Ko yaw

1,433 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,433
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
687
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ko yaw

  1. 1. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 2009 ck E S p f ? pmayAd r mef pmrl q k 0w¬ K &S n f 'k w d , qk & 2011 ckESpf? yxrtBudrf? tkyfa& - 1500 *E¦0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJY vGrf;&wJhNrdKUol udka,m (abm*aA') wefzdk; ( 600 ) usyf pDpOfwnf;jzwfol - a':EkE,Of (eef;nGefY,Ofcrf;) k pmwnf; rsufESmzHk;yef;csD - a0rGefvif; pmayAdrmefxkwf jynfolYvufpGJpmpOf yHkESdyfa&;ESifh pmtkyfxkwfa0a&;vkyfief; pmayAdrmef pmwnf;rSL;csKyfu rSwfyHkwiftrSwf 07492 jzifh yHkESdyfí rSwfyHkwiftrSwf 03911 jzifhxkwfa0onf/ *sD w D p D y H k E S d y f p uf ½ H k w G i f yH k E S d y f o nf / Handbook-1
  2. 2. EdkifiHa&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf Ä EdiiawmfwnfNidra&;? &yf&mat;csr;om,ma&;ESihf w&m;Oya' k f H f G f pd;rk;a&;/ k d Ä trsKd;om; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrI ckdifrma&;/ Ä pnf;urf;jynf0aom 'Drua&pDpepf &Sioefcirmatmif wnfaqmuf h dk f dk f a&;/ Ä zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhtnD acwfrDzGHUNzdK; wkd;wufaom Ediiawmfopf wnfaqmufa&;/ k f H pD;yGm;a&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf 'd k Y w m0ef t a&;oH k ; yg; Ä jynfaxmifpk rNydKuGJa&; .... 'dkYta&; Ä wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrI rNydKuGJa&; .... 'dkYta&; Ä tcsKyftjcmtmPm wnfwHhckdifNrJa&; .... 'dkYta&; Ä pduysK;a&;udk ykrzUHG NzK;wk;wufatmif aqmif&uNf yD; acwfrpufrI k f d d dk d d G D EkdifiHxlaxmifa&;ESifh tjcm;pD;yGm;a&;u@rsm;ukdvnf; bufpkH zGHYNzKd;wkd;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ Ä aps;uGup;yGm;a&;pepf yDjyifpm jzpfay:vma&;/ f D G Ä jynfwGif;jynfyrS twwfynmESifh t&if;tESD;rsm; zdwfac:í pD;yGm;a&;zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ Ä EdkifiHawmfpD;yGm;a&;wpf&yfvHk;udk zefwD;EdkifrIpGrf;tm;onf EdiiawmfEiwi;&if;om;jynfowYdk vuf0,fwi&a&;/ k f H S hf dk f l G f dS vlrIa&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf Ä wpfrsKd;om;vHk; pdwf"mwfESifh tusifhpm&dwåjrifhrm;a&;/ Ä trsKd;*kP?f Zmwd*Pf jrifrm;a&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rI tarGtESprsm;? k h f trsKd;om;a&;vu©Pmrsm; raysmufysufatmif xde;odr;apmifh f f a&Smufa&;/ Ä ppfrSefaom rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwfjzpfonfh jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwf &Sioefxufjrufa&;/ f Ä wpfrsKd;om;vH; usef;rmBuHUckia&;ESihf ynm&nfjrifrm;a&;/ k d f h
  3. 3. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol pOf Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä 0w¬K&SnftpkzGJUpnf;rIrsm; pmrsufESm orkdif;wGifwJh NrdKUav;qD 1 vuf0JokE´&ESifh rwlaom a,mrJZmNrdKifc&D;onf 12 twdwfut&dyfvkdygvmcJh 21 ol&JNrdKU ac: xD;vif;NrdKU 28 rxifrSwfbJ a&mufvdkYvmol 39 csif;-Arm *EÅ0ifcspfMunfa&;NrdKUav;ESifh orD;ysKd arMunfvGifcsKd 55 ]]ysL}} qkwmolwyvm;ESihf obm0ausmufe*g;Bu;D qD 74 d Ydk J wGef;tm;jzifh a&GUcJh&aom apwem&Sifq&mb0 96 wm0efawGMum;u *kPfjr§ifhol 123 jrefrmhorki;f pmrsuEmay:u d f S ]]qifp,&mvlowfui;f }} qD G f G G 133 Ä a&S;a[mif;orkdif;0if a&TuGeftkyf apwDawmfjrwfxHyg;0,f 143 Ä jrefrmEdkifiHjynfaxmifpktvHudk udkifaqmif o,f,lcGifh&&SdcJhaom apmfbGm;tEG,f 161 Ä NrdKUolBuD;r zGm;zGm;av; tawG;prsm;ESifh 175 Ä &wufu,ftjzmjzm aeY&ufrsm;rSmv 192 Ä vGrf;&wJhNrdKUol 207 Handbook-3
  4. 4. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol *E¦0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJY vGrf;&wJhNrdKUol orkdif;wGifwJh NrdKUav;qD ]]onfqDonfNrdKU onfodkYapwDD}} [k r umao;rDurS rM awGUqHkvmcJh&aom olYtajymwdkYudk pdwftm½kHwGif jrifa,mif vsuEihf uReawmfwpfa,muf0efxrf;b0 wpfu,awmf c&D; f S f dk f ESiconf/ &efue-rauG; aeYpOftcserec&D;onfwif bwfpum; f hJ kf dfSf ff ]]xdyfwef;}} BuD;udk pD;cJhonf/ 0efBuD;rsm;½kH;&Sd rdcifXme (½kH;csKyf) rS e,fajymif;c&D;yif jzpfonf/ e,ftajymif;ta&TUrlt& &efukefNrdKUawmfrSonf ouf qdkif&mwdkif;ESifh jynfe,f½kH;odkY 0ifa&mufowif;ydkYMu&ao; onf/ NyD;awmhrS rdrdwm0efxrf;aqmif&rnfh NrdKUodkYc&D;quf Mu&onf/ onfrt& uReawmfwm0efxrf;&Gu&rnfh NrKd Uav; l f f ESifh oufqdkifaom wdkif;NrdKUawmf ]]rauG;NrdKU}} wGif wpf&ufwm &yfem;um rauG;wdkif; pDrHudef;a&;qGJa&;OD;pD;Xme (wdkif;pDrH 1 Handbook-4
  5. 5. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol udef;½kH;)ü wkdif;OD;pD;rSL;ESifh awGUqHk&vsuf wdkif;rSL;Mo0g'udk cH,lcJh&ao;onf/ aemufwpfaeYwGif rauG;NrdKU taemufbufjcrf; p&m taemufNrdKUawmftrnf& yckuúLNrdKUodkY ukef;vrf;ydkYaqmif (u.y.&) vdkif;um;jzifh c&D;qufcJh&jyefum yckuúLNrdKUudk a&mufcJh&onf/ yckuúLNrdKUwGif ntdyf&yfem;cJhonf/ NrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL; wm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom yckuúLNrdKUae vkyfazmfudkifzuf oli,fcsif;aMumifh olYtodrdwfaqG ukef vnf;wif c&D;onfvnf;pD; 'kwd,urÇmppfvufusef csuf yvufum;BuD;jzifh uRefawmf qufvufc&D;ESifcJh&jyefygNyD/ uRefawmfonf yHkawmif yHknm&yf0ef; a,mwdkYXmaeu ]]xD;vif;}} qdkaomNrdKUav;odkY yckuúL- ayguf- xD;vif; vrf; tm;jzifh tqdygum;Bu;D udk pD;eif;vduygcJygonf/ xdc&D;um; k k f h k vlpD;bwfpfum;[lír&Sd? yHkrSefajy;qGJay;aom vdkif;um;[lí r&Sd[k odxm;onf/ xdkYaMumifh c&D;oGm;jynfol ololigigwdkY tm;xm;&aom xdktcspfawmfum;BuD;um; ypönf;tjynfh vl awGtrsm;BuD;ESifh jzpfavonf/ 'DZifbm tnmaqmif;at;at; eHeuf (6) em&DwGif yckuúLNrdKUrS pwifxGufcJhonf/ oli,fcsif;jzpfol az;rrI aMumifh um;BuD;a&SUcef; (acgif;cef;) rSm uRefawmfpD;cGifh&cJh onf/ yckuúL-ayguf-xD;vif; armfawmfum;vrf;onfum; e,fcsJUNAdwdoQwdkYacwfu ppfa&;? pD;yGm;a&;t& azmufvkyfcJh aom vrf;aywnf; tuGmta0;c&D;rditm;jzifh (96) rdionf k f k f ajrjyefYa'orsm;wGifawmh cPuav;ESifh a&muf&SdoGm;Edkif onf/ yckuúL-ayguf-xD;vif;oGm; um;vrf;uawmh wpfae ukefeD;yg; armif;ESif&onf[k qdkavonf/ wpfzefonf vrf; c&D;onf aqmif;ESifh aEG&moDwGifom oGm;vmí&aom ajr vrf;jzpfum rdk;usvmNyDqdkvQif oGm;ír&awmh/ aygufNrdKUonf yckuúL-ayguf-xD;vif;vrf; tv,f A[dvnf; jzpfonf/ yckuLú rS aygufoYkd (47) rdi&onf/ ayguf k k f dS NrdKUrS xD;vif;NrdKUodkY (49) rkdifcefY&Sdonf/ yckuúLrS ayguftxd vrf;c&D;um; ajrjyefYrsm;onf/ aygufNrdKUrS taemufbufodkY xGuonfEihf awmwef;ESihf awmifpOfwu wjznf;jznf;jrifí f S Ykd h oGm;onhf ]]ykawmif}} awmifwef;Bu;D awmifpOftoG,o,f H f G rsm;udk ausmfjzwfvm&awmhonf[k ajymMuonf/ (18) rdkifcefYarmif;ESifcJhNyD; ]]uHr}} qkdaom tkef;yifrsm; ESifh tkyftkyfqkdif;qkdif;&SdvSonhf &GmBuD;udka&mufvmonf/ yckuLú a'o yljyif;ajcmufaoGUvSaom e,fy,fwe;f u ]]tkat k d ppf}} &Gm[kac:Muonf/ xkd&GmwGif um;udk&yfonf/ eHeuf tapmapm vufzuf&nfaomuf rkefYpm;Mu&efjzpfonf/ um;&yfem;pOf wpfESpfom;t&G,f uav;i,fESifh tar wkdY um;BuD;ay:rSqif;&ef BudK;pm;aeonfudk uRefawmfjrifae &onf/ c&D;oGm;wpfOD;u ulnD[efjyifonf/ cav;udk urf; vifhonf/ cav;u rvkdufcsif? idkavawmhonf/ ZGwftwif; ESifhyif rdcifjzpfolu um;BuD;ay:rSqif;&onf/ rdcifjzpfol um;ay:rS ajrBuD;jyifodkY a&mufNyD;aemuf cav;udkjyef,l/ 2 3 Handbook-5
  6. 6. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol rdcifjzpfolxH a&mufoGm;cJh&onf[kqkdayr,fh idkoHurwdwf ao;/ rdcifjzpfolu om;ydk;apmif (csnfapmif) ESifh aEG;axG; apvkdufawmhrS tidk&yfonf/ trSefawmh apmapmpD;pD; aqmif;wGif;BuD;rSm trkd;udkif;zGifhum;BuD;ay: avw[l;[l;ESifh um;pD;vm&m aEG;atmifaxG;ayGU apmifBuD;udkNcHKxmonfrS uif;vGwfoGm;ojzifh csrf;at;aomaMumifh idkyHk&onf[k uRefawmf,lqrdonf/ armfawmfum;BuD;wpfpD;vHk; ,mOfarmif;? ,mOfaemuf vkutygt0if pkpaygif; (25) OD;&Sonf/ uHr&GmrS pwifxuf d f k d G awmhrnfqawmh um;q&mudajymí om;trdukd um;a&SUcef;rS dk k vkdufygpD;eif;ap&ef pmempdwfjzifh uRefawmfajymqkdpDpOfay;cJh jzpfonf/ om;onfrdcifrSm touf (20) pGef;pGef;cefYom&SdOD; rnf[krSef;qrdonf/ ]]aus;Zl ; txl ; wif y gw,f q &m...ES p f & uf o H k ; &uf aerS um;toGm;tvm&SdwJh 'Dvrf;c&D;rSm onfum;udk pD;cGifh &wmudkbJ um;q&mukduaus;Zl;wifaeMu&wmyg/ 'Dxuf 'Dvrf;c&D;rsKd;rSm um;a&SUcef;u vHkvHkNcHKNcHKeJY pD;jzpf&atmif u½kPmw&m;eJY em;vnfpmemwwfpGm ae&may;vmcJhwJh 'Du q&mtwG u f v J uRef r trsm;BuD ; aus;Zl ; wif r d & ygNyD / [efaqmifpum; r[kwf&ygbl;&Sif wu,fyg...}}/ om;onf r d c if a jymvmcJ h a om pum;rsm;aMumif h uRefawmfhpdwfwGif yDwdjzpfcJhrd&ygonf/ [mvm[if;vif;zGifh ukewifum;Bu;D um;abmf'trk;d udi;f oHui;f Bu;D tm; vuf f D k kd ESpfzufjzifhudkifvsuf um;pD;&onfudkyif uRefawmfauseyf& jyefao;onf/ ywf0ef;usiftvSty ½Icif;wkdYtm;Munhf½I&if; jrifui;f us,yef;csum;Bu;D udk tm;yg;w&jrifvmae&ívnf; G f D olwkdYom;trdudkyif uRefawmfujyefvnfí pdwfxJu aus;Zl; wifaerd&onf[k qkd&rnfyifjzpfacsonf/ rkd;enf;&yf0ef;a'ovnf;jzpf yljyif;ajcmufaoGUaom t&yfvnf;jzpfí uHr rS aygufNrdKU 1 &D;um; awmifukef;i,f [ifwi;f awmrsm;ESihf opfyifwusyg;pGmom &Saeonf/ awmif dk Ydk J d uwHk;awG[kom qkd&rnfjzpfonf/ wpfcgwpf&H vrf;c&D;wGif um; wpfpD;ESifhwpfpD; a&Smifwdrf;&pOftcg zkefvHk;BuD;awG wvdyfvdyfMum; zkefrkefwkdif;wkdufcwfbdonfhtvm; vTrf;rkd; zHk;tkyfoGm;Mu&awmhonf/ uRefawmfhrSm vufudkifyk0gudk ESmacgif;pnf;tjzpf pnf;xm;&onf/ aygufNrdKUodkYa&mufcgeD; ]]urf;rjzL}} acsmif;BuD;uqkd;vS onf[kajymMuonf/ oJacsmif;us,fBuD;jzpfonf/ yHkawmif yHknmawmifwef;BuD;wkdYrS acsmif;zsm;cHí pwifpD;qif;vmMu aom acsmif;i,frsm;wGifyg0ifaeaom urf;rjzLacsmif;u rkd;Owkumv0,f acsmif;a&usojzifh onfrSmbufurf;wGif ESpnoH;k nponfjzifh xrif;qkiuav;rsm;rSm tqifajyovkd f d f tdyfMu& pm;Mu&onfrsm;udkvnf; BuHK&wwfonf/ acsmif;u twm;tqD;ozG,jf zpf&um c&D;vrf;romr,m&SMd u&onf[k ajymMuonfudk odcGifh&cJh&onf/ trSefawmh yckuúLESifh ayguf NrdKUwkdYrSm ajrjyefYydkif;a'orsm;wGif rkd;enf;yg;rI&SdaomaMumifh 4 5 Handbook-6
  7. 7. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol aEGrkd;aqmif; oHk;&moDpvHk;yif oGm;vmrI&SdMuonf/ um; tquftoG,faeYwkdif;vkdvkd &SdwwfaMumif;qkdonf/ aygufrS xD;vif;NrdKUodkY um;rkd;usNyDqkdonfESifh roGm;Muawmh/ oGm;vm ír&awmh[kod&ayonf/ aygufNrdKUrStvGef ]]vlom;tp yHkawmifu}} [k urÁnf; wifc&m yHawmifawmifwef;jrifBh u;D awmifpOftoG,o,f hJ k f G wkdYu jrifhíjrihfívmNyDjzpfonf/ awmawmiftxyfxyfjzwf ausmf&aom c&D;vrf;um; a>rvdefa>raumuf&SdvSacs/ awmifwef;awmifp,wpfc tedrq;kH tydi;f udk a&G;cs,jf zwf G f k hf k oef;&if; jzwfoef;&if;uqifhíqifhí jrifhrm;vm&if; awmif tjrifhqHk;tydkif;udk ausmfjzwf&onf/ wpfawmifwufqif; wpfawmeif;vsuf c&D;qufMu&aom oabmjzpfygonf/ onf*E¦0ifyHknmawmifwef;a'o a,me,fajr&yf0ef; qD rvmrDuyifvQif yckuúLNrdKUZmwd pma&;q&m? q&m jroef ; wif a&;om;wif j ycJ h a om ]]yH k a wmif yH k n moG m ; awmvm;}} udk zwf½IcJhNyD;NyD pdwf0ifwpm;vnf;&Sd&onf/ yHkawmifESifh yHknmawmifwef; jrifhnDaemifwdkYum; yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf ysrf;rQtjrifhay (3000) ausmf pD&SdMuonf/ awmifajrmuftNydKif oG,fwef;vsuf&Sdonf/ taemufbuf&dS ysr;f rQtjrifay (7000) ausmf csi;f ½d;k rawmif h wef;BuD;ESifh tNydKifvnf;jzpfonf/ ajrjyefYa'orStvm aygufNrdKUtaemufbufrS tp jyKum yHkawmifawmifwef;jrifhBuD;udk jrif&awGU&jzwfausmfMu &onf/ wjznf;jznf;ESihf opfawmopfyifwu pdyívmonf/ Ykd f pdrf;ívmonf/ yHkawmifawmifwef;BuD; ta&SUbufonf taemufbufavmuf opfyif? opfawm xlxyfpGmr&SdvS/ taemufbufjcrf;udk rrD[kajymMuonf/ rSefygavonf/ yHkawmif yHknmrSm pwifpD;qif;vmaom ausmacsmif;? urf;rjzLacsmif;wkdYudk trSDjyKíum; vrf;ab;aus;&Gmav;rsm; udk jrif&awGU&&if;rS awmtxyfxyfawmifpOfwef;wkdYudk jzwf ausmfum awmiftjrifhqHk;tykdif;udk a&mufvmcJh&onf/ ]]xD;vif;NrdKUe,frS vdIufvSJpGmBudKqdkyg}} [laom qkdif;bkwf BuD;udk awmifxdyfrSmawGUvkduf&onf/ awmifxdyfrS taemuf t&yfodkYqif;cJhawmhrS opfawm0g;awmBuD;rsm;u ydkíxlxyf vmoonf/ pdrfhprf;a&aygufudkvnf; awGU&onf/ uRef;? ysOf;uwkd;? ydawmuf? opf,m? tifMuif;? ,rae? aESm tp &Sonfh Ediitzk;d wef obm0opfawmBu;D rsm;? opfyifBu;D rsm;? d k f hH 0g;awmBuD;rsm;wdkYrSm pdrf;BuD;NrdKifBuD;jzpfíaeatmif tkyfrkd; xm;vsuf&SdaeonfudkawGU&onf/ um;pD;&if;avwkdufcwfEIef;tjyif aqmif;tat; 'Pf u d k (Navy) a&wyf t aEG ; xnf *smuif t xl B uD ; ud k 0wfqifum umuG,fxm;&onf/ acgif;pGyf? vuftdwf? ajctdwfwdkYuvnf; 0wfqifxm;&ao;onf/ awmifay:um; vrf; a,m&yfrJZmNrdKifum; at;vSonf/ opfyifig;yifBuD;rsm; ay:rS ESif;cufESif;aygufwkdYaMumifh um;vrf;onf a&zsef;xm; ouJhodkY &TJpdkaebdonf/ 6 7 Handbook-7 )a
  8. 8. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol awmifpOfa&r&? awmtxyfxyfwkdYudk jrifae&&if; a&opf? ajropf? ywf0ef;usiftopfudk uRefawmfonf w0 BuD;jrifawGUcHpm;ae&jcif;twGufvnf; rsm;pGmoabmusae rd&onf/ wpfzufu awmifeH&?H tjcm;wpfzufrmu acsmuf S eufurf;yg;wkdY0,f tonf;w,m;,m; &ifwzkdzdkjzifh um;BuD; ud k p D ; &onf u m; aMumuf p &maumif ; vS o nf / qif B uD ; wpfaumifyrm wvIyfvIyfwtdtdESifh b,f,drf;nmEGJUjzifh aeYvnf (12) em&DausmfausmfcefYwGif ]]usif;}} qkdonfh&GmBuD; udk a&mufvmcJh&onf/ ta&SUbufyHkawmifawmifwef;BuD;ESifh taemufbuf yHknmawmifwef;BuD;wkdYtMum; usif;&GmwGif eHeufpmpm;&ef um;udk&yfem;cJhonf/ ]]rdbarwåm}} trnf& OD;bodef; xrif;qkdifwGifjzpfonf/ yckuúLrS oli,fcsif;aus;Zl;aMumifh um;'½dibm? py,f,mESitwl uReawmfonf wpf0i;f wnf; k f hf f kd wGif pm;&onf/ twlvmc&D;oGm;rsm;vnf; toD;oD;pm;Muonf/ om; trdudkuRefawmf&Hzef&Hcg Munhfrd&onf/ om;udkxrif;cGHUí auR;vkduf? tarupm;vkdufESifhudk uRefawmfawGU&onf/ uav;rSm MunfMunfvifvifESifh &Sdaeonf/ xrif;pm;NyD;í uRefawmfwdkY0dkif;twGuf uRefawmfu xrif;zkd;usoifhaiGay;acs&efjyKawmh xrif;qkdifykdif&SiftrBuD; u um;q&mu&Sif;ay;NyD;oGm;NyD[k ajymvmcJhonf/ ]]wkd;u om;trdtwGuf xrif;zkd;[if;zdk;udk &Sif;ay;yg&ap}} [k uReawmfu xrif;qdiyi&if {nh0wfjyKwnfcif;ay;vmaom f k f kd f S f arwåmapwem a&aEG;Murf;? vufzufESifh ajryJqHaMumf? xef;vsufcJwkdYudk oHk;aqmif&onf/ ]]q&m...q&mu uRefrwkdYom;trdtwGuf usoifh xrif;zkd;udk &Sif;ay;cJhw,fvdkY qkdif&SifuajymjyvdkY odcJh&w,f q&m/ tm;emp&mq&m&,f? ay;cJhwJhaiGtwGuf 'DuaiGudk jyefay;yg&ap usrwdkYom;trdtwGuf vrf;c&D;rSm ulnDay; vmcJhwJh q&mhapwemawGudk usrwu,fav;pm;rdygw,f q&m? b,fawmhrSvJ rarhygbl;q&m...}} om;onf rdcifu om;i,fudk csDrvsufESifh uRefawmfh xHa&mufvmcJ?h pum;ajymcJ?h xrif;pm;p&dwtwGuf yduqukd f k f H ay;vmcJhonf/ uRefawmfvufumjyvsuf r,lcJhyg/ pum; tenf;i,fajymrd&ygonf/ ]]'DvdkulnDzdkYtcGifhBuHKvm ulnDay;&wmudkyJ uRefawmf u0rf;omrd&ygw,f/ onfa,me,fa'otwGuf uRefawmf [mvmjcif ; aumif ; wJ h c&D ; onf w pf O D ; jzpf & ygap...vd k Y pdwf&if;apwemrSefeJY ukokdvfjyKjzpf&wmvJygygw,fAsm...}} ]]aMomf..'geJY q&mu Xmeqkdif&mt&m&Sdwpfa,muf vdkY um;q&muajymjywmudk od&ygw,f/ t&m&SdqkdvkdYom ,Hvu&w,f/ touft&G,uvJi,fi,f vlyuvJacsmacsm k dk f f kH aemf...uRefrwkdYom;trdukd ckvkdapwemrsm;pGmeJY ulnDay;cJh wJhtwGufvJ aus;Zl;wif&rIwpfcktjzpf vlBuD;rdbawGu qkay;ovkd qkay;yg≈..q&mhb0wpfavQmuf oGm;av 8 9 Handbook-8
  9. 9. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol &m a&mufav&mt&yfrSm rsufESmjrifcspfcifygap? toHMum; oem;ygap? ol,kwfrmeJYvGJvdkY olawmfaumif;rsm; vlaumif; rsm;eJY awGU&ygap...vkdYom uRefrqkawmif;ay;yg&apawmh aemf q&m...}} ]]aMomf...aMomf...[kwu...[kwu...}} [kom f hJ f hJ uRefawmfqdkvdkufrdawmhonf/ um;py,f,m EId;aqmfoHESifhtwl uRefawmfvnf; um;BuD;ay:odkYwG,fí wifvdkufursm;ívmonf/ tcsdefukef oufom vrf;BuHKpD;wpf&GmESifh wpf&Gmc&D;oGm;rsm;ygwum;[k uRefawmfoabmaygufvmcJhrd&ygavonf/ xrif;qkdifuxGuf vrf;ab;0J,mwGifjrif&onfrSm wGzuftxufwef;ausmif;? use;f rma&;aq;cef;? jynfo&wyf J Yl J zGUJ pef;wk&onfukd qki;f bkwBf u;D rsm;t& od&onf/ wvIyvyf Yd dS d f I ESihf armif;ESi&if;c&D;qufaepOf obm0awmawmifa&ajrudk f uRefawmfonftm;yg;w& jrif½IcGifh&aeonf/ opfyifjrifhBuD; rsm;wGif oZifyef;wkujkd rif&onf/ obm0awmyef;awmifyef; Yd &eHYwkdYudk&onf/ vwfqwfat;jraomavudk ½I½dIuf&onf/ MunfEl;csrf;ajrUp&mjrifuGif; tjzmjzmudkMunfh½I&if; awmxdyf ydkif;udka&mufcJh ausmfjzwfcJh qif;cJhawmh wpfae&m0,f prf;a& aygufudkjrifawGU&jyefonf/ tdyJh tdyJhESifhyif awmifajctqif;wGif tnmbef;? tv,fbef;qkdaom &GmwkdYudkjzwfausmf&if; tMunfbef;qkd aom &Gmuda&mufvmonf/ us,jf yefonhf a&T0ga&mifpyg;cif; k Y wkdY0,faumuf&dwfodrf;aeMuonfudk jrif&onfrSm aysmfp&m toGifjzpf&onf/ &GmudkvGefNyD;aomf awmifpOfwef;wpfckudk wufcJhonf/ awmwef;0,fum;BuD;u ajy;vTmaeonf/ aerif;Bu;D u xGuvmoa,mifa,mif&vuf aqmif;wdrwu f dS dk f Ydk zHk;vTrf;oGm;vkdufESifh aeudkjrif&onfr&SdvS/ onfvkdESifh awmifpG,fwpfckudk csKd;auGUvkdufawmh ]]xD; vif;NrdKUrS vdIufvSJpGmBudKqkdyg}} [laom NrdKUw0ifqkdif;bkwf BuD;udk bGm;ceJjrifvkduf&onfrdkY uRefawmfonfrsm;pGmtHhtm; oifom;rdc&ygavawmhonf/ vufrem&Dukd Munhrvuawmh h G hJ S f d dk f nae (4) em&Dxkd;cgeD;NyDjzpfavonf/ vmcJh&onfhc&D;udk wGuqMunhvuronf/ (10) em&Domc&D;wGif onfr;dk q&m f f kd f d jroef;wifh ]]yHkawmifyHknmoGm;awmvm;}} um; uRefawmfh twGuf r[mc&D;&SnfBuD;ygwum;[kom qkdvkduf&ayawmh onf/ wpfzefvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHonf yHkawmifyHknmorkdif;? ausmufacwforkdif;? waumif;rS ukef;abmiftxd ukd,fhxD; ukd,fhMuXmef;ESifhaecJh wkd;wufcJhaomorkdif;? vGwfvyfa&; twGuf jynfaxmifpkaoG;? ZmwdaoG;? Zmwdrmefjzifh ajymif ajrmufpmjyefvnf&,lcaom orki;f ? vGwvyfa&;udk umuG,f G hJ d f apmifha&SmufcJhaom orkdif;aMumif;xGef;ajymifonhf EkdifiHjzpf onf/ a&ajrMoZmaumif;? Owkaumif;? o,HZmwaumif;rsm; jynh0pHvif*PwifEiaom EkiijH zpfonf/ onfoaom EkiiH f k k f dk f d f Ykd d f wGif;u &efukefom;uRefawmfonf yHkawmifyHknmorkdif;ESifh 10 11 Handbook-9
  10. 10. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol yHkawmifyHknm&yf0ef;a'o&Sd jrefrmhorkdif;wGif tvGefpdwf0if pm;bG,f&m aumif;vSonfh ]]xD;vif;}} qkdaom NrdKUav;qD a&mufvkdYvmcJh&ygNyD/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rIorkdif;wGif ta&;ygonhf tcef;u@wpfcktaejzifh xm0pOf&Sifoefatmif BudK;yrf;Mu &rnhf jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfarG;zGm;EkdifcJh&mvnf;jzpf wjznf; jznf;ESifh wdrfjrKyfaysmufuG,froGm;Ekdif&avatmifa&m vlod enf;vSao;aomfvnf; *E¦0ifNrdKUav;wpfjrdKU jzpf&aMumif;udk azmfxkwfay;vdkvSaom orkdif;cspfol? EkdifiHcspfol uRefawmf onf xD;vif;NrdKUudk a&muf&SdvmcJh&ygavonf/ ]][kwfygw,f...uRefawmf &JjrifhvdIifyg}} [kqvuonfEihf olwu rdwqufvmcJMh uawmhonf/ kd kd f S Ykd f trsK;d om;jzpfou ]]uda0vif;}}? trsK;d orD;trnfu ]]r&D&ar}} l k D [líod&SdcJh&avonf/ olwEpO;D u ]]bmaMumifrsm; uReawmftm;vma&muf Ydk S f h f BudKvifhaecJhygvdrhf}} [k uRefawmftxyfxyftcgcg pOf;pm; aerd&ao;onf/ tajymif;ta&TU trdefYpmxGufNyD;onfESifh ,if;trdepmudk uReawmf,aqmifvmcJonf/ nTeMf um;a&;rSL; Yf f l h (pDrH)u uRefawmfESifh oufqkdifaom rauG;wkdif;? wkdif;½Hk; twGufa&m uRefawmfxrf;aqmif&rnfh NrdKUe,f? uRefawmfESifh vJvS,fwm0efxrf;aqmif&rnfh NrdKUe,frSL;tajymif;ta&TU twGufyg pmrsm;udk uRefawmfom,laqmifoGm;yg&ef ay;tyf cJhonfum; uRefawmfomvQifodygonf/ odkYpOfvsuf b,fvkd jzpf&ygvdrfh[k awG;aerdonf/ ]]q&m a&mufvmvdrhfr,fqkdwmudk &efukef½Hk;csKyfu rr ]]a':arMunfvicsK}d } u ½H;k udoBH uKd ;pmay;zdxm;vdYk tckvkd G f k Yk vmBudKae&wmyg&Sif}} ]]aMomf...[kwfygNyD...}} a':arMunfvGifcsKd...rarMunfvGifcsKd...arMunf vGifcsKd...[lí trSwfw&jrnfwrf;&if;rSmyif wpfc&D;xJvm cJ h M uol om;onf r d c if u uRef a wmf h t m;vma&muf u m EIwfqufcJhonf/ olwkdYrSm xD;vif;NrdKUü wpfnwmtdyfpufNyD; aemufaeYwGif olwdkY&Gm (qifpG,f&Gm) udk ajcvsifukef;aMumif; 12 vuf0JokE´&ESifh rwlaom a,mrJZmNrdKifc&D;onf uRefawmfwkdYpD;vmcJhaom c&D;onfESifh ukefpnfwif aqmifonfh csufyvufum;BuD;u NrdKUtv,f xrif;qkdif wef;wGif *dwfqHk;onf/ c&D;onfrsm;ESifh um;py,f,mwkdY um;pD;eif;vkdufygvmMuonfh c&D;twGufum;cusoifhaiGrsm; &Sif;aeMuonf/ ]]&efukefNrdKUu ajymif;a&TUvmwJh OD;&JjrifhvdIifqkdwmyg vm;&Sif...}} [laomtoHESifh rdef;uav;ESifh axmifaxmif armif;armif;trsKd;om;wpfOD;wkdYu uRefawmhfxHa&mufvm onf/ olwkdYudk taotcsmtuJcwf Munhfrdvkdufawmh uRefawmfh0efxrf;awGrSef; od&onf/ taMumif;rSm olwkdY tusÐb,fbuf &ifbwfay:0,f uRefawmfwkdY½Hk;Xme ½Hk; wHqdyftrSwftom;&ifxkd;udk jrifvkduf&íjzpfavonf/ 13 Handbook-10
  11. 11. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol c&D;quf&ef&Sdao;aMumif;? aemufrS uRefawmfhxHvma&muf awGUqHkOD;rnfjzpfaMumif;ajymvmonf/ uRefawmfhteD;&Sd ]]&D&Dar}} ESifhvnf; om;onfrdcifu wD;wkd;pum;awGajymae Muao;onf/ olwawGu todtuRr;f awGjzpfaeMuwmud;k [k Ydk vnf; uRefawmfaumufcsufcsrd&avonf/ oHaowåmBu;D wpfv;kH c&D;aqmif (Hand Ba) avufqJG tdwBf u;D wpfck ESihf xde;f xde;f odr;f odr;f tjrwfwEd;k o,faqmif vmcJaom ]]'Hrif;}} (vufptwo@mef txyfom;jzifjh yKvyf h k JG d f k xm;onf) wkdYudk uRefawmfh0efxrf;ESpfOD;wkdYu ,laqmifMu onf/ uRefawmfu um;q&mESifh py,f,mwkdYtm; EIwfquf onf/ vdyfpmygtwkdif; uRefawmfwnf;ckdaexkdif&rnhftdrfodkY uReawmf½;kH 0efxrf;jzpfowEitwl ajcvsiavQmufumvmcJh f h l Ydk S hf f awmhonf/ vdyfpmygt& OD;jrifhodef;+a':0if;0if;vdIif [kod& onf/ uRefawmhfaqGrsKd;r[kwf/ uRefawmfhazazESifh wuúodkvf twlwpfzuf tpdk;&bufBuD;wpfckrS nTefMum;a&;rSL;jzpfolu nDawmfpyfol OD;jrifhodef;rdom;pkxH pma&;ay;vdkufonf/ wnf;ckdaexkdif&efESifh tppt&m&mulnDapmifha&Smufay;ap &ef tdwfzGifhay;pmudk uRefawmf,laqmifvmcJhonf/ xkdtdrf udka&mufcJhawmh olwkdYrdom;pkukd ,laqmifvmonfhpmudkay; onf/ olwdkYzwf½INyD;awmh uRefawmhftm;vnf; zufvSJwuif; jzifh BudKqkdcJhMuygonf/ ]]q&muawmh pHeef;awmfudka&mufvmcJh&NyD/ ylyefp&m bmrSrvdkawmhbl;aemf? pdwfcsvufcs at;at;csrf;csrf;om aeayawmhq&m...}} [k &,fusJusJESifh wynhfr&D&Daru qkdvmonf/ ]]bmygvdrfh...}} [k uRefawmfpOf;pm;cdkuf ]]'D v k d q &m&J U ...OD ; av;OD ; jrih f o d e f ; eJ Y a':av; a':0if;0if;vdIifwdkYudk uRefrwkdYu bBuD;odef;vkdYyJ trsm;u ac:Muwm...q&mrBu;D vdivyac:Muwmyg...'Du orD; I f Ydk J oHk;a,mufeJYqkdawmh rdom;pkig;a,mufayghq&m? aysmf&Tif&wJh rdom;pkygyJ&Sif...}} ...NyD;awmh 'Du orD;acsmav;awG oHk;a,mufwkdY&JU trnfawGuvJ xl;xl;jcm;jcm;jzpfaew,f q&m? ...tBuD; jzpfolu eef;jrifhvdIif? tvwfu eef;jrifhcdkif? ti,fqHk;orD; av;u eef;jrifhBudKif...wJh.. tJ ' gaMumif h q&mh u d k pH e ef ; awmf a y:a&muf & NyD ? eef;awmfay:pH&NyvYkd apmapmuajymcJjh zpfwmyg? olwntpfr D Ydk D awGudk aumif;aumif;om ckdif;pm;ayawmh...}} [k &D&Daru ]]aemuf}}aeonf/ ]]tdk;...'gaMumifhudk;...}} [k oabmaygufvm& onf/ olwkdYawGtm;vHk;rSmvnf; &D&Darhpum;aMumifh w[m; [m;ESifh jzpfaecJh&avonf/ onftxJ udka0vif;u ]]q&mrBuD;vdIifa&...'Duq&m? uRefawmfwkdYq&m trnfuvJ ]]OD;&JjrifhvdIif}}... vdkYac:w,fAs..}} [kajymvm 14 15 Handbook-11
  12. 12. 16 udka,m (abm*aA') cJhjyefonf/ ]]a[...[kwfvm;...}} [k olwkdYrdom;pku oHNydKif xGufoGm;Mu& ydkrkdí&,farmjzpfcJhMu&ao;avonf/ uRef a wmf o nf pma&;q&m wuú o d k v f b k e f ; Ed k i f emrnfausm0w¬KBu;D jzpfaom ]]oli,fcsi;f vkyqufí ac:rnf f d J ckdif}} pmtkyfBuD;udk trSwf&vmrd&ao;onf/ olY0w¬KBuD;xJrSm awmh NrdKif&,f? BudKif&,f? ckdif&,f? vdIif&,fESifh ZmwftdrfzGJUxm; aom uRefawmfhtoJ(onf;)pGJ arwåmbGJU0w¬K&SnfBuD;yJjzpf onf/ ,ck onfrSmuawmh uav;t&G,fav;awGyJ&Sdaeao; onf/ nydkif;wGif olwkdYxyfrHvmcJhMuOD;rnf/ wm0efvTJajymif; &rnhf NrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL;udkyg ac:vmMurnf/ NrdKUe,frSL;uvnf; &efukefrS oHBudK;pmvmuwnf;u ajrjyefYa'oodkYajymif;a&TU &rnfhtwGuf 0rf;omaecJhonf/ ,ckuRefawmfa&muf&SdvdkYvm NyDqkdonfESifh ydkíyifaysmf&TifaernfrSm aocsmonf[kajym&if; &D&Dar? udka0vif;wkdY ½Hk;odkYjyefoGm;Muonf/ olwdkYjyefoGm;cJhNyD;aemuf nDtpfrrsm;xJrS tBuD;jzpfol eef ; jrif h v d I i f u vrf ; jytjzpf v k d u f y gvsuf ol r ES i f h t wl uRefawmfonf armacsmif;xJa&qif;csKd;cJhonf/ ]]tm;...yg;...yg...}} aerif;BuD;udk ,aeYwpfaeY vHk;rjrifcJh&onhftjzpfrS ck..0ifvkyfqJqJav;wGif rSdefjyjy av;omjrifvu&onf/ taemufbufcsi;f ½d;k rawmifwef;jrifh dk f BuD;um; eD;eD;av;jzpfíaeonfrkdY twkdif;om;jrifae&av *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 17 onf/ olwkdYqDu"avht& armacsmif;wGifa&csKd;Muojzifh NrdKUolNrdKUom;tcsKdUudk armacsmif;wpfavQmuf uRefawmfjrif awGUae&onf/ txufzuf armacsmif;[kdrSmzufurf; ukef;ajrwpfae&mu apwDawmfwpfqludkvnf; vSrf;jrif& onf/ ESpfrkdifcefYawmh&Sdvdrfhrnf[k tuGmta0;udkrSef;qrd& onf/ emrnfausmf a&S;a[mif;orkdif;0if a&TuGeftkyfapwD awmf[k trnfwGifaMumif; rdvdIifajymjyí odcGifh&cJhonf/ csif;awmifwef;BuD;rS acsmif;zsm;cHpD;qif;vmcJhaom armacsmif;a&u pdrfhpdrfhat;vSonf/ trSefwu,fwrf; 0efcH yg&vQif &uf&ufpufpufudk at;aeonf[kuRefawmfajymudk ajymcsifonf/ armacsmif;a&MunfMunf0,f ausmufwHk; ausmufcJ? ausmufp&pf? oJ? a,mufoGm;? c½kESifh ig;i,fav; rsm;wk d Y u d k twk d i f ; om;jrif a e&onf / vl B uD ; cg;vnf c ef Y a&teufwGif uRefawmfonf cPwjzKwfom acgif;ikyfa&csKd; Ekdifonf/ acs;tjrefwGef; acgif;jrefjrefavQmf qyfjymtjref vl;umudpöudk NyD;pD;ap&onf/ csKd;ae&if;rSmyif ckdufcdkufwkefa atmifcsrf;aeonf/ rsufESmokwfwbufapmifBuD;udk cE¨m udk,ftm;ywfNcHKum tdrfodkYjyefcJh&avonf/ npmpm;NyD;csdef vomrSeftdrfrD;tvif;a&mifatmuf 0,f OD;av;ode;f rdom;pkEihf uReawmftv’myov’mypum;wkYd S f ajymaeMuonfhtckduf wm0efvTJajymif;rnhfNrdKUe,frSL;ESifh aeYvnfuwynhfESpfa,mufwkdY a&mufvmcJhMuonf/ Handbook-12
  13. 13. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol onfvrf;c&D;ESifh onftoJ (onf;) pGJcsufyvuf um;av;pD;cefYu xD;vif;NrdKUav; vufoHk;awmfBuD;rsm;jzpf aMumif;? wcsKUd aomvly*Kd¾ vawGtaMumif;? aomif;ajymif;axG k f vm w0g;0g;ESifhyGJusum Al;oD;aygif;aMumf? vufzufokyfpm; Mu? a&aEG;Murf;aomufMu&if; a&mufwwf&m&mawG ajymae cJhMuonf/ olwkdYwpfawGajymaeMuavaom taMumif;t&m rsm;? a,moH0J0JESifh a,mpum;wkdYudk em;qif&if; vSrf;cJhjref;cJh &onhf ,aeYc&D;Murf;udk arhaysmufum tyef;rsm;ajy&ay awmhonf/ ]][kd..wkef;u a&S;bk&ifrsm; apmfbGm;rsm;vufxufu opfawmBuD;av;&yf&SdcJhw,fqkd&mrSm ck..q&ma&muf&SdvdkY vmcJh&wmuawmh ]]a,mrJZmNrdKif}} yJq&ma&U? jynfrajrjyefY a'ou nDaemifwdkif;&if;om;wkdY ta&muftayguftxd tawGUenf;aeao;wJh a,me,fajr&yf0ef; a,mwkdYXmeDu rJZmNrdKif NrdKUav;wpfNrdKUygyJcifAsm? &efukefNrdKUBuD;rSmfaexkdifNyD; wrifwumonfNrdKUav;udkrS a&G;cs,fumajymif;a&TUa&muf&Sd vmcJhwJhq&mudkawmh tHhMorqHk;aygifq&m&,f... rJZma&TvDqDtjypf&SdvdkY e,fESif'ufcHcJh&wJh trwfBuD; vuf0JokE´&om&SdaecJhao;&ifjzifh trwfBuD;upum;qkdvdrfh r,f/ OD;&JjrifhvdIif[m a,m&yfXmae xD;vif;qkdwJh rJZmNrdKifqD &nf&G,fcsufvJ&Sd tcspfvJNidNyD; avQmufvSrf;cJhavonfvm; rwlujJG ym;wJoabmxm;udawmh trwfBu;D u tHMh ordrmAs... h k S udka0vif;tajymu ZmwfxJtNidrfhxJu pum;odkYES,f wefqmqifvsufajymvmae&if;u rNyD;qHk;ao;? aemufquf wGJpum;wpfcsKdUudk qufvufajymvmcJhjyefonf/ ]]aMu;eef;pmwpfapmifu BudKwifvdkYawmifa&mufvmcJh &wmqkdawmh taMumif;awmh{uef&Sdvdrfhr,fxifyg&JU...}} uReawmftm;wm0efvajymif;ay;oGm;rnhf OD;ausmausmf f h JT f udkMunhfvsuf &,fp&mvkdvkdESifh pum;pç vmcJhjcif;vnf;jzpf onf/ ]]a[...}} [k q&mausmfuajym ]][m...}} [k uRefawmfujzpf&vsufESifh... a,mrJZmNrdKifc&D;onf uRefawmf bmudkrSjyefrajymjy jzpfvkdufawmh/ wu,f w rf ; tm;jzif h vuf 0 J o k E ´ & trwf B uD ; ES i f h uRefawmfonfawmBuD;jrufrnf; rJZmqkdonhft&yfa'orsm; qD a&mufvmMu&yHkjcif;vnf;rwl/ rJZma&TvDa&muftrwfBuD;u &mZmtjzpf'PfoifhcJh aví rJZmNrdKifqDa&muf&onf/ uRefawmf&JjrifhvdIifuawmh Xmeqkdif&mjypfrIwpfpHk wpf&mvnf; r&SdcJhovdk ESvHk;om;ESifh pyfvsOf;ívnf; tcspf ab;'Pf tcspf&efpG,fwdkYvnf; roifhcJh/ wpfcawmh uReawmfajym&rnfxifonf/ vuf0oE& k f J k ´ trwfBuD;u rJZma&TvDrSmraysmfydkufcJh/ uRefawmfufawmhrl *E¦0ifrSwfwrf;&Sdayrifh toGm; tvmcufcJvGef;ojzifh jrefrmhorkdif;wGif wefzkd;vnf;BuD;vS 18 19 Handbook-13
  14. 14. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol um jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om; jynfoljynfom;taygif;wkdY ta&;r&SdrjzpfvkdtyfvSaom ]]wkdif;&if;om;tm;vHk; aoG;pnf; nDnGwfa&;}} twGuf emrnfausmfMum;xif&Sm;oifhygvsuf rxif r &S m ;jzpf u mvl o d v nf ; tvG e f e nf ; aeao;onh f ]]xD;vif;}} NrdKUav;tm; tao;xm;xif&Sm;vmap&atmif azmfxkwfay;&efudkom t"duxm;onfudkawmh avmavm q,fü olwawGoEiMf uvdrO;D rnf rxifay/ orki;f a&;tjrif Ydk d dk hf d jzifhvnf; uRefawmfrSef;qum aysmfaerdonfuawmh trSef/ xkdYxuf...*E¦0ifNrdKUol arMunfvGifcsKdu uRefawmf a&muf&SdvmrnhftaMumif; BudKwifíaMu;eef;pmwpfapmif ydkYxm;cJhonfqkdjyefawmh... pOf;pm;p&mawGu trsm;BuD;...ESifh.. aMomf..e,fESiftjypf'PfaMumifh rJZma&TvDqDa&muf cJ&avaom vuf0oE&trwfBu;D ESihf rwlnaom a,mrJZm h J k ´ D NrdKifc&D;onf uRefawmf&JjrifhvdIifygay/ olwkdYtcef;ESifh olwkdYjzpfMuonf/ ntdyfnae {nfhonfrsm; a&mufvmwnf;cdkMuvQif tdrftay:xyfrSmyif ae&may;NrJ [kajymcJonf/ OD;av;ode;f wkrom;pku þodyiftyaeus[k h Yd d Yk d f qdkcJhonf/ &yfa0;u {nhfonfrsm; vma&mufrSomvQif tdrf tay:xyf u d k toH k ; jyKovk d r sKd ; jzpf & onf / tay:xyf ü bk&m;cef;? bk&m;ausmif;aqmifawmfxm;&Sdonf/ NyD;awmh tdyfcef;oHk;cef;xm;&Sdavonf/ odkYjzpfí q&mrBuD;vdIifajymjy csuft& jrwfpGmbk&m;ociftm; qGrf;? yef;? a&csrf;? qDrD;udpö ESifh ntcgbk&m;0wfjyKMuaom tcsdefrsm;rSwyg; tdrftay: xyfonf jyLwif;wHcg;rsm;udk zGifhvSpfxm;avhr&Sd/ odkYayr,fh aeYpOfawmh wHrsufpnf;vSJ Murf;wkdufjcif;awmh 0wå&m;rysuf [kqkdygonf/ ta&SUt&yfudkacgif;jyKí tdyf&mukwifudk pDpOfxm; onf/ vuf0JbufaxmifhwGifjzpfonf/ acgif;&if;bufESifh ab;bufwGif vG,fvG,fulul wHcg;zGifhí&onf/ acgif;&if; buf jyLwif;wHcg;udkzGifhvkdufawmh jymodkvjynhfcgeD; v tvif;a&mifu &Tef;vufom,maeonf/ tdrfNcH0dkif;odkYt0if NcH0if;wHcg;BuD;teD;u tkef;yifwkdY&Sd tkef;oD;rsm;ESifh tkef;ckdif rsm;udk va&mifjzifh xifxif&Sm;&Sm;jrifae&onf/ ESif;&nfwkdY zsef;xm;aom tkef;vuf? tkef;&GufwkdYrsm; a&Tpufa&Tajymuf a&T&nfaiG&nfaomufaeovdk jzpfaeonf/ tdyf&mukwifab;buf jyLwif;wHcg;udk zGifhvkdufaom tcg [dk;...taemufbuf&Sd jym&nfrdIif;rdIif; taemuf½dk;r 20 twdwfu t&dyfvkdygvmcJh olwkdYwpfawGtdrfodkY jyefoGm;cJhMuNyD;í uRefawmfbk&m; 0wfjyKjzpfcJhonf/ aMu;pnf½dkuf trQawGa0NyD;csdef uRefawmf tdyf,m0ifawmh n (10) em&Dxkd;NyD;cJhNyD/ ESpfxyfwkdufcHtdrfBuD;ay:0,f uRefawmfwpfa,muf wnf;tdyf&onf/ OD;av;odef;wkdYrdom;pk um;atmufxyfwGif 21 Handbook-14
  15. 15. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wHwkdif; csif;awmifwef;jrifhBuD;udk va&mifjzifhjrifawGU&onf/ teD;&Sd o&ufyifrS opf&GufwkdYuvnf; wvufvufESifh ta&mifawGu a&Ta&mifjzpfvkduf aiGa&mifjzpfvkdufESifh jzpf& onf/ ESif;&nfwkdY usqif;cJhíjzpfonf/ ]]om,mvSyvkdufwm}} [k uRefawmhfEIwfrS wD;wkd; a&&Gwrvm&onftxd jzpf&onfEihf onfv½cif;rsK;d udk ,ck f d S dk I rSom xl;xl;jcm;jcm; jrifrdzl;&jcif;vnf;jzpf&onfrkdY tdyf&rnf udk ESajrmovdkjzpfaerdonf/ ae0ifrsKd;csKyfonfESifh tdrfwdkif; vkdvkdwHcg;awGydwfxm;Muonf/ at;vGef;í[k qkdonf/ ,ck vnf; 0ef;usifudkMunhfae&if;rSmyif tat;"mwfu ½dkufcwf vTr;f rk;d vmonfaMumifh jyLwif;wHcg;wkuywcg tdyawmhrnf Yd kd d f f [k tdyf&mukwifay:0,f vSJvkdufrdawmhonf/ a&eHqDvomrSef rD;tdrfudkNidrf;um tdyf,m0ifcJhNyD/ awmfawmfESifh tdyfraysmfcJh? vmcJhNyD;aom &efukefrS xD;vif;NrdKU odkY c&D;tm;pOf;pm;rd&wmaMumifhvnf;ygonf/ jzwfausmfcJh& onfh tEÅ&m,fBuD;rm;aom yHkawmifyHknmawmifwef;jrifhBuD; wkdYudk jrifa,mifaerdonf/ uRefawmf½Hk;tzGJU0efxrf;wkdYu ajymcJhMuaom pum;wkdYudkvnf; jyefvnfMum;a,mifvmrd& jyefonf/ ]]aMu;eef;pmwpfapmifu BudKwifvkdYawmif a&mufvm cJh&wmqkdawmh taMumif;awmh{uef&Sdvdrfhr,fxifyg&JU...}} ]]tif;...cufawmhvJ cufom;...av}} &efukef (½Hk;csKyf)u xD;vif;NrdKUol ]]arMunfvGifcsKd}} udk jrifa,mifxifa,mifvmrd&jyefawmhonf/ nT e f M um;a&;rS L ; (pD r H ) rS q&mOD ; oef ; azonf tajymif;ta&TUudpöü tcuftcJrjzpfapa&;tvkdYiSm twwf Ediq;kH pDpOfay;cJonf/ apwemrsm;pGmxm;wwfaom q&mu k f h arMunfvGifcsKdESifh uRefawmhfudk olY½Hk;cef;üawGUqHkay;cJhonf/ trSeu q&monf0efxrf;a&;&mESihf ywfoufvmvQif jrefrm f wpfEdkifiHvHk;&Sd zGifhvSpfNyD; pDrHudef;OD;pD;½Hk;rsm;? zGifhvSpf&ef usefrsm;? NrdKUe,fpDrHudef;rSL;rsm;? 'k-NrdKUe,fpDrHudef;rSL;rsm;wdkY tm; NrdKUe,ftrnfESifh vlyk*¾dKvftrnfudkyg rvGJEkdifavmuf atmif odxm;onf[kajymí&onhf tBuD;tuJwpfOD;ygay/ q&mOD ; oef ; azonf apwema&m oabmxm;yg aumif;onhftjyif ½dk;om;wnfMunfvSonf/ vkdtyfonfrsm; vkdtyfrnfrsm;udk ulnDay;wwfavhvnf;&Sdonf/ tpkd;&Xme Bu;D wpfcwif tBu;D qH;k nTeMf um;a&;rSL;csKyBf u;D ukd 0efxrf;wki;f k G d od&Sdxm;wwfMuouJhodkY q&mOD;oef;aztm;vnf; odaeMu onf/ q&mOD;oef;azonf 0efxrf;rsm;udk omreftcsdefrsm; wGif OD;? a':wyfí ac:avhr&SdbJ cifrif&if;ESD;aomoabm? vlwef;pm;rcGJjcm;wwfaom oabmrsKd;jzifh udk? r b,fol b,f0g[lí csKdomMunfat;aomtoHjzifh y#doE¨m&jyKum ac:qkdwwfonfh cifrifp&m cspfp&mav;pm;p&m q&mygay/ ]]uJ arMunfvicsK?d 'Du ud&jJ rifviw?hJ vltiftm;pDrH G f k h Id f ude;f a&;qGa&;u@ (Man Power Planning Section) uaygh? J udk&Ju &nf&G,fcsuf&Sdw,f? olYqE´t& arMunfvGifcsKd&JU xD;vif;NrdKUudk tajymif;ta&TU (Transfer) ,lwJhol? orD;u 22 23 Handbook-15
  16. 16. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol oluwwfEiorQ ajymjyulnay;apvkygw,f/ ud&u vlawmf Y kd dk f D d k J wpfOD;ygyJ? 'Dvkdac:awGUajymjy&wmuvJ q&mwkdY&JU pDrHudef; a&;qGa&;Xmeqkwmu twwfEiq;kH csenN§d y;D zGivpqyaygh? J d kd f d f hf S f J J XmeydkiftaqmuftOD;? NrdKUe,fOD;pD;t&m&Sdaetdrfqkdwm wkdY uvJqkdawmh NrdKUe,fawGrSm aea&;xkdifa&;udpö tcuftcJ wpfcsKdU&Sdae&w,f/ vufa&wjyifpD;qkdwmvdk nDtpfudkarmifESrozG,f pnf;pnf;vH;k vH;k oabmtaeeJY wpfO;D udwpfO;D ,di;f yif;tul k k tnDay;EkdifMuapvdkYygyJuG,f/ [k txufygtwkdif; q&muajymay;cJhonf/ odEihf arMunfvicsKukd yxrOD;qH;k teD;uyfawGUodcihf Yk S G f d G &cJhonf/ ]]arMunfvGifcsKd}} ...wJh/ emrnfav;ESifh vkdufavsm nDaxGpGm tqkdyg rdef;uav;onf MunfMunfomom pdwf oabmxm;? vSycspfMunfcsifp&m tNyHK;ydkif&Sif? csKdomaom pum;ajymoHav;ESifh udkufnDvSonf/ cifrif&if;ESD;&rItp oabmtaejzifh olrESifhuRefawmf onf bm;vrf; (r[mAE¨Kv yef;NcHvrf;) &Sd ]]a&Trif;orD;}} vufzuf&nfqkdifodkY oGm;a&mufcJhMuum ESpfOD;om;pum;awG ajymjzpfcJhMuonf/ vufzuf&nfaomuf rkefYpm;&if;? &if;ESD; oGm;Mu&ygonf/ ]]udk&JjrifhvdIif}} [k wpfvHk;csif;? jznf;jznf;csif;ac:qkd vmcJonfh oltoHukd uReawmfuyifpwifí tac:ta0:udk h Y f jyifay;jzpfonf/ Xmewdkif; 0efxrf;tcsif;csif;vnf;jzpfum olpdrf;rsm;vnf; r[kwfMuojzifh rpdrf;MuavonhfoabmESifh ]]udk&JvdkYac:Ekdifygw,f? trsm;uawmh udk&JvkdYyJac:a0:aeMu wm MumcJhNyDrkdYyg}} [k &if;ESD;rIjyKcJhjzpfygonf/ olruvnf; ]][kwfuJhyg&Sif}} [k qkdcJhyg/ trSefawmh olrESifh uRefawmfonf jruRef;ndKndK &efukefpD;yGm;a&;wuúodkvfBuD;wGif wufa&mufynmoif,lcJh zl;Muolwvnf; jzpfcMhJ uygvsuf rqHqnf;jzpfcMhJ u/ uReawmf Ykd k f u olrxuf (3) ESpfapmum bGJU&cJholjzpfonf/ uRefawmfu (Day) aeY ausmif;om; ac: &efukefausmif;om;jzpfum olr rS m e,f r S a usmif ; ol j zpf í taqmif a ecG i f h & ol j zpf & onf / wpfzef twef;csif; ESpfcsif;rwlojzifhvnf; rodruRrf;jzpfcJh Mu&jcif;vnf;jzpfonf/ awGUqHkMu&ef qHkEdkifcGifh&Sdygvsuf uH Mur®muray;ao;cJh[efwlonf/ jrifyifrjrifzl;cJhjzpfMu/ ausmif ; awmf B uD ; u bG J U &cJ h N yD ; aemuf jref r mEk d i f i H 0efxrf;a&G;cs,favhusifha&;tzGJUu ac:,lcJhaom &mxl;0if tifwmAsL;rsm;udk a&;ajz? EIwajz ajzqkatmifjrifcNhJ y;D tvkyf f d cefxm;awmhvnf; uReawmfu olrxufapmum 0efxrf;jzpf Y f cJh&onf/ 0efBuD;rsm;½Hk;&Sd pDrH^b@m0efBuD;Xmevufatmuf pDrue;f a&;qGa&; OD;pD;Xme (½H;k csKy) wGif tvky0ifawmhvnf; H d J f f uRefawmfu olrxuf (3) ESpfapmíaeonf/ onftxJ 0efBu;D rsm;½H;k Bu;D twGi;f &Sd uReawmfw½;kH csKyf f Ydk qkdonfuvnf; u@awGursm;? tcef;awGu rsm;vSonf/ 24 25 Handbook-16
  17. 17. 26 udka,m (abm*aA') ajrnDxyfrSmvnf; &Sdonf/ tay:xyfrSmvnf; &Sdonf/ onf odkYES,fjzpf&onfomru jzpfcsifawmh olrutay:xyfwGif &Sd u@rsm;rSm wm0efusonfrYkd ajrnDxyfrm wm0efausaom S uRefawmfESifh uawmfawmfESifh rqHkawGUjzpfovkd jzpfMu&av onf/ ½Hk;csKyfrSm (5) ESpfyif &SdcJh&NyDjzpfaom uRefawmfhtm; vnf; uRefawmfhabmf'g taygif;toif;wpfcsKdU ajymoHudk awmh uRefawmfMum;zl;cJhovkdvkdawmh&Sdonf/ topfcefYtyf vmcJhaom 'kwd,-pDrHudef;rSL; rdef;uav;awGxJrSmawmh ]]a,mrif;orD; xD;vif;{u&D}} av;u qHauom&Snf&Snf jrefrmqefqefav;ESifh tifrwefacsmvSonf[k ajymMuonf udk Mum;rdonf/ odkYayr,fh olr ESifh uRefawmfonf awhawhqkdifqkdif uGujJG ym;jym; rSwrwom;om;awmh rawGUjzpfcr[k uReawmf J f S f hJ d f xifonf/ ajymvkduajymapawmh[kom ajym&awmhrnhf taMumif;omjzpfawmhonf/ uReawmfrmvnf; ½H;k uqif;vQif f h S EkiijH cm;bmomwuúovukd nydi;f tcseyi;f ausmif;wufcihf d f dk f k d f kd G &&SdEdkifcJholjzpfaomaMumifh ausmif;om;jzpf&jyefonf/ *syef bmom&yfu,um wufa&mufynmoif,aeol wpfO;D vnf; kd l l jzpfae&jcif;aMumifhvnf; jzpf&ygonf/ rnfodkYyifjzpfap ckawmh uHMur®mt& qHkvmMu&ygNyD/ qHpnf;cGizefvmcJ?h awGUjrifvmcJ&í a,moltacsmtvSav; k hf h *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 27 udk uRefawmfhpdwfu wdrf;nTwfcgp&Sdao;onhf &ufydkif;uav; rSmyifvQif olrESifh uRefawmfcGJcGmcJhMu&ovkd jzpfvmcJh&jyef avNyD/ onfodkYaom avmavmvwfvwf rMumao;rDu twdwftaMumif;udk jyefajymif;í owd&vmrd&jcif;uvnf; apmapmu½Hk;0efxrf;wpfOD;jzpfol udka0vif;ajymvmcJhonhf &efukefrS aMu;eef;pmtaMumif;cH pum;oHtm; trSwf&um uReffawmfNyHK;rd&ao;awmhonf/ NyD;awmh---&D&Darh pum;oH--]]bmwJh...q&ma&mufvmvdrfhr,fqkdwmudk &efukef (½Hk;csKyf)u ararMunfvGifcsKdu ½Hk;udkoHBudK;pmay;ydkYxm;cJhvdkY tckvkdvmBudKae&ygw,f&Sif...}} wJh/ ]]aMomf...yHawmifynm&yf0ef; a,mwkXmae xD;vif; k kH Yd ajru tvSrzk&m;av; a,mrif;orD; xD;vif;{u&D arMunf vGifcsKd&,f...}} [k uRefawmfjrifa,mifwrf;wrd&if;u wpfaeYwmvHk; armyef;EGrf;e,fvmcJh&orQ ajzodrfh&vsuf tdyfaysmfatmif BudK;pm;umtdyf&ygOD;r,f/ &efukef (½Hk;csKyf) okdY ½Hk;udpöjzifh oGm;a&muf&onhtcgrsK;d wGif arMunfvicsKEihf awGU&zkta&; f G f d S Yd csOf;uyfvrf;aMumif;awGudk &SmazG&ayOD;rnf[k pdwfu&,f vsuf BudK;pm;umvQif tdyfygawmhrnf/ tem*wfaeY&ufrsm; twGuf tdyrufvvrufEiygap[k qkawmif;&if;u rMumrD f S S dk f rSmyif uRefawmftdyfaysmfoGm;cJh&avawmhonf/ Handbook-17
  18. 18. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ol&JNrdKU (ac:) xD;vif;NrdKU eHeufty&muEd;k awmh (7) em&DyifausmcNhJ y/ cE¨mud,f d f f D k u EGrf;vSonf/ udk,fvufawGudkufcJí rxcsifcJh/ (96) rkdif c&D;u (96) yg;aom a&m*gawGudk pkNyHKcHpm;ae&onfodkYom ajymcsifawmhonf/ rxívnf; rjzpf/ udk,hfrdbudk,hftdrf udk,fh,mr[kwf[laom todpdwfu Edk;qGojzifh vl;vJumx jzpfcJh&onfESifh rdbwkdYaus;Zl;udk atmufarhvmrd&ao;onf/ rdbarwåmudkydkí odem;vnfvmrd&onf/ tdrftay:xyfMurf;jyif? atmufxyfodkYtqif;avScg;? tdrfrBuD;ESifh wGJpyfvsuf rD;zkdaqmif? xrif;pm;cef;? oHk;a&tkd; wkdYxm;&Sd&m vufoef;vHk;cefY cyfpdyfpdyfysOfcif;vomMurf;jyif wkdYudk eif;rd&wkdif; reif;&J&avmufatmif at;pufaeonf[k ajymcsifonf/ ]]Ek;d vmNyvm;...r*FvmeHeufcif;yg}} [k q&mrBu;D vdif D I u EIwfcGef;qufvmcJhjcif;ESifhtwl rdvdIifu uRefawmfrsufESm opfap&eftvkdYiSm a&aEG;ESifh a&at;wkdY a&mpyfxm;onfh aiGzvm;Bu;D uday;vmonf/ rsuEmopf oGm;wkuf oefpifae k f S d Y qJ0,f ywf0ef;usifudkMunhfrdawmh 0ef;usifwpfckvHk;onf ESi;f jrLawGEihf arSmifaeonf/ aqmif;ESi;f rIewu cE¨mud,ukd S f f Ydk k f vmxdonf/ rBuHKpzl; xl;xl;jcm;jcm; jzpfvdkYaeayonf/ tdrftay:xyfodkY jyefwufcJh? acgif;NzD;cJh? ajctdwf vuftw0wfxm;vsuEihf atmufxyfoYkd jyefqif;uma&tdrf d f f S 0ifconf/ aemuf {nhcef;r&S&modtvm OD;av;ode;f ESitwl hJ f d Yk hf trsKd;om;BuD;wpfOD;wkdY qufwDxkdifcHkwdkY0,f xkdifaeMuonfudk uRefawmfawGU&onf/ ]]udk&J a&...'Du q&meJY q&mrwdkYu udk&JudkawGUzdkY vmMuolawG}} ]]aMomf...[kwuhJ [kwuygcifAsm}}...[k uReawmf f f hJ f acgif;ndwfrdonf/ ]]'Dvkd...udk&Ja&...'Du OD;Munfwifh? ZeD;jzpfolu a':arvGifjrifhwJh? tv,fwef;jyq&meJY q&mrwkdYaygh/ olwkdY rSm orD;av;wpfa,muf xGef;um;w,f/ tJ'Dh orD;av;u &efukefrSmt&m&Sdrav;qkdygawmh? nwkef;u udk&JwynfhawG ajymMuwJhpum;xJrSmvJygNyD;om;? udk&J 'DNrdKUudkajymif;a&TU a&muf&Sdvmr,fhtaMumif; oHBudK;pmudk BudKwifay;ydkYcJhol[m 'Du q&m? q&mrwkdY&JU orD;yJaygh...}} ]]aMomf...aMomf...}} [kom todtrSwfjyKrd&if; av;pm;orIjyK&moabmESihfvnf; uRefawmfacgif;ndwfum &SdaerdcJhonf/ ]]udk&Ja&...'Du qwfxrif; (qwfqefESifh aumuf n§i;f qeftjzLa&maESmí aygif;xm;)? b,maMumf? Al;oD;aygif; aMumfwkdYu q&mq&mrwdkYu udk&Jpm;zkdY,lvmay;MuwmuGJU/ 'Du xrif;aMumffylylav;eJY ,kefom;aMumfu OD;av;odef;wkdY tdrfu pDpOfxm;wm at;at;aq;aq;pm; jznf;jznf;pm;? rdwfqufpum;awGajymqkdMu&if;ayghuG,f...}} [laom OD;av;odef; pum;oH/ 28 29 Handbook-18
  19. 19. 30 udka,m (abm*aA') ]]aus;Zl;wif&ygw,fAsm...azmfa&GwJhtodpdwfeJY ckvkd wul;wu,laqmifum a&mufvmMuwmudkyJ uRefawmfu xyfrHaus;Zl;wifaMumif; pum;qkdyg&ap...}} [k qdkrdonf/ rwfwyf&yfaeMu&if;rS tm;vHk;xkdifjzpfMuonf/ ]]cPaemf...OD;eJY a':a':wkdY}} [kajymum tdrftay: xyf&Sd&mwufcJh txkyfwpfxkyfudkqGJum jyefqif;cJhonf/ ]]'gu &efuevufaqmifyg...ykpeajcmufygcifAsm.. k f G f OD;eJY a':a':wkrom;pktwGuf rdwqufvufaqmifqygawmh Yd d f dk nuvJ uReawmfrwaqGeYJ uReawmf0efxrf;awGukd ay;Ny;D yg f h d f f h NyD...'DrSmu ykpGefajcmufu &Sm;w,f? aps;BuD;w,fqkdvkdY..}} txufyguJhodkYajym&if;u uRefawmfonf olwkdYtm; ykpGefajcmufxkyfudk vufaqmiftjzpfay;tyfcJhonf/ ]]tm;em;p&muG,f...ta0;BuD;u o,fvm&w,fvdkY ...}} [k a,musfm;jzpfoluajymqJrSmyif ZeD;jzpfoluvnf; ]]tef;...'DbufrSmawmh ykpGefajcmufu&Sm;wmtrSef yJ? aps;vJjrifhw,f/ q&may;wJh ykpGefajcmufudk Amvacsmif aMumfvkyfNyD; OD;OD;zsm;zsm; q&mawmfBuD;ausmif;udk qGrf;[if; ydkY&r,f...}} [k ajymcJhao;onf/ ]]aMomf...q&m q&mrwdkYcifAsm...uRefawmfhudk q&mvkdYrac:bJ udk&JvdkYbJac:Ekdifygw,f/ emrnftjynhftpHk uawmh ]]&JjrifhvdIif}} yg/ azaz OD;&JacgifjrifheJY arara':nGefY nGeviw&UJ om;wpfO;D yg/ azaz ararwdu i,fi,fuwnf; Yf Id f Ykd Yk u 'DaeYwkdifatmif uRefawmfhudk ]]udk&J}} vkdYyJac:Muwm/ *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 31 ausmif;aepausmif;tyfawmhrS &JJjrifhvdIifvkdYrSnfhac:cJhMuwm yg/ uReawmfeYJ odMucifrifMuolawGuvJ ]]ud&}J } vkyac:a0: f k Yd J Muwmrsm;ygw,f...}} onfodkY uRefawmfuajym...olwdkYuvnf; ]]0ifyg? xGufyg? vmvnfyg? vkdtyfwm&Sd&ifvJajymjyyg...wwfpGrf; orQ ulnDay;yghr,f...}} [k tjyeftvSefajymqkdMu&if;u eHeuftdyf,mx tapmpmudk uRefawmfpm;onf/ olwkdYZeD; armifESHonfvnf; OD;av;odef;wkdYESifh pum;pjrnfajym a&aEG; Murf;aomuf&if; pum;vufqHkawG uscJhMuao;onf/ olwkdYZeD;armifESHonf olwkdYtdrfodkY jyefcgeD;wGif pmtkyf wpftkyfvufaqmifay;onf/ EIwfqufpum;qkd&if;... ]]udk&J...ckvdk a&mufvmwJhwpfckduf xD;vif;qkdwJh a&S;a[mif;NrdKUav;? &mZ0ifxJu NrdKUav;taMumif;udk odap csifvdkY OD;u,lvmcJhwm...at;at;aq;aq; zwfMunhfyg OD;...}} ]]aMomf...[kwuyg cifAsm...aus;Zl;wifygw,f.. f hJ uRefawmfuvJ odcsifaewm MumygNyD wu,fhudk aus;Zl;wif &ygw,fcifAsm..}} olwkdYZeD;armifESH jyefoGm;cJhMuawmh tdrfrD;zdkaqmif &Sd&mrS nDtpfroHk;azmfwkdY uRefawmfhxHa&mufvmcJhMuonf/ ]]q&m OD;&J &Sifh...olwkdYorD; rrarMunfvGifcsKdu tawmfacsmwm vSwmaemf...OD;OD;q&meJY aumif;aumif; odvm;...cifvm;? rrarcsKd&JU rdbESpfyg;qdkwmu orD;wdkY&JU Handbook-19
  20. 20. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol q&m? q&mrawGav pmtoiftjyvJawmfMuw,f/ oabm apwemvJaumif;Muw,f&Sifh}} tBuD;r eef;jrifhvdIifu þodkYES,fpum;qkdvmcJhonf ESifh... ]]uJ...pkef;ua0ra&...OD;udk q&mvdkYrac:eJYawmh/ OD;&JvdkYac:csifac: tudkav;vkdY ac:csifac: [kwfzl;vm;..}} ]][kwfuJhyg tudkav; &Sifh}} wJh ]]at;...at;...tpfudkr&SdwJholav;awGrdkY OD;&Ju tudkav;jzpf&wm 0rf;omw,f/ eef;yxr? eef;'kwd,? eef; wwd, wkdYa&...}} olwkdYvnf;NyHK; uRefawmfvnf;NyHK;&TifpGm &SdaecJhMu&av onf/ NyD;awmh arMunfvGifcsKdESifhuvnf; onfudkvmcgeD;rS awGUcJ& cifrifc&onftaMumif;udk ajymjyay;vdu&ayonf/ h hJ h k f xkdaeYu pae½Hk;ydwf&ufjzpfíwpfaMumif;? um;pD;cJh& aom EGrf;e,frI'PfaMumifhwpfaMumif;aMumifh uRefawmfonf aetdrrwjcm;odYk roGm;jzpfc?hJ reufzefa&mufawmhrS nDtpfr f S oHk;azmfESifhtwl xD;vif;wpfNrdKUvHk;udk vSnhfywfavhvmawmh rnf[k olwkdYawGudkajymxm;onf/ a&aEG;Murf;aomuf&if;u apmapmuay;xm;cJhaom pmtkyfudkpwifum zwfjzpfonf/ ]xD;vif;NrdKU a&TuGeftkyfbk&m;orkdif;}} [k trnfwyf um bk&m;BuD;a*gyutzGJU tusKd;awmfaqmifcsKyf OD;xGef;BuD; u jyKpka&;om;xm;/ ed'gef;rSmyif ]]xD;vif;NrdKUorkdif; a&;jyefvQifvnf; a&TuGeftkyfbk&m;orkdif;rygvQifrNyD; tNrJ 'GefwGJvsuf&Sdjyef&um;}} [k azmfjyxm;av/ jrefrmwkdYrSm ]]jrefrmESifh yk*H}} cGJjcm;ír&ovkd ]]xD;vif;ESifh a&TuGef½kyfapwD awmf}} onf cGJjcm;írjzpf[k qkdxm;ay/ xD;vif;NrdKUav; &mZ0ift& rlvtac:rSm (ol&JNrdKU) [kqkd/ NrdKUwnfonhfckESpfrSm aumZmouú&mZf (110) ck? omoemouú&mZf (1292) ckk[kod&/ a&S;u uav;aus; awmifndKt&yf t&drn (,ck &mZN*dK[f)rS vma&mufwnfcJh onf[k qkd/ yk*Hjynf a&Tavmif;rif;vufxuf eef;ouf av;ES p f a jrmuf a omf ]]apmf b G m ;rif ; eE´ & mZm}} trnf & S d apmfbGm;BuD;wnfonhfNrdKU[k qkdxm;av/ ,ckrsufarSmuf xD ; vif ; Nrd K U taemuf a wmif b uf (2 rk d i f c G J ) cef Y t uG m armacsmif; ta&SUbufwGifjzpf/ Mumaomfarmacsmif; a&vrf ; aMumif ; ajymif ; cJ h o jzif h ,ck t cg armacsmif ; taemufbufukef;jrifhrkdYrkdYwGif[kqkd/ ouú&mZf (453) ckEpwif yk*jH ynf&if tavmif;pnfol S f G h S rif;wkdif;cef;vSnfhvnfawmfrlvmpOf a,majrt&yfa'oodkY a&mufvmcJh/ armacsmif;twkdif; azmifawmfpBuFmjzifh qef wufcJh/ xkdt&yfa'oodkYa&muf&Sd uGef;axmufem;aecdkuf azmifpBuFmOD;&Sd urÁKxD;jzLawmf tvkdvkdyGifhvif;vmawmfrl onfESifh tqkdyga'oudk ]]xD;vif;}} [kac:wGiforkwfapcJh/ armacsmif;a&tvsOf azmifawmfOD;0,f Ak'¨jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif "mwfawmfarGawmfrsm;u a&Tig;Muif;a,mifwlpGmaqmifí uGejYf rL;onfukd ½d;k ½d;k uGejf zifzrf;aomfr&cJ/ ykPm;jzL? ykPm;ndK h h Ö Ö 32 33 Handbook-20
  21. 21. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol [l;&m;ynm&SifwkdYwGufcsufrIt& a&TuGefESifh tkyfzrf;apawmh rS & cJ h / jrwf p G m bk & m;&S i f "mwf a wmf a rG a wmf w k d Y t m; Xmyemí od&d"r®maomurif;BuD; wnfxm;cJhaom apwD a[mif;ae&müyif XmyemoGi;f Ny;D vQif apwDawmfwnfapcJ/ h a&TuGefESifh tkyfzrf;rS&onhf"mwfawmf arGawmfwkdYukd Xmyem jcif;aMumifh ]]a&TuGeftkyfapwDawmf}} [k urÁnf;xkd;rSwf xD;vif;NrdKUt&yf orkwdynwfawmfrlcJhap/ 'kwd,xD;vif;NrdKUonf yk*Haejynfawmf odef;cGefrif; om;awmfa&Tavmif;rif; (yk*Hrif;quf (55) qufwGif (28) qufajrmuf) eef;wufNyD; av;ESpftMum aumaZmouú&mZf (110) ESp?f waygif;vjynhausmf (5) &uf Ak'[;l aeYü apmfbm; f ¨ G eE´&mZmwnfcJhaom xD;vif;NrdKUtm; apmfbGm;tqufquf qufcHcJh/ om;awmforEÅ&mZm? aemufyknpnfol ponf jzifhqufcH/ xkdYaemuf apmfbGm;rif;qufrSm ESpfaygif; (300) ausmfjzwfaecJhonf[kqkd/ yk*Haejynf yk*HEkdifiHawmfBuD; ysuNf y;D aemuf cef;ywfapmfbm;tkycsKycaom xD;vif;NrKd Uum; G f f hJ apmfbGm;qufjywfjyefcJh/ [Hom0wD bk&ifhaemifrif;w&m;BuD;vufxuf ouú &mZf (933) ckESpfü rkd;aumif;apmfbGm;BuD;om; OD;apmeHudk xD;vif;apmfbGm;cefYtyfcJhonfrS ouú&mZf (1119) ckESpfwGif awmifwGif;pm;bGJUcH apmfbGm;OD;usHtxd apmfbGm; (8) quf tkyfcsKyfcJh/ ]]tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; OD;atmifaZ,svufxuf ouú&mZf (1120) ckESpfwGif ,ckxD;vif;NrdKUae&modkY ajymif; a&TUcJh/ OD;usHonf ¤if;nDt&if; oD&dpnfolausmfxifbGJU& twGi;f 0efO;D NzKd ;? *kP;f tkyq&mawmf toQiaZmw,EÅpaom d f f ynm&Sdyk*¾dKvfwkdYESifh wkdifyifí ykPÖm;ynm&SdwkdY wGufcsufay; aomtcgt& ouú&mZf (1120) ckESpf? 'DC-122? &ó? waygif;vjynhfausmf (1) &uf? Ak'¨[l;aeY ae0ifausmftcsdefü pD&ifzG,ftvHk;pHkESifhwuG wmaygif; 273? awmifaygif; 1953? rkdufaygif; 5859? vufopfaygif; 46872? tus,ft0ef;&Sd í we*FaEGaxmifh em&Dwi?f &m[kaxmifh e&Dwirsm;ESihf ta&SU dk dk f rsufESmwGif ¨E´mwHcg;? awmifrsufESmwGif ukef;jrifhwHcg;? taemufrsufESmwGif aZ,smwHcg;? ajrmufrsufESmwGif 0Hom wHcg;? ¤if; (8) XmewkdYudk (NrdKU) [kac:qkd/ Xmewpfcktjzpf owfrwí ausmif;? odr?f ½H;k ? tdr?f ewfue;f ¤if; (5) Xmewkukd S f G Yd wpf N yd K if e uf w nf ; wnf a qmuf í NyD ; avonf . ..}} [k xD;vif;NrdKUwnf orkdif;wGifazmfjyxm;av/ xkdYaMumifh ,ckrsufarSmufüwnf&Sdaeaom þxD;vif; NrdKUonf ,cifNrdKUa[mif;ae&mrS ajymif;a&TUí NrdKUa[mif; trnfjzpfonhf (xD;vif;) NrdKUudkyif xyfqifhcH,lNyD;vQif emr ynwf o wf r S w f u m wnf a xmif c J h j cif ; jzpf o nf / 'k w d , xD;vif;NrdKUyif jzpfayawmh/ yxrxD;vif;NrKd UtaMumif; yk*jH ynh&itavmif;pnfol f S f rif;BuD;uausmufpm a&;xkd;xm;apcJhaom ausmufpmrl&if; onf ukef;abmifacwf tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;vufxufodkY 34 35 Handbook-21
  22. 22. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol a&mufvmcJh/ xD;vif;NrdKUwnf apmfbGm;OD;usHom; NrdKUol BuD;OD;jrwfpHu tavmif;bk&m;OD;atmifaZ,s om;awmf ti,fbkd;awmfOD;0dkif; ac: A'Hkri;fvufxufwGif ausmufpm udkaejynfawmftr&yl&odkY ydkYaqmifay;cJh&/ ausmufpm a[mif;rSm yk*Hacwfta&;tom;jzpfí aESmif;vlrsm;twGuf t"dyÜm,frysuf&avatmif bkd;awmfpyfxkd;ausmufpm[k jyifqifa&;om;apcJ/ a&Tuetyb&m;ausmufpmum; ,ck h G f k f k tcgrEÅav;NrdKU r[mrkedwHwkdif;twGif; bk&m;BuD;taemuf bufwGif wnf&SdaeaMumif;od&Sd&ay/ txufygwkum; taxmuftxm;jynhppm&Saom &mZ Yd f kH G d 0ifxJu xD;vif;NrdKUtaMumif;ygay/ acwfopfyx0D0ifoabmjzifh wifjy&ygvQif xD;vif; NrdKUav;tm; aumif;pGmxifjrifvmEkdifygrnf/ jrefrmEkdifiHajryHkukdMunhfí ajym&ygu rauG;wkdif; taemufajrmuf,Gef;,Gef;? rEÅav;NrdKUBuD; taemufwnhf wnfheD;yg;wGif awGUjrifEdkifonf/ csif;½kd;rawmifwef;BuD; ta&SUbufwGif&Sd/ ta&SUavmif*sDwG'f (94 'D*&D? 41 rdepf 8 puúefY) ESifh (94 'D*&D? 26 rdepf? 18 puúefYtMum;/ vwåDwG'f rSm ajrmufvwåDwG'f (21 'D*&D? 24 rdepf? 8 puúefYESifh (21 'D*&D? 53 rdepf? 28 puúefYtMum; wnf&Sdonf/ ta&SUbufwGif aygufNrdKUe,f? awmifbufwGif aqm NrdKUe,f? ajrmufbufwGif *efYa*gNrdKUe,fESifh taemufbufwGif csi;f jynfe,fwEihf xdpyfvsu&onf/ NrKd Ue,ftus,t0ef;rSm Ydk S f dS f pwk&ef;rkdif (515) &Sdum ta&SU-taemuf (23) rkdifESifh awmif-ajrmuft&Snf (34) rkdifcefY&Sdavonf/ &efukefNrdKUBuD; ESifh rkdifaygif; (590) ausmfcefYtuGmwGif wnf&Sdayonf/ yifv,fESifh a0;uGmNyD; awmifwef;rsm;txyfxyf umqD;aeonf/ yifv,fa&rsufESmyiftxuf (1385) ay tjrifhwGifwnf&Sdaeaom NrdKUav;jzpfonf/ &moDOwktm;jzifh wpfESpfywfvHk; yljyif;onhftcsdefonf wkdawmif;rI&Sdonf/ ESpfpOfrkd;a&csdefvu® (40 rS 60) twGif; &GmoGef;avh&Sdonf/ awmifay:opfawm? &Gufjywfa&mawm? tifwkdif;awmrsm; [lí opfawmBuD;rsm;&SdNyD; uRef;? ysOf;uwkd;? ydawmuf? tifMuif;? opf,m? &if;rm? tif? aESm? axmufBuHU? oif;0if? vufyH? ½Hk;? opfap;? oeyfcg;? 0g; trsKd;rsKd;wkdYtjyif b,aq; yifrsm;vnf; aygrsm;pGmaygufa&mufvsuf &Sdavonf/ xD;vif;NrdKUav;odkY vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;rSm t"du (2) ck&Sdonf/ yxrvrf;rSm rHk&Gm-ykvJ-*efYa*g tNrJwrf;oGm; uwå&mvrf;ay:&Sd a&rsufeD&GmteD;rS z,fcGmumvm&aom vrf;jzpfonf/ xkdz,fcGmvmaomvrf;rSm ajrvrf;jzpfum xD;vif;NrdKUodkY (28) rdkifcefYa0;onf/ rHk&Gm-ykvJ-*efYa*gvrf; twkdif; rkd;&moDwGifoGm;vmMu&onf/ ykvJNrdKUrSaeí yckuúL NrdKUodkYoGm;í&onf/ xdkYaMumifh yckuúL-xD;vif;vrf;c&D; (ykvJ*efYa*gvrf;rS) um;aEGrdk;aqmif;oGm;vmí&NyD; (147) rkdif a0;onf/ 'kwd,vrf;c&D;rSm aqmif;ESifh aEG&moDwdkYwGif oGm;vm 36 37 Handbook-22
  23. 23. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol í&aom ajrom; (yckuúL-ayguf-xD;vif;) vrf;jzpfum (96) rdkifa0;onf/ tcsKyftm;jzifhqkd&ygvQif a&S;a&S;umvrsm;rS &mZ0if xJu NrdKUuav;yifjzpf/ pdrf;pdkvef;qef;aeonfh awmawG awmifawG? jymvJaeonfh rk;d aumifuif;Bu;D ? 0g*Gr;f qkiawGvkd h d f a&GUvsm;aeonfh wdrfawmifwdrfvdyfawGESifh ndKUrdIif;vsuf vGrf;pzG,fNrdKUav;vnf;jzpfíaeavonf/ xdkYjyif..xD;vif;NrdKUav;onf... xdkpOfu xD;vif;NrdKUav;onf tdrfajc (588) ESifh vlOD;a& (3100) om&Sdonf/ t"du &yfuGufBuD; 2 ckowf rSwfxm;onf/ NrdKUv,f uwå&mvrf;rBuD; ta&SUbufydkif; udk &yfuGuf (1)? taemufbufjcrf;udk &yfuGuf (2) [kac: onf/ odkYayrJh trSeftm;jzifh 4 ydkif;&Sdonf[k ajymí&onf/ ajrmufukef;ydkif; (uefawmfav;) ESifh NrdKUuGuftopf azmfxkwf xm;&m (uGufopf) ydkif;[lí NrdKUcHwdkYu cGJjcm;í ajymwwfMu ao;onfhtwGufaMumifh av;ydkif;&Sdonf[k qdk&jcif;yifjzpf onf/ NrdKU awmifbufydkif;rSjzpfap? ajrmufbufydkif;rSjzpfap oGm;MuvmMu&&mwGif NrdKUv,favmufwGif NrdKUv,foHwHwm; BuD;&Sdonf/ ukef;jrifhESpfckMum; tedrfhqHk;tydkif;wGif wnf aqmufxm;onf/ odkYjzpfaomaMumifh pufbD;pD;vQif awmif bufydkif;qdkvQif awmifydkif;oefYoefY ajrmufbufydkif;qdkvQif ajrmufyi;f oefoefY oD;oefpp;D vQiawmh tqifajyonf/ uRef kd Y Y D f awmfu &yfuGuf (2) wGif aexdkifNyD; NrdKUv,foHwHwm;BuD; awmifbufyi;f jzpfum uReawmf½;Hk u oHwwm;Bu;D ajrmuf kd f h H bufydkif;ukef;jrifhwGif jzpfaeonf/ ukef;jrifhESpfckMum; twuf c&D;u pufb;D udk qif;wGe;f um wuf&onf/ xdaMumifh uReawmf Yk f onf pufbD;rpD;jzpfacs/ a&mufcgp&ufrsm;wGif ½kH;ESifhtdrf? tdrfESifh½kH;? aeYESifhn avmufudkom owdxm;rdovdk jzpf&onf/ ,if;wGif txl; ojzifh owdxm;rd&onfuawmh nwmu &Snve;f vSonf[k f G 38 rxifrSwfbJa&mufvdkYvmol wm0ef0wå&m; vkyfxHk;enf;rsm;ESifhtnD wm0efvTJ ajymif;jcif;tydkif;ESifh uRefawmfu vufcH,ljcif;tydkif;wdkY NyD; pD;cJhNyD/ odkYjzpfí ,cifNrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL;ESifhtwl ,ck OD;pD;rSL; uRefawmfonf NrdKUe,ftzGJUtpnf;rsm;jzpfaom NrdKUe,fygwD ,lepf? NrdKUe,fjynfolYaumifpD? vkyfief;ppfaq;a&;? w&m;pD&if a&;? Oya'a&;&mtzGJUwdkY&Sd yk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm;xH "avht& oGm; a&muf*g&0jyK EIwfquf&onf/ oduRrf;cifrif&if;ESD;rIudk tp jyK&onf/ tm;vHk;vdkvdku azmfazmfa&Ga&G &SdvSonf/ ½kd;½kd; om;om; rSefrSef&nf&nfawGom jzpfMuonf/ oabmxm;wdkY aumif;yHk&onf[k uRefawmfxifjrifrdavonf/ yxrueOD; ½kH;pwuf&onfh &ufowåywf ½kH;zGifh&uf twGi;f uReawmfonf aetdrEi½;Hk ? ½k;H ESiaetdrom jzpfae& f f S hf hf f onf/ ½kH;odkY ajcvsifavQmufumoGm;onf/ pufbD;rpD;jzpf/ pufbD;rpD;jzpf&onfhtaMumif;udkvnf; ajymjyOD;rS jzpfrnf/ 39 Handbook-23
  24. 24. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol taotcsmajymí &onf/ aqmif;vv,fvnf; jzpfaeonf/ uRefawmf rSwfom;xm;rdzl;aom taMumif;wpf&yfvnf; &Sd onf/ urÇmajrmufjcrf;wGif usa&mufaeaom EdkifiHwdkYwGif 'DZifbmv 22 &ufaeYnwmonf t&Snq;kH [k jrefrmEdiia0' f k f H tzGJUcsKyfu qdkxm;onf/ nae 4 em&DcefYqdkvQifyif rdk;ucsKyf NyD/ csif;awmifwef;jrifhBuD; awmifajcwGif&Sdaeívm;rod? aerif;BuD;u uG,fonfESifhtarSmifxku pdk;rdk;vmcJh&awmh onf/ onftxJ vQyfppfrD;u rvif;Edkifao;aom NrdKUav; jzpfaejyefawmh xD;vif;rJZmt&yf aqmif;nrsm;um; &SnfvGef;vSacsawmhonf/ vomrSeftdrfESifh za,mif;wdkifudk tm;xm;um npm pm;? n 8 em&DcefYqdkvQifyif wpfNrdKUvHk; wdwfqdwfNidrfouf um qlqnntoHwYkd rMum;&awmh/ tat;"mwfukd umuG,f l H H &ef rdrdwdkY tdrfwHcg;rsm;tm; naerdk;csKyfvQifyif ydwfxm;Mu um vrf;BudK vrf;Mum; vrf;rBuD;wdkY 0,f,lolenf;&onf/ ½kyf&Sif½kHr&Sd? jrif;vSnf;r&Sd? qdkuúm;r&SdaomNrdKUav;jzpfonfrdkY aqmif;umvnbufonf wdwfqdwfNidrfoufvGef;um &Sdae avonf/ uRefawmfum; nbufa&mufvQif vomrD;tdrfjzifh pm zwfonf/ pmtkyftiSm;qdkif[lí r&Sdao;awmh eD;pyf&mwdkYrS r*¾Zif;a[mif;? 0w¬Kta[mif;awGudk iSm;&rf;apum zwfjzpf onf/ nwdkif;eD;yg;vnf; ]]'Hkrif;} wD;cwfoDcsif;qdkrd&onf/ tdyf&m0if rD;rSdwf? rsufpdydwfaomfjim; csufjcif;qdkovdk tdyíraysm?f n 10 em&DausmcefqvQif armacsmif;taemuf f f Y kd buf awmifpOfawmwef;qDrS qif;vmMuaom awmacG;[loH wkdYum; aqmif;nOfh,Hnrsm;wkdif;rSm Mum;ae&onf/ Mumvm aomf awmacG;awGu awmwef;ukef;jrifhrS qif;vmMuum ,mcif;? v,fuGif;wkdYudk jzwfoef;vsuf armacsmif;pyfqD a&mufvmavh&Sdonfudk cefYrSef;íodaewwfNyD/ acs(*sD) a[mufoHudkvnf; rMumrMumMum;&wwfonf/ zkd;acgif iSufuav; om,maomjrnfoHuvnf; nwkdif;vkdvkdMum; ae&onf/ olwkdYawGum; xD;vif;qkdaom awmNrdKU? xkdYaemuf awmifay:NrKd Uav;u aqmif;nrsm; zGm;zufawmfrsm;[kajym &rvm;rod ? awmobm0 tqif w ef q mawG [ l í vnf ; wifpm;íqkd&rnfxifonf/ nOfhv,fwpfa&;Edk;í tdyfr&tdyfraysmfwwfaom nrsm;wGif uRefawmfonf ckwifab;jyLwif;wHcg;udk tom t,mzGifhMunhfrdvQifjzifh tat;"mwfu ododomompdrfhueJ at;atmifaqmif;avu ,laqmifvmonf/ n..n udkif; nTwfaeaom tkef;vuftkef;&Gufrsm;ay:rS ESif;usoH? opfyif BuD;rsm;ay:&Sd tjrifhydkif;opf&Gufrsm;rS atmufydkif;opf&Gufrsm; ay: tqifvutqihvuf ESi;f a& ESi;f aygufwu waysmuf h dk f f dk Ykd aysmuf E S i f h r&yf r em; ouf q if ; usa&muf a eoH w k d Y t m; uRefawmfjrifae& Mum;ae&onf/ jymodkwkdifcJhojzifh cGmndK oZifvdIifcJhNyD/ ESif;aomuf u,f&Tif&Tif yGifhzl;awGqifum yGifhcsifwkdif;yGifh? vScsifwkdif;vS 40 41 Handbook-24
  25. 25. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol qD;ESi;f pd&onfh tcgor,aywnf;/ oZif cGmndKoif;&eHxí k JT Y kH at;yHkrSmurf;ukefavmufonfqdkaom ]]csrf;yHkrSm urf;ukef&pf wmrkdY ref;wkefatmif vrf;qHku [pfcsifawmh...}} [lonfh tcsKyfwef;q&mazudk owd&vmrdonf/ opfyifopf&Guftm;vHk;u ]]a&Tpufa&Tajymuf aiGcuf aiGajymuf a&T&nfaiG&nfaomuf}} aeMuonf/ toJ (onf;) cdkufwrQ csrf;aomat;jraom aqmif;jzpfaeonf/ ]]rcsrf;yg bl;}} [k tm;wif;xm;aomfvnf;r&/ &efukeftdrfrS ,laqmif vmcJhaom AE¨Kvaqmif? csnfapmifESifhr&avmuf[kqkdum bBuD;odef;wkdYuxkwfay;vmcJhonfh *Grf;aqmifESifh a,mwif; wdrfapmiftrnf& csnfxnfapmifBuD;oHk;xnftygt0if pkpk aygif;apmif ig;xnftxyfxyf NcHKxm;cJhonfyifvQif tat; "mwfurvHkcsif/ ajcqefYí ajcay:vQif ajcuat;í vuf azmfvQif vufuat;&onfukd ay:onfEicsujf cif;od&onf S hf txdjzpf&onf/ jymodkvrSmrS onfiSmaeodkY a&mufvm&ol uRefawmfhtzkdY nwmt&SnfqHk;v tat;qHk; tcsrf;qHk;vudk rarhEkdifawmh tonf;(oJ) ckdufwrQ at;aomvygwum;/ vjymodkudk &moDtvkd rum&[kqdk/ zkoQeu©wfESifh pef;,SOfNydKifjynhfum Owå&momVf eu©wfESifh aerif;wdkY,SOf/ ykpGefwm&m xGef;y/ &moD½kyfrSm orifESifh ig;½kyf (wpfenf;) a&xrf;orm; (wpfenf;) rum&f½kyfjzpf/ em&Dtm;jzifh nOfh (36) em&D&Sd[lonfudk ajy;íuRefawmfjrifrd/ xdktwkdif; xD;vif;NrdKUav;wGif jzpfaeayawmh/ nOf h w m&S n f v G e f ; vS o nf h onf N rd K Uav;rS m n n uRefawmfonf tMumBuD;auG;um rtdyfEkdifawmh/ auG;& vGef;í anmif;vmawmhonf/ tdyf&mxJwGif qufraecsif awmh/ odkYjzpfí onfaqmif;&ufrsm;wGif eHeuftapmBuD;x um vrf;avQmufjzpfawmhonf/ &efukeftdrfrSqdkvQif eHeufig;em&DcGJcefYwGif uRefawmf vrf;avQmufxGufaeusjzpfonf/ onfrSm eHeufajcmufem&D cGJvnf;arSmifaeqJ? 0g;wpf*dkuftuGmavmufudkom jrif& onf/ ESi;f jrLawGu xH;k pHtwki;f zH;k vTr;f um ydwq;D íaeonf/ d f xD;vif;aqmif;qkonfu aeYwi;f vkyif þodjYk rifaeMu&onf d dk d om[kqMdk uonf/ yg;pyfu[ç vkuwi;f rSmvnf; taiGUawGu d f dk xG u f v d k Y o maeawmh o nf / vl p if p pf u e*g;jzpfvm&NyDqkd&awmh rvdkyif/ wu,fyg wcsKdUae&ufrsm;wGif aomufa&tkd; oHk;a& tkd;rsm;wkdYwGif&Sdaeaom a&wkdYonftay:,Hwif;íaeonf/ naeydkif; ½Hk;uqif;vQif armacsmif;wGifuRefawmfa&csKd;onf/ ck&ufydkif; aeYpOfa&rcsKd;Ekdifawmh/ tdrf&SdtkwfuefxJrS a&ukd a&aEG;ESifhpyfum a&csKd;ukd,fvufoefYpif&jcif;rsKd; jzpf&awmh onf/ a[refat;pdrfhrIu ajrmufjyefavESifhtwl tonf; udkckdufckdufwkefatmif csrf;apíjzpfavonf/ ]]rdk;avmufjyif;xef oGef;csjyefaomf a&mif0grxGef; csrf;&SmvGef;í...}} qkdcJhavol vuf0JokE´&trwfBuD; tcsrf;ESifh tvGrf;udk vrf;avQmuf&if;u owd&rdvmonf/ 42 43 Handbook-25
  26. 26. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol tvGrf;tuJqHk;ESifh tcsrf;toJqHk; a,m&yfrJZm xD;vif;NrdKU av; aqmif;&ufrsm;udk BuHKae&ol uRefawmfhrSmawmh udk,fh qE´ESifh udk,frkdYomjzpfí tjypfajymírjzpfawmh/ &efukefudk jrefajy;csifpdwfu ay:vmrdcJhonfuawmh trSef? qE´&nf &G,fcsuftwGufqkdawmhvnf; udk,fhtjypfESifh udk,fom&Sdygap awmh[k tm;wif;umaevkduf&awmhonf/ onfvEihf xD;vif;wpfNrKd UvH;k udvnf; ESEpyfpyfa&muf dk S k YH YHS cJh odEdkifcJh&ygNyD/ NrdKUe,f&SdygwD? aumifpDuzdwfMum;aom tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;? XmewdkY vkyfief;qkdif&mudpö&yfESifh oufqiaom tpnf;ta0;yGrsm;? tm;upm;yGqi&m tpnf; dk f J J dk f ta0;yGJrsm;? vlrIa&;? omoema&;ESifh pyfvsOf;aom tpnf; ta0;yGrsm; ponfwukd wufa&muf&jcif;ESitwl Xmeqki&m J Ydk hf d f tBuD;tuJrsm;ESifhvnf; jrefjrefqefqef odvm&ovkdjzpf& awmhonf/ txl;ojzifhawmh NrdKUe,fpm&if;½Hk; 0efxrf;rsm;ESifhu txl;cifrifaecJhNyD/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh pm&if;ppfrsm;? pm&if; ppfrSL;rsm;rSm &efukefpD;yGm;a&;wuúodkvfqif;rsm;jzpfMuonf/ trdwuúovBf u;D taMumif; q&m? q&mrBu;D awGtaMumif;u kd tp taMumif;pHkwkdYudk ajymMu&&if;u ajymrem qkdremjzpf oGm;cJhMu&NyD/ ruif;&m ruif;aMumif; todtuRrf; cifrif olawGvnf;jzpfMu&um aysmf&TifrIudk&aponf/ wzefNrdKUe,f jynfolYaumifpD½Hk; ½Hk;tzGJU0efxrf;rsm;ESifh uvnf; cifrifvm&onf/ uRefawmfwdkY½Hk;Xmesvkyfief;u rsm; aomtm;jzifh jynfolYaumifpDESifh teD;uyfpyfqkdif qufoG,f tm;jyKaqmif&Guf&jcif;aMumifhvnf; jzpfygonf/ xkdodkYESifh onfumvrsm;wGif vkyfief;wm0efrsm;u em;&onf[lír&SdvS/ rwfvukefwGif wkdif;½Hk;&Sd&m rauG;NrdKU odkY uRefawmfoGm;a&muf&onf/ NrdKUe,fwpfckvHk; ESpfcsKyf pD;yGm;a&; pDrHudef;taumiftxnfazmfEdkifrI tpD&ifcHpm tpnf;ta0;ESifh XmeaiGpm&if;rsm;udpöwkdYjzifh wkdif;OD;pD;rSL;ESifh awGU&? udk,fhvkdyif wkdif;twGif;&Sd (25) NrdKUe,fu NrdKUe,fOD;pD; rSL;tcsif;csif;awGUMu&? wkdif;½Hk;&Sdvkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;ESifh qHk& awmhaysmf&Tif&onf/ wkdif;rSL;BuD;u ajym&Smygonf/ ]]&efukefom; udk&Ja& wm0efus&mNrdKUe,frSm aeom;us NyDvm;/ ajrjyefYa'oudk vm&jyef&wJhtcg NcHKvTmeJYtdyf,mvdyf rygvdkYuawmh c&D;roGm;aveJYqkdwm&,f um;aMumifh&,f.. &moDOwkaMumif&,f...awmifNyKd wwm;ysuf acsmif;a&usvYkd h H BuHK&mrSmZ&yfrSm tdyfwwfMu&wwfwmawG&,f...qkdwm awGudk odxm;NyDaygh..udk&J&JU rdcifvkdvJjzpf? tBuD;trSL;BuD; wpfO;D vJjzpfwhJ 'k-nTeMf um;a&;rSL; ararBu;D uawmh uReawmhf f qDvr;f vSr;f zke;f qufwm oH;k av;Bur&NdS y/ cifAsm;wkNYd rKd Ue,fu S d f D w,f v D z k e f ; quf o G , f a &;pepf u vnf ; r&S d a o;avawmh cifAsm;udk uRefawmfjyefrajymjyEdkifcJhbl;/ cifAsm;udk tawmf cif&Smapwemxm;&Smwm? trBuD;u uRefawmfhq&m&if;rkdY aMumuf&w,fAs odvm;..cifAsm;uawmh wu,fygyJ.../ 44 45 Handbook-26
  27. 27. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol rauG;a&mufcuf zke;f qufvuygOD;/ trBu;D u ud&ukd kd dk f k J awmfawmfMunhwmyJaemf...olqze;f rquf&if uReawmfukd f Y D k f h ]]aum}} aeOD;r,fAs...}} ]]wkdif;rSL;BuD;cifAsm;...[dkudkpwifa&mufcJhNyD;NyD;csif; tarBu;D qDukd uReawmfpma&;ay;ydcNhJ y;D ygNy/ c&D;Murf;? aea&; f Yk D xkdifa&;? vkyfief;a&;&m? NrdKUav;taMumif; tpHktvifygyJ/ 'kw,NrKd Ue,fO;D pD;rSL;? wpfO;D vnf;&SrjS zpfrmqkwmvJ xnfa&; d d S d h cJhygw,f..}} [lí uRefawmfajymjzpfcJhygonf/ ]]tef;...udk&Ja&...cifAsm; aemufvxJrSm wkdif;udk wpfacgufvm&OD;rSmaemf/ ESpfpOfESpfwkdif; aqmif&Gufaeusjzpf wJh A[ku&nfre;f csuawGup?ö NrKd Ue,ftvkuf pDrue;f &nfre;f d S f d d H d S csufrsm; wm0efay;tyfyGJudpö? NrdKUe,fwkdif;&JU &-oHk;rSef;ajc aiGpm&if;rsm;udpö...}} ]][kwfuJhyg cifAsm...}} [k uRefawmfajym&ygonf/ rMumvkdufyg/ xD;vif;NrdKUe,f jynfolYaumifpDOuú| (r.y.u Ouú | )? v,f , mopf a wm om;ig;wm0ef c H (r.y.u tzGJU0if)ESifh uRefawmfwkdYjzpfonf/ wkdif;aumifpD wGif tpnf;ta0;yGJBuD; wufa&mufMu&onf/ tpnf;ta0;yGJBuD;NyD;awmh xHk;pHtwkdif; wkdif;rSL;BuD;xH uRefawmfa&muf&onf/ ]]udk&Ja& tarBuD;qD zkef;qufzdkY rarheJYaemf}}...[k ajymvmcJhygonf/ onf w pf B ud r f c &D ; uawmh ryef ; vS [ k q k d & ayrnf / taMumif;um; r.y.u ydkif rmZ'g*spfjzifh vmcJh&? jyefcJh& ojzifh vloufomygonf/ xD;vif;NrdKUudk jyefvnfa&muf&SdcJhNyD;onfESifh ]]xD;vif; NrdKUe,f ESpfpOfpDrHudef; &nfrSef;csufrsm; wm0efay;tyfyGJ}} twGuf pDpOfp&mrsm;udk pDpOf&awmhonf/ &yfuuEihf aus;&Gm G f S wpf&Gmcsif;pDtvkduf jynfolydkifor0g,rydkif yk*¾vduydkif tvkduf? oD;ESHwpfckcsif;tvkduf aqmif&Guf&efrsm;um; aqmif &Gufae&awmhonf/ r.y.u ESifhtwl vkdtyfvQif tpnf; ta0;ESifh awGUqHkaqG;aEG;rIudk XmetBuD;tuJBuD;rsm;ESifh tao;pdwfpDpOfae&onf/ aeYrtm; nrem;qkdouJhodkY jzpf& avonf/ xkdpOf&ufrsm;twGif; wpfaeYaomtcgrSmawmhuRefawmf½Hk;odkYtvm vrf;wGifNrdKUe,fygwD,lepf Ouú| BuD;ESifh qHkonf/ vrf;avQmufvmMu&if;...]]vmAsm udk&J&m ...0efxrf;oufomqkirm vufzuf&nfaomuf&if; axG&m d f S av;yg; pum;ajymMuao;wmaygh}}...[k qkdvmcJhí xkdqkdif odkYa&mufcJh&onf/ vufzuf&nfaomuf&if; pum;pjrnfajymaeckuf teD; d tem;0ef;usif&Gmrsm;rS vlyk*¾dKvftcsKdUwkdYu ygwDOuú|BuD;udk awGUMuawmh 0ifa&mufEwqufum pum;vufqusaecJjh yef I f kH onf/ eHeuf (10;00) em&Dxkd;cgeD;rS vufzuf&nfqkdifrS xcJh Mu? vrf;avQmufum ½Hk;odkYa&mufcJh&onf/ uRefawmf½Hk;odkY 46 47 Handbook-27
  28. 28. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol a&mufaomf ½Hk;twGif;&Sd pm;yGJtvGwfwpfckay:0,f pm;p&m awGtjynhtpHEihf jzpfaeonfukd uReawmfjrifawGUvku&onf/ hf k S f d f xl;jcm;aeonf/ uReawmfonf pyfpyfppvywwfol r[kwírar;jzpf f k k k f f acs/ aqmif&Guf&rnhf rNyD;jywfao;aom pm&if;Z,m;rsm; udpöudkom pdwftm½Hkua&mufaeonf/ vufESdyfpufwif&ef? pmul;pufwGifvdSrfh&ef? za,mif;puúLwGif vufESdyfpuf½dkuf&ef rsm;? za,mif;azmufNyD;í jyefvnfpDpOf&efrsm; ponfjzifh&Sd onf/ NrdKUe,fcsKyfpmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf vdktyfaom pmtkyfta&twGufpm&if;? Xmeqkdif&mtoD;oD;odkY cGJa0ay;& rnhfpm&if;? &yfuGufESifh aus;&Gmwpfckcsif;pDtwGuf oufqkdif &mpm&Gupmwrf;pm&if;Z,m;? jynfoyif or0g,rydif yk*vu f l kd k ¾ d ydkifrsm;udpö? cGJa0csxm;rIrsm;tm; vpf[mrIrjzpf&avatmif aqmif&Gufaerdonf/ xkdpOfwGif &D&Dar ½Hk;cef;twGif;0ifvmoHudk uRefawmf Mum;onf/ rMunhfrd? rMunhfjzpf? udka0vif;u vufESdyfpuf ½dkufaeonf/ wpfpHkwpfa,muf 0ifvmoHvkdvkdvnf; Mum; onf/ tav;rxm;rd uRefawmfhpm;yGJa&SU&Sd {nhfonfxkdif&ef cHkteD;wGif wpfa,mufaomol rwfwwf&yfvmovkdvkdxif onf/ ]]OD;pD; OD;&JjrihfvdIif&Sifh...}} qkdaomtoHudk Mum;vkduf&ojzifh toH&Sif&Sd&mudkarmh Munfhjzpfonf/ ]]tk}d }...[k tmar#dwoxuvmcJ&&if; uReawmfrm f H G f h f h S tHhMojcif;? thhHtm;oifhjcif;ESifh tidkufrdovdk jzpfoGm;cJh&onf/ ½kwfw&uf jyefvnfum owdxm;jzpfawmhrS... ]]aMomf...a':arMunfvGifcsKdygvm; xkdifygAsm/ bm taMumif;udpöESifh b,fu b,fvkda&mufvkdYvmcJh&ygvdrfh/ ZmwdNrdKUudk cGifheJYjyefvmw,fqkdygawmh...NyD;awmh vGrf;p&m vJ&SdaecJhvdkYeJY wlyg&JU...}} uRefawmfajymcJh...olwkdifcJhonf/ ]]q&ma&...q&m tHhMo&atmifvdkYqkdNyD; rrarcsKdu EIwfydwfxm;vkdYrajymjzpf&wmyg/ 'DrSm a&aEG;Murf;vJ&NyD; rkefY [if;cg;vJtoifjh yifvuawmhr,f/ rkeawGuvJpvYkd tJ'gawG dk f Yf kH tm;vH;k [m rrarcsK&UJ apwemawG vufaqmifawGaygh...}} d [k &D&Daru ajymvmcJhonf/ ]]aMomf . ..aMomf . ..pm;rS m aygh . ..}}[k q k d u m uRefawmfwkdYtm;vHk;onf pm;p&mawGjyifqifxm;&m pm;yGJqD odkYa&mufMu&onf/ pkpk½Hk;½Hk;ESifh pm;Mu a&aEG;Murf;aomufcJh MuESifh jzpfaecJhavonf/ txl;txl; tm;vHk;aysmf&Tifrd&onfh pum;um; olrrdbESpfyg;rSvGJí rnfolYtm;rQ ajymjyrxm; ao;onfhpum;yifjzpfygonf[k odvm&jcif;yif/ ,if;um; tjcm;r[kwf/ a':arMunfvGifcsKdonf uRefawmfhXmeodkY ]]'kwd, NrdKUe,fpDrHudef;rSL;tjzpf wm0efeJY ajymif;a&TUvmcJhwmygq&m}} ...qkdaompum;ygay/ 48 49 Handbook-28
  29. 29. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol onfodkYajymqkdvmjcif;ESifh wygwnf; &efukef (A[kd ½Hk;csKyf) rS e,fajymif;trdefYpmudk uRefawmfhxHay;tyfvmcJh onf/ ]]½H;k csKyrm tajymif;ta&TUatmf'gatmuf (Order Out) f S wmeJY OD;&JjrifhvdIif&JU 'knTefrSL;tarBuD; (ararpk) u uRefrudk ac:awGUwm? uRefrudkvJ aoaocsmcsmMunhfaevdkufwm uRefrpdwfxJ wpfrsKd;jzpf&ao;&JU.../ ]]orD;...OD;&JjrifhvdIifqkdoludk awGUzl;ovm;/ orD;u xD;vif;NrdKUol tppfyJvm;? arG;&yfajrZmwdrSm ckxufwkdif aexkdifaeolyJvm;}} [k pum;awGar;vmcJhonf[k ajymvmcJhonf/ ]][kwfygw,f&Sif...uRefrarG;zGm;&m ZmwdvJjzpf? ckxd wkdifvJ rdbESpfyg;wkdY&Sd&m xD;vif;NrdKUrSmaexkdifqJ jzpfygw,f &Sifh...}} ]]aMomf...at;...at;...aumif;wmayghuG,f.. ydkNyD;awmif oabmusao;w,f...xD;vif;NrdKUolrS [kwfyg &JUvm;vdkY? ewfwkdYwkdif;jynfursm; a&mufvmw,fxif&w,f/ tawmfhudkacsmwJh vSwJholav;rkdY...}} [k 'k nTefrSL;BuD;u aphaphMunhfum ajymvmawmh arMunf v G i f c sKd r S m raewwf rxk d i f w wf q k d o uJ h o d k Y E S , f &SufaoG;awGjzmum acgif;iHkYaerd&ao;onf[kvnf; &,f&,f armarmajymcJhao;onf/ ]]tif;....a,me,folav;awGu orD;vkdyJacsmMu w,fxifygh/ udk&Jwpfa,mufawmh Asmrsm;&OD;awmhrSmygyJ/ orD;ue,fajrcHrdkY udk&Judkapmifha&Smufay;ygaemf/ udk&Ju pdwf&if;vJtvGefaumif;wmuGJU/ ulnDwwf ,dkif;wwfwwf aysmfaysmfaewwf oabmaumif;wJh pdwf"mwft&if;cHeJYrkdY wpfaMumif;? t&G,fuvJ i,fao;? bGJU&½kyfacsm olYrdbrsm; uvJ csrf;omolawG ynmwwfawGjzpfjyef? udk&Ju Opömayg ½kyfacsmt&m&SdvJ jzpfjyefqkdawmh pdk;&drfw,fuGJU...rawmf wa&mfawG rjzpfapcsib;l / aemiftem*wfrmvJ &mxl;Bu;D Bu;D f S eJY wm0efBu;D Bu;D awGukd xrf;aqmifEir,foayyJrYdk vJygw,f}}/ dk f h l ½k;H csKyu rluvJyJ NrKd Ue,ftawGUtBuKH r&Sao;&if &mxl; f d BuD;BuD;awGtwGuf &mxl;wdk;jr§ifhray;bl;qdkawmh ole,fudk ajymif;a&TUjzpfwm trSefu olYudk &efukefwdkif;twGif;u NrdKU e,fwpfckckudk ajymif;a&TUay;rdkYygyJ.../ udk&J udk,fwdkifuyJ a,mapou xD;vif;NrdKUudk pdwf0if pm;owJ?h xD;vif;udyJ oGm;csiowJ...]]ysL}} qdvm;? ]]awmifom;}} k f h k qdkvm; vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;udk okawoejyKcsifavhvmcsifw,fqdk vGef;vdkY.../ at;av.. olYazazuvJ ordkif;Xmeu t&m&SdBuD; wpfO;D ayud;k / olararuvJ wuúovwpfcu ordi;f uxdu Y kd f k k aygh... ararpkeJYcifrif&if;vJjzpf nDtpfr0rf;uGJvJjzpf.. nDtpfrt&if;awGvdkyJ cspfMu&wm.../ udk&J&JU qE´udkvJ 'DuorD;av;u yHhydk;ulnDay;apvdkyg w,fu,... ud&u ]]ordi;f bmomuda&m pD;yGm;a&;bmom G f k J k k 50 51 Handbook-29
  30. 30. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol &yfudka&m odyfpdwf0ifpm;wJhol.../ at;av... ordkif;tpOfudk rarhwm? ordkif;udkazmf xkwfwm? ordkif;udktpOfxdef;odrf;wm? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk awGtcsif;csif; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrIudk jzpfapwm.. awG[m trsKd;*kPf? Zmwd*kPfjrifhrm;a&;eJY ,Ofaus;rItarGtESpfrsm;? trsKd;om;a&;vu©Pmrsm; raysmufrysufatmif xdef;odrf; apmifha&Smufa&;wdkYtwGuf r&Sdrjzpf&SdygrS? rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf&Sif oefxufjrufrSmaygh.. 'grSvJ jynfaxmifpkBuD; rNydKuGJrSm? tcsKytjcmtmPm wnfwciNf rrmav... uRe;f eJui;f wnf f hH kd J S Y kd rSDwJhyrmayghuG,f.../ udk&Ju wpfaumif<uufwpfrsufESmqdkwmvdk orD;wdkY&JU xD;vif;NrKd Uav;rSm &if;&if;ES;D ES;D todtuRr;f vJr&SbeYJ qE´twGuf d J vkyfief;½kH;twGuf owåd&Sd&SdeJYoGm;wmudkyJ tHhMord&w,f... wu,fygyJuG,f.../ uJ...uJ a&mufvkd&mvrf;c&D;qHk;odkYwkdif ab;roD &efrc cvkwfrxd ql;rNidyJa&muf&SdEdkif&um EkdifiHhwm0efrsm; udkvJ ausausyGefyGef xrf;aqmifEkdifwJh 0efxrf;aumif;jzpfEdkif ygap/ rdbq&morm;eJY udk,fhxufBuD;jrifhwJh vlBuD;t&m&Sd vlBu;D olrawG&UJ jynhpreuefwhJ pum;awGuem;axmifvsuf f kH S f kd teaEÅmteEÅig;yg;udk tpOfrarhwJh vdr®ma&;jcm;&SdwJh orD; tvdr®mav;jzpfygapuG,f...jrefrmrdefuav; yDoygap uG,f...}} [lí 'k nTefrSL;BuD;u pum;awGrSmcJh ajymcJhonfESifh olrtaejzifh ararpkxm;vuftkyfcsD uefawmhrdcJh&aMumif; olYukd om"k om"k om"k [k om"kawGac:umvQif at;at; NyHK;NyHK;acgif;udk NidrfhumNidrfhum usef&pfaecJhyHkwkdYukd pHkvifpGm ajymjycJhonf/ olr ajymjyvmcJhonfh pum;rsm;udk em;qifMu&if;u uRefawmfwkdYtm;vHk;rSm MunfEl;&TifMunfcJh 0rf;omaecJhMu& avonf/ tqHk;wGif uRefawmfrSwpfyg; arMunfvGifcsKd &D&Dar udka0vif;wkdYrSm NrdKUav;ui,fi,f wpfNrdKUxJom;csif;jzpfae½Hk ru aqGrsKd;eD;pyfawGvnf;jzpfum wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; wpftdrf ESifh wpftdrf rdom;pkcsif;vnf; &if;ESD;cJhMuNyD;rkdY ydkíyifaysmf&Tif csrf;ajrUp&m aumif;aearawmhonf/ tpm;taomuf0kdif;udk pum;jzpfMu&if;u tm;vHk; a&SUarSmufü uRefawmfonf arMunfvGifcsKdudk pum;wpfcsKdU ajymcJh&onf/ ]]'Drm a':arMunfvicsK...wu,fuawmh arcsK[m S G f d d a':arMunfvGifcsKdjzpfvmcJh&NyDqkdwmudk trsm;uodvmMuyg vdrfhr,f/ av;pm;wJh oabmeJYygyJ...NrdKUarwåmudkcH,lwJh oabmudvufc&rSmaygh...q&mrvdvJ ac:MuvdrO;D r,f... k H Yk hf uReawmfukd ]]q&m}} vdac:aeMuw,f/ 'gudk uReawmf f h Yk f vufcHygw,f... 52 53 Handbook-30
  31. 31. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 'gayr,fh a':arMunfvGifcsKdtaeeJYu uRefawmfhudk q&mvdYk rac:ygeJvmAsm...&efuef ½H;k csKyrmvkd ud,tcsi;f Y k f S k hf csi;f &if;ES;D aeMuwJh oabmrsK;d eJY ac:ovkrsK;d omac:ygAsm...}} d ]]q&mu q&mygyJ&Sif...}} [k arcsKdu jyefajymvmcJh ygonf/ ]][m..r[kwfao;ygbl;Asm...}} [k uRefawmfqdkcJhrd onf/ xkdpOftcgwGif &D&Daru Mum;u0ifvsuf ]]'Dvkd q&m&JU...usrwkdYtm;vHk;u q&mhudk q&mhvkdY yJ ac:Mu&rSmygyJ/ q&mu Xme&JUtBu;D tuJu;kd a':arMunf vGifcsKdusawmh t&m&Sdrav;jzpfvdkY vmwmrSefayr,fh uRefr wkdYuawmh ]]rrcsKd}} vkdYyJac:aerdrSmyg...EIwfusKd;aecJhNyDudk;? tpnf;ta0;wkdY bmwkdYrSmqkd&ifawmh owdxm;NyD; a':ar MunfvGifcsKdvdkY ajym&rSmayghaemf...}} q&meJY rrcsKd ESpfOD;twGufuawmh 'Dvkdac:Mu&if aumif;rvm; q&mOD;&JjrifhvdIifqkdwmxuf ]]q&m&J}} aygh? 'grS r[kwf ]]OD;&J}} aygh r[kwfzl;vm;/ q&mu rrcsKdudkac:zdkY&mrSmawmh udk,fhxuftouf t&G,ftm;jzifhvJi,f? udk,fhu tBuD;tuJjzpfaejyefqkdawmh wpfcsKdUuac:Muovkd ]]q&mr}} qkd&ifvJ r[kwfjyefbl;}} [k pOf;pm;&if; &,faeawmhonf/ aemufrS pum;jyefqufvmcJh jyefonf/ ]]tkd...[kwfNyDq&m...wpfNrdKUvHk;u ac:aeMuwm u ]]arcsKd}} yJ Opöm/ &NyD q&ma&...a':arcsKd odkYr[kwf arcsKdayghaemfq&m...tJ'gyJ oifhawmfygw,f/ aumif;yg w,faemf.../}} ½Hk;tul udka0vif;uvnf; axmufcHcJhonf/ ]]ac:csiovdomac:awmh q&mOD;&Ja&}}...[k &if;ES;D f k azmfa&GaomyHkpHjzifh a':arMunfvGifcsKdu 0dkif;zGJUaecJhMuaom pm;aomuf0dkif;udk tqHk;owfapcJhum tvkyfvkyfMu&ef pwif [efjyKMuawmhonf/ ]]tef;...[kwfyg&JU a':arcsKd...tJ arcsKda&aemf.. [kwfNyDvm;/}} ]][kwuyg&Sihf OD;&J...tJ...ud&..q&m&J &Si...}} f hJ k J hf ]][kwfuJhyg...[kwfuJhyg Asm rxifrSwfbJ a&mufvdkY vmola&...}} 54 55 csif;-Arm *E¦0ifcspfMunfa&;NrdKUav;eJY orD;ysKd arMunfvicsKd G f 'k- OD;pD;rSL; a':arMunfvGifcsKd ac: arcsKda&mufvmcJh ojzifh uRefawmfwdkY tm;ydk&SdcJhMu&onf/ rdrd½kH;Xme zGJUpnf;yHk t& 0efxrf;tiftm;zGJUpnf;yHktwdkif; 0efxrf;tiftm;tjynfh t0 cefYxm;Edkifa&;udk qufvufwifjyaqmif&Guf&OD;rnf vnf; jzpfygonf/ uReawmfqonfuvnf; ]]a&Al;aygufwmrvd... a& f kd k ygzdkYomvdk}} [lonfhpum;uJhodkY rjzpfEdkifqdkaompum;oHudk jzpfEif rajymcsiojl zpfygonf/ vkyief;vkyaqmif&mwdi;f wGif kd f f f k Handbook-31
  32. 32. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol rnnf;rnLjzifh atmifjrifNyD;ajrmufatmif twwfEdkifqHk;pGrf; aqmifcsi?f pGr;f aqmifwwfonfh vlpm;rsK;d jzpfygonf/ onfvkd tm;BudK;rmefwuf pdwf"mwftrsKd;rsKd;udkom uRefawmfBudKuf ESpfoufavh&Sdygonf/ onfodkYaom oabmxm;jzifhonf NrdKU e,fav;wGif uRefawmfonf EdkifiHwm0efudk BudK;pm;xrf; aqmifaeygonf/ trSefawmh uRefawmfhXmeonf þNrdKUe,fav;wGif þ 0efxrf; (4) OD;ESiyif vkyief;rsm;udk atmifjrifatmif EdiEif hf f k f kd eif;eif;ESifh xrf;aqmifaejcif;vnf; jzpfygonf/ wpfNrdKUe,f vH;k twGuf tvGeta&;ygaom ta&;Bu;D aomvkyief; pDrue;f f f H d vkyfief;BuD;rsm;wdkYudk jynfolwdkYu Edk;Edk;Mum;Mum; wufwuf <u<uESifh atmifjrifatmif taumiftxnfazmfaqmifEdkif wdkYyif jzpfygonf/ wpfe,fvHk; pm;0wfaea&;? pD;yGm;a&;? ynma&;? usef;rma&;? vlrIa&;tp&Sdaom u@wdkif;wGif vsmxm;&nfrSef;csufrsm; jynfhrDzdkYvdkonf/ oufqkdif&mu@ toD;oD;wdkY xkwfvkyfrIrsm; wdk;wufzdkYvdkonf/ ukeueajym&ygvQif atmufajc tajccHtqifh aus;vuf f kf zGHUNzdK;rIr&SdbJ NrdKUjyzGHUNzdK;rIudk azmfaqmifí r&Edkifay/ ]]uRef; udkif;rSD udkif;uRef;rSD}}qdkonfh pum;&yftm;vnf; av;av; eufeuf em;vnfMuzdkYvnf; vdkygonf/ tajccHtkwfjrpf yGm; pnf;aumif;ygrSvnf; opfaumif;wpfyif? wdutrtaqmuf k f d f tOD;wdkY a0pnfaumif;rGefNrJ cdkifEdkifygrnf/ ½kH;vkyfief;awGu rsm;jym;? wm0efrsm;u BuD;rm;us,f jyefYvSaomfvnf; rarmwrf;? rnnf;nLpwrf; uRefawmfwdkY BudK;yrf;vkyfaqmifMuygonf/ tvkyfvkyfaeMuqJrSmyif arcsKd onf tNyHK;rysuf? Munf&TifpGm jrifhrm;wufp&m MunfEl;p&m &,fp&mwduajymwwf? t&Te;f azmufwwfao;onf/ r.,.u Yk kd ½k;H rS arcsKUd aqGrsK;d awG pma&;rav;awGuvnf; vmvnfwwf Muao;awmh ½kH;upnfum;aeonf/ MunfEl;aysmf&Tifp&m aumif;ae&awmhonf/ ]]aMomf...q&m OD;&J&,f.. a&S;acwfy*jH ynfukd owd& k rdyg&JU.. yk*HaejynfawmfBuD;twGuf oufpGefYqHzsm;trIawmf rsm;udk xrf;&GuEiMf uwJh useppfom;? iaxG½;l ? ivH;k vufz,f? f kd f anmifOD;zD;qdkwJh ppfolBuD;av;OD;udk trSwf&w,f/ ck..'Du OD;&J&UJ ½k;H rSmvJ vlpr;f aumif;av;OD;&SaeNyvYkd oabmxm;aygh}} G d D ]]aowl & S i f z uf aqmif & G u f r uif ; tcsif ; csif ; wG i f tcif;Bu;D i,f &Scg0,fvnf; rz,fraoG nDnmuke;f í uke;f Mu d av.. qdwhJ &Sir[m&|om&&JU uAsmvdyJ vkyMf uudiMf u&rSm k f k k OD;&J&JU}} txufygodkYiS,f arcsKdu tvkyfyrf; vlEGrf;udk pdwf rnpfnL;&ap&ef BuHzefajymwwfavonf/ NyD;awmh.. ]]OD;&J ysif;aerSmpdk;vdkYyg.. tvkyfawGu rsm;vGef;vdkY pdwfnpfNyD; &efuejf yefajy;rSjzif..}}[k rsuapmif;av;cswumvnf; ajym k h f d f wwfao;onf/ trSefawmhvnf; arcsKd ajymovdk pdk;&drfrnfqdku pdk;&drf Muayvdrfhrnf/ tvkyfawG ZGwftvkyfawGrsm;NyD; ½kH;qif;um 56 57 Handbook-32
  33. 33. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol tdrfa&mufjyefawmhvnf; tysif;ajyp&m tarmajzp&m ½kyf&Sif½kHr&Sd tat;qdkifr&Sd tNidrfhr&SdyGJr&Sd? ESpfwpfESpftwGif; yGJvrf;obiftaejzifh NrdKUay:wGif oHk;BudrfcefYom&Sdwwfonf [k qdkonf/ onfNrKd Uav;udk t&m&Stqif0efxrf;rsm;u awmfawmf d h ESifhra&G;cs,fwwfMu/ ae& xdkif& pm;&aomuf& ukefpnf taxGaxG aps;EIe;f wdwif pm;aomufz,&m om;ig;? [if;oD; Yk G G f [if;&Guf opfoD;opfO tpkpkwdkYu t&rf;aygonf/ aps;vnf; csKdonf/ p&dwfpursm; oufomonfuawmh trSefyif jzpf onf/ odkYayr,fh qufoG,fa&;cufcJum yGJvrf;obif tyef; ajy tyef;ajzp&mwdu enf;yg;onf/ Mumvmawmh pdwtae Yk f ysif;&dum tjcm;aom ajrjyefYa'o&Sd NrdKUe,frsm;odkY tajymif; ta&TUtwGuf BudK;pm;um ajymif;a&TUoGm;wwfMuavonf vnf; jzpf&ayonf/ xD;vif;NrdKUav;wGif Mum&Snfraewwf Muay/ wu,fyg.. tjcm;aomt&mrsm;udk &Snf&Snfa0;a0; awG;p&mrvdk? EdkifiHawmfrS vpmp&dwfwdkYudk csxm;owfrSwf ay;onfudkom Munfhygawmh/ vpmtkyfpktvdkuf cGJjcm;í cHpm;aponf/ ajrjyefYa'orsm;ESifh rwlacs? cHpm;cGifhydkí ay; xm;onf/ vlrIa&;tcufcJqHk; NrdKUe,frsm;u trsm;qHk;&NyD; vlrIa&;cufcJaom NrdKUe,frsm;u 'kwd,jzpfum usefajrjyefY NrdKUjyrsm;um; cHpm;cGifhrjyKacs/ rlt& xD;vif;NrdKUav;onf vlrIa&;cufcJaom NrdKUe,frsm;wGif wpfNrdKUtygt0iftjzpf owfrwjf cif; cHxm;&onf/ &mcdiEe;f jzifh tenf;qH;k ESih f tjrifq;k H S kfI h cHpm;ap&ef vpmpau;tqifhtvdkuf cGJa0owfrSwfcHpm;ap onfudk avhvmod&SdEdkifayonf/ onfvdktaetxm;rsKd;wGif a,me,fajrzGm; xD;vif; a,molt&m&Sdrav;wpfa,mufu vkdvkdvm;vm;ESifh rdb ESpfyg;ESifh aqGrsKd;rsm;&Sd&m ZmwdajrodkYjyefvmí trIawmfxrf; umaeonfudk jrif&awmh uRefawmftm;&Sd&ygonf/ qkd;wkdif yif aumif;wkdifyifqkdouJhodkY tppt&m&mudk ajymqkdnd§EIdif; tajz&SmMu&ef tcGifhta&;vnf; jzpf&ayonf/ xkdYxufru ajym&ygvQif ESpfOD;om;wkdY b0ESpfckwkdYonfvnf; &nf&G,f &myef;wkiwpfcqotwlvr;f í 0rf;ajrmufpmavQmufvr;f zkYd d f k D Ykd S G S ta&;udk uRefawmfawG;rdumvQif MunfEl;rd&ao;avonf/ oZif 'gndKoif;? aygufvvufyyium o&zDtifMuif; J H G hf arT;í &ifcwfuHhaumf ydawmufyef;wkdY xHk;vTrf;cJhNyD;cJhNyD/ ]]oif;ajr&eHYwBudKif pHum;a&T0gESifh anmifoDwm a&awmfoGef;csdefrkdY &Tef;apvdkYvdIif...}} tp&Sdonfh pmqkdawmf OD;MuifO uqkevzGUJ udk trSw&onf/ jrefrmv uqkeqef; f f f prSmyif ta&;tBuD;qHk;yGJBuD;wpfyGJukd ETJ&onf/ ]]NrKd Ue,fprue;f &nfre;f csursm;tm; atmifjrifatmif D H d S f taumiftxnfazmfa&; ESpfpOfpDrHudef;wm0efay;tyfyGJ}} BuD; udk NrdKUe,fcef;rBuD;ü usif;yonf/ NrdKUe,fygwD,lepfOuú|BuD;rS vrf;nTeftrSmpum;ajym Mum;onf/ NrdKUe,fjynfolYaumifpDOuú|BuD;u teD;uyf Bu;D Muyftaumiftxnfazmfa&;udk rSmonf/ v,f,mpkuysK;d d f 58 59 Handbook-33
  34. 34. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol a&;udk tm;xm;onfhNrdKUe,fav;rkdY NrdKUe,fjynfolYaumifpD (tvkytrIaqmiftzGUJ 0if) v,f,mom;ig;? opfawm wm0ef f cHu &yfuGufESifh aus;&Gmwpf&Gmcsif;tvkduf vkyfief;tm;om csu?f tm;enf;csuf taxGaxGaqmif&u&efrsm;wkukd aoao G f Yd csmcsmajym&Sif;&Sif;onf/ NrdKUe,fpDrHudef;rSL; uRefawmfu pDrHudef;a&;&mudpö&yf rsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í twwfEkdifqHk;&Sif;jy&onf/ v,f,m? om;ig;? opfawm? owåK? pufrIvufrI? vQyfppf? aqmufvkyf a&;? ukeo,a&;ESihf or0g,r? ynma&;? use;f rma&;? aiGa&; f G f aMua&;? tp&Sdojzifh pDrHudef;awG&SdyHkudkajym&onf/ odap& onf/ txl;ojzifhawmh pdkufysKda&;udk tm;xm;vkyfudkifaeMu aom NrdKUe,fav;jzpfaomaMumifh v,f,m? om;? ig;ESifh opfawmu@wkdY tcsKdUaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk odxm; vkdufemaqmif&GufEkdif&ef &Sif;jy&onf/ v,f,mpdkufysKd;xkwfvkyfa&;ESifh pyfvsOf;í "mwfajr MoZmtrsKd;rsKd;? ykd;owfaq;rStp oGif;tm;pkrsm;ta&;ygyHk? oD;ESHwpfckcsif;pD pdkufpu? atmifpu? txGufEIef;twGuf pkpkaygif;wGif txl;txGufwkd;? omreftxGufwkd;? ½dk;½dk;cGJjcm; pdkufysKd;xGuf&Sda&; udpö&yfrsm;taMumif; wifjyjzpfonf/ oD;xyf oD;n§yf tpm;xk;d oD;ESrsm;taMumif;vnf; yg0ifonf/ H pduysK;d ajr? oD;xyfo;D n§y?f tom;wifpuysK;d ajr? yvyf k f kd f ajr? pdkufysKd;Ekdifaom ajr½dkif;? v,f,majrazmfxkwfrI? yvyf ajrazmfxkwfrI? a&oGif;pdkufysKd;ajr? qnfajrmif;rsm;qkdif&m? a&pkyfpuf? x,fxGefwHk;xGefwH aygufwl;a*:jym; tqHk; odr;f usK;H í jyifqifxm;&Sd vkyaqmiftaumiftxnfazmfa&; f wkdYvnf;yg0ifonf/ jynfolydkif? or0g,rydkif? yk*¾vduydkif ydkifqkdifrIudpö&yfrsm;? uRJEGm;0ufMuuf tp&Sdonhf wd&pämef arG;jrLxkwfvkyfa&;rsm;wkdYudkvnf; rajymrjzpfrSm&ao;onf/ opfawmu@tydkif;wGif jynfolydkif? or0g,rydkif? yk*¾vduydkiftaMumif;jcif;&mrsm;? udkif;zsm;udkif;em;? xif;? rD;aoG;? opfacguf? avQmf? wifwGJyGJnuf? &Sm;ap;? ysm;&nf ponf opfawmxGufypönf;rsm; xkwfvkyfa&;&mudpö&yfrsm;? opfawmBuKd ;0di;f ? tjcm;opfawmajr? tjcm;ajrrsm;taMumif; k uRef;ESifh opfrmpdkufcif;udpö&yfrsm;ponfjzifh tawmfav;pHkpHk vifvifESifh odoifhodxkduf a&SmifMuOfumvkyfaqmifEkdifMuzkdY awGuvnf; rygrjzpfrSm& ajymMum;&avonf/ uRef;ESifh ydawmuftpm;xdk;pkdufjcif;udkvnf; odap&onf/ onfyGJBuD;wGif xl;jcm;onfu tcrf;tem;rSL;yifjzpf onf / Nrd K Ue,f o rD ; ysKd t &m&S d r av; 'k - Nrd K Ue,f O D ; pD ; rS L ; ]]a':arMunfvGifcsKd}} udk yGJxkwfEkdifcJhygonf/ tpdrf;azsmh zuf&Sif0wfpHkwGif yk0gudkpHkcsí tacsmtvS&wemav; arcsKd onf ole,fajr? olNY rKd U? olaqGotrsK;d ta&;ygolwa&SUarSmuf Y Y Yl Ydk pifjrifhay:0,f xifay:cJh&onf/ olYwm0ef ol£a`E´&& vSvS yywnfwnfwHhwHhESifh wm0efausoGm;EkdifcJhonf/ jrefrm qefqef ,Ofaus;odrfarGUpGmaom jrefrmhtrsKd;orD;wpfOD; tjzpf tacsmtvSudkjrifMu&ovkd NrdKUe,fwgifta&;ygol 60 61 Handbook-34
  35. 35. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wpfO;D tjzpfEivnf; *kPwiforYdk tm;vH;k uvnf; tHMh ocJMh u S hf f h l avonf/ *kPf,lcJhMuavonf/ tvm;wl uRefawmfonfvnf; ,cifESpfuESifhrwl vlopft&m&SwpfO;D udk olwawGUjrifcMhJ u&ofn/ wm0efyi;f udk d Ydk kd tqifajyajyESihf pDpOfaqmif&uay;EkicjhJ cif;ESitwl &yfuuf G f d f hf G aus;&Gmrsm;rS Ouú|BuD;rsm;ESifhvnf; yxrqHk;tBudrf awGUqHk Mu&jcif;vnf;jzpf&ygonf/ xkonfaeYnrSmyif uReawmfonf arcsKEihf pyfvsO;f Ny;D d f d S tvGepw0ifpm;bG,&m taMumif;t&mrsm;udk odc&onfu f d f f hJ uRef a wmf h t wG u f yd k r k d t H h t m;oif h c J h & ayonf / arcsKd u uRefawmfwkdY½Hk;tzGJUom; rdom;pkESifh olYrdom;pkwkdY awGUqHkyGJ av;udk zdwfMum;cJhonf/ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf aysmf&TifpGm npm pm;yGJav;udk zefwD;ay;cJhonf/ onfnudk uRefawmhfwpfouf rarhEdkifawmhyg/ pm;zG,f&m om;ig;[if;oD;[if;&Guf taMumftavSmf pHkvifpGmaom xrif;pm;0dkif;udk NyD;pD;cJhNyD;í tcsKdyGJESifh a&aEG; Murf;aomufMupOf arcsKdajymjycJhonfh taMumif;&yfrsm;ujm; wefzkd;rjzwfEkdifygay/ ]]arcsKd&JU tBuD;tuJvJjzpf? q&morm;vJjzpf? arcsKdUudk taMumuft&GHUr&Sd wnfwnfNidrfNidrfeJY vlod&SifMum;qkdovkd *kPfwifay;wJhq&maumif;vJjzpfwJh OD;&Judkaus;Zl;wif*kPfjyK jcif;vJjzpfygw,f/ 'DhtwGufa&m trSwfw&taeeJYyg 'D a,mvHkcsnfppfppfav;udkvJ q&mhudkuefawmhjcif;tjzpfeJY ay;tyfyg&ap...}} q&mvJ odNyD;om;jzpfrSmyg...jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&; BudK;yrf;rIorkdif;rSm 0HomEkacwfu emrnftausmfMum;qHk; t0wftxnfjzpfwJh a,mvHkcsnfoabmrsKd;tjzpfeJY tav; teufxm;NyD; ay;tyfuefawmhjzpf&wmyg/ yifeDacsmeJY a,m vHkcsnfvkdY vlodrsm;xif&Sm;cJh& tJonhfacwfumvrSm *E¦0if jzpfcJh&w,faemf/ yifeDtusÐuawmh q&mhudkray;jzpf&bl;/ q&mhcE¨mudk,ftwkdif;txGmeJY tqifrajyjzpfrSmpdk;wmrkdYyg/ yifeDtusÐqkdwmrSmvJyJ yifeDwkdufyHkqkdwmu 0wfqifolrSm yGa,mif;a,mif;BuD;jzpf&ifvJ Munfhraumif;ovkd usOf;usOf; usyfusyfqkdvJ Munhf&qkd;wmaMumifhyg/ a,mvHkcsnftqifu ]]rif;BuD;qif}} vkdYac:ygw,f/ arcsKdwkdYq&mOD;&Jwpfa,muf &mxl;BuD;BuD;rm;rm; tqifhjzpf jzpf? vkyfief;BuD;wpfck&JUtBuD;trSL;BuD;jzpfjzpf vlBuD;rif;b0 udka&muf&SdoGm;EkdifoljzpfygapqkdwJh oabmvJygygw,f/ Ny;D awmh tJonfvjdk zpfom;cJwtcgrSmvJ tJonhvcsnav;udk G h hJ f kH f 0wfc&if arcsKwuvJ owdw&jzpfap&atmifvygyJ...b0 hJ d Ydk kd Ydk wpfauGUrSm awGUqHkcJhzl;wmudk rarh&atmifvkdYayghq&m... aemufNyD;awmh arcsKdudk,fwkdif tcsdef&tm;vyfwJhtcgrsKd;rSm &ufvkyfNyD; ay;tyfuefawmhjzpf&wmygq&m..}} ]]aMomf...arcsK&,f...}}[líom uReawmfajymjzpf& d f avonf/ tdrfa&SU{nfhcef;rpm;yGJ0dkif;wGif olYrdbESpfyg;ESifhtwl uRefawmfwdkY 0dkif;xdkifvsuf a&aEG;Murf;aomuf *sif;(csif;)okyf 62 63 Handbook-35
  36. 36. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol vufzufokyfpm;Muonf/ olYrdbESpfyg;rSmvnf; NyHK;NyHK;&Tif&Tif ESihf oabmjynfMh uonftoGiukd jrifoae&onfukd uReawmf h f d f oabmawGUrdygonf/ ]]q&m&,f...orD;av;u NrKd Ue,ftqift&m&Srav; h d jzpfvmawmh tu,fíq&m c&D;oGm;cdkuf q&mr&SdwJhtcdkuf rSmqdk&if olu q&mhae&mrSm tpm;xdk;wm0ef,l&awmhrSmrdkY [kdutpnf;ta0;wuf? 'Dutpnf;ta0;wufeJY wm0efawG u BuD;vmNyD... vkyfief;wm0eft&yf&yfawGtwGuf tpp t&m&mBu;D Muyfoifjyay;ygq&m...ud,rsupatmufrmawmh k hf f d S orD;i,fav;vdkYyJ jrifaeqJrdkYygq&m 'gaMumifh qHk;rp&m&Sd&if q&meJYorD;av;u t&G,fcsif;u rwdrf;r,drf;qdkayrJh tBuD; tuJ0wå&m;tjynfh&SdwJh q&mu qHk;ryg/ trSm;&SdvmcJh&ifvJ axmufjyyg/ jyKjyifp&m&Sd&if jyKjyifMu&wmrdkY arwåma&SUxm; NyD; yJhjyifyg..vdkY rdbESpfyg;u arwåm&yfcHygw,f q&m &,f...}} aMomf...r[kwfwmAsm...OD;eJY a':a':wdkY&JUorD;u &efueNf rKd UBu;D u txifu& pD;yGm;a&;wuúovBf u;D rSmvJ av; k kd ESpfwdwd ynmawGoif,lcJhNyD; bGJUvJ&cJhNyD;NyD/ t&m&Sdtqifh 0efxrf;a&;&m tifwmAsL;vJ atmifjrifcJhvdkY t&m&Sdrav;vJ jzpfcJhNyD/ azmifBuD;A[kdjynfolY0efxrf;wuúodkvfrSmvJ aZ,s tqifhoifwef;udk wufa&mufatmifjrifNyD;ajrmufcJhNyD;NyD/ ½kH;csKyfrSmvJ XmewGif oifwef;wufa&muf atmifjrifcJhNyD;NyD/ ½kH;csKyfrSmawmif 2 ESpfausmf wm0efxrf;&GufcJhNyD;NyDqdkawmh rpdk;&drfrylyefygeJYawmh cifAsm...OD;wdkYorD;u awmfvJawmf wJh orD;ygyJ... tm;vHk;eJYvJ cspfcspfMunfMunfvJ ajymwwf qdkwwf aewwfwJholvdkY uRefawmfjrifodxm;ygw,f... NrdKU u vlawGuvJ olYudk awmfawmfcspfMuyHkudk uRefawmfjrif&yg w,f...}} uReawmfu txufygpum;rsm;udk ajymjyjzpf&ygonf/ f ]]aMomf...cspfcspfMunfMunfqdkvdkY ajym&OD;r,fq&m/ q&mu vkyfief;wm0efxrf;aqmif&if; udk,fhqE´t& tjcm; wm0efwpfckudkvJ avhvmokawoejyKcsifw,fqdkvm; orD; u ajymw,f/ tJ'gudk orD; &efukefu xD;vif;NrdKUudk ajymif; a&TUcGifh trdefYpmxGufawmhrS q&mh&JU 'kñTefrSL; ararpkqdkwm u arcsKdUudkac:awGU? q&mhtaMumif;udk wpfcsKdUwpf0uf ajym jyvmawmhrS orD;odcGifh&cJhwmvdkYqdkw,f...}} arcsKdU tazuajymvmcJhawmhrS uRefawmfuvnf; jyef ajymjzpf&onf/ azazhqE´? uRefawmfhqE´oufoufyg/ tcsdef &vmwJhtcgrSm olwdkYudk,folwdkYu ]]ysL}}vdkYqdkcJhMuavwJh ]]awmifom;}}awGtaMumif;udk *CePavhvmokawoejyK csivyg/ uRu;l a&yg oabmvJjzpfygw,fO;D ...wpfcsucwf f Ykd J f k ESpfcsufjywfqdkygawmh...}} ]]at;...at;...aumif ; ygw,f u G , f . ..od y f aumif;ygw,f...tm;vJay;ygw,f/ 'DNrKd Uav;uvJ jynfreJY wpfjcm;a'owkdYu nDaemifwkdif;&if;om; nDtpfudkarmifESr awG t zd k Y tvmvnf ; enf ; ta&muf v nf ; enf ; &ao;wJ h 64 65 Handbook-36
  37. 37. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol NrdKUav;vJjzpfae&w,f/ ayoHk;axmifausmfpDtjrifh&SdMuwJh yHkawmifyHknm awmifwef;jrifhBuD;wkdYu wHwkdif;BuD;awGozG,f ydkif;jcm;umqD;xm;ovkd jzpfaewmaMumifhvJygyg&JU... vrf;yef;c&D;u Murf;&cufcJ&w,faygh/ at;av...'DNrdKUav;taMumif;udk orD;arcsKdu OD;eJY a':a':wkxuf ckEp?f ouú&mZf twdtuseYJ ydNk y;D avhvmod&dS Yd S xm;w,f/ orD;av;u orD;wkdY&JUq&mudk jynhfjynhfpHkpHkajymjy ay;yguG,f}} [k arcsKdUtazu ajymvmcJhonf/ ]]'Dvdk OD;&J&JU...azaz ararwkdYu OD;&Judk ]]xD;vif;NrdKU a&TuGeftkyfbk&m;orkdif;}} qkdwJhpmtkyfvufaqmifay;cJh? OD;&J zwfNyD;cJhNyDod&w,f/ tJ'gu xD;vif;NrdKUav;&JU a&S;&mZ0if orkdif;vkdYyJqkdygawmh...}} ]]ck arcsKdajymjyrSmu acwfopf jrefrmhorkdif;xJu pdw0ifpm;p&m *kP,z,&m rarhtyfb,&m armfue;f urÁn;f f f l G f G f G wif *E¦0ifwifcJhwJhtaMumif;awGyg/ wdwdususeJY "gwfyHk rSwfwrf;eJYvJ jrefrmhorkdif;pmrsufESmay:rSm orkdif;0ifjzpfcJh& wJjh zpf&yfwpfcsKUd udk ajym&rSmyg/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh xD;vif;qdwhJ k NrKd Uav;[morki;f aMumif;rSm rnHcb;l / orki;f &JUtajymif;tvJ d h hJ d a&pD;aMumif;rSm tpOftvmaumif;cJhavwJh wu,fhjrwfEkd; *kPf,lzG,f&m NrdKUav;wpfNrdKUjzpfw,fqkdwmudk jrefrmjynfol jynfom;awGtaeeJY wpfcsewe;f uxuf ydNk y;D ydNk y;D odovmap d f k d csifygw,f q&m...}} ]]'Dvdk OD;&J&UJ ...acwfa&pD;aMumif;eJtwl jrefrmhorki;f Y d [m urÇ m h o rk d i f ; eJ Y ywf o uf v m&awmh t*F v d y f e ,f c sJ U usL;ausmfppfoHk;BudrfjzpfcJh&w,faemf/ (1889) ck? Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufaeYrSm NAdwdoQtifyg,mtwGif; oGwfoGif;cH&? jrefrmh vGwfvyfa&;qHk;½HI;cJh&w,f/ oDaygbk&ifeJY rdom;pkwkdYygawmf rlNyD; (2) vcefYtMum t*FvdyftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrSm yk*Hc½dkif0ef tjzpf G.S AYER (*sDtufpftm,m) qkdwJh ta&;ydkif[m rauG;wkdif;twGif;&Sd a,me,fajra'oeJY csif;jynfe,fwkdYudk odrf;ydkufzkdYpDpOfcJhw,fav...}} 'k Akvf atyDvmwif OD;aqmifwhJ ppfonfvufeufuif d kd tiftm;tcsKdU[m a,me,feJY csif;awmifwef;udka&mufvmcJh w,f/ olwoabmuawmh jrefrmEdiiawmfBu;D wpfcv;kH t*Fvyf Ykd k f H k d ydkife,fjzpfcJhNyD;NyDqdkwJh oabmeJY n§dEIdif;NyD; odrf;ydkufNyD;cgp jrefrmEdkifiH&JU ckcHawmfvSefrIawGudk tqHk;owf tomt,m tay:pD;eJY odrf;,ltkyfcsKyfzdkYyJaygh.../ 'gayrJh...ratmifjrifcJhygbl;/ ckcHwdkufcdkufppfyGJawG [m e,fajrtESHYygyJ/ csif;awmifwef;&Sd a&T*sKd;jzLrif;om;wyf eJY yl;aygif;rdMuNyD; t*FvdyfwdkYudk awmfvSefMuw,f/ xD;vif; NrdKUe,ftwGif; xD;vif;wyfudk AdkvfoJBuD; OD;pD;NyD; usKdif;&Gmol BuD; AdkvfatmifuJ? zl;awmif;&Gmu AdkvfomEdkif? anmifuef&Gm u Advz;kd ESpf polw[m rsK;d cspe,fcspf acgif;aqmifawGtjzpf k f Ykd f eJY xif&Sm;cJhw,f/ vufeufcsif;rrQawmhvJ t½HI;ay;cJh&w,f aygh&Sif...(1887) ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv (9) &ufaeYrSm e,fcsJU wkdYu xD;vif;NrdKUudk odrf;,lcJhw,fqdkygawmh...}} 66 67 Handbook-37
  38. 38. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ]]t*FvdyftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudkBudKufvdkY tkyfcsKyfcHaejcif; r[kwfwJh NrdKUe,fol NrdKUe,fom;awG[m tpkd;&udkawmfvSef&ef tNrJBuHqae&if;u *sDpDbDat toif;csKyfBuD;udktaMumif;jyK NyD; 0HomEktoif;awGay:vmjyefw,f/ xD;vif;NrdKUe,frSm OD;nDarmif? OD;pdk;Ekdiftp&SdwJh e,fcspfrsKd;cspfyk*¾dKvfawGu OD;aqmifEkd;Mum;vIyf&Sm;cJhjyefw,f}} (1300) jynhfta&;awmfyHkumv xD;vif;NrdKUe,frSm OD;bcspf? OD;cspfnGefYwkdYu OD;aqmifNyD; NrdKUe,fu ]]&mZrked rif;bk&m;BuD;}} rSm wpfvwdwdoydwfpcef;BuD;zGifhum e,fcsJU qefYusifa&;w&m;yGJrsm; a[majymqefYusifvmcJhMujyef&JU/ ajrjyefYa'o yckuúL? rEÅav;? &efukefponfwkdYeJY qufoG,f aqmif&GufcJhMuw,f/ 0HomEkpdwf"mwfeJYtwl jynfwGif;jzpf ]]a,mvHcsneYJ yifetus}Ð } wku0wfqifjcif;jzifh trsK;d om;a&; k f D Yd dk pdwf"mwfvTrf;NcHKEkdifcJhMuygw,f/ (1941) ckESpf? 'DZifbmv (7) &ufaeYrSm tar&duef ydkif ykvJqdyfurf;udk ppfrausnmbJ *syefuAHk;BuJcJhwmeJY (1939) ckESpfu pwifjzpfyGm;aecJhwJh 'kwd,urÇmppfrD;BuD;[m tm&SwkdufodkYul;pufvmcJhawmhwmaygh/ e,fcsJUt*FvdyfawG ppf½HI;? *syefawGa&mufvm tkyfcsKyfcJhMujyefa&m/ (1-8-1943) aeYrSm ay;tyfcJhwJh twkta,mif ta,mifaqmifvGwfvyf a&;rSef; odvmcJheJY wpfaeYwpfjcm;qkd;0g;vmaewJh ]]zufqpf *syef}} wkdYukdarmif;xkwfzdkY BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfMu&jyefw,fav/ jrefrmhacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;&JU pnf;vH;k nDnwrI pnf;½H;k rI G f atmuf&Sd *syefYacwftaetxm;rSm xD;vif;NrdKUe,ftwGif; ,m,DtkyfcsKyfa&;udk OD;nDarmif? OD;jr? OD;bkd;atmifwdkY OD;pD; aqmif&GufcJhMuw,f/ (1942? 43) ckESpfrsm;rSm ]]tm&Svli,f tzGJU}} udk xD;vif;NrdKUe,frSmvJ OD;Mumpdef? OD;pkd;atmifwkdYu zGJUpnf;cJhNyD; tajctaet&yf&yfwkdYudk vIyf&Sm;aqmif&GufcJhMu ygw,f/ 'DvkdeJY 'kwd,urÇmppfBuD;NyD;qHk;vdkY *syef&efrS uif;vGwf cJayrJh r[mrdwt*FvywyfawG&UJ tkycsKyratmufrm jrefrm h f d f f f I S jynf[m r½kef;om rvIyfomjzpf&jyefw,f/ wwfEkdiforQ jref r mjynf u d k tk y f c sKyf v suf t &if ; &S i f e ,f c sJ U o½k y f j zpf w J h ]]aoG;cGJtkyfcsKyfa&;eJY *kPfaoG;pkyfcs,fvS,fa&;}} twGuf t*FvdyfawG[m jynfrudkvGwfvyfapNyD; awmifwef;a'o jynfe,frsm;udk qufvufpdk;rkd;Ekdifa&; BudK;pm;vmMujyefw,f av...awmifwef;eJY ajrjyefYjynfe,fjynfr aoG;uGJatmif aoG;cGJvmMujyefw,faygh/ (1947) ckESpf? yifvHkpmcsKyfudktaMumif;jyKNyD; ]]csif;Arm wkdif;&if;om;rsm; cspfMunfa&;nDvmcH}} BuD;udk xD;vif; NrdKUav;rSm (1947) ckESpf? rwfv (3) &ufrS (5) &ufaeYtxd oHk;&ufwkdifwkdifcrf;em;odkufNrdKufpGm usif;yEkdifcJhMuw,fav/ tJonhf nDvmcHBu;D udk jrefrmhtrsK;d om;acgif;aqmifBu;D wpfO;D jzpfol ]]'D;'kwO;D bcsK}d } acgif;aqmifNy;D ocifvw?f ocif f G pHwifwkdYeJYtwl csif;vlrsKd;acgif;aqmifawG yg0ifcJhMuw,f/ awmifydkif;csif;awmifrS OD;0A®ol;armif? ajrmufydkif;csif;awmif 68 69 Handbook-38
  39. 39. 70 udka,m (abm*aA') rS OD;Z[l;wkdYyg0ifcJhw,f/ tm;vHk;oabmwl vufrSwfa&;xkd; EkdifcJhMuw,f/ vlxky&dowf (5000) ausmfjzifh csif;-Arm cspfMunfa&;udk yl;wGJtkwfjrpfcsay;EkdifcJhMuw,faygh/ arcsKd ESpfzufbkd;bGm;awG&JU tajymt& odyfudkaysmfMu &w,fqy/ xD;vif;NrKd Uav;rSm vlawGuvJtrsm;Bu;D / tJonf dk J vdkwpfcgrS rjrifpzl;? rBuHKpzl;qkdawmhvJ tHhMorqHk;aygh/ aysmvuMf u&wmrsm; rajymygeJawmhw/ vufo;D vufarmif; f dk Y hJ awGwef;? atmfMu[pfMu? a<u;aMumfoHawGwkdifMu? aysmf&Tif nDnGwfaeMu pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; pkpk½Hk;½Hk;eJY aysmf&TifaevdkufMu wm? uMuckeMf utk;d pnf';kd ywfawGeYJ nHaeMuwm...aMumuf cref;vdv&vNS y;D aysmMf u&vGe;f vka&m vGwvyfa&;Bu;D &awmh d dS Yd f rSmrkdYa&mqkdawmh 0rf;om&vGef;vdkY rsuf&nfrsm;awmif usMu& w,fqkdw,faygh/ xm;ygawmhav . . .cspMf unfa&;nDvmcH ud,pm;vS,f k f ocifatmifrif;eJYOD;armifuav;wdkYu awmifydkif;csif;awmif? OD;"r®o;l armifeO;D bqdiwu wduajrmufyi;f csi;f awmifqoYkd YJ k f Ykd Yk kd D tkyfpkESpfpkcGJum jynfe,fjynfrrcGJjcm;bJ awmifweff;ajrjyefY yl;aygif;vdkY vTwfvyfa&;t&,la&; wdkif;&if;om;rsm;aoG;pnf; nDñGwfa&;wdkYudk aqmfMopnf;½Hk;cJhMuw,f/ tJonfwkef;u a,me,fajra'oqkdwm vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;tvGefcufcJ cJhwm? opfawmBuD;av;&yftygt0ifjzpfwJh a,m&yfrJZmqdkyg awmh? tJ'Davmuf oGm;a&;vma&; cufcJvSwJh pdrfhBuD;NrdKifBuD; yHkawmifyHknm awmifwef;BuD;awGqDa&mufatmif vmcJhNyD; *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 71 cspfMunfa&;udk&atmif pnf;½kH;cJhMuwJh EdkifiHhacgif;aqmifBuD; awGudk arcsKdt&rf;av;pm;rdw,f/ csD;usL;rdw,f/ *kPf,lrd w,f&Sif.../ OD;"r®okarmif[m yifvHknDvmcHBuD;odkY wufa&muf&ef jzpfayrJh csif;-Arm cspfMunfa&;vkyfief;awGu rNyD;pD;ao;vdkY rdkY rwufa&mufEdkifcJhbl;qdkwm ordkif;t& od&w,f/ qufvufNyD; ajym&&if 12-2-1947 aeYrSm *E¦0if ordkif;wGif &pfwJhjzpf&yf ]]yifvHknDvmcH}}BuD;udk &Srf;jynfe,f awmifyi;f yifvNkH rKd Uav;rSm usi;f yEdicMhJ uw,f/ wdi;f &if;om; kd k f k tm;vHk; aoG;pnf;nDnGwfrIordkif;oufao ]]yifvHkpmcsKyf}} udk vufrwa&;xk;d EdicMhJ uw,f? tm;vH;k wdaoG;pnf;nDnwcMhJ u S f k f Yk G f onfaygh... AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JU vrf;ñTefcsuft& vGwfvyfa&; udk tEkenf;eJr&ygu wpfjynfv;kH tH<k uwducuMf uzdYk jynfoYl Y k f kd &JUabmfawmfwyfzGJUrs,' zGJUcJhw,f/ xD;vif;NrdKUav;rSmvJ AdkvfñGefYvl OD;pD;NyD; jynfolU&Jabmf 100 cefY zGJUpnf;pcef;cs aqmif&GufEdkifcJhw,f... 'DveYJ Ediiet0ef; &[ef;&Sivjl ynfotaygif; wdi;f &if;om; kd k f H YJ f l k taygif;wdkY pkpnf;nDnGwfaqmif&GufEdkifcJhMuvdkY wpfEdkifiHvHk; arQmfvifhawmifhwcJhMu&wJh? tESpfESpftvvu arQmfrSef;cJhMu &wJh ]]vGwfvyfa&;}} BuD;udk tcuftcJtrsKd;rsKd;eJY &ifqdkifwm tEdi,ausmvm;EdicMhJ uvsuf t&,lchJ 1948 ckEpf Zefe0g&Dv k f l f T k f S 4 &ufaeYrSm vGwfvyfa&;&cJh&w,f... Handbook-39
  40. 40. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 'ghaMumifh tvHk;pHkudk jyefcsKyf&if a&S;&mZ0ifu ol&JNrdKU ac: xD;vif;NrdKUav;[m &mZ0ifaemufcHordkif;eJY NrdKUav;jzpf ovdk pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&maumif;vSwJh NrdKUtjzpfomru acwf opfjrefrmhordkif;rSm ZmwdaoG; ZmwdrmeftpOf Edk;Mum;xuf oefwJhNrdKU? pnf;vHk;nDnGwf vGwfvyfaom jynfaxmifpkjrefrm EdkifiHawmf ay:aygufvma&;rSm jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwf trSef wpfu,f arG;zGm;&Sifoef jzpfxGef;cJh&mNrdKU? awmifwef;ajrjyefY jynfe,f jynfrrcGjJ cm;bJ csi;f -ArmcspMf unfa&;eJY wdi;f &if;om; k wdaoG;pnf;nDnwa&;udk rSwwipucwhJ blreufoefNrKd U... Yk G f f kd f kd f hJ d tjzpfeJY jrefrmhacwfa&pD;ordkif;aMumif;wpfavQmuf pnf;vHk; cspfMunfnDnGwfum wdk;wufaomtjrif tpOf&Sifoefaeav wJhNrdKU *E¦0ifNrdKUav;wpfNrdKUjzpfaMumif;ukd aESmif;acwftquf quf jynfoltrsm; od&Sdapcsifw,f OD;&J&,f...}}/ xD;vif;NrKd Uav;taMumif;udk jynfjh ynfppajym&í arcsKd h kH kH armoGm;cJhNyDxifonf? tajymudk&yfum a&aEG;Murf;wpfcGuf aomufaecJhonf/ NyD;awmh vufzufokyfESifh ajryJqHaMumfudk pm;onf/ ]]tif;... aemufqHk;tydkif;... arcsKdwdkYtydkif;... ordkif;eJYawmh rqdkifbl;qdkygawmh..'DtaMumif;av;u OD;&J od½kHoufoufrQomyg/ wu,fawmhvJ ordkif;udk rarhwwf wJh? ordkif;udk cspfwwfwJh ordkif;udk jrwfEdk;av;pm;wefzdk;xm; wwfwJh pdwf"mwfrsKd;vdkYyJ qdkyg&apawmh... 'guawmh uRefr&JU emrnfyJ OD;&J... uRefr&JU ESpfzufbdk;bGm;eJY rdbawGu azmfjyygpdwfxm; pdwf"mwfrsKd;eJY uRefrudk emrnfay; rSnfhac:apcJhMuowJh av... ]]arMunfvGifcsKd}}qdkwm teuft"dyÜm,f&SdwJh trnf emrjzpfap&r,fwJh... ar...qdkwm trsKd;orD;rdef;uav;awGudk &nf&G,f ñTef;qdkw,f? Munf . ..qd k w m vl r sKd ; wpf r sKd ; eJ Y wpf r sKd ; cspf c spf MunfMunfjzpfap &SdapvdkwJh oabmudk qdkvdkw,f? vGif..qdkwmu omrmeftrsm;olwumwdkYxuf ay: ay:vGifvGif xifxif&Sm;&Sm; jzpfEdkif&atmif BudK;pm;&,lydkif qdkifEdkif&r,fqdkygw,f? csKd.. qdkwmuawmh emrnfwpfckvHk;&JU txGwftjrwf qHk;yJ? b,fawmhrS rarh&bl;qkdwJh trSmpum;eJYtwl jrefrm EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;BuD;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrH BudK;yrf;xrf;&Guf cJwhJ jrefrmwd&UJ tmZmenfacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;xJrm 'D xD;vif; h Yk S qdkwJh a,mwdkY|meDNrdKUi,fav;qD tcuftcJaygif;rsm;pGmxJu a&mufatmifvmcJhol csif;-Arm*E¦0ifwdkif;&if;om;cspfMunf pnf;vH;k nDnwa&;udk OD;aqmiftwjf rpfcsay;cJojl zpfwhJ 'D;'kwf G f k h OD;bcsKdudk tpOfxm0&av;pm;*kPf,l tav;tjrwfjyK owd &aejcif;tjzpf ]]csKd}}qdkwJh pum;vHk;udk tjrwfwEdk;,lxm;jcif; yJ jzpfygowJh&Sifh... wu,fwrf;awmhvJ uRefrazaz OD;Munfwifh? arar a':vGifarjrifhqdkwJh arG;rdbESpfyg;&JU trnfwdkYudkvJ yg0ifap 72 73 Handbook-40

×