqG;aEG;ndEi;jcif;? tay;t,lûyvkyjf cif;ESihf supply chain § dI f pDrcefcjJG cif; (SCM) vkyief;rsm; yg0ifywfoufaom ,if;wk H Y f Yd tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;udk aqmif&uMf uonf/ tjcm;wpfzufwif f G G tD;-aps;uGuae&m&Sd open B2B e-Commerce tay;t,l f vkyief;rsm;udk ydkrkd½kd;pif;aom vkyief;rsm;tjzpf t"dutm;jzifh f f owfrSwxm;onf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf xkwukeypön; f f f f f 'DZi;ESihf zGUH ûzd;rIukd ydkrkus,jf yefpm yl;aygif;aqmif&u&ef tifwm kd f d Y G G f eufukd pwiftoHk;ûyaomtcg t"duusaom pGr;aqmif&nf f tusK;tjrwfrsm; &&Srnfjzpfonf/ d d avmavmq,fwif Closed B2B e-Commerce pepfrsm; G udk ykrkdus,jf yefYpGm toHk;ûyNyD; ydkrkdzGHUûzd;wk;wufvm Muonf/ d d e-Marketplace rsm;rSmrl zGUJ pnf;jzpfay:rI tpueOD;tqifwif h G om &Sonf/ rsm;pGmtvm;tvm&Saom B2B e-Commerce d d 64 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pepfrsm;udk oD;jcm;0,forsm;u atmf'grsm;ESihf ypön;ay;ydrrsm; l f kY I pDrcefcjJG cif;twGuf ,if;wk EDI pepfrsm; wk;csUJ rwpf&yftae H Y Yd d I jzifh tpueOD; aqmif&GucJhonf/ f xkwukeypön;rsm; aocsmaomyHkprsm;ESihf tay;t,l f f f H vkyfief;rsm; aocsmaomyHkpHrsm;onf tifwmeufay:wGif a&mif;jcif;? 0,fjcif;ESihf ydkrkvkuzufvmonf/ B2B e-Comd d f merce onf customerized products rsm;xuf pHowfrSwf xm;aom trsK;tpm;yHkpHukeypön;rsm;ESihf ykrkdatmifjrifvmMu d f f d onf/ wpfBudrrQom tay;t,lvyjf cif;? odr[kwf tBudrta& f k Yk f twGuf enf;yg;aom tay;t,lvkyjf cif;xuf xyfcgxyfcg tay;t,lvkyjf cif;ESihf ydkraumif;rGepm vkuzufvmonf/ þ kd f G d f tqifwif B2B e-Commerce tay;t,lvyjf cif;vkyief;rsm;pGm h G k f onf r[mAsL[mrqefaom ukeypön;rsm;ESihf yg0ifywfouf f f onf/ xkjYd yif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;u r[mAsL[majrmuf trsK; f d tpm;rsm;twGuf orm;½dk;usvrf;aMumif;rsm;udk xde;odr;xm; f f Muonf/ xdkYjyif e- Commerce onf xkwvkyoltawmf f f rsm;rsm;a&mif;vkaom ukeypön;rsm; (odkY) 0,f,loltawmf d f f rsm;rsm; 0,fvkaom ukeypön;rsm;ESihf yg0ifywfoufaeaom d f f Mum;cHaqmif&Guay;aeonfh tay;t,lvkyief;rsm;wGif ydkrkd f f xda&muftusK;&SrI&Sonf/ d d d tm&Swif B2B pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; wk;wufrEihf yrmP G f d I S cefYrSe;ajconf tvGeus,jf yefYvmonf[k avhvmtuJjzwfol f f rsm;u qkMd uonf/ aps;uGuonf odoomomBuD;xGm;vmcJh f d
  37. 37. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 65 onf[k trsm;pkuawGU&cJhMuNyD; vsijf refpm qufvufwk;wuf Sd G d vdrhfrnf[k qkonf/ e-Marketer tpD&ifcHcsuwpfcku d f tm&Swif B2B 0ifaiGrsm;onf 2000 jynfEptwGuf tar&duef G h S f a':vm 36 bDvsausm&onf[k cefre;cJonf/ 2004 ckEprwkif H f dS YSf h Sf d rD a':vm 300 bDvsHausmokdYa&muf&Srnf[k arQmfvifhxm;cJh f d onf/ ,cktcsexd tm&Swif B2B e-Commerce 0ifaiGrsm; df G ESihf wk;wufrIonf business to consumer (B2C) e-Comd merce udk omvGecJhNyD;jzpfonf/ e-Marketer tpD&ifcHpm f t& tm&S B2C 0ifaiGonf 2000 jynfhESptwGuf a':vm f 3 'or 2 bDvsH&SNd yD; 2004 ckESp?f ESpukeykdi;rwkirD a':vm f f f d f 38 bDvsHokdY wk;wufvmvdrhf[k arQmfvifhxm;cJhMuonf/ d txl;ojzifh B2C e-Commerce tay: B2B vTr;rdk; f BuD;pdk;rIonf a'oaocsmaom toGiftjyifvu©Pmrsm; tay:wGif wpfpdwfwpfa'otm;jzifh tajccHonf/ yxr wpfcsurm ta&SUtm&Swif ,Ofaus;rIrsm;ESihf bmompum;rsm; f S G trsK;rsK;taxGaxG&Sjd cif;ESihf jyefYusJaeaom yx0Dtaetxm; d d u us,jf yefaomaps;uGuaqmif&ujf cif;rS tusK;aus;Zl;rsm;udk Y f G d &,l&ef B2C e-Commerce twGuf cufcJaponf/ wpfcsef d wnf;yif ta&SUtm&Sa'o&Sd B2B aps;uGuae&mrsm;udk ta&SUtm&S f vsijf refaomwdk;wufrIu wGe;ydkYarmif;ESiay;onf/ txl; f f ojzifh tkiwypön;rsm;twGuf xkwvkyrtajccHtaejzifh wGe;ydkY d f D f f f I f armif;ESiay;jcif;jzpfonf/ xkjYd yif tkiwypön;rsm; tvGersm;jym; f df D f f 66 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f aom xkwvkyorsm;? qyfuefx½dkuwmrsm;ESihf ypön;ay;oGi; f f l f f f a&mif;csolrsm;twGuf wGe;ydkYay;jcif;jzpfonf/ f a'o&Sd B2B e-Commerce wk;wufrIESihf,SOvsuf d f vkyfaqmifrIrsm;onf aocsmaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;&Sd enf;ynmuRrf;usirIrsm;ESihf tajccHtaqmufttHktqifhrsm;yif f jzpfonf/ zGUH ûzd;rIenf;yg;aom pD;yGm;a&;rsm;onfvwfwavmwGif qufo,a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf tjcm;½kyyi;f qki&m tajccHtaqmuf G f f f kd d f ttHkonf tifwmeufay:wGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tay;t,lvkyf f jcif; BuD;rm;aomyrmPudkaxmuful&ef vktyfrIenf;yg;vS d onf/ xdkYjyif ta&SUtm&S&Sd tpdwtydki;rsm;pGmESihf a&mif;csrIûy f f aeonfh tcsKUd vkyief;rsm;onf ao;i,fMuNyD; olwkYonf olwkYd f d pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk tGevi;ay:odka&GUvsm;&ef o,HZmw f f kd f Y rsm;ESihf enf;ynmqki&m uRrf;usirIrsm; enf;Muonf/ d f f
  38. 38. 68 tcef; (9) ta&SUtm&S B2B e-Commerce jrifuGif; ta&SUtm&Swif B2B pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tay;t,lysUH EUHS rukd G f I OD;aqmifaeonfrm tm&SEiirsm;r[kwbJ trsm;pkrm tar&duef S dk f H f S aumfykda&;&Si;rsm; jzpfaeonf/ ,if;aumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf f f pufrxe;opfp pD;yGm;a&;rsm; (NIES) tay:wGif t"dutajccH I Gf aom jynfwi;pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&uonf/ G f f G f tar&duef pD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;onf ,if;wkYdü EkiiHwGif d f B2B e-Commerce udk taumiftxnfazmfcNhJ yD;jzpfaomaMumifh OD;aqmifrIûyaejcif;jzpfonf/ tar&duefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf tifwmeufenf;ynm f udk &,ljcif;ü OD;aqmifO;&Guûf ycJNh yD; pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;armf',fopf D f rsm; &,ljcif;udvnf; ûyvkyconf/ 1990 jynfveEpumvrsm; k f hJ h GfSf tawmtwGi; tar&duefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf vkyief;rsm;pGm f d f f f f d f f jyifyt&if;tjrpf&SmazGjcif;ESihf t"duvkyukdiEkipGr;tay:wGif t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tm½Hkpujf cif;jzifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;aqmif&uf kd f G aom enf;vrf;opfwpfckukd zefwD;cJhonf/ txl;ojzifh tkiwD d f tcef;u@wGif tar&duefaumfykda&;&Si;rsm;onf ,if;wkYd f armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f a&mif;vktm;uGi;qufrsm; jynfwi;ESihf jynfytpdwtydi;rsm; d f Gf f kf udk qufoG,&efESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gu&ef tdkiwDtoHk;csrIukd f f f wk;csJUcJhMuonf/ 'JvuGeysLwm (Dell computer) ukrÜPDonf d f f yDpvkyief;twGuf tifwmeuf tajccHtzGUJ tpnf;yHkpukd zefw;cJh D f H D onf/ ppöudkqpfpwefpf (Cisco Systems) ukrÜPDonf qufo,a&;ypön;vkyief;rsm;twGuf 'Jvuoyif aqmif&uchJ G f f f f hJ Ykd G f onf/,if;pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tzGJUtpnf;ESpckpvHk;onf ypön; f f f ud&,m xkwvkyorsm;taejzifh pwifcpOfrmyif olwuk,wif d f f l hJ S kYd d f kd xkwvky&ef &yfpJcJhMuNyD; jyifyt&if;tjrpf&SmazG&ef ûyvkyMf u f f onf/ trSepifppf 'Jvonf ukeypön;&,lxe;odr;ay;ydkaom f f f f df f Y ukrPD jzpfvmcJonf/ ukexkwvkyrukrPD r[kwacs/ ,if; Ü h f f f I Ü f wkYd 1990 aemufykdi;uwnf;u tcseukdujf yefvnfzGJUpnf; f df jcif;onf txl;ojzifh tkiwDe,fy,fwGif pGr;aqmif&nfESihf d f f tjrefEIe;jrifhwuf&ef jzpfonf/ þodkYjzifh tar&duefaumfykd f a&;&Si;rsm;onf B2B e-Commerce udk OD;aqmif&ef ae&m&,lchJ f Muonf/ pifppf tar&duefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;onf ,cktcg B2B d f zvS,rIatmfya&;&Si;wGif *vdkb,facgif;aqmifrsm; jzpfaeMu f f onf/ xkjYd yif Supply chain pDrcefcrwif B2B toHk;csrüvnf; H Y JG I G I urÇmvHk;qki&m OD;aqmifolrsm; jzpfaeMuonf/ 2000 jynfhESpf d f atmufwkbmvwGif urÇmay:ü B2B zvS,rI 1000 ausm d f f 60 &mckiEe;ausmonf tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwif tajcpdkuchJ d f If f G f onf/ tar&duefaumfydka&;&Sif;rsm;onf ,if;wkdY B2B
  39. 39. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 69 tavhtusihukd ta&SUtm&SpD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf; f rsm;ESihf tay;t,lûyvkyjf cif;? ,if;wk½Hk;cGrsm; ta&SUtm&Swif Yd J G zGivpaqmif&ujf cif;rSwpfqifh ta&SUtm&SoYkd a&TUajymif;cJMh uonf/ hf S f G tar&dueftiwp;yGm;a&;tzGUJ tpnf; wkiay½Hk;cGonf yDprsm; kd f D D d f J D ESihf tjcm;ukeypön;rsm; xkwvkyjf cif;udk pDrHcefYcGJonf/ Sysf f f tem solution rsm;udkvnf; cswqufay;onf/ xkwvkyrIukd d f f f udk,wkirvkybJ a'owGi; wkiay xkwvkyol 30 cefYukd f d f f f d f f f jyifyt&if;tjrpf&SmazGNyD; xkwvkyaponf/ w½kwf (wkiay) f f d f tpdk;&onf B2B e-Commerce udk axmufconftwGuf rdcif H h tar&duef tkiwDukrÜPDrsm; ½Hk;cGJrsm;tMum;wGif wkiay½Hk;cGJ d f d f d onf B2B e-Commerce taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif wk;wuf rI t&SqkH;jzpfonf/ ,if;½Hk;cGonf 1995 ckEpf apmapmydki;wGif d J S f ERP [kac:aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; t&if;tjrpfpDrHcsucsjcif; f f (Enterprise Resource Planning) pepfukd pwifrwqufchJ onf/ d f ,if; ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;ESihf owif;tcsutvuf rQa0&ef f f f 1998 ckESpwGif SCM pepfukd jznfhpGucJhonf/ ,cktcg f f ,if;½Hk;cGJonf tqifhjrifhenf;ynmudk OD;pm;ay;aom e-Mardf f ketplace jzpfonfh converge B2B e-Commerce pHcsepHñTe; jzpfaom Rosetta Net wkYukd toHk;cs&ef êud;pm;aeonf/ ,if; d ESpckpvHk;udk wkiay tpdk;&u jr§ihfwifaqmif&Guay;aeonf/ f d f f ,if;pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; tzGUJ tpnf; ypön;ay;oGi;olrsm;tMum; f f f *syefpD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm; r&ScJhacs/ d B2B e-Commerce wGif a&SUwef;a&mufaeaom tjcm; ta&SUtm&S pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;tzGtpnf;rsm;wGif ukeypön;rsm;ESihf f YJ f f e-Commerce 70 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f pHñTe; owfrSwxm;aom ukeypön;rsm;udk rsm;rsm;pm;pm; f f f f xkwvyorsm; yg0ifonf/ þwGif w½kwtrsK;om; a&eHaumfykd f kf l f d a&;&Si; (CNPC) ESihf Hut Chinson Wampou wdkYonf zufpyf f vkyief;zGUJ pnf;cJMh uonf/ ,if;zufpyfvkyief;onf tifwmeuf f f tay:rS a&eHEihf obm0"mwfaiGUukeypön;rsm;udk 0,fMuonf/ S f f a&mif;Muonf/ wkiayqDrD;uGe'ufwm xkwvkya&;ukrÜPD d f f f f vDrwuf (TSMC) onf urÇmay:wGif qDrD;uGe'ufwmypön; d f f rsm; tBuD;rm;qHk; pmcsKyft& xkwvkyoljzpfonf/ TSMC f f onf tifwmeufrSwpfqifh ,if; qDrD;uGe'ufwm 'DZkdi; f f azmufonfrsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; tay;t,ltrsm;qHk; aqmif&Gufonf/ B2B e-Commerce obm0aMumifh B2B e-Commerce wGif tar&duefO;aqmifaom pdeac:rIonf tzGUJ tpnf; D f qki&m jyefvnfûyjyifrIwGif pdeac:rIwpf&yftaejzifh ,SOwGJ d f f f vkuygvmonf/ tDvufx&GeepfxkwvkyrIvkyief; BuD;xGm; d f f f f f vmrIonf *syefaumfyka&;&Si;rsm;udk xl;jcm;aom Ncdr;ajcmufrI d f f tjzpf pdk;&drz,&m jzpfaponf/ ,if;onf *syefaumfykda&;&Si; f G f f rsm;u ta&SUtm&Sü ,if;wkYd vkyief;aqmif&GurIrsm;wGif f f B2B e-Commerce tm; rnfokdYrwqufrnfukd tusK;ouf d f d a&mufaponf/ tDvufx&GefepfpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;onf tDvufx&Geepf xkwvkyrIvkyief; (EMS) armf',fukd &,lMu f f f f onf/ ,if;armf',fwif ,if;vkyief;rsm;onf pG,pkHrvypön; G f f l f xkwvkyolrsm; (OEM) twGuf ukeypön;rsm; txl;xkwvkyf f f f f f Muonf/ pD;yGm;a&; wGuajcudkurI rsm;rsm;pm;pm; xkwvkyrI f f f f
  40. 40. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 71 taejzifh xl;jcm;aom tm;omcsursm;&&SMd uonf/ rsm;rsm; f pm;pm;xkwvkyrtwGuf tjrefEe;&&SMd uonf/ xkwvkyrwif f f I If f f I G txl;ûyvkyaqmifMuonf/ *vdkb,ftDvufx&Geepf vkyief; f f f wGif EMS vkyfief;rsm;onf OEM azmufonfrsm;twGuf xkwvkyrtydki;udk wk;wufatmif vkyaqmifaeMuonf/ EMS f f I f d f vkyief;rsm;onf pGr;aqmif&nf wk;wuf&ef tjcm;enf;vrf; f f d taejzifh B2B e-Commerce &,l&ef pdwtm;xufoefMuonf/ f pifppf EMS armf',fw;wufjzpfay:vmrIonf xkwuef dk f k ypön;wk;wufrIqki&m *syefarmf',fESihf vHk;0rwlacs/ *syef f d d f armf',fwif qufE,aeaom ydwxm;onfh aumfyka&;&Si;tkypk G T f f d f f twGi; a'gifvuaygif;pnf;aqmif&uaom xkwvkyr&onf/ f kd f G f f f I dS ,if;armf',fonf xkwvkyrIpepf t&mxif&ef pwifaeonf/ f f ,if;pepfwGif ta&SUtm&S&Sd xkwvkyrIuGe&ufrsm; yg0ifonf/ f f f EMS vkyief;tzGUJ rsm; urÇmtESUH xkwukeonf 2004 ckEpwif f f f S f G tar&duefa':vm 260 bDvsH &Sdonf/ ,if;vsifjrefaom wk;wufronf jyifyt&if;tjrpf&mazGjcif;ESihf cswqufaeonf/ d I S d f tar&duefjynfaxmifpk *vkdb,f aqmif&Gufaeolrsm;wGif Solectron, SCL Systems, Celestica ESihf Jabil Cracait ukrPD Ü rsm; yg0ifonf/ ta&SUtm&Swif aqmif&uolrsm;rSm wkiayESihf G G f d f pifumylrS tzGJUtpnf;rsm;jzpfonf/ vkyfief;onf ydkrdktm½HkpdkufvmMuonf/ omí BuD;rm;aom EMS vkyief;rsm;onf OEM rS puf½Hkrsm;&&SMd u f EMS 72 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f onf/ xkYdjyif omíao;i,faom EMS vkyief;rsm;udkvnf; f &&SdMuonf/ OEM azmufonfrsm;onf BuD;rm;aomta& twGursm;rsm;udk vsijf refpmay;oGi;Ekiaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyief; f G f d f f BuD;rsm;ESihf qufqH&ef ydkrkdESpoufMuonf/ þodkYjzifh ,if;wdkY f onf urÇmtESUH tjym;wGif trSwwqyueypön;rsm;ukd pOfquf f H df kf f rjywf xkwvkyEkiMf urnfjzpfonf/ f f d EMS vkyief;rsm;onf B2B e-Commerce wGif f ydkrkyg0if d ywfoufvmMuonf/ *syefpD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;onf EMS f vkyief;okYd r0ifa&muf rvIy&Sm;rcsi; ta&SUtm&S&Sd 0,f,la&; f f f aps;uGufrsm;wGif *syefpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;&Sdaejcif;onf ,kwavsmvmNyD; ,if;wkonf ta&SUtm&S&dS B2B e-Commerce f h Yd &Sd xl;jcm;aom tcef;u@wGif yg0ifaqmif&u&rnf jzpfonf/ G f ta&SUtm&Stpd;&rsm;pGmonf B2B e-Commerce BuD;xGm; k wk;d wuf&ef wuf<upGmyg0ifaqmif&uMf uonf/ Oyrm-ud&;,m; G kD ESihf w½kwf (wkiay) tpdk;&wkYdonf jynfwGi; tao;pm;ESihf d f f tvwfpm;vkyfief; ukefypönf;rsm;jyo&ef ukefoG,frIjyyGJ Website rsm;zGUH ûzd;rIukd ulnyyk;Muonf/ trSetm;jzifh wkiay D hH d f d f tpdk;&onf B2B e-Commerce wk;jr§ihfa&;aqmif&GucJhonf/ d f w½kwf (wkiay) tpdk;& ueOD;aqmif&Guaom owif;tcsuf d f f tvuf vkyief;odyÜH vkyief;wm0efwpfckrSm e-Commerce f f toHk;csrEihf enf;vrf;rsm;udk wk;jr§ijhf zefMY uuf&efjzpfonf/ ,if; I S d odyÜHonf 'D*spw,fvkyief;aqmif&Gujf cif;twGuf jyefvnf f f
  41. 41. odaumif;p&m e-Commerce 73 ûyjyifajymif;vJ&mwGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;;udk uln&ef ,if;wdkY f D ESihf wkiyifaqmif&Guonf/ pifumyltpdk;&onf Kent Ridge d f f Digital labs (KRDL) udk yHhykd;cJhonf/ KRDL onf e-Commerce vkyief;rsm;twGuf incubator wpfckjzpfvm&ef trsK;om; f d aqmhz0Jokawoe A[kXmejzpfonf/ ,if; e-Commerce f d rmpwmpDrcsurwpfqifh pifumyltpdk;&onf pifumylEiiwif H f S kd f H G e-Commerce tm; ysUH EUHS pm toHk;ûyrIukd tm;ay;cJonf/ xkjYd yif G h e-Commerce okYd a&GUvsm;aeMuaom ukrÜPDrsm;twGuf vl tiftm;oifwef;ESihf tjcm;taxmuf tyHhrsm; yHhykd;ulnDcJhonf/ w½kwEkdiiH tD;aumrmhpjf rifuGi; f f f 1990 aemufykdi; ESpv,fumvwkiatmif tpk;&ydkif f f d f d (China Telecom) onf w,fvzke;uGejf rLeDau;&Si; 0efaqmifrI D f f vkyief;rsm; vkipif&&Sxm;aom Provider jzpfconf/ w½kwf f d f d hJ tpdk;&onf 'kw,vkipifukd China Unicon odkY 1994 ckESpf d d f wGif xkway;cJhonf/ Unicon onf w,fvDuGe;ukrÜPDBuD; f f jzpfvmvdrhfrnf[k tpdk;&u arQmfvifhcJhonf/ ,if;ukrÜPDBuD; onf w,fvDuGefjrLeDau;&Sif;0efaqmifrI tcef;u@wGif ,SOûf ydiEkiaomywf0ef;usiukd zefwD;ay;cJhonf/ China onf f d f f ao;i,faomukrÜPDtjzpf wnf&Saevdrhfrnfjzpfonf/ d 1994 ckESpuwnf;u w½kwEkiiHonf owif;tcsuf f f d f tvuf0efaqmifrItcef;u@wGif ,SOûf ydiEkiaomywf0ef;usif f d f 74 armifarmifjrifhoe; (pufrIwuúokdv) df f udk jrifhrm;wk;wuf&ef tqifhtrsK;rsK;ukd aqmif&GucJhonf/ d d d f w½kwEiionf 1999 ckEpukeyi;wGif tar&duefjynfaxmif f kd f H S f f kd f pkESihf WTO qufET,aom oabmwlnDcsuf NyD;qHk;onfhtcg f wGif 4if;EkiijH cm;ukrPrsm;ESihf w,fvue;aps;uGuzivp&ef d f Ü D D Gf f G hf S f uwdûycJhonf/ w,f v D u G e f ; aps;uG u f pnf ; rsOf ; owf r S w f r I E S i f h vGwvyfpmaqmif&urwif tjcm;ta&;BuD;aom ajymif;vJrrsm; f G G f I G I onf 2000 jynfhESptawmtwGi; jzpfysucJhonf/ China f f f Telecom vkyief;cGJjzpfaom Shainghai Telecom onf f tajccHw,fvDuGe;tcef;u@wGif yxrqHk;EkiiHjcm;t&if;ESD; f d f jr§KyfESHrIjzpfonfh AT+T ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&GurI oabmwlnD f csuukd vufrSwa&;xk;cJhonf/ Chain Telecom udk ukrÜPD f f d av;ck ydki;jcm;xm;onf/ ]]w½kwtpdk;&onf w½kwtpdk;& f f f w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; pnf;rsO;pnf;urf;rsm;}}udk xkwjf yefchJ D G f f onf/ ,if;onf w,fvuejf rLeDau;&Si; 0efaqmifrvyief;rsm; D G f I kf twGuf tajccHtkycsKyfpra&;qki&m vrf;ñTecsursm;udk csrwf f D H d f f f S ay;onf/ 2000 jynfhESpwGif w½kwtpdk;&onf tifwmeuf f f pDrHcefYcGJrIESihpyfvsO;aom pnf;rsO;trsm;pkukd xkwjf yefcJhonf/ f f f ,if;pnf;rsO;trsm;pkrsm;wGif ]]tifwmeufowif;tcsutvuf f f pepfrsm; pDrcefcjJG cif;twGuf twki;twmrsm;yg0ifonf/ xkjYd yif H Y d f Up-Load News Business qkdif&m 0ufbfqdkufpDrHcefYcGJrI enf;vrf;rsm;}} vnf;yg0ifonf/
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