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  • 1. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 2009 ck E S p f ? pmayAd r mef pmrl q k 0w¬ K &S n f 'k w d , qk & 2011 ckESpf? yxrtBudrf? tkyfa& - 1500 *E¦0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJY vGrf;&wJhNrdKUol udka,m (abm*aA') wefzdk; ( 600 ) usyf pDpOfwnf;jzwfol - a':EkE,Of (eef;nGefY,Ofcrf;) k pmwnf; rsufESmzHk;yef;csD - a0rGefvif; pmayAdrmefxkwf jynfolYvufpGJpmpOf yHkESdyfa&;ESifh pmtkyfxkwfa0a&;vkyfief; pmayAdrmef pmwnf;rSL;csKyfu rSwfyHkwiftrSwf 07492 jzifh yHkESdyfí rSwfyHkwiftrSwf 03911 jzifhxkwfa0onf/ *sD w D p D y H k E S d y f p uf ½ H k w G i f yH k E S d y f o nf / Handbook-1
  • 2. EdkifiHa&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf Ä EdiiawmfwnfNidra&;? &yf&mat;csr;om,ma&;ESihf w&m;Oya' k f H f G f pd;rk;a&;/ k d Ä trsKd;om; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrI ckdifrma&;/ Ä pnf;urf;jynf0aom 'Drua&pDpepf &Sioefcirmatmif wnfaqmuf h dk f dk f a&;/ Ä zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhtnD acwfrDzGHUNzdK; wkd;wufaom Ediiawmfopf wnfaqmufa&;/ k f H pD;yGm;a&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf 'd k Y w m0ef t a&;oH k ; yg; Ä jynfaxmifpk rNydKuGJa&; .... 'dkYta&; Ä wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrI rNydKuGJa&; .... 'dkYta&; Ä tcsKyftjcmtmPm wnfwHhckdifNrJa&; .... 'dkYta&; Ä pduysK;a&;udk ykrzUHG NzK;wk;wufatmif aqmif&uNf yD; acwfrpufrI k f d d dk d d G D EkdifiHxlaxmifa&;ESifh tjcm;pD;yGm;a&;u@rsm;ukdvnf; bufpkH zGHYNzKd;wkd;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ Ä aps;uGup;yGm;a&;pepf yDjyifpm jzpfay:vma&;/ f D G Ä jynfwGif;jynfyrS twwfynmESifh t&if;tESD;rsm; zdwfac:í pD;yGm;a&;zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/ Ä EdkifiHawmfpD;yGm;a&;wpf&yfvHk;udk zefwD;EdkifrIpGrf;tm;onf EdiiawmfEiwi;&if;om;jynfowYdk vuf0,fwi&a&;/ k f H S hf dk f l G f dS vlrIa&;OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf Ä wpfrsKd;om;vHk; pdwf"mwfESifh tusifhpm&dwåjrifhrm;a&;/ Ä trsKd;*kP?f Zmwd*Pf jrifrm;a&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rI tarGtESprsm;? k h f trsKd;om;a&;vu©Pmrsm; raysmufysufatmif xde;odr;apmifh f f a&Smufa&;/ Ä ppfrSefaom rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwfjzpfonfh jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwf &Sioefxufjrufa&;/ f Ä wpfrsKd;om;vH; usef;rmBuHUckia&;ESihf ynm&nfjrifrm;a&;/ k d f h
  • 3. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol pOf Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä 0w¬K&SnftpkzGJUpnf;rIrsm; pmrsufESm orkdif;wGifwJh NrdKUav;qD 1 vuf0JokE´&ESifh rwlaom a,mrJZmNrdKifc&D;onf 12 twdwfut&dyfvkdygvmcJh 21 ol&JNrdKU ac: xD;vif;NrdKU 28 rxifrSwfbJ a&mufvdkYvmol 39 csif;-Arm *EÅ0ifcspfMunfa&;NrdKUav;ESifh orD;ysKd arMunfvGifcsKd 55 ]]ysL}} qkwmolwyvm;ESihf obm0ausmufe*g;Bu;D qD 74 d Ydk J wGef;tm;jzifh a&GUcJh&aom apwem&Sifq&mb0 96 wm0efawGMum;u *kPfjr§ifhol 123 jrefrmhorki;f pmrsuEmay:u d f S ]]qifp,&mvlowfui;f }} qD G f G G 133 Ä a&S;a[mif;orkdif;0if a&TuGeftkyf apwDawmfjrwfxHyg;0,f 143 Ä jrefrmEdkifiHjynfaxmifpktvHudk udkifaqmif o,f,lcGifh&&SdcJhaom apmfbGm;tEG,f 161 Ä NrdKUolBuD;r zGm;zGm;av; tawG;prsm;ESifh 175 Ä &wufu,ftjzmjzm aeY&ufrsm;rSmv 192 Ä vGrf;&wJhNrdKUol 207 Handbook-3
  • 4. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol *E¦0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJY vGrf;&wJhNrdKUol orkdif;wGifwJh NrdKUav;qD ]]onfqDonfNrdKU onfodkYapwDD}} [k r umao;rDurS rM awGUqHkvmcJh&aom olYtajymwdkYudk pdwftm½kHwGif jrifa,mif vsuEihf uReawmfwpfa,muf0efxrf;b0 wpfu,awmf c&D; f S f dk f ESiconf/ &efue-rauG; aeYpOftcserec&D;onfwif bwfpum; f hJ kf dfSf ff ]]xdyfwef;}} BuD;udk pD;cJhonf/ 0efBuD;rsm;½kH;&Sd rdcifXme (½kH;csKyf) rS e,fajymif;c&D;yif jzpfonf/ e,ftajymif;ta&TUrlt& &efukefNrdKUawmfrSonf ouf qdkif&mwdkif;ESifh jynfe,f½kH;odkY 0ifa&mufowif;ydkYMu&ao; onf/ NyD;awmhrS rdrdwm0efxrf;aqmif&rnfh NrdKUodkYc&D;quf Mu&onf/ onfrt& uReawmfwm0efxrf;&Gu&rnfh NrKd Uav; l f f ESifh oufqdkifaom wdkif;NrdKUawmf ]]rauG;NrdKU}} wGif wpf&ufwm &yfem;um rauG;wdkif; pDrHudef;a&;qGJa&;OD;pD;Xme (wdkif;pDrH 1 Handbook-4
  • 5. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol udef;½kH;)ü wkdif;OD;pD;rSL;ESifh awGUqHk&vsuf wdkif;rSL;Mo0g'udk cH,lcJh&ao;onf/ aemufwpfaeYwGif rauG;NrdKU taemufbufjcrf; p&m taemufNrdKUawmftrnf& yckuúLNrdKUodkY ukef;vrf;ydkYaqmif (u.y.&) vdkif;um;jzifh c&D;qufcJh&jyefum yckuúLNrdKUudk a&mufcJh&onf/ yckuúLNrdKUwGif ntdyf&yfem;cJhonf/ NrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL; wm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom yckuúLNrdKUae vkyfazmfudkifzuf oli,fcsif;aMumifh olYtodrdwfaqG ukef vnf;wif c&D;onfvnf;pD; 'kwd,urÇmppfvufusef csuf yvufum;BuD;jzifh uRefawmf qufvufc&D;ESifcJh&jyefygNyD/ uRefawmfonf yHkawmif yHknm&yf0ef; a,mwdkYXmaeu ]]xD;vif;}} qdkaomNrdKUav;odkY yckuúL- ayguf- xD;vif; vrf; tm;jzifh tqdygum;Bu;D udk pD;eif;vduygcJygonf/ xdc&D;um; k k f h k vlpD;bwfpfum;[lír&Sd? yHkrSefajy;qGJay;aom vdkif;um;[lí r&Sd[k odxm;onf/ xdkYaMumifh c&D;oGm;jynfol ololigigwdkY tm;xm;&aom xdktcspfawmfum;BuD;um; ypönf;tjynfh vl awGtrsm;BuD;ESifh jzpfavonf/ 'DZifbm tnmaqmif;at;at; eHeuf (6) em&DwGif yckuúLNrdKUrS pwifxGufcJhonf/ oli,fcsif;jzpfol az;rrI aMumifh um;BuD;a&SUcef; (acgif;cef;) rSm uRefawmfpD;cGifh&cJh onf/ yckuúL-ayguf-xD;vif; armfawmfum;vrf;onfum; e,fcsJUNAdwdoQwdkYacwfu ppfa&;? pD;yGm;a&;t& azmufvkyfcJh aom vrf;aywnf; tuGmta0;c&D;rditm;jzifh (96) rdionf k f k f ajrjyefYa'orsm;wGifawmh cPuav;ESifh a&muf&SdoGm;Edkif onf/ yckuúL-ayguf-xD;vif;oGm; um;vrf;uawmh wpfae ukefeD;yg; armif;ESif&onf[k qdkavonf/ wpfzefonf vrf; c&D;onf aqmif;ESifh aEG&moDwGifom oGm;vmí&aom ajr vrf;jzpfum rdk;usvmNyDqdkvQif oGm;ír&awmh/ aygufNrdKUonf yckuúL-ayguf-xD;vif;vrf; tv,f A[dvnf; jzpfonf/ yckuLú rS aygufoYkd (47) rdi&onf/ ayguf k k f dS NrdKUrS xD;vif;NrdKUodkY (49) rkdifcefY&Sdonf/ yckuúLrS ayguftxd vrf;c&D;um; ajrjyefYrsm;onf/ aygufNrdKUrS taemufbufodkY xGuonfEihf awmwef;ESihf awmifpOfwu wjznf;jznf;jrifí f S Ykd h oGm;onhf ]]ykawmif}} awmifwef;Bu;D awmifpOftoG,o,f H f G rsm;udk ausmfjzwfvm&awmhonf[k ajymMuonf/ (18) rdkifcefYarmif;ESifcJhNyD; ]]uHr}} qkdaom tkef;yifrsm; ESifh tkyftkyfqkdif;qkdif;&SdvSonhf &GmBuD;udka&mufvmonf/ yckuLú a'o yljyif;ajcmufaoGUvSaom e,fy,fwe;f u ]]tkat k d ppf}} &Gm[kac:Muonf/ xkd&GmwGif um;udk&yfonf/ eHeuf tapmapm vufzuf&nfaomuf rkefYpm;Mu&efjzpfonf/ um;&yfem;pOf wpfESpfom;t&G,f uav;i,fESifh tar wkdY um;BuD;ay:rSqif;&ef BudK;pm;aeonfudk uRefawmfjrifae &onf/ c&D;oGm;wpfOD;u ulnD[efjyifonf/ cav;udk urf; vifhonf/ cav;u rvkdufcsif? idkavawmhonf/ ZGwftwif; ESifhyif rdcifjzpfolu um;BuD;ay:rSqif;&onf/ rdcifjzpfol um;ay:rS ajrBuD;jyifodkY a&mufNyD;aemuf cav;udkjyef,l/ 2 3 Handbook-5
  • 6. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol rdcifjzpfolxH a&mufoGm;cJh&onf[kqkdayr,fh idkoHurwdwf ao;/ rdcifjzpfolu om;ydk;apmif (csnfapmif) ESifh aEG;axG; apvkdufawmhrS tidk&yfonf/ trSefawmh apmapmpD;pD; aqmif;wGif;BuD;rSm trkd;udkif;zGifhum;BuD;ay: avw[l;[l;ESifh um;pD;vm&m aEG;atmifaxG;ayGU apmifBuD;udkNcHKxmonfrS uif;vGwfoGm;ojzifh csrf;at;aomaMumifh idkyHk&onf[k uRefawmf,lqrdonf/ armfawmfum;BuD;wpfpD;vHk; ,mOfarmif;? ,mOfaemuf vkutygt0if pkpaygif; (25) OD;&Sonf/ uHr&GmrS pwifxuf d f k d G awmhrnfqawmh um;q&mudajymí om;trdukd um;a&SUcef;rS dk k vkdufygpD;eif;ap&ef pmempdwfjzifh uRefawmfajymqkdpDpOfay;cJh jzpfonf/ om;onfrdcifrSm touf (20) pGef;pGef;cefYom&SdOD; rnf[krSef;qrdonf/ ]]aus;Zl ; txl ; wif y gw,f q &m...ES p f & uf o H k ; &uf aerS um;toGm;tvm&SdwJh 'Dvrf;c&D;rSm onfum;udk pD;cGifh &wmudkbJ um;q&mukduaus;Zl;wifaeMu&wmyg/ 'Dxuf 'Dvrf;c&D;rsKd;rSm um;a&SUcef;u vHkvHkNcHKNcHKeJY pD;jzpf&atmif u½kPmw&m;eJY em;vnfpmemwwfpGm ae&may;vmcJhwJh 'Du q&mtwG u f v J uRef r trsm;BuD ; aus;Zl ; wif r d & ygNyD / [efaqmifpum; r[kwf&ygbl;&Sif wu,fyg...}}/ om;onf r d c if a jymvmcJ h a om pum;rsm;aMumif h uRefawmfhpdwfwGif yDwdjzpfcJhrd&ygonf/ [mvm[if;vif;zGifh ukewifum;Bu;D um;abmf'trk;d udi;f oHui;f Bu;D tm; vuf f D k kd ESpfzufjzifhudkifvsuf um;pD;&onfudkyif uRefawmfauseyf& jyefao;onf/ ywf0ef;usiftvSty ½Icif;wkdYtm;Munhf½I&if; jrifui;f us,yef;csum;Bu;D udk tm;yg;w&jrifvmae&ívnf; G f D olwkdYom;trdudkyif uRefawmfujyefvnfí pdwfxJu aus;Zl; wifaerd&onf[k qkd&rnfyifjzpfacsonf/ rkd;enf;&yf0ef;a'ovnf;jzpf yljyif;ajcmufaoGUaom t&yfvnf;jzpfí uHr rS aygufNrdKU 1 &D;um; awmifukef;i,f [ifwi;f awmrsm;ESihf opfyifwusyg;pGmom &Saeonf/ awmif dk Ydk J d uwHk;awG[kom qkd&rnfjzpfonf/ wpfcgwpf&H vrf;c&D;wGif um; wpfpD;ESifhwpfpD; a&Smifwdrf;&pOftcg zkefvHk;BuD;awG wvdyfvdyfMum; zkefrkefwkdif;wkdufcwfbdonfhtvm; vTrf;rkd; zHk;tkyfoGm;Mu&awmhonf/ uRefawmfhrSm vufudkifyk0gudk ESmacgif;pnf;tjzpf pnf;xm;&onf/ aygufNrdKUodkYa&mufcgeD; ]]urf;rjzL}} acsmif;BuD;uqkd;vS onf[kajymMuonf/ oJacsmif;us,fBuD;jzpfonf/ yHkawmif yHknmawmifwef;BuD;wkdYrS acsmif;zsm;cHí pwifpD;qif;vmMu aom acsmif;i,frsm;wGifyg0ifaeaom urf;rjzLacsmif;u rkd;Owkumv0,f acsmif;a&usojzifh onfrSmbufurf;wGif ESpnoH;k nponfjzifh xrif;qkiuav;rsm;rSm tqifajyovkd f d f tdyfMu& pm;Mu&onfrsm;udkvnf; BuHK&wwfonf/ acsmif;u twm;tqD;ozG,jf zpf&um c&D;vrf;romr,m&SMd u&onf[k ajymMuonfudk odcGifh&cJh&onf/ trSefawmh yckuúLESifh ayguf NrdKUwkdYrSm ajrjyefYydkif;a'orsm;wGif rkd;enf;yg;rI&SdaomaMumifh 4 5 Handbook-6
  • 7. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol aEGrkd;aqmif; oHk;&moDpvHk;yif oGm;vmrI&SdMuonf/ um; tquftoG,faeYwkdif;vkdvkd &SdwwfaMumif;qkdonf/ aygufrS xD;vif;NrdKUodkY um;rkd;usNyDqkdonfESifh roGm;Muawmh/ oGm;vm ír&awmh[kod&ayonf/ aygufNrdKUrStvGef ]]vlom;tp yHkawmifu}} [k urÁnf; wifc&m yHawmifawmifwef;jrifBh u;D awmifpOftoG,o,f hJ k f G wkdYu jrifhíjrihfívmNyDjzpfonf/ awmawmiftxyfxyfjzwf ausmf&aom c&D;vrf;um; a>rvdefa>raumuf&SdvSacs/ awmifwef;awmifp,wpfc tedrq;kH tydi;f udk a&G;cs,jf zwf G f k hf k oef;&if; jzwfoef;&if;uqifhíqifhí jrifhrm;vm&if; awmif tjrifhqHk;tydkif;udk ausmfjzwf&onf/ wpfawmifwufqif; wpfawmeif;vsuf c&D;qufMu&aom oabmjzpfygonf/ onf*E¦0ifyHknmawmifwef;a'o a,me,fajr&yf0ef; qD rvmrDuyifvQif yckuúLNrdKUZmwd pma&;q&m? q&m jroef ; wif a&;om;wif j ycJ h a om ]]yH k a wmif yH k n moG m ; awmvm;}} udk zwf½IcJhNyD;NyD pdwf0ifwpm;vnf;&Sd&onf/ yHkawmifESifh yHknmawmifwef; jrifhnDaemifwdkYum; yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf ysrf;rQtjrifhay (3000) ausmf pD&SdMuonf/ awmifajrmuftNydKif oG,fwef;vsuf&Sdonf/ taemufbuf&dS ysr;f rQtjrifay (7000) ausmf csi;f ½d;k rawmif h wef;BuD;ESifh tNydKifvnf;jzpfonf/ ajrjyefYa'orStvm aygufNrdKUtaemufbufrS tp jyKum yHkawmifawmifwef;jrifhBuD;udk jrif&awGU&jzwfausmfMu &onf/ wjznf;jznf;ESihf opfawmopfyifwu pdyívmonf/ Ykd f pdrf;ívmonf/ yHkawmifawmifwef;BuD; ta&SUbufonf taemufbufavmuf opfyif? opfawm xlxyfpGmr&SdvS/ taemufbufjcrf;udk rrD[kajymMuonf/ rSefygavonf/ yHkawmif yHknmrSm pwifpD;qif;vmaom ausmacsmif;? urf;rjzLacsmif;wkdYudk trSDjyKíum; vrf;ab;aus;&Gmav;rsm; udk jrif&awGU&&if;rS awmtxyfxyfawmifpOfwef;wkdYudk jzwf ausmfum awmiftjrifhqHk;tykdif;udk a&mufvmcJh&onf/ ]]xD;vif;NrdKUe,frS vdIufvSJpGmBudKqdkyg}} [laom qkdif;bkwf BuD;udk awmifxdyfrSmawGUvkduf&onf/ awmifxdyfrS taemuf t&yfodkYqif;cJhawmhrS opfawm0g;awmBuD;rsm;u ydkíxlxyf vmoonf/ pdrfhprf;a&aygufudkvnf; awGU&onf/ uRef;? ysOf;uwkd;? ydawmuf? opf,m? tifMuif;? ,rae? aESm tp &Sonfh Ediitzk;d wef obm0opfawmBu;D rsm;? opfyifBu;D rsm;? d k f hH 0g;awmBuD;rsm;wdkYrSm pdrf;BuD;NrdKifBuD;jzpfíaeatmif tkyfrkd; xm;vsuf&SdaeonfudkawGU&onf/ um;pD;&if;avwkdufcwfEIef;tjyif aqmif;tat; 'Pf u d k (Navy) a&wyf t aEG ; xnf *smuif t xl B uD ; ud k 0wfqifum umuG,fxm;&onf/ acgif;pGyf? vuftdwf? ajctdwfwdkYuvnf; 0wfqifxm;&ao;onf/ awmifay:um; vrf; a,m&yfrJZmNrdKifum; at;vSonf/ opfyifig;yifBuD;rsm; ay:rS ESif;cufESif;aygufwkdYaMumifh um;vrf;onf a&zsef;xm; ouJhodkY &TJpdkaebdonf/ 6 7 Handbook-7 )a
  • 8. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol awmifpOfa&r&? awmtxyfxyfwkdYudk jrifae&&if; a&opf? ajropf? ywf0ef;usiftopfudk uRefawmfonf w0 BuD;jrifawGUcHpm;ae&jcif;twGufvnf; rsm;pGmoabmusae rd&onf/ wpfzufu awmifeH&?H tjcm;wpfzufrmu acsmuf S eufurf;yg;wkdY0,f tonf;w,m;,m; &ifwzkdzdkjzifh um;BuD; ud k p D ; &onf u m; aMumuf p &maumif ; vS o nf / qif B uD ; wpfaumifyrm wvIyfvIyfwtdtdESifh b,f,drf;nmEGJUjzifh aeYvnf (12) em&DausmfausmfcefYwGif ]]usif;}} qkdonfh&GmBuD; udk a&mufvmcJh&onf/ ta&SUbufyHkawmifawmifwef;BuD;ESifh taemufbuf yHknmawmifwef;BuD;wkdYtMum; usif;&GmwGif eHeufpmpm;&ef um;udk&yfem;cJhonf/ ]]rdbarwåm}} trnf& OD;bodef; xrif;qkdifwGifjzpfonf/ yckuúLrS oli,fcsif;aus;Zl;aMumifh um;'½dibm? py,f,mESitwl uReawmfonf wpf0i;f wnf; k f hf f kd wGif pm;&onf/ twlvmc&D;oGm;rsm;vnf; toD;oD;pm;Muonf/ om; trdudkuRefawmf&Hzef&Hcg Munhfrd&onf/ om;udkxrif;cGHUí auR;vkduf? tarupm;vkdufESifhudk uRefawmfawGU&onf/ uav;rSm MunfMunfvifvifESifh &Sdaeonf/ xrif;pm;NyD;í uRefawmfwdkY0dkif;twGuf uRefawmfu xrif;zkd;usoifhaiGay;acs&efjyKawmh xrif;qkdifykdif&SiftrBuD; u um;q&mu&Sif;ay;NyD;oGm;NyD[k ajymvmcJhonf/ ]]wkd;u om;trdtwGuf xrif;zkd;[if;zdk;udk &Sif;ay;yg&ap}} [k uReawmfu xrif;qdiyi&if {nh0wfjyKwnfcif;ay;vmaom f k f kd f S f arwåmapwem a&aEG;Murf;? vufzufESifh ajryJqHaMumf? xef;vsufcJwkdYudk oHk;aqmif&onf/ ]]q&m...q&mu uRefrwkdYom;trdtwGuf usoifh xrif;zkd;udk &Sif;ay;cJhw,fvdkY qkdif&SifuajymjyvdkY odcJh&w,f q&m/ tm;emp&mq&m&,f? ay;cJhwJhaiGtwGuf 'DuaiGudk jyefay;yg&ap usrwdkYom;trdtwGuf vrf;c&D;rSm ulnDay; vmcJhwJh q&mhapwemawGudk usrwu,fav;pm;rdygw,f q&m? b,fawmhrSvJ rarhygbl;q&m...}} om;onf rdcifu om;i,fudk csDrvsufESifh uRefawmfh xHa&mufvmcJ?h pum;ajymcJ?h xrif;pm;p&dwtwGuf yduqukd f k f H ay;vmcJhonf/ uRefawmfvufumjyvsuf r,lcJhyg/ pum; tenf;i,fajymrd&ygonf/ ]]'DvdkulnDzdkYtcGifhBuHKvm ulnDay;&wmudkyJ uRefawmf u0rf;omrd&ygw,f/ onfa,me,fa'otwGuf uRefawmf [mvmjcif ; aumif ; wJ h c&D ; onf w pf O D ; jzpf & ygap...vd k Y pdwf&if;apwemrSefeJY ukokdvfjyKjzpf&wmvJygygw,fAsm...}} ]]aMomf..'geJY q&mu Xmeqkdif&mt&m&Sdwpfa,muf vdkY um;q&muajymjywmudk od&ygw,f/ t&m&SdqkdvkdYom ,Hvu&w,f/ touft&G,uvJi,fi,f vlyuvJacsmacsm k dk f f kH aemf...uRefrwkdYom;trdukd ckvkdapwemrsm;pGmeJY ulnDay;cJh wJhtwGufvJ aus;Zl;wif&rIwpfcktjzpf vlBuD;rdbawGu qkay;ovkd qkay;yg≈..q&mhb0wpfavQmuf oGm;av 8 9 Handbook-8
  • 9. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol &m a&mufav&mt&yfrSm rsufESmjrifcspfcifygap? toHMum; oem;ygap? ol,kwfrmeJYvGJvdkY olawmfaumif;rsm; vlaumif; rsm;eJY awGU&ygap...vkdYom uRefrqkawmif;ay;yg&apawmh aemf q&m...}} ]]aMomf...aMomf...[kwu...[kwu...}} [kom f hJ f hJ uRefawmfqdkvdkufrdawmhonf/ um;py,f,m EId;aqmfoHESifhtwl uRefawmfvnf; um;BuD;ay:odkYwG,fí wifvdkufursm;ívmonf/ tcsdefukef oufom vrf;BuHKpD;wpf&GmESifh wpf&Gmc&D;oGm;rsm;ygwum;[k uRefawmfoabmaygufvmcJhrd&ygavonf/ xrif;qkdifuxGuf vrf;ab;0J,mwGifjrif&onfrSm wGzuftxufwef;ausmif;? use;f rma&;aq;cef;? jynfo&wyf J Yl J zGUJ pef;wk&onfukd qki;f bkwBf u;D rsm;t& od&onf/ wvIyvyf Yd dS d f I ESihf armif;ESi&if;c&D;qufaepOf obm0awmawmifa&ajrudk f uRefawmfonftm;yg;w& jrif½IcGifh&aeonf/ opfyifjrifhBuD; rsm;wGif oZifyef;wkujkd rif&onf/ obm0awmyef;awmifyef; Yd &eHYwkdYudk&onf/ vwfqwfat;jraomavudk ½I½dIuf&onf/ MunfEl;csrf;ajrUp&mjrifuGif; tjzmjzmudkMunfh½I&if; awmxdyf ydkif;udka&mufcJh ausmfjzwfcJh qif;cJhawmh wpfae&m0,f prf;a& aygufudkjrifawGU&jyefonf/ tdyJh tdyJhESifhyif awmifajctqif;wGif tnmbef;? tv,fbef;qkdaom &GmwkdYudkjzwfausmf&if; tMunfbef;qkd aom &Gmuda&mufvmonf/ us,jf yefonhf a&T0ga&mifpyg;cif; k Y wkdY0,faumuf&dwfodrf;aeMuonfudk jrif&onfrSm aysmfp&m toGifjzpf&onf/ &GmudkvGefNyD;aomf awmifpOfwef;wpfckudk wufcJhonf/ awmwef;0,fum;BuD;u ajy;vTmaeonf/ aerif;Bu;D u xGuvmoa,mifa,mif&vuf aqmif;wdrwu f dS dk f Ydk zHk;vTrf;oGm;vkdufESifh aeudkjrif&onfr&SdvS/ onfvkdESifh awmifpG,fwpfckudk csKd;auGUvkdufawmh ]]xD; vif;NrdKUrS vdIufvSJpGmBudKqkdyg}} [laom NrdKUw0ifqkdif;bkwf BuD;udk bGm;ceJjrifvkduf&onfrdkY uRefawmfonfrsm;pGmtHhtm; oifom;rdc&ygavawmhonf/ vufrem&Dukd Munhrvuawmh h G hJ S f d dk f nae (4) em&Dxkd;cgeD;NyDjzpfavonf/ vmcJh&onfhc&D;udk wGuqMunhvuronf/ (10) em&Domc&D;wGif onfr;dk q&m f f kd f d jroef;wifh ]]yHkawmifyHknmoGm;awmvm;}} um; uRefawmfh twGuf r[mc&D;&SnfBuD;ygwum;[kom qkdvkduf&ayawmh onf/ wpfzefvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHonf yHkawmifyHknmorkdif;? ausmufacwforkdif;? waumif;rS ukef;abmiftxd ukd,fhxD; ukd,fhMuXmef;ESifhaecJh wkd;wufcJhaomorkdif;? vGwfvyfa&; twGuf jynfaxmifpkaoG;? ZmwdaoG;? Zmwdrmefjzifh ajymif ajrmufpmjyefvnf&,lcaom orki;f ? vGwvyfa&;udk umuG,f G hJ d f apmifha&SmufcJhaom orkdif;aMumif;xGef;ajymifonhf EkdifiHjzpf onf/ a&ajrMoZmaumif;? Owkaumif;? o,HZmwaumif;rsm; jynh0pHvif*PwifEiaom EkiijH zpfonf/ onfoaom EkiiH f k k f dk f d f Ykd d f wGif;u &efukefom;uRefawmfonf yHkawmifyHknmorkdif;ESifh 10 11 Handbook-9
  • 10. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol yHkawmifyHknm&yf0ef;a'o&Sd jrefrmhorkdif;wGif tvGefpdwf0if pm;bG,f&m aumif;vSonfh ]]xD;vif;}} qkdaom NrdKUav;qD a&mufvkdYvmcJh&ygNyD/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rIorkdif;wGif ta&;ygonhf tcef;u@wpfcktaejzifh xm0pOf&Sifoefatmif BudK;yrf;Mu &rnhf jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfarG;zGm;EkdifcJh&mvnf;jzpf wjznf; jznf;ESifh wdrfjrKyfaysmufuG,froGm;Ekdif&avatmifa&m vlod enf;vSao;aomfvnf; *E¦0ifNrdKUav;wpfjrdKU jzpf&aMumif;udk azmfxkwfay;vdkvSaom orkdif;cspfol? EkdifiHcspfol uRefawmf onf xD;vif;NrdKUudk a&muf&SdvmcJh&ygavonf/ ]][kwfygw,f...uRefawmf &JjrifhvdIifyg}} [kqvuonfEihf olwu rdwqufvmcJMh uawmhonf/ kd kd f S Ykd f trsK;d om;jzpfou ]]uda0vif;}}? trsK;d orD;trnfu ]]r&D&ar}} l k D [líod&SdcJh&avonf/ olwEpO;D u ]]bmaMumifrsm; uReawmftm;vma&muf Ydk S f h f BudKvifhaecJhygvdrhf}} [k uRefawmftxyfxyftcgcg pOf;pm; aerd&ao;onf/ tajymif;ta&TU trdefYpmxGufNyD;onfESifh ,if;trdepmudk uReawmf,aqmifvmcJonf/ nTeMf um;a&;rSL; Yf f l h (pDrH)u uRefawmfESifh oufqkdifaom rauG;wkdif;? wkdif;½Hk; twGufa&m uRefawmfxrf;aqmif&rnfh NrdKUe,f? uRefawmfESifh vJvS,fwm0efxrf;aqmif&rnfh NrdKUe,frSL;tajymif;ta&TU twGufyg pmrsm;udk uRefawmfom,laqmifoGm;yg&ef ay;tyf cJhonfum; uRefawmfomvQifodygonf/ odkYpOfvsuf b,fvkd jzpf&ygvdrfh[k awG;aerdonf/ ]]q&m a&mufvmvdrhfr,fqkdwmudk &efukef½Hk;csKyfu rr ]]a':arMunfvicsK}d } u ½H;k udoBH uKd ;pmay;zdxm;vdYk tckvkd G f k Yk vmBudKae&wmyg&Sif}} ]]aMomf...[kwfygNyD...}} a':arMunfvGifcsKd...rarMunfvGifcsKd...arMunf vGifcsKd...[lí trSwfw&jrnfwrf;&if;rSmyif wpfc&D;xJvm cJ h M uol om;onf r d c if u uRef a wmf h t m;vma&muf u m EIwfqufcJhonf/ olwkdYrSm xD;vif;NrdKUü wpfnwmtdyfpufNyD; aemufaeYwGif olwdkY&Gm (qifpG,f&Gm) udk ajcvsifukef;aMumif; 12 vuf0JokE´&ESifh rwlaom a,mrJZmNrdKifc&D;onf uRefawmfwkdYpD;vmcJhaom c&D;onfESifh ukefpnfwif aqmifonfh csufyvufum;BuD;u NrdKUtv,f xrif;qkdif wef;wGif *dwfqHk;onf/ c&D;onfrsm;ESifh um;py,f,mwkdY um;pD;eif;vkdufygvmMuonfh c&D;twGufum;cusoifhaiGrsm; &Sif;aeMuonf/ ]]&efukefNrdKUu ajymif;a&TUvmwJh OD;&JjrifhvdIifqkdwmyg vm;&Sif...}} [laomtoHESifh rdef;uav;ESifh axmifaxmif armif;armif;trsKd;om;wpfOD;wkdYu uRefawmhfxHa&mufvm onf/ olwkdYudk taotcsmtuJcwf Munhfrdvkdufawmh uRefawmfh0efxrf;awGrSef; od&onf/ taMumif;rSm olwkdY tusÐb,fbuf &ifbwfay:0,f uRefawmfwkdY½Hk;Xme ½Hk; wHqdyftrSwftom;&ifxkd;udk jrifvkduf&íjzpfavonf/ 13 Handbook-10
  • 11. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol c&D;quf&ef&Sdao;aMumif;? aemufrS uRefawmfhxHvma&muf awGUqHkOD;rnfjzpfaMumif;ajymvmonf/ uRefawmfhteD;&Sd ]]&D&Dar}} ESifhvnf; om;onfrdcifu wD;wkd;pum;awGajymae Muao;onf/ olwawGu todtuRr;f awGjzpfaeMuwmud;k [k Ydk vnf; uRefawmfaumufcsufcsrd&avonf/ oHaowåmBu;D wpfv;kH c&D;aqmif (Hand Ba) avufqJG tdwBf u;D wpfck ESihf xde;f xde;f odr;f odr;f tjrwfwEd;k o,faqmif vmcJaom ]]'Hrif;}} (vufptwo@mef txyfom;jzifjh yKvyf h k JG d f k xm;onf) wkdYudk uRefawmfh0efxrf;ESpfOD;wkdYu ,laqmifMu onf/ uRefawmfu um;q&mESifh py,f,mwkdYtm; EIwfquf onf/ vdyfpmygtwkdif; uRefawmfwnf;ckdaexkdif&rnhftdrfodkY uReawmf½;kH 0efxrf;jzpfowEitwl ajcvsiavQmufumvmcJh f h l Ydk S hf f awmhonf/ vdyfpmygt& OD;jrifhodef;+a':0if;0if;vdIif [kod& onf/ uRefawmhfaqGrsKd;r[kwf/ uRefawmfhazazESifh wuúodkvf twlwpfzuf tpdk;&bufBuD;wpfckrS nTefMum;a&;rSL;jzpfolu nDawmfpyfol OD;jrifhodef;rdom;pkxH pma&;ay;vdkufonf/ wnf;ckdaexkdif&efESifh tppt&m&mulnDapmifha&Smufay;ap &ef tdwfzGifhay;pmudk uRefawmf,laqmifvmcJhonf/ xkdtdrf udka&mufcJhawmh olwkdYrdom;pkukd ,laqmifvmonfhpmudkay; onf/ olwdkYzwf½INyD;awmh uRefawmhftm;vnf; zufvSJwuif; jzifh BudKqkdcJhMuygonf/ ]]q&muawmh pHeef;awmfudka&mufvmcJh&NyD/ ylyefp&m bmrSrvdkawmhbl;aemf? pdwfcsvufcs at;at;csrf;csrf;om aeayawmhq&m...}} [k &,fusJusJESifh wynhfr&D&Daru qkdvmonf/ ]]bmygvdrfh...}} [k uRefawmfpOf;pm;cdkuf ]]'D v k d q &m&J U ...OD ; av;OD ; jrih f o d e f ; eJ Y a':av; a':0if;0if;vdIifwdkYudk uRefrwkdYu bBuD;odef;vkdYyJ trsm;u ac:Muwm...q&mrBu;D vdivyac:Muwmyg...'Du orD; I f Ydk J oHk;a,mufeJYqkdawmh rdom;pkig;a,mufayghq&m? aysmf&Tif&wJh rdom;pkygyJ&Sif...}} ...NyD;awmh 'Du orD;acsmav;awG oHk;a,mufwkdY&JU trnfawGuvJ xl;xl;jcm;jcm;jzpfaew,f q&m? ...tBuD; jzpfolu eef;jrifhvdIif? tvwfu eef;jrifhcdkif? ti,fqHk;orD; av;u eef;jrifhBudKif...wJh.. tJ ' gaMumif h q&mh u d k pH e ef ; awmf a y:a&muf & NyD ? eef;awmfay:pH&NyvYkd apmapmuajymcJjh zpfwmyg? olwntpfr D Ydk D awGudk aumif;aumif;om ckdif;pm;ayawmh...}} [k &D&Daru ]]aemuf}}aeonf/ ]]tdk;...'gaMumifhudk;...}} [k oabmaygufvm& onf/ olwkdYawGtm;vHk;rSmvnf; &D&Darhpum;aMumifh w[m; [m;ESifh jzpfaecJh&avonf/ onftxJ udka0vif;u ]]q&mrBuD;vdIifa&...'Duq&m? uRefawmfwkdYq&m trnfuvJ ]]OD;&JjrifhvdIif}}... vdkYac:w,fAs..}} [kajymvm 14 15 Handbook-11
  • 12. 16 udka,m (abm*aA') cJhjyefonf/ ]]a[...[kwfvm;...}} [k olwkdYrdom;pku oHNydKif xGufoGm;Mu& ydkrkdí&,farmjzpfcJhMu&ao;avonf/ uRef a wmf o nf pma&;q&m wuú o d k v f b k e f ; Ed k i f emrnfausm0w¬KBu;D jzpfaom ]]oli,fcsi;f vkyqufí ac:rnf f d J ckdif}} pmtkyfBuD;udk trSwf&vmrd&ao;onf/ olY0w¬KBuD;xJrSm awmh NrdKif&,f? BudKif&,f? ckdif&,f? vdIif&,fESifh ZmwftdrfzGJUxm; aom uRefawmfhtoJ(onf;)pGJ arwåmbGJU0w¬K&SnfBuD;yJjzpf onf/ ,ck onfrSmuawmh uav;t&G,fav;awGyJ&Sdaeao; onf/ nydkif;wGif olwkdYxyfrHvmcJhMuOD;rnf/ wm0efvTJajymif; &rnhf NrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL;udkyg ac:vmMurnf/ NrdKUe,frSL;uvnf; &efukefrS oHBudK;pmvmuwnf;u ajrjyefYa'oodkYajymif;a&TU &rnfhtwGuf 0rf;omaecJhonf/ ,ckuRefawmfa&muf&SdvdkYvm NyDqkdonfESifh ydkíyifaysmf&TifaernfrSm aocsmonf[kajym&if; &D&Dar? udka0vif;wkdY ½Hk;odkYjyefoGm;Muonf/ olwdkYjyefoGm;cJhNyD;aemuf nDtpfrrsm;xJrS tBuD;jzpfol eef ; jrif h v d I i f u vrf ; jytjzpf v k d u f y gvsuf ol r ES i f h t wl uRefawmfonf armacsmif;xJa&qif;csKd;cJhonf/ ]]tm;...yg;...yg...}} aerif;BuD;udk ,aeYwpfaeY vHk;rjrifcJh&onhftjzpfrS ck..0ifvkyfqJqJav;wGif rSdefjyjy av;omjrifvu&onf/ taemufbufcsi;f ½d;k rawmifwef;jrifh dk f BuD;um; eD;eD;av;jzpfíaeonfrkdY twkdif;om;jrifae&av *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 17 onf/ olwkdYqDu"avht& armacsmif;wGifa&csKd;Muojzifh NrdKUolNrdKUom;tcsKdUudk armacsmif;wpfavQmuf uRefawmfjrif awGUae&onf/ txufzuf armacsmif;[kdrSmzufurf; ukef;ajrwpfae&mu apwDawmfwpfqludkvnf; vSrf;jrif& onf/ ESpfrkdifcefYawmh&Sdvdrfhrnf[k tuGmta0;udkrSef;qrd& onf/ emrnfausmf a&S;a[mif;orkdif;0if a&TuGeftkyfapwD awmf[k trnfwGifaMumif; rdvdIifajymjyí odcGifh&cJhonf/ csif;awmifwef;BuD;rS acsmif;zsm;cHpD;qif;vmcJhaom armacsmif;a&u pdrfhpdrfhat;vSonf/ trSefwu,fwrf; 0efcH yg&vQif &uf&ufpufpufudk at;aeonf[kuRefawmfajymudk ajymcsifonf/ armacsmif;a&MunfMunf0,f ausmufwHk; ausmufcJ? ausmufp&pf? oJ? a,mufoGm;? c½kESifh ig;i,fav; rsm;wk d Y u d k twk d i f ; om;jrif a e&onf / vl B uD ; cg;vnf c ef Y a&teufwGif uRefawmfonf cPwjzKwfom acgif;ikyfa&csKd; Ekdifonf/ acs;tjrefwGef; acgif;jrefjrefavQmf qyfjymtjref vl;umudpöudk NyD;pD;ap&onf/ csKd;ae&if;rSmyif ckdufcdkufwkefa atmifcsrf;aeonf/ rsufESmokwfwbufapmifBuD;udk cE¨m udk,ftm;ywfNcHKum tdrfodkYjyefcJh&avonf/ npmpm;NyD;csdef vomrSeftdrfrD;tvif;a&mifatmuf 0,f OD;av;ode;f rdom;pkEihf uReawmftv’myov’mypum;wkYd S f ajymaeMuonfhtckduf wm0efvTJajymif;rnhfNrdKUe,frSL;ESifh aeYvnfuwynhfESpfa,mufwkdY a&mufvmcJhMuonf/ Handbook-12
  • 13. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol onfvrf;c&D;ESifh onftoJ (onf;) pGJcsufyvuf um;av;pD;cefYu xD;vif;NrdKUav; vufoHk;awmfBuD;rsm;jzpf aMumif;? wcsKUd aomvly*Kd¾ vawGtaMumif;? aomif;ajymif;axG k f vm w0g;0g;ESifhyGJusum Al;oD;aygif;aMumf? vufzufokyfpm; Mu? a&aEG;Murf;aomufMu&if; a&mufwwf&m&mawG ajymae cJhMuonf/ olwkdYwpfawGajymaeMuavaom taMumif;t&m rsm;? a,moH0J0JESifh a,mpum;wkdYudk em;qif&if; vSrf;cJhjref;cJh &onhf ,aeYc&D;Murf;udk arhaysmufum tyef;rsm;ajy&ay awmhonf/ ]][kd..wkef;u a&S;bk&ifrsm; apmfbGm;rsm;vufxufu opfawmBuD;av;&yf&SdcJhw,fqkd&mrSm ck..q&ma&muf&SdvdkY vmcJh&wmuawmh ]]a,mrJZmNrdKif}} yJq&ma&U? jynfrajrjyefY a'ou nDaemifwdkif;&if;om;wkdY ta&muftayguftxd tawGUenf;aeao;wJh a,me,fajr&yf0ef; a,mwkdYXmeDu rJZmNrdKif NrdKUav;wpfNrdKUygyJcifAsm? &efukefNrdKUBuD;rSmfaexkdifNyD; wrifwumonfNrdKUav;udkrS a&G;cs,fumajymif;a&TUa&muf&Sd vmcJhwJhq&mudkawmh tHhMorqHk;aygifq&m&,f... rJZma&TvDqDtjypf&SdvdkY e,fESif'ufcHcJh&wJh trwfBuD; vuf0JokE´&om&SdaecJhao;&ifjzifh trwfBuD;upum;qkdvdrfh r,f/ OD;&JjrifhvdIif[m a,m&yfXmae xD;vif;qkdwJh rJZmNrdKifqD &nf&G,fcsufvJ&Sd tcspfvJNidNyD; avQmufvSrf;cJhavonfvm; rwlujJG ym;wJoabmxm;udawmh trwfBu;D u tHMh ordrmAs... h k S udka0vif;tajymu ZmwfxJtNidrfhxJu pum;odkYES,f wefqmqifvsufajymvmae&if;u rNyD;qHk;ao;? aemufquf wGJpum;wpfcsKdUudk qufvufajymvmcJhjyefonf/ ]]aMu;eef;pmwpfapmifu BudKwifvdkYawmifa&mufvmcJh &wmqkdawmh taMumif;awmh{uef&Sdvdrfhr,fxifyg&JU...}} uReawmftm;wm0efvajymif;ay;oGm;rnhf OD;ausmausmf f h JT f udkMunhfvsuf &,fp&mvkdvkdESifh pum;pç vmcJhjcif;vnf;jzpf onf/ ]]a[...}} [k q&mausmfuajym ]][m...}} [k uRefawmfujzpf&vsufESifh... a,mrJZmNrdKifc&D;onf uRefawmf bmudkrSjyefrajymjy jzpfvkdufawmh/ wu,f w rf ; tm;jzif h vuf 0 J o k E ´ & trwf B uD ; ES i f h uRefawmfonfawmBuD;jrufrnf; rJZmqkdonhft&yfa'orsm; qD a&mufvmMu&yHkjcif;vnf;rwl/ rJZma&TvDa&muftrwfBuD;u &mZmtjzpf'PfoifhcJh aví rJZmNrdKifqDa&muf&onf/ uRefawmf&JjrifhvdIifuawmh Xmeqkdif&mjypfrIwpfpHk wpf&mvnf; r&SdcJhovdk ESvHk;om;ESifh pyfvsOf;ívnf; tcspf ab;'Pf tcspf&efpG,fwdkYvnf; roifhcJh/ wpfcawmh uReawmfajym&rnfxifonf/ vuf0oE& k f J k ´ trwfBuD;u rJZma&TvDrSmraysmfydkufcJh/ uRefawmfufawmhrl *E¦0ifrSwfwrf;&Sdayrifh toGm; tvmcufcJvGef;ojzifh jrefrmhorkdif;wGif wefzkd;vnf;BuD;vS 18 19 Handbook-13
  • 14. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol um jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om; jynfoljynfom;taygif;wkdY ta&;r&SdrjzpfvkdtyfvSaom ]]wkdif;&if;om;tm;vHk; aoG;pnf; nDnGwfa&;}} twGuf emrnfausmfMum;xif&Sm;oifhygvsuf rxif r &S m ;jzpf u mvl o d v nf ; tvG e f e nf ; aeao;onh f ]]xD;vif;}} NrdKUav;tm; tao;xm;xif&Sm;vmap&atmif azmfxkwfay;&efudkom t"duxm;onfudkawmh avmavm q,fü olwawGoEiMf uvdrO;D rnf rxifay/ orki;f a&;tjrif Ydk d dk hf d jzifhvnf; uRefawmfrSef;qum aysmfaerdonfuawmh trSef/ xkdYxuf...*E¦0ifNrdKUol arMunfvGifcsKdu uRefawmf a&muf&SdvmrnhftaMumif; BudKwifíaMu;eef;pmwpfapmif ydkYxm;cJhonfqkdjyefawmh... pOf;pm;p&mawGu trsm;BuD;...ESifh.. aMomf..e,fESiftjypf'PfaMumifh rJZma&TvDqDa&muf cJ&avaom vuf0oE&trwfBu;D ESihf rwlnaom a,mrJZm h J k ´ D NrdKifc&D;onf uRefawmf&JjrifhvdIifygay/ olwkdYtcef;ESifh olwkdYjzpfMuonf/ ntdyfnae {nfhonfrsm; a&mufvmwnf;cdkMuvQif tdrftay:xyfrSmyif ae&may;NrJ [kajymcJonf/ OD;av;ode;f wkrom;pku þodyiftyaeus[k h Yd d Yk d f qdkcJhonf/ &yfa0;u {nhfonfrsm; vma&mufrSomvQif tdrf tay:xyf u d k toH k ; jyKovk d r sKd ; jzpf & onf / tay:xyf ü bk&m;cef;? bk&m;ausmif;aqmifawmfxm;&Sdonf/ NyD;awmh tdyfcef;oHk;cef;xm;&Sdavonf/ odkYjzpfí q&mrBuD;vdIifajymjy csuft& jrwfpGmbk&m;ociftm; qGrf;? yef;? a&csrf;? qDrD;udpö ESifh ntcgbk&m;0wfjyKMuaom tcsdefrsm;rSwyg; tdrftay: xyfonf jyLwif;wHcg;rsm;udk zGifhvSpfxm;avhr&Sd/ odkYayr,fh aeYpOfawmh wHrsufpnf;vSJ Murf;wkdufjcif;awmh 0wå&m;rysuf [kqkdygonf/ ta&SUt&yfudkacgif;jyKí tdyf&mukwifudk pDpOfxm; onf/ vuf0JbufaxmifhwGifjzpfonf/ acgif;&if;bufESifh ab;bufwGif vG,fvG,fulul wHcg;zGifhí&onf/ acgif;&if; buf jyLwif;wHcg;udkzGifhvkdufawmh jymodkvjynhfcgeD; v tvif;a&mifu &Tef;vufom,maeonf/ tdrfNcH0dkif;odkYt0if NcH0if;wHcg;BuD;teD;u tkef;yifwkdY&Sd tkef;oD;rsm;ESifh tkef;ckdif rsm;udk va&mifjzifh xifxif&Sm;&Sm;jrifae&onf/ ESif;&nfwkdY zsef;xm;aom tkef;vuf? tkef;&GufwkdYrsm; a&Tpufa&Tajymuf a&T&nfaiG&nfaomufaeovdk jzpfaeonf/ tdyf&mukwifab;buf jyLwif;wHcg;udk zGifhvkdufaom tcg [dk;...taemufbuf&Sd jym&nfrdIif;rdIif; taemuf½dk;r 20 twdwfu t&dyfvkdygvmcJh olwkdYwpfawGtdrfodkY jyefoGm;cJhMuNyD;í uRefawmfbk&m; 0wfjyKjzpfcJhonf/ aMu;pnf½dkuf trQawGa0NyD;csdef uRefawmf tdyf,m0ifawmh n (10) em&Dxkd;NyD;cJhNyD/ ESpfxyfwkdufcHtdrfBuD;ay:0,f uRefawmfwpfa,muf wnf;tdyf&onf/ OD;av;odef;wkdYrdom;pk um;atmufxyfwGif 21 Handbook-14
  • 15. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wHwkdif; csif;awmifwef;jrifhBuD;udk va&mifjzifhjrifawGU&onf/ teD;&Sd o&ufyifrS opf&GufwkdYuvnf; wvufvufESifh ta&mifawGu a&Ta&mifjzpfvkduf aiGa&mifjzpfvkdufESifh jzpf& onf/ ESif;&nfwkdY usqif;cJhíjzpfonf/ ]]om,mvSyvkdufwm}} [k uRefawmhfEIwfrS wD;wkd; a&&Gwrvm&onftxd jzpf&onfEihf onfv½cif;rsK;d udk ,ck f d S dk I rSom xl;xl;jcm;jcm; jrifrdzl;&jcif;vnf;jzpf&onfrkdY tdyf&rnf udk ESajrmovdkjzpfaerdonf/ ae0ifrsKd;csKyfonfESifh tdrfwdkif; vkdvkdwHcg;awGydwfxm;Muonf/ at;vGef;í[k qkdonf/ ,ck vnf; 0ef;usifudkMunhfae&if;rSmyif tat;"mwfu ½dkufcwf vTr;f rk;d vmonfaMumifh jyLwif;wHcg;wkuywcg tdyawmhrnf Yd kd d f f [k tdyf&mukwifay:0,f vSJvkdufrdawmhonf/ a&eHqDvomrSef rD;tdrfudkNidrf;um tdyf,m0ifcJhNyD/ awmfawmfESifh tdyfraysmfcJh? vmcJhNyD;aom &efukefrS xD;vif;NrdKU odkY c&D;tm;pOf;pm;rd&wmaMumifhvnf;ygonf/ jzwfausmfcJh& onfh tEÅ&m,fBuD;rm;aom yHkawmifyHknmawmifwef;jrifhBuD; wkdYudk jrifa,mifaerdonf/ uRefawmf½Hk;tzGJU0efxrf;wkdYu ajymcJhMuaom pum;wkdYudkvnf; jyefvnfMum;a,mifvmrd& jyefonf/ ]]aMu;eef;pmwpfapmifu BudKwifvkdYawmif a&mufvm cJh&wmqkdawmh taMumif;awmh{uef&Sdvdrfhr,fxifyg&JU...}} ]]tif;...cufawmhvJ cufom;...av}} &efukef (½Hk;csKyf)u xD;vif;NrdKUol ]]arMunfvGifcsKd}} udk jrifa,mifxifa,mifvmrd&jyefawmhonf/ nT e f M um;a&;rS L ; (pD r H ) rS q&mOD ; oef ; azonf tajymif;ta&TUudpöü tcuftcJrjzpfapa&;tvkdYiSm twwf Ediq;kH pDpOfay;cJonf/ apwemrsm;pGmxm;wwfaom q&mu k f h arMunfvGifcsKdESifh uRefawmhfudk olY½Hk;cef;üawGUqHkay;cJhonf/ trSeu q&monf0efxrf;a&;&mESihf ywfoufvmvQif jrefrm f wpfEdkifiHvHk;&Sd zGifhvSpfNyD; pDrHudef;OD;pD;½Hk;rsm;? zGifhvSpf&ef usefrsm;? NrdKUe,fpDrHudef;rSL;rsm;? 'k-NrdKUe,fpDrHudef;rSL;rsm;wdkY tm; NrdKUe,ftrnfESifh vlyk*¾dKvftrnfudkyg rvGJEkdifavmuf atmif odxm;onf[kajymí&onhf tBuD;tuJwpfOD;ygay/ q&mOD ; oef ; azonf apwema&m oabmxm;yg aumif;onhftjyif ½dk;om;wnfMunfvSonf/ vkdtyfonfrsm; vkdtyfrnfrsm;udk ulnDay;wwfavhvnf;&Sdonf/ tpkd;&Xme Bu;D wpfcwif tBu;D qH;k nTeMf um;a&;rSL;csKyBf u;D ukd 0efxrf;wki;f k G d od&Sdxm;wwfMuouJhodkY q&mOD;oef;aztm;vnf; odaeMu onf/ q&mOD;oef;azonf 0efxrf;rsm;udk omreftcsdefrsm; wGif OD;? a':wyfí ac:avhr&SdbJ cifrif&if;ESD;aomoabm? vlwef;pm;rcGJjcm;wwfaom oabmrsKd;jzifh udk? r b,fol b,f0g[lí csKdomMunfat;aomtoHjzifh y#doE¨m&jyKum ac:qkdwwfonfh cifrifp&m cspfp&mav;pm;p&m q&mygay/ ]]uJ arMunfvicsK?d 'Du ud&jJ rifviw?hJ vltiftm;pDrH G f k h Id f ude;f a&;qGa&;u@ (Man Power Planning Section) uaygh? J udk&Ju &nf&G,fcsuf&Sdw,f? olYqE´t& arMunfvGifcsKd&JU xD;vif;NrdKUudk tajymif;ta&TU (Transfer) ,lwJhol? orD;u 22 23 Handbook-15
  • 16. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol oluwwfEiorQ ajymjyulnay;apvkygw,f/ ud&u vlawmf Y kd dk f D d k J wpfOD;ygyJ? 'Dvkdac:awGUajymjy&wmuvJ q&mwkdY&JU pDrHudef; a&;qGa&;Xmeqkwmu twwfEiq;kH csenN§d y;D zGivpqyaygh? J d kd f d f hf S f J J XmeydkiftaqmuftOD;? NrdKUe,fOD;pD;t&m&Sdaetdrfqkdwm wkdY uvJqkdawmh NrdKUe,fawGrSm aea&;xkdifa&;udpö tcuftcJ wpfcsKdU&Sdae&w,f/ vufa&wjyifpD;qkdwmvdk nDtpfudkarmifESrozG,f pnf;pnf;vH;k vH;k oabmtaeeJY wpfO;D udwpfO;D ,di;f yif;tul k k tnDay;EkdifMuapvdkYygyJuG,f/ [k txufygtwkdif; q&muajymay;cJhonf/ odEihf arMunfvicsKukd yxrOD;qH;k teD;uyfawGUodcihf Yk S G f d G &cJhonf/ ]]arMunfvGifcsKd}} ...wJh/ emrnfav;ESifh vkdufavsm nDaxGpGm tqkdyg rdef;uav;onf MunfMunfomom pdwf oabmxm;? vSycspfMunfcsifp&m tNyHK;ydkif&Sif? csKdomaom pum;ajymoHav;ESifh udkufnDvSonf/ cifrif&if;ESD;&rItp oabmtaejzifh olrESifhuRefawmf onf bm;vrf; (r[mAE¨Kv yef;NcHvrf;) &Sd ]]a&Trif;orD;}} vufzuf&nfqkdifodkY oGm;a&mufcJhMuum ESpfOD;om;pum;awG ajymjzpfcJhMuonf/ vufzuf&nfaomuf rkefYpm;&if;? &if;ESD; oGm;Mu&ygonf/ ]]udk&JjrifhvdIif}} [k wpfvHk;csif;? jznf;jznf;csif;ac:qkd vmcJonfh oltoHukd uReawmfuyifpwifí tac:ta0:udk h Y f jyifay;jzpfonf/ Xmewdkif; 0efxrf;tcsif;csif;vnf;jzpfum olpdrf;rsm;vnf; r[kwfMuojzifh rpdrf;MuavonhfoabmESifh ]]udk&JvdkYac:Ekdifygw,f? trsm;uawmh udk&JvkdYyJac:a0:aeMu wm MumcJhNyDrkdYyg}} [k &if;ESD;rIjyKcJhjzpfygonf/ olruvnf; ]][kwfuJhyg&Sif}} [k qkdcJhyg/ trSefawmh olrESifh uRefawmfonf jruRef;ndKndK &efukefpD;yGm;a&;wuúodkvfBuD;wGif wufa&mufynmoif,lcJh zl;Muolwvnf; jzpfcMhJ uygvsuf rqHqnf;jzpfcMhJ u/ uReawmf Ykd k f u olrxuf (3) ESpfapmum bGJU&cJholjzpfonf/ uRefawmfu (Day) aeY ausmif;om; ac: &efukefausmif;om;jzpfum olr rS m e,f r S a usmif ; ol j zpf í taqmif a ecG i f h & ol j zpf & onf / wpfzef twef;csif; ESpfcsif;rwlojzifhvnf; rodruRrf;jzpfcJh Mu&jcif;vnf;jzpfonf/ awGUqHkMu&ef qHkEdkifcGifh&Sdygvsuf uH Mur®muray;ao;cJh[efwlonf/ jrifyifrjrifzl;cJhjzpfMu/ ausmif ; awmf B uD ; u bG J U &cJ h N yD ; aemuf jref r mEk d i f i H 0efxrf;a&G;cs,favhusifha&;tzGJUu ac:,lcJhaom &mxl;0if tifwmAsL;rsm;udk a&;ajz? EIwajz ajzqkatmifjrifcNhJ y;D tvkyf f d cefxm;awmhvnf; uReawmfu olrxufapmum 0efxrf;jzpf Y f cJh&onf/ 0efBuD;rsm;½Hk;&Sd pDrH^b@m0efBuD;Xmevufatmuf pDrue;f a&;qGa&; OD;pD;Xme (½H;k csKy) wGif tvky0ifawmhvnf; H d J f f uRefawmfu olrxuf (3) ESpfapmíaeonf/ onftxJ 0efBu;D rsm;½H;k Bu;D twGi;f &Sd uReawmfw½;kH csKyf f Ydk qkdonfuvnf; u@awGursm;? tcef;awGu rsm;vSonf/ 24 25 Handbook-16
  • 17. 26 udka,m (abm*aA') ajrnDxyfrSmvnf; &Sdonf/ tay:xyfrSmvnf; &Sdonf/ onf odkYES,fjzpf&onfomru jzpfcsifawmh olrutay:xyfwGif &Sd u@rsm;rSm wm0efusonfrYkd ajrnDxyfrm wm0efausaom S uRefawmfESifh uawmfawmfESifh rqHkawGUjzpfovkd jzpfMu&av onf/ ½Hk;csKyfrSm (5) ESpfyif &SdcJh&NyDjzpfaom uRefawmfhtm; vnf; uRefawmfhabmf'g taygif;toif;wpfcsKdU ajymoHudk awmh uRefawmfMum;zl;cJhovkdvkdawmh&Sdonf/ topfcefYtyf vmcJhaom 'kwd,-pDrHudef;rSL; rdef;uav;awGxJrSmawmh ]]a,mrif;orD; xD;vif;{u&D}} av;u qHauom&Snf&Snf jrefrmqefqefav;ESifh tifrwefacsmvSonf[k ajymMuonf udk Mum;rdonf/ odkYayr,fh olr ESifh uRefawmfonf awhawhqkdifqkdif uGujJG ym;jym; rSwrwom;om;awmh rawGUjzpfcr[k uReawmf J f S f hJ d f xifonf/ ajymvkduajymapawmh[kom ajym&awmhrnhf taMumif;omjzpfawmhonf/ uReawmfrmvnf; ½H;k uqif;vQif f h S EkiijH cm;bmomwuúovukd nydi;f tcseyi;f ausmif;wufcihf d f dk f k d f kd G &&SdEdkifcJholjzpfaomaMumifh ausmif;om;jzpf&jyefonf/ *syef bmom&yfu,um wufa&mufynmoif,aeol wpfO;D vnf; kd l l jzpfae&jcif;aMumifhvnf; jzpf&ygonf/ rnfodkYyifjzpfap ckawmh uHMur®mt& qHkvmMu&ygNyD/ qHpnf;cGizefvmcJ?h awGUjrifvmcJ&í a,moltacsmtvSav; k hf h *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 27 udk uRefawmfhpdwfu wdrf;nTwfcgp&Sdao;onhf &ufydkif;uav; rSmyifvQif olrESifh uRefawmfcGJcGmcJhMu&ovkd jzpfvmcJh&jyef avNyD/ onfodkYaom avmavmvwfvwf rMumao;rDu twdwftaMumif;udk jyefajymif;í owd&vmrd&jcif;uvnf; apmapmu½Hk;0efxrf;wpfOD;jzpfol udka0vif;ajymvmcJhonhf &efukefrS aMu;eef;pmtaMumif;cH pum;oHtm; trSwf&um uReffawmfNyHK;rd&ao;awmhonf/ NyD;awmh---&D&Darh pum;oH--]]bmwJh...q&ma&mufvmvdrfhr,fqkdwmudk &efukef (½Hk;csKyf)u ararMunfvGifcsKdu ½Hk;udkoHBudK;pmay;ydkYxm;cJhvdkY tckvkdvmBudKae&ygw,f&Sif...}} wJh/ ]]aMomf...yHawmifynm&yf0ef; a,mwkXmae xD;vif; k kH Yd ajru tvSrzk&m;av; a,mrif;orD; xD;vif;{u&D arMunf vGifcsKd&,f...}} [k uRefawmfjrifa,mifwrf;wrd&if;u wpfaeYwmvHk; armyef;EGrf;e,fvmcJh&orQ ajzodrfh&vsuf tdyfaysmfatmif BudK;pm;umtdyf&ygOD;r,f/ &efukef (½Hk;csKyf) okdY ½Hk;udpöjzifh oGm;a&muf&onhtcgrsK;d wGif arMunfvicsKEihf awGU&zkta&; f G f d S Yd csOf;uyfvrf;aMumif;awGudk &SmazG&ayOD;rnf[k pdwfu&,f vsuf BudK;pm;umvQif tdyfygawmhrnf/ tem*wfaeY&ufrsm; twGuf tdyrufvvrufEiygap[k qkawmif;&if;u rMumrD f S S dk f rSmyif uRefawmftdyfaysmfoGm;cJh&avawmhonf/ Handbook-17
  • 18. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ol&JNrdKU (ac:) xD;vif;NrdKU eHeufty&muEd;k awmh (7) em&DyifausmcNhJ y/ cE¨mud,f d f f D k u EGrf;vSonf/ udk,fvufawGudkufcJí rxcsifcJh/ (96) rkdif c&D;u (96) yg;aom a&m*gawGudk pkNyHKcHpm;ae&onfodkYom ajymcsifawmhonf/ rxívnf; rjzpf/ udk,hfrdbudk,hftdrf udk,fh,mr[kwf[laom todpdwfu Edk;qGojzifh vl;vJumx jzpfcJh&onfESifh rdbwkdYaus;Zl;udk atmufarhvmrd&ao;onf/ rdbarwåmudkydkí odem;vnfvmrd&onf/ tdrftay:xyfMurf;jyif? atmufxyfodkYtqif;avScg;? tdrfrBuD;ESifh wGJpyfvsuf rD;zkdaqmif? xrif;pm;cef;? oHk;a&tkd; wkdYxm;&Sd&m vufoef;vHk;cefY cyfpdyfpdyfysOfcif;vomMurf;jyif wkdYudk eif;rd&wkdif; reif;&J&avmufatmif at;pufaeonf[k ajymcsifonf/ ]]Ek;d vmNyvm;...r*FvmeHeufcif;yg}} [k q&mrBu;D vdif D I u EIwfcGef;qufvmcJhjcif;ESifhtwl rdvdIifu uRefawmfrsufESm opfap&eftvkdYiSm a&aEG;ESifh a&at;wkdY a&mpyfxm;onfh aiGzvm;Bu;D uday;vmonf/ rsuEmopf oGm;wkuf oefpifae k f S d Y qJ0,f ywf0ef;usifudkMunhfrdawmh 0ef;usifwpfckvHk;onf ESi;f jrLawGEihf arSmifaeonf/ aqmif;ESi;f rIewu cE¨mud,ukd S f f Ydk k f vmxdonf/ rBuHKpzl; xl;xl;jcm;jcm; jzpfvdkYaeayonf/ tdrftay:xyfodkY jyefwufcJh? acgif;NzD;cJh? ajctdwf vuftw0wfxm;vsuEihf atmufxyfoYkd jyefqif;uma&tdrf d f f S 0ifconf/ aemuf {nhcef;r&S&modtvm OD;av;ode;f ESitwl hJ f d Yk hf trsKd;om;BuD;wpfOD;wkdY qufwDxkdifcHkwdkY0,f xkdifaeMuonfudk uRefawmfawGU&onf/ ]]udk&J a&...'Du q&meJY q&mrwdkYu udk&JudkawGUzdkY vmMuolawG}} ]]aMomf...[kwuhJ [kwuygcifAsm}}...[k uReawmf f f hJ f acgif;ndwfrdonf/ ]]'Dvkd...udk&Ja&...'Du OD;Munfwifh? ZeD;jzpfolu a':arvGifjrifhwJh? tv,fwef;jyq&meJY q&mrwkdYaygh/ olwkdY rSm orD;av;wpfa,muf xGef;um;w,f/ tJ'Dh orD;av;u &efukefrSmt&m&Sdrav;qkdygawmh? nwkef;u udk&JwynfhawG ajymMuwJhpum;xJrSmvJygNyD;om;? udk&J 'DNrdKUudkajymif;a&TU a&muf&Sdvmr,fhtaMumif; oHBudK;pmudk BudKwifay;ydkYcJhol[m 'Du q&m? q&mrwkdY&JU orD;yJaygh...}} ]]aMomf...aMomf...}} [kom todtrSwfjyKrd&if; av;pm;orIjyK&moabmESihfvnf; uRefawmfacgif;ndwfum &SdaerdcJhonf/ ]]udk&Ja&...'Du qwfxrif; (qwfqefESifh aumuf n§i;f qeftjzLa&maESmí aygif;xm;)? b,maMumf? Al;oD;aygif; aMumfwkdYu q&mq&mrwdkYu udk&Jpm;zkdY,lvmay;MuwmuGJU/ 'Du xrif;aMumffylylav;eJY ,kefom;aMumfu OD;av;odef;wkdY tdrfu pDpOfxm;wm at;at;aq;aq;pm; jznf;jznf;pm;? rdwfqufpum;awGajymqkdMu&if;ayghuG,f...}} [laom OD;av;odef; pum;oH/ 28 29 Handbook-18
  • 19. 30 udka,m (abm*aA') ]]aus;Zl;wif&ygw,fAsm...azmfa&GwJhtodpdwfeJY ckvkd wul;wu,laqmifum a&mufvmMuwmudkyJ uRefawmfu xyfrHaus;Zl;wifaMumif; pum;qkdyg&ap...}} [k qdkrdonf/ rwfwyf&yfaeMu&if;rS tm;vHk;xkdifjzpfMuonf/ ]]cPaemf...OD;eJY a':a':wkdY}} [kajymum tdrftay: xyf&Sd&mwufcJh txkyfwpfxkyfudkqGJum jyefqif;cJhonf/ ]]'gu &efuevufaqmifyg...ykpeajcmufygcifAsm.. k f G f OD;eJY a':a':wkrom;pktwGuf rdwqufvufaqmifqygawmh Yd d f dk nuvJ uReawmfrwaqGeYJ uReawmf0efxrf;awGukd ay;Ny;D yg f h d f f h NyD...'DrSmu ykpGefajcmufu &Sm;w,f? aps;BuD;w,fqkdvkdY..}} txufyguJhodkYajym&if;u uRefawmfonf olwkdYtm; ykpGefajcmufxkyfudk vufaqmiftjzpfay;tyfcJhonf/ ]]tm;em;p&muG,f...ta0;BuD;u o,fvm&w,fvdkY ...}} [k a,musfm;jzpfoluajymqJrSmyif ZeD;jzpfoluvnf; ]]tef;...'DbufrSmawmh ykpGefajcmufu&Sm;wmtrSef yJ? aps;vJjrifhw,f/ q&may;wJh ykpGefajcmufudk Amvacsmif aMumfvkyfNyD; OD;OD;zsm;zsm; q&mawmfBuD;ausmif;udk qGrf;[if; ydkY&r,f...}} [k ajymcJhao;onf/ ]]aMomf...q&m q&mrwdkYcifAsm...uRefawmfhudk q&mvkdYrac:bJ udk&JvdkYbJac:Ekdifygw,f/ emrnftjynhftpHk uawmh ]]&JjrifhvdIif}} yg/ azaz OD;&JacgifjrifheJY arara':nGefY nGeviw&UJ om;wpfO;D yg/ azaz ararwdu i,fi,fuwnf; Yf Id f Ykd Yk u 'DaeYwkdifatmif uRefawmfhudk ]]udk&J}} vkdYyJac:Muwm/ *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 31 ausmif;aepausmif;tyfawmhrS &JJjrifhvdIifvkdYrSnfhac:cJhMuwm yg/ uReawmfeYJ odMucifrifMuolawGuvJ ]]ud&}J } vkyac:a0: f k Yd J Muwmrsm;ygw,f...}} onfodkY uRefawmfuajym...olwdkYuvnf; ]]0ifyg? xGufyg? vmvnfyg? vkdtyfwm&Sd&ifvJajymjyyg...wwfpGrf; orQ ulnDay;yghr,f...}} [k tjyeftvSefajymqkdMu&if;u eHeuftdyf,mx tapmpmudk uRefawmfpm;onf/ olwkdYZeD; armifESHonfvnf; OD;av;odef;wkdYESifh pum;pjrnfajym a&aEG; Murf;aomuf&if; pum;vufqHkawG uscJhMuao;onf/ olwkdYZeD;armifESHonf olwkdYtdrfodkY jyefcgeD;wGif pmtkyf wpftkyfvufaqmifay;onf/ EIwfqufpum;qkd&if;... ]]udk&J...ckvdk a&mufvmwJhwpfckduf xD;vif;qkdwJh a&S;a[mif;NrdKUav;? &mZ0ifxJu NrdKUav;taMumif;udk odap csifvdkY OD;u,lvmcJhwm...at;at;aq;aq; zwfMunhfyg OD;...}} ]]aMomf...[kwuyg cifAsm...aus;Zl;wifygw,f.. f hJ uRefawmfuvJ odcsifaewm MumygNyD wu,fhudk aus;Zl;wif &ygw,fcifAsm..}} olwkdYZeD;armifESH jyefoGm;cJhMuawmh tdrfrD;zdkaqmif &Sd&mrS nDtpfroHk;azmfwkdY uRefawmfhxHa&mufvmcJhMuonf/ ]]q&m OD;&J &Sifh...olwkdYorD; rrarMunfvGifcsKdu tawmfacsmwm vSwmaemf...OD;OD;q&meJY aumif;aumif; odvm;...cifvm;? rrarcsKd&JU rdbESpfyg;qdkwmu orD;wdkY&JU Handbook-19
  • 20. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol q&m? q&mrawGav pmtoiftjyvJawmfMuw,f/ oabm apwemvJaumif;Muw,f&Sifh}} tBuD;r eef;jrifhvdIifu þodkYES,fpum;qkdvmcJhonf ESifh... ]]uJ...pkef;ua0ra&...OD;udk q&mvdkYrac:eJYawmh/ OD;&JvdkYac:csifac: tudkav;vkdY ac:csifac: [kwfzl;vm;..}} ]][kwfuJhyg tudkav; &Sifh}} wJh ]]at;...at;...tpfudkr&SdwJholav;awGrdkY OD;&Ju tudkav;jzpf&wm 0rf;omw,f/ eef;yxr? eef;'kwd,? eef; wwd, wkdYa&...}} olwkdYvnf;NyHK; uRefawmfvnf;NyHK;&TifpGm &SdaecJhMu&av onf/ NyD;awmh arMunfvGifcsKdESifhuvnf; onfudkvmcgeD;rS awGUcJ& cifrifc&onftaMumif;udk ajymjyay;vdu&ayonf/ h hJ h k f xkdaeYu pae½Hk;ydwf&ufjzpfíwpfaMumif;? um;pD;cJh& aom EGrf;e,frI'PfaMumifhwpfaMumif;aMumifh uRefawmfonf aetdrrwjcm;odYk roGm;jzpfc?hJ reufzefa&mufawmhrS nDtpfr f S oHk;azmfESifhtwl xD;vif;wpfNrdKUvHk;udk vSnhfywfavhvmawmh rnf[k olwkdYawGudkajymxm;onf/ a&aEG;Murf;aomuf&if;u apmapmuay;xm;cJhaom pmtkyfudkpwifum zwfjzpfonf/ ]xD;vif;NrdKU a&TuGeftkyfbk&m;orkdif;}} [k trnfwyf um bk&m;BuD;a*gyutzGJU tusKd;awmfaqmifcsKyf OD;xGef;BuD; u jyKpka&;om;xm;/ ed'gef;rSmyif ]]xD;vif;NrdKUorkdif; a&;jyefvQifvnf; a&TuGeftkyfbk&m;orkdif;rygvQifrNyD; tNrJ 'GefwGJvsuf&Sdjyef&um;}} [k azmfjyxm;av/ jrefrmwkdYrSm ]]jrefrmESifh yk*H}} cGJjcm;ír&ovkd ]]xD;vif;ESifh a&TuGef½kyfapwD awmf}} onf cGJjcm;írjzpf[k qkdxm;ay/ xD;vif;NrdKUav; &mZ0ift& rlvtac:rSm (ol&JNrdKU) [kqkd/ NrdKUwnfonhfckESpfrSm aumZmouú&mZf (110) ck? omoemouú&mZf (1292) ckk[kod&/ a&S;u uav;aus; awmifndKt&yf t&drn (,ck &mZN*dK[f)rS vma&mufwnfcJh onf[k qkd/ yk*Hjynf a&Tavmif;rif;vufxuf eef;ouf av;ES p f a jrmuf a omf ]]apmf b G m ;rif ; eE´ & mZm}} trnf & S d apmfbGm;BuD;wnfonhfNrdKU[k qkdxm;av/ ,ckrsufarSmuf xD ; vif ; Nrd K U taemuf a wmif b uf (2 rk d i f c G J ) cef Y t uG m armacsmif; ta&SUbufwGifjzpf/ Mumaomfarmacsmif; a&vrf ; aMumif ; ajymif ; cJ h o jzif h ,ck t cg armacsmif ; taemufbufukef;jrifhrkdYrkdYwGif[kqkd/ ouú&mZf (453) ckEpwif yk*jH ynf&if tavmif;pnfol S f G h S rif;wkdif;cef;vSnfhvnfawmfrlvmpOf a,majrt&yfa'oodkY a&mufvmcJh/ armacsmif;twkdif; azmifawmfpBuFmjzifh qef wufcJh/ xkdt&yfa'oodkYa&muf&Sd uGef;axmufem;aecdkuf azmifpBuFmOD;&Sd urÁKxD;jzLawmf tvkdvkdyGifhvif;vmawmfrl onfESifh tqkdyga'oudk ]]xD;vif;}} [kac:wGiforkwfapcJh/ armacsmif;a&tvsOf azmifawmfOD;0,f Ak'¨jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif "mwfawmfarGawmfrsm;u a&Tig;Muif;a,mifwlpGmaqmifí uGejYf rL;onfukd ½d;k ½d;k uGejf zifzrf;aomfr&cJ/ ykPm;jzL? ykPm;ndK h h Ö Ö 32 33 Handbook-20
  • 21. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol [l;&m;ynm&SifwkdYwGufcsufrIt& a&TuGefESifh tkyfzrf;apawmh rS & cJ h / jrwf p G m bk & m;&S i f "mwf a wmf a rG a wmf w k d Y t m; Xmyemí od&d"r®maomurif;BuD; wnfxm;cJhaom apwD a[mif;ae&müyif XmyemoGi;f Ny;D vQif apwDawmfwnfapcJ/ h a&TuGefESifh tkyfzrf;rS&onhf"mwfawmf arGawmfwkdYukd Xmyem jcif;aMumifh ]]a&TuGeftkyfapwDawmf}} [k urÁnf;xkd;rSwf xD;vif;NrdKUt&yf orkwdynwfawmfrlcJhap/ 'kwd,xD;vif;NrdKUonf yk*Haejynfawmf odef;cGefrif; om;awmfa&Tavmif;rif; (yk*Hrif;quf (55) qufwGif (28) qufajrmuf) eef;wufNyD; av;ESpftMum aumaZmouú&mZf (110) ESp?f waygif;vjynhausmf (5) &uf Ak'[;l aeYü apmfbm; f ¨ G eE´&mZmwnfcJhaom xD;vif;NrdKUtm; apmfbGm;tqufquf qufcHcJh/ om;awmforEÅ&mZm? aemufyknpnfol ponf jzifhqufcH/ xkdYaemuf apmfbGm;rif;qufrSm ESpfaygif; (300) ausmfjzwfaecJhonf[kqkd/ yk*Haejynf yk*HEkdifiHawmfBuD; ysuNf y;D aemuf cef;ywfapmfbm;tkycsKycaom xD;vif;NrKd Uum; G f f hJ apmfbGm;qufjywfjyefcJh/ [Hom0wD bk&ifhaemifrif;w&m;BuD;vufxuf ouú &mZf (933) ckESpfü rkd;aumif;apmfbGm;BuD;om; OD;apmeHudk xD;vif;apmfbGm;cefYtyfcJhonfrS ouú&mZf (1119) ckESpfwGif awmifwGif;pm;bGJUcH apmfbGm;OD;usHtxd apmfbGm; (8) quf tkyfcsKyfcJh/ ]]tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; OD;atmifaZ,svufxuf ouú&mZf (1120) ckESpfwGif ,ckxD;vif;NrdKUae&modkY ajymif; a&TUcJh/ OD;usHonf ¤if;nDt&if; oD&dpnfolausmfxifbGJU& twGi;f 0efO;D NzKd ;? *kP;f tkyq&mawmf toQiaZmw,EÅpaom d f f ynm&Sdyk*¾dKvfwkdYESifh wkdifyifí ykPÖm;ynm&SdwkdY wGufcsufay; aomtcgt& ouú&mZf (1120) ckESpf? 'DC-122? &ó? waygif;vjynhfausmf (1) &uf? Ak'¨[l;aeY ae0ifausmftcsdefü pD&ifzG,ftvHk;pHkESifhwuG wmaygif; 273? awmifaygif; 1953? rkdufaygif; 5859? vufopfaygif; 46872? tus,ft0ef;&Sd í we*FaEGaxmifh em&Dwi?f &m[kaxmifh e&Dwirsm;ESihf ta&SU dk dk f rsufESmwGif ¨E´mwHcg;? awmifrsufESmwGif ukef;jrifhwHcg;? taemufrsufESmwGif aZ,smwHcg;? ajrmufrsufESmwGif 0Hom wHcg;? ¤if; (8) XmewkdYudk (NrdKU) [kac:qkd/ Xmewpfcktjzpf owfrwí ausmif;? odr?f ½H;k ? tdr?f ewfue;f ¤if; (5) Xmewkukd S f G Yd wpf N yd K if e uf w nf ; wnf a qmuf í NyD ; avonf . ..}} [k xD;vif;NrdKUwnf orkdif;wGifazmfjyxm;av/ xkdYaMumifh ,ckrsufarSmufüwnf&Sdaeaom þxD;vif; NrdKUonf ,cifNrdKUa[mif;ae&mrS ajymif;a&TUí NrdKUa[mif; trnfjzpfonhf (xD;vif;) NrdKUudkyif xyfqifhcH,lNyD;vQif emr ynwf o wf r S w f u m wnf a xmif c J h j cif ; jzpf o nf / 'k w d , xD;vif;NrdKUyif jzpfayawmh/ yxrxD;vif;NrKd UtaMumif; yk*jH ynh&itavmif;pnfol f S f rif;BuD;uausmufpm a&;xkd;xm;apcJhaom ausmufpmrl&if; onf ukef;abmifacwf tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;vufxufodkY 34 35 Handbook-21
  • 22. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol a&mufvmcJh/ xD;vif;NrdKUwnf apmfbGm;OD;usHom; NrdKUol BuD;OD;jrwfpHu tavmif;bk&m;OD;atmifaZ,s om;awmf ti,fbkd;awmfOD;0dkif; ac: A'Hkri;fvufxufwGif ausmufpm udkaejynfawmftr&yl&odkY ydkYaqmifay;cJh&/ ausmufpm a[mif;rSm yk*Hacwfta&;tom;jzpfí aESmif;vlrsm;twGuf t"dyÜm,frysuf&avatmif bkd;awmfpyfxkd;ausmufpm[k jyifqifa&;om;apcJ/ a&Tuetyb&m;ausmufpmum; ,ck h G f k f k tcgrEÅav;NrdKU r[mrkedwHwkdif;twGif; bk&m;BuD;taemuf bufwGif wnf&SdaeaMumif;od&Sd&ay/ txufygwkum; taxmuftxm;jynhppm&Saom &mZ Yd f kH G d 0ifxJu xD;vif;NrdKUtaMumif;ygay/ acwfopfyx0D0ifoabmjzifh wifjy&ygvQif xD;vif; NrdKUav;tm; aumif;pGmxifjrifvmEkdifygrnf/ jrefrmEkdifiHajryHkukdMunhfí ajym&ygu rauG;wkdif; taemufajrmuf,Gef;,Gef;? rEÅav;NrdKUBuD; taemufwnhf wnfheD;yg;wGif awGUjrifEdkifonf/ csif;½kd;rawmifwef;BuD; ta&SUbufwGif&Sd/ ta&SUavmif*sDwG'f (94 'D*&D? 41 rdepf 8 puúefY) ESifh (94 'D*&D? 26 rdepf? 18 puúefYtMum;/ vwåDwG'f rSm ajrmufvwåDwG'f (21 'D*&D? 24 rdepf? 8 puúefYESifh (21 'D*&D? 53 rdepf? 28 puúefYtMum; wnf&Sdonf/ ta&SUbufwGif aygufNrdKUe,f? awmifbufwGif aqm NrdKUe,f? ajrmufbufwGif *efYa*gNrdKUe,fESifh taemufbufwGif csi;f jynfe,fwEihf xdpyfvsu&onf/ NrKd Ue,ftus,t0ef;rSm Ydk S f dS f pwk&ef;rkdif (515) &Sdum ta&SU-taemuf (23) rkdifESifh awmif-ajrmuft&Snf (34) rkdifcefY&Sdavonf/ &efukefNrdKUBuD; ESifh rkdifaygif; (590) ausmfcefYtuGmwGif wnf&Sdayonf/ yifv,fESifh a0;uGmNyD; awmifwef;rsm;txyfxyf umqD;aeonf/ yifv,fa&rsufESmyiftxuf (1385) ay tjrifhwGifwnf&Sdaeaom NrdKUav;jzpfonf/ &moDOwktm;jzifh wpfESpfywfvHk; yljyif;onhftcsdefonf wkdawmif;rI&Sdonf/ ESpfpOfrkd;a&csdefvu® (40 rS 60) twGif; &GmoGef;avh&Sdonf/ awmifay:opfawm? &Gufjywfa&mawm? tifwkdif;awmrsm; [lí opfawmBuD;rsm;&SdNyD; uRef;? ysOf;uwkd;? ydawmuf? tifMuif;? opf,m? &if;rm? tif? aESm? axmufBuHU? oif;0if? vufyH? ½Hk;? opfap;? oeyfcg;? 0g; trsKd;rsKd;wkdYtjyif b,aq; yifrsm;vnf; aygrsm;pGmaygufa&mufvsuf &Sdavonf/ xD;vif;NrdKUav;odkY vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;rSm t"du (2) ck&Sdonf/ yxrvrf;rSm rHk&Gm-ykvJ-*efYa*g tNrJwrf;oGm; uwå&mvrf;ay:&Sd a&rsufeD&GmteD;rS z,fcGmumvm&aom vrf;jzpfonf/ xkdz,fcGmvmaomvrf;rSm ajrvrf;jzpfum xD;vif;NrdKUodkY (28) rdkifcefYa0;onf/ rHk&Gm-ykvJ-*efYa*gvrf; twkdif; rkd;&moDwGifoGm;vmMu&onf/ ykvJNrdKUrSaeí yckuúL NrdKUodkYoGm;í&onf/ xdkYaMumifh yckuúL-xD;vif;vrf;c&D; (ykvJ*efYa*gvrf;rS) um;aEGrdk;aqmif;oGm;vmí&NyD; (147) rkdif a0;onf/ 'kwd,vrf;c&D;rSm aqmif;ESifh aEG&moDwdkYwGif oGm;vm 36 37 Handbook-22
  • 23. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol í&aom ajrom; (yckuúL-ayguf-xD;vif;) vrf;jzpfum (96) rdkifa0;onf/ tcsKyftm;jzifhqkd&ygvQif a&S;a&S;umvrsm;rS &mZ0if xJu NrdKUuav;yifjzpf/ pdrf;pdkvef;qef;aeonfh awmawG awmifawG? jymvJaeonfh rk;d aumifuif;Bu;D ? 0g*Gr;f qkiawGvkd h d f a&GUvsm;aeonfh wdrfawmifwdrfvdyfawGESifh ndKUrdIif;vsuf vGrf;pzG,fNrdKUav;vnf;jzpfíaeavonf/ xdkYjyif..xD;vif;NrdKUav;onf... xdkpOfu xD;vif;NrdKUav;onf tdrfajc (588) ESifh vlOD;a& (3100) om&Sdonf/ t"du &yfuGufBuD; 2 ckowf rSwfxm;onf/ NrdKUv,f uwå&mvrf;rBuD; ta&SUbufydkif; udk &yfuGuf (1)? taemufbufjcrf;udk &yfuGuf (2) [kac: onf/ odkYayrJh trSeftm;jzifh 4 ydkif;&Sdonf[k ajymí&onf/ ajrmufukef;ydkif; (uefawmfav;) ESifh NrdKUuGuftopf azmfxkwf xm;&m (uGufopf) ydkif;[lí NrdKUcHwdkYu cGJjcm;í ajymwwfMu ao;onfhtwGufaMumifh av;ydkif;&Sdonf[k qdk&jcif;yifjzpf onf/ NrdKU awmifbufydkif;rSjzpfap? ajrmufbufydkif;rSjzpfap oGm;MuvmMu&&mwGif NrdKUv,favmufwGif NrdKUv,foHwHwm; BuD;&Sdonf/ ukef;jrifhESpfckMum; tedrfhqHk;tydkif;wGif wnf aqmufxm;onf/ odkYjzpfaomaMumifh pufbD;pD;vQif awmif bufydkif;qdkvQif awmifydkif;oefYoefY ajrmufbufydkif;qdkvQif ajrmufyi;f oefoefY oD;oefpp;D vQiawmh tqifajyonf/ uRef kd Y Y D f awmfu &yfuGuf (2) wGif aexdkifNyD; NrdKUv,foHwHwm;BuD; awmifbufyi;f jzpfum uReawmf½;Hk u oHwwm;Bu;D ajrmuf kd f h H bufydkif;ukef;jrifhwGif jzpfaeonf/ ukef;jrifhESpfckMum; twuf c&D;u pufb;D udk qif;wGe;f um wuf&onf/ xdaMumifh uReawmf Yk f onf pufbD;rpD;jzpfacs/ a&mufcgp&ufrsm;wGif ½kH;ESifhtdrf? tdrfESifh½kH;? aeYESifhn avmufudkom owdxm;rdovdk jzpf&onf/ ,if;wGif txl; ojzifh owdxm;rd&onfuawmh nwmu &Snve;f vSonf[k f G 38 rxifrSwfbJa&mufvdkYvmol wm0ef0wå&m; vkyfxHk;enf;rsm;ESifhtnD wm0efvTJ ajymif;jcif;tydkif;ESifh uRefawmfu vufcH,ljcif;tydkif;wdkY NyD; pD;cJhNyD/ odkYjzpfí ,cifNrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL;ESifhtwl ,ck OD;pD;rSL; uRefawmfonf NrdKUe,ftzGJUtpnf;rsm;jzpfaom NrdKUe,fygwD ,lepf? NrdKUe,fjynfolYaumifpD? vkyfief;ppfaq;a&;? w&m;pD&if a&;? Oya'a&;&mtzGJUwdkY&Sd yk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm;xH "avht& oGm; a&muf*g&0jyK EIwfquf&onf/ oduRrf;cifrif&if;ESD;rIudk tp jyK&onf/ tm;vHk;vdkvdku azmfazmfa&Ga&G &SdvSonf/ ½kd;½kd; om;om; rSefrSef&nf&nfawGom jzpfMuonf/ oabmxm;wdkY aumif;yHk&onf[k uRefawmfxifjrifrdavonf/ yxrueOD; ½kH;pwuf&onfh &ufowåywf ½kH;zGifh&uf twGi;f uReawmfonf aetdrEi½;Hk ? ½k;H ESiaetdrom jzpfae& f f S hf hf f onf/ ½kH;odkY ajcvsifavQmufumoGm;onf/ pufbD;rpD;jzpf/ pufbD;rpD;jzpf&onfhtaMumif;udkvnf; ajymjyOD;rS jzpfrnf/ 39 Handbook-23
  • 24. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol taotcsmajymí &onf/ aqmif;vv,fvnf; jzpfaeonf/ uRefawmf rSwfom;xm;rdzl;aom taMumif;wpf&yfvnf; &Sd onf/ urÇmajrmufjcrf;wGif usa&mufaeaom EdkifiHwdkYwGif 'DZifbmv 22 &ufaeYnwmonf t&Snq;kH [k jrefrmEdiia0' f k f H tzGJUcsKyfu qdkxm;onf/ nae 4 em&DcefYqdkvQifyif rdk;ucsKyf NyD/ csif;awmifwef;jrifhBuD; awmifajcwGif&Sdaeívm;rod? aerif;BuD;u uG,fonfESifhtarSmifxku pdk;rdk;vmcJh&awmh onf/ onftxJ vQyfppfrD;u rvif;Edkifao;aom NrdKUav; jzpfaejyefawmh xD;vif;rJZmt&yf aqmif;nrsm;um; &SnfvGef;vSacsawmhonf/ vomrSeftdrfESifh za,mif;wdkifudk tm;xm;um npm pm;? n 8 em&DcefYqdkvQifyif wpfNrdKUvHk; wdwfqdwfNidrfouf um qlqnntoHwYkd rMum;&awmh/ tat;"mwfukd umuG,f l H H &ef rdrdwdkY tdrfwHcg;rsm;tm; naerdk;csKyfvQifyif ydwfxm;Mu um vrf;BudK vrf;Mum; vrf;rBuD;wdkY 0,f,lolenf;&onf/ ½kyf&Sif½kHr&Sd? jrif;vSnf;r&Sd? qdkuúm;r&SdaomNrdKUav;jzpfonfrdkY aqmif;umvnbufonf wdwfqdwfNidrfoufvGef;um &Sdae avonf/ uRefawmfum; nbufa&mufvQif vomrD;tdrfjzifh pm zwfonf/ pmtkyftiSm;qdkif[lí r&Sdao;awmh eD;pyf&mwdkYrS r*¾Zif;a[mif;? 0w¬Kta[mif;awGudk iSm;&rf;apum zwfjzpf onf/ nwdkif;eD;yg;vnf; ]]'Hkrif;} wD;cwfoDcsif;qdkrd&onf/ tdyf&m0if rD;rSdwf? rsufpdydwfaomfjim; csufjcif;qdkovdk tdyíraysm?f n 10 em&DausmcefqvQif armacsmif;taemuf f f Y kd buf awmifpOfawmwef;qDrS qif;vmMuaom awmacG;[loH wkdYum; aqmif;nOfh,Hnrsm;wkdif;rSm Mum;ae&onf/ Mumvm aomf awmacG;awGu awmwef;ukef;jrifhrS qif;vmMuum ,mcif;? v,fuGif;wkdYudk jzwfoef;vsuf armacsmif;pyfqD a&mufvmavh&Sdonfudk cefYrSef;íodaewwfNyD/ acs(*sD) a[mufoHudkvnf; rMumrMumMum;&wwfonf/ zkd;acgif iSufuav; om,maomjrnfoHuvnf; nwkdif;vkdvkdMum; ae&onf/ olwkdYawGum; xD;vif;qkdaom awmNrdKU? xkdYaemuf awmifay:NrKd Uav;u aqmif;nrsm; zGm;zufawmfrsm;[kajym &rvm;rod ? awmobm0 tqif w ef q mawG [ l í vnf ; wifpm;íqkd&rnfxifonf/ nOfhv,fwpfa&;Edk;í tdyfr&tdyfraysmfwwfaom nrsm;wGif uRefawmfonf ckwifab;jyLwif;wHcg;udk tom t,mzGifhMunhfrdvQifjzifh tat;"mwfu ododomompdrfhueJ at;atmifaqmif;avu ,laqmifvmonf/ n..n udkif; nTwfaeaom tkef;vuftkef;&Gufrsm;ay:rS ESif;usoH? opfyif BuD;rsm;ay:&Sd tjrifhydkif;opf&Gufrsm;rS atmufydkif;opf&Gufrsm; ay: tqifvutqihvuf ESi;f a& ESi;f aygufwu waysmuf h dk f f dk Ykd aysmuf E S i f h r&yf r em; ouf q if ; usa&muf a eoH w k d Y t m; uRefawmfjrifae& Mum;ae&onf/ jymodkwkdifcJhojzifh cGmndK oZifvdIifcJhNyD/ ESif;aomuf u,f&Tif&Tif yGifhzl;awGqifum yGifhcsifwkdif;yGifh? vScsifwkdif;vS 40 41 Handbook-24
  • 25. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol qD;ESi;f pd&onfh tcgor,aywnf;/ oZif cGmndKoif;&eHxí k JT Y kH at;yHkrSmurf;ukefavmufonfqdkaom ]]csrf;yHkrSm urf;ukef&pf wmrkdY ref;wkefatmif vrf;qHku [pfcsifawmh...}} [lonfh tcsKyfwef;q&mazudk owd&vmrdonf/ opfyifopf&Guftm;vHk;u ]]a&Tpufa&Tajymuf aiGcuf aiGajymuf a&T&nfaiG&nfaomuf}} aeMuonf/ toJ (onf;) cdkufwrQ csrf;aomat;jraom aqmif;jzpfaeonf/ ]]rcsrf;yg bl;}} [k tm;wif;xm;aomfvnf;r&/ &efukeftdrfrS ,laqmif vmcJhaom AE¨Kvaqmif? csnfapmifESifhr&avmuf[kqkdum bBuD;odef;wkdYuxkwfay;vmcJhonfh *Grf;aqmifESifh a,mwif; wdrfapmiftrnf& csnfxnfapmifBuD;oHk;xnftygt0if pkpk aygif;apmif ig;xnftxyfxyf NcHKxm;cJhonfyifvQif tat; "mwfurvHkcsif/ ajcqefYí ajcay:vQif ajcuat;í vuf azmfvQif vufuat;&onfukd ay:onfEicsujf cif;od&onf S hf txdjzpf&onf/ jymodkvrSmrS onfiSmaeodkY a&mufvm&ol uRefawmfhtzkdY nwmt&SnfqHk;v tat;qHk; tcsrf;qHk;vudk rarhEkdifawmh tonf;(oJ) ckdufwrQ at;aomvygwum;/ vjymodkudk &moDtvkd rum&[kqdk/ zkoQeu©wfESifh pef;,SOfNydKifjynhfum Owå&momVf eu©wfESifh aerif;wdkY,SOf/ ykpGefwm&m xGef;y/ &moD½kyfrSm orifESifh ig;½kyf (wpfenf;) a&xrf;orm; (wpfenf;) rum&f½kyfjzpf/ em&Dtm;jzifh nOfh (36) em&D&Sd[lonfudk ajy;íuRefawmfjrifrd/ xdktwkdif; xD;vif;NrdKUav;wGif jzpfaeayawmh/ nOf h w m&S n f v G e f ; vS o nf h onf N rd K Uav;rS m n n uRefawmfonf tMumBuD;auG;um rtdyfEkdifawmh/ auG;& vGef;í anmif;vmawmhonf/ tdyf&mxJwGif qufraecsif awmh/ odkYjzpfí onfaqmif;&ufrsm;wGif eHeuftapmBuD;x um vrf;avQmufjzpfawmhonf/ &efukeftdrfrSqdkvQif eHeufig;em&DcGJcefYwGif uRefawmf vrf;avQmufxGufaeusjzpfonf/ onfrSm eHeufajcmufem&D cGJvnf;arSmifaeqJ? 0g;wpf*dkuftuGmavmufudkom jrif& onf/ ESi;f jrLawGu xH;k pHtwki;f zH;k vTr;f um ydwq;D íaeonf/ d f xD;vif;aqmif;qkonfu aeYwi;f vkyif þodjYk rifaeMu&onf d dk d om[kqMdk uonf/ yg;pyfu[ç vkuwi;f rSmvnf; taiGUawGu d f dk xG u f v d k Y o maeawmh o nf / vl p if p pf u e*g;jzpfvm&NyDqkd&awmh rvdkyif/ wu,fyg wcsKdUae&ufrsm;wGif aomufa&tkd; oHk;a& tkd;rsm;wkdYwGif&Sdaeaom a&wkdYonftay:,Hwif;íaeonf/ naeydkif; ½Hk;uqif;vQif armacsmif;wGifuRefawmfa&csKd;onf/ ck&ufydkif; aeYpOfa&rcsKd;Ekdifawmh/ tdrf&SdtkwfuefxJrS a&ukd a&aEG;ESifhpyfum a&csKd;ukd,fvufoefYpif&jcif;rsKd; jzpf&awmh onf/ a[refat;pdrfhrIu ajrmufjyefavESifhtwl tonf; udkckdufckdufwkefatmif csrf;apíjzpfavonf/ ]]rdk;avmufjyif;xef oGef;csjyefaomf a&mif0grxGef; csrf;&SmvGef;í...}} qkdcJhavol vuf0JokE´&trwfBuD; tcsrf;ESifh tvGrf;udk vrf;avQmuf&if;u owd&rdvmonf/ 42 43 Handbook-25
  • 26. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol tvGrf;tuJqHk;ESifh tcsrf;toJqHk; a,m&yfrJZm xD;vif;NrdKU av; aqmif;&ufrsm;udk BuHKae&ol uRefawmfhrSmawmh udk,fh qE´ESifh udk,frkdYomjzpfí tjypfajymírjzpfawmh/ &efukefudk jrefajy;csifpdwfu ay:vmrdcJhonfuawmh trSef? qE´&nf &G,fcsuftwGufqkdawmhvnf; udk,fhtjypfESifh udk,fom&Sdygap awmh[k tm;wif;umaevkduf&awmhonf/ onfvEihf xD;vif;wpfNrKd UvH;k udvnf; ESEpyfpyfa&muf dk S k YH YHS cJh odEdkifcJh&ygNyD/ NrdKUe,f&SdygwD? aumifpDuzdwfMum;aom tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;? XmewdkY vkyfief;qkdif&mudpö&yfESifh oufqiaom tpnf;ta0;yGrsm;? tm;upm;yGqi&m tpnf; dk f J J dk f ta0;yGJrsm;? vlrIa&;? omoema&;ESifh pyfvsOf;aom tpnf; ta0;yGrsm; ponfwukd wufa&muf&jcif;ESitwl Xmeqki&m J Ydk hf d f tBuD;tuJrsm;ESifhvnf; jrefjrefqefqef odvm&ovkdjzpf& awmhonf/ txl;ojzifhawmh NrdKUe,fpm&if;½Hk; 0efxrf;rsm;ESifhu txl;cifrifaecJhNyD/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh pm&if;ppfrsm;? pm&if; ppfrSL;rsm;rSm &efukefpD;yGm;a&;wuúodkvfqif;rsm;jzpfMuonf/ trdwuúovBf u;D taMumif; q&m? q&mrBu;D awGtaMumif;u kd tp taMumif;pHkwkdYudk ajymMu&&if;u ajymrem qkdremjzpf oGm;cJhMu&NyD/ ruif;&m ruif;aMumif; todtuRrf; cifrif olawGvnf;jzpfMu&um aysmf&TifrIudk&aponf/ wzefNrdKUe,f jynfolYaumifpD½Hk; ½Hk;tzGJU0efxrf;rsm;ESifh uvnf; cifrifvm&onf/ uRefawmfwdkY½Hk;Xmesvkyfief;u rsm; aomtm;jzifh jynfolYaumifpDESifh teD;uyfpyfqkdif qufoG,f tm;jyKaqmif&Guf&jcif;aMumifhvnf; jzpfygonf/ xkdodkYESifh onfumvrsm;wGif vkyfief;wm0efrsm;u em;&onf[lír&SdvS/ rwfvukefwGif wkdif;½Hk;&Sd&m rauG;NrdKU odkY uRefawmfoGm;a&muf&onf/ NrdKUe,fwpfckvHk; ESpfcsKyf pD;yGm;a&; pDrHudef;taumiftxnfazmfEdkifrI tpD&ifcHpm tpnf;ta0;ESifh XmeaiGpm&if;rsm;udpöwkdYjzifh wkdif;OD;pD;rSL;ESifh awGU&? udk,fhvkdyif wkdif;twGif;&Sd (25) NrdKUe,fu NrdKUe,fOD;pD; rSL;tcsif;csif;awGUMu&? wkdif;½Hk;&Sdvkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;ESifh qHk& awmhaysmf&Tif&onf/ wkdif;rSL;BuD;u ajym&Smygonf/ ]]&efukefom; udk&Ja& wm0efus&mNrdKUe,frSm aeom;us NyDvm;/ ajrjyefYa'oudk vm&jyef&wJhtcg NcHKvTmeJYtdyf,mvdyf rygvdkYuawmh c&D;roGm;aveJYqkdwm&,f um;aMumifh&,f.. &moDOwkaMumif&,f...awmifNyKd wwm;ysuf acsmif;a&usvYkd h H BuHK&mrSmZ&yfrSm tdyfwwfMu&wwfwmawG&,f...qkdwm awGudk odxm;NyDaygh..udk&J&JU rdcifvkdvJjzpf? tBuD;trSL;BuD; wpfO;D vJjzpfwhJ 'k-nTeMf um;a&;rSL; ararBu;D uawmh uReawmhf f qDvr;f vSr;f zke;f qufwm oH;k av;Bur&NdS y/ cifAsm;wkNYd rKd Ue,fu S d f D w,f v D z k e f ; quf o G , f a &;pepf u vnf ; r&S d a o;avawmh cifAsm;udk uRefawmfjyefrajymjyEdkifcJhbl;/ cifAsm;udk tawmf cif&Smapwemxm;&Smwm? trBuD;u uRefawmfhq&m&if;rkdY aMumuf&w,fAs odvm;..cifAsm;uawmh wu,fygyJ.../ 44 45 Handbook-26
  • 27. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol rauG;a&mufcuf zke;f qufvuygOD;/ trBu;D u ud&ukd kd dk f k J awmfawmfMunhwmyJaemf...olqze;f rquf&if uReawmfukd f Y D k f h ]]aum}} aeOD;r,fAs...}} ]]wkdif;rSL;BuD;cifAsm;...[dkudkpwifa&mufcJhNyD;NyD;csif; tarBu;D qDukd uReawmfpma&;ay;ydcNhJ y;D ygNy/ c&D;Murf;? aea&; f Yk D xkdifa&;? vkyfief;a&;&m? NrdKUav;taMumif; tpHktvifygyJ/ 'kw,NrKd Ue,fO;D pD;rSL;? wpfO;D vnf;&SrjS zpfrmqkwmvJ xnfa&; d d S d h cJhygw,f..}} [lí uRefawmfajymjzpfcJhygonf/ ]]tef;...udk&Ja&...cifAsm; aemufvxJrSm wkdif;udk wpfacgufvm&OD;rSmaemf/ ESpfpOfESpfwkdif; aqmif&Gufaeusjzpf wJh A[ku&nfre;f csuawGup?ö NrKd Ue,ftvkuf pDrue;f &nfre;f d S f d d H d S csufrsm; wm0efay;tyfyGJudpö? NrdKUe,fwkdif;&JU &-oHk;rSef;ajc aiGpm&if;rsm;udpö...}} ]][kwfuJhyg cifAsm...}} [k uRefawmfajym&ygonf/ rMumvkdufyg/ xD;vif;NrdKUe,f jynfolYaumifpDOuú| (r.y.u Ouú | )? v,f , mopf a wm om;ig;wm0ef c H (r.y.u tzGJU0if)ESifh uRefawmfwkdYjzpfonf/ wkdif;aumifpD wGif tpnf;ta0;yGJBuD; wufa&mufMu&onf/ tpnf;ta0;yGJBuD;NyD;awmh xHk;pHtwkdif; wkdif;rSL;BuD;xH uRefawmfa&muf&onf/ ]]udk&Ja& tarBuD;qD zkef;qufzdkY rarheJYaemf}}...[k ajymvmcJhygonf/ onf w pf B ud r f c &D ; uawmh ryef ; vS [ k q k d & ayrnf / taMumif;um; r.y.u ydkif rmZ'g*spfjzifh vmcJh&? jyefcJh& ojzifh vloufomygonf/ xD;vif;NrdKUudk jyefvnfa&muf&SdcJhNyD;onfESifh ]]xD;vif; NrdKUe,f ESpfpOfpDrHudef; &nfrSef;csufrsm; wm0efay;tyfyGJ}} twGuf pDpOfp&mrsm;udk pDpOf&awmhonf/ &yfuuEihf aus;&Gm G f S wpf&Gmcsif;pDtvkduf jynfolydkifor0g,rydkif yk*¾vduydkif tvkduf? oD;ESHwpfckcsif;tvkduf aqmif&Guf&efrsm;um; aqmif &Gufae&awmhonf/ r.y.u ESifhtwl vkdtyfvQif tpnf; ta0;ESifh awGUqHkaqG;aEG;rIudk XmetBuD;tuJBuD;rsm;ESifh tao;pdwfpDpOfae&onf/ aeYrtm; nrem;qkdouJhodkY jzpf& avonf/ xkdpOf&ufrsm;twGif; wpfaeYaomtcgrSmawmhuRefawmf½Hk;odkYtvm vrf;wGifNrdKUe,fygwD,lepf Ouú| BuD;ESifh qHkonf/ vrf;avQmufvmMu&if;...]]vmAsm udk&J&m ...0efxrf;oufomqkirm vufzuf&nfaomuf&if; axG&m d f S av;yg; pum;ajymMuao;wmaygh}}...[k qkdvmcJhí xkdqkdif odkYa&mufcJh&onf/ vufzuf&nfaomuf&if; pum;pjrnfajymaeckuf teD; d tem;0ef;usif&Gmrsm;rS vlyk*¾dKvftcsKdUwkdYu ygwDOuú|BuD;udk awGUMuawmh 0ifa&mufEwqufum pum;vufqusaecJjh yef I f kH onf/ eHeuf (10;00) em&Dxkd;cgeD;rS vufzuf&nfqkdifrS xcJh Mu? vrf;avQmufum ½Hk;odkYa&mufcJh&onf/ uRefawmf½Hk;odkY 46 47 Handbook-27
  • 28. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol a&mufaomf ½Hk;twGif;&Sd pm;yGJtvGwfwpfckay:0,f pm;p&m awGtjynhtpHEihf jzpfaeonfukd uReawmfjrifawGUvku&onf/ hf k S f d f xl;jcm;aeonf/ uReawmfonf pyfpyfppvywwfol r[kwírar;jzpf f k k k f f acs/ aqmif&Guf&rnhf rNyD;jywfao;aom pm&if;Z,m;rsm; udpöudkom pdwftm½Hkua&mufaeonf/ vufESdyfpufwif&ef? pmul;pufwGifvdSrfh&ef? za,mif;puúLwGif vufESdyfpuf½dkuf&ef rsm;? za,mif;azmufNyD;í jyefvnfpDpOf&efrsm; ponfjzifh&Sd onf/ NrdKUe,fcsKyfpmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf vdktyfaom pmtkyfta&twGufpm&if;? Xmeqkdif&mtoD;oD;odkY cGJa0ay;& rnhfpm&if;? &yfuGufESifh aus;&Gmwpfckcsif;pDtwGuf oufqkdif &mpm&Gupmwrf;pm&if;Z,m;? jynfoyif or0g,rydif yk*vu f l kd k ¾ d ydkifrsm;udpö? cGJa0csxm;rIrsm;tm; vpf[mrIrjzpf&avatmif aqmif&Gufaerdonf/ xkdpOfwGif &D&Dar ½Hk;cef;twGif;0ifvmoHudk uRefawmf Mum;onf/ rMunhfrd? rMunhfjzpf? udka0vif;u vufESdyfpuf ½dkufaeonf/ wpfpHkwpfa,muf 0ifvmoHvkdvkdvnf; Mum; onf/ tav;rxm;rd uRefawmfhpm;yGJa&SU&Sd {nhfonfxkdif&ef cHkteD;wGif wpfa,mufaomol rwfwwf&yfvmovkdvkdxif onf/ ]]OD;pD; OD;&JjrihfvdIif&Sifh...}} qkdaomtoHudk Mum;vkduf&ojzifh toH&Sif&Sd&mudkarmh Munfhjzpfonf/ ]]tk}d }...[k tmar#dwoxuvmcJ&&if; uReawmfrm f H G f h f h S tHhMojcif;? thhHtm;oifhjcif;ESifh tidkufrdovdk jzpfoGm;cJh&onf/ ½kwfw&uf jyefvnfum owdxm;jzpfawmhrS... ]]aMomf...a':arMunfvGifcsKdygvm; xkdifygAsm/ bm taMumif;udpöESifh b,fu b,fvkda&mufvkdYvmcJh&ygvdrfh/ ZmwdNrdKUudk cGifheJYjyefvmw,fqkdygawmh...NyD;awmh vGrf;p&m vJ&SdaecJhvdkYeJY wlyg&JU...}} uRefawmfajymcJh...olwkdifcJhonf/ ]]q&ma&...q&m tHhMo&atmifvdkYqkdNyD; rrarcsKdu EIwfydwfxm;vkdYrajymjzpf&wmyg/ 'DrSm a&aEG;Murf;vJ&NyD; rkefY [if;cg;vJtoifjh yifvuawmhr,f/ rkeawGuvJpvYkd tJ'gawG dk f Yf kH tm;vH;k [m rrarcsK&UJ apwemawG vufaqmifawGaygh...}} d [k &D&Daru ajymvmcJhonf/ ]]aMomf . ..aMomf . ..pm;rS m aygh . ..}}[k q k d u m uRefawmfwkdYtm;vHk;onf pm;p&mawGjyifqifxm;&m pm;yGJqD odkYa&mufMu&onf/ pkpk½Hk;½Hk;ESifh pm;Mu a&aEG;Murf;aomufcJh MuESifh jzpfaecJhavonf/ txl;txl; tm;vHk;aysmf&Tifrd&onfh pum;um; olrrdbESpfyg;rSvGJí rnfolYtm;rQ ajymjyrxm; ao;onfhpum;yifjzpfygonf[k odvm&jcif;yif/ ,if;um; tjcm;r[kwf/ a':arMunfvGifcsKdonf uRefawmfhXmeodkY ]]'kwd, NrdKUe,fpDrHudef;rSL;tjzpf wm0efeJY ajymif;a&TUvmcJhwmygq&m}} ...qkdaompum;ygay/ 48 49 Handbook-28
  • 29. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol onfodkYajymqkdvmjcif;ESifh wygwnf; &efukef (A[kd ½Hk;csKyf) rS e,fajymif;trdefYpmudk uRefawmfhxHay;tyfvmcJh onf/ ]]½H;k csKyrm tajymif;ta&TUatmf'gatmuf (Order Out) f S wmeJY OD;&JjrifhvdIif&JU 'knTefrSL;tarBuD; (ararpk) u uRefrudk ac:awGUwm? uRefrudkvJ aoaocsmcsmMunhfaevdkufwm uRefrpdwfxJ wpfrsKd;jzpf&ao;&JU.../ ]]orD;...OD;&JjrifhvdIifqkdoludk awGUzl;ovm;/ orD;u xD;vif;NrdKUol tppfyJvm;? arG;&yfajrZmwdrSm ckxufwkdif aexkdifaeolyJvm;}} [k pum;awGar;vmcJhonf[k ajymvmcJhonf/ ]][kwfygw,f&Sif...uRefrarG;zGm;&m ZmwdvJjzpf? ckxd wkdifvJ rdbESpfyg;wkdY&Sd&m xD;vif;NrdKUrSmaexkdifqJ jzpfygw,f &Sifh...}} ]]aMomf...at;...at;...aumif;wmayghuG,f.. ydkNyD;awmif oabmusao;w,f...xD;vif;NrdKUolrS [kwfyg &JUvm;vdkY? ewfwkdYwkdif;jynfursm; a&mufvmw,fxif&w,f/ tawmfhudkacsmwJh vSwJholav;rkdY...}} [k 'k nTefrSL;BuD;u aphaphMunhfum ajymvmawmh arMunf v G i f c sKd r S m raewwf rxk d i f w wf q k d o uJ h o d k Y E S , f &SufaoG;awGjzmum acgif;iHkYaerd&ao;onf[kvnf; &,f&,f armarmajymcJhao;onf/ ]]tif;....a,me,folav;awGu orD;vkdyJacsmMu w,fxifygh/ udk&Jwpfa,mufawmh Asmrsm;&OD;awmhrSmygyJ/ orD;ue,fajrcHrdkY udk&Judkapmifha&Smufay;ygaemf/ udk&Ju pdwf&if;vJtvGefaumif;wmuGJU/ ulnDwwf ,dkif;wwfwwf aysmfaysmfaewwf oabmaumif;wJh pdwf"mwft&if;cHeJYrkdY wpfaMumif;? t&G,fuvJ i,fao;? bGJU&½kyfacsm olYrdbrsm; uvJ csrf;omolawG ynmwwfawGjzpfjyef? udk&Ju Opömayg ½kyfacsmt&m&SdvJ jzpfjyefqkdawmh pdk;&drfw,fuGJU...rawmf wa&mfawG rjzpfapcsib;l / aemiftem*wfrmvJ &mxl;Bu;D Bu;D f S eJY wm0efBu;D Bu;D awGukd xrf;aqmifEir,foayyJrYdk vJygw,f}}/ dk f h l ½k;H csKyu rluvJyJ NrKd Ue,ftawGUtBuKH r&Sao;&if &mxl; f d BuD;BuD;awGtwGuf &mxl;wdk;jr§ifhray;bl;qdkawmh ole,fudk ajymif;a&TUjzpfwm trSefu olYudk &efukefwdkif;twGif;u NrdKU e,fwpfckckudk ajymif;a&TUay;rdkYygyJ.../ udk&J udk,fwdkifuyJ a,mapou xD;vif;NrdKUudk pdwf0if pm;owJ?h xD;vif;udyJ oGm;csiowJ...]]ysL}} qdvm;? ]]awmifom;}} k f h k qdkvm; vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;udk okawoejyKcsifavhvmcsifw,fqdk vGef;vdkY.../ at;av.. olYazazuvJ ordkif;Xmeu t&m&SdBuD; wpfO;D ayud;k / olararuvJ wuúovwpfcu ordi;f uxdu Y kd f k k aygh... ararpkeJYcifrif&if;vJjzpf nDtpfr0rf;uGJvJjzpf.. nDtpfrt&if;awGvdkyJ cspfMu&wm.../ udk&J&JU qE´udkvJ 'DuorD;av;u yHhydk;ulnDay;apvdkyg w,fu,... ud&u ]]ordi;f bmomuda&m pD;yGm;a&;bmom G f k J k k 50 51 Handbook-29
  • 30. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol &yfudka&m odyfpdwf0ifpm;wJhol.../ at;av... ordkif;tpOfudk rarhwm? ordkif;udkazmf xkwfwm? ordkif;udktpOfxdef;odrf;wm? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk awGtcsif;csif; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrIudk jzpfapwm.. awG[m trsKd;*kPf? Zmwd*kPfjrifhrm;a&;eJY ,Ofaus;rItarGtESpfrsm;? trsKd;om;a&;vu©Pmrsm; raysmufrysufatmif xdef;odrf; apmifha&Smufa&;wdkYtwGuf r&Sdrjzpf&SdygrS? rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf&Sif oefxufjrufrSmaygh.. 'grSvJ jynfaxmifpkBuD; rNydKuGJrSm? tcsKytjcmtmPm wnfwciNf rrmav... uRe;f eJui;f wnf f hH kd J S Y kd rSDwJhyrmayghuG,f.../ udk&Ju wpfaumif<uufwpfrsufESmqdkwmvdk orD;wdkY&JU xD;vif;NrKd Uav;rSm &if;&if;ES;D ES;D todtuRr;f vJr&SbeYJ qE´twGuf d J vkyfief;½kH;twGuf owåd&Sd&SdeJYoGm;wmudkyJ tHhMord&w,f... wu,fygyJuG,f.../ uJ...uJ a&mufvkd&mvrf;c&D;qHk;odkYwkdif ab;roD &efrc cvkwfrxd ql;rNidyJa&muf&SdEdkif&um EkdifiHhwm0efrsm; udkvJ ausausyGefyGef xrf;aqmifEkdifwJh 0efxrf;aumif;jzpfEdkif ygap/ rdbq&morm;eJY udk,fhxufBuD;jrifhwJh vlBuD;t&m&Sd vlBu;D olrawG&UJ jynhpreuefwhJ pum;awGuem;axmifvsuf f kH S f kd teaEÅmteEÅig;yg;udk tpOfrarhwJh vdr®ma&;jcm;&SdwJh orD; tvdr®mav;jzpfygapuG,f...jrefrmrdefuav; yDoygap uG,f...}} [lí 'k nTefrSL;BuD;u pum;awGrSmcJh ajymcJhonfESifh olrtaejzifh ararpkxm;vuftkyfcsD uefawmhrdcJh&aMumif; olYukd om"k om"k om"k [k om"kawGac:umvQif at;at; NyHK;NyHK;acgif;udk NidrfhumNidrfhum usef&pfaecJhyHkwkdYukd pHkvifpGm ajymjycJhonf/ olr ajymjyvmcJhonfh pum;rsm;udk em;qifMu&if;u uRefawmfwkdYtm;vHk;rSm MunfEl;&TifMunfcJh 0rf;omaecJhMu& avonf/ tqHk;wGif uRefawmfrSwpfyg; arMunfvGifcsKd &D&Dar udka0vif;wkdYrSm NrdKUav;ui,fi,f wpfNrdKUxJom;csif;jzpfae½Hk ru aqGrsKd;eD;pyfawGvnf;jzpfum wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; wpftdrf ESifh wpftdrf rdom;pkcsif;vnf; &if;ESD;cJhMuNyD;rkdY ydkíyifaysmf&Tif csrf;ajrUp&m aumif;aearawmhonf/ tpm;taomuf0kdif;udk pum;jzpfMu&if;u tm;vHk; a&SUarSmufü uRefawmfonf arMunfvGifcsKdudk pum;wpfcsKdU ajymcJh&onf/ ]]'Drm a':arMunfvicsK...wu,fuawmh arcsK[m S G f d d a':arMunfvGifcsKdjzpfvmcJh&NyDqkdwmudk trsm;uodvmMuyg vdrfhr,f/ av;pm;wJh oabmeJYygyJ...NrdKUarwåmudkcH,lwJh oabmudvufc&rSmaygh...q&mrvdvJ ac:MuvdrO;D r,f... k H Yk hf uReawmfukd ]]q&m}} vdac:aeMuw,f/ 'gudk uReawmf f h Yk f vufcHygw,f... 52 53 Handbook-30
  • 31. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 'gayr,fh a':arMunfvGifcsKdtaeeJYu uRefawmfhudk q&mvdYk rac:ygeJvmAsm...&efuef ½H;k csKyrmvkd ud,tcsi;f Y k f S k hf csi;f &if;ES;D aeMuwJh oabmrsK;d eJY ac:ovkrsK;d omac:ygAsm...}} d ]]q&mu q&mygyJ&Sif...}} [k arcsKdu jyefajymvmcJh ygonf/ ]][m..r[kwfao;ygbl;Asm...}} [k uRefawmfqdkcJhrd onf/ xkdpOftcgwGif &D&Daru Mum;u0ifvsuf ]]'Dvkd q&m&JU...usrwkdYtm;vHk;u q&mhudk q&mhvkdY yJ ac:Mu&rSmygyJ/ q&mu Xme&JUtBu;D tuJu;kd a':arMunf vGifcsKdusawmh t&m&Sdrav;jzpfvdkY vmwmrSefayr,fh uRefr wkdYuawmh ]]rrcsKd}} vkdYyJac:aerdrSmyg...EIwfusKd;aecJhNyDudk;? tpnf;ta0;wkdY bmwkdYrSmqkd&ifawmh owdxm;NyD; a':ar MunfvGifcsKdvdkY ajym&rSmayghaemf...}} q&meJY rrcsKd ESpfOD;twGufuawmh 'Dvkdac:Mu&if aumif;rvm; q&mOD;&JjrifhvdIifqkdwmxuf ]]q&m&J}} aygh? 'grS r[kwf ]]OD;&J}} aygh r[kwfzl;vm;/ q&mu rrcsKdudkac:zdkY&mrSmawmh udk,fhxuftouf t&G,ftm;jzifhvJi,f? udk,fhu tBuD;tuJjzpfaejyefqkdawmh wpfcsKdUuac:Muovkd ]]q&mr}} qkd&ifvJ r[kwfjyefbl;}} [k pOf;pm;&if; &,faeawmhonf/ aemufrS pum;jyefqufvmcJh jyefonf/ ]]tkd...[kwfNyDq&m...wpfNrdKUvHk;u ac:aeMuwm u ]]arcsKd}} yJ Opöm/ &NyD q&ma&...a':arcsKd odkYr[kwf arcsKdayghaemfq&m...tJ'gyJ oifhawmfygw,f/ aumif;yg w,faemf.../}} ½Hk;tul udka0vif;uvnf; axmufcHcJhonf/ ]]ac:csiovdomac:awmh q&mOD;&Ja&}}...[k &if;ES;D f k azmfa&GaomyHkpHjzifh a':arMunfvGifcsKdu 0dkif;zGJUaecJhMuaom pm;aomuf0dkif;udk tqHk;owfapcJhum tvkyfvkyfMu&ef pwif [efjyKMuawmhonf/ ]]tef;...[kwfyg&JU a':arcsKd...tJ arcsKda&aemf.. [kwfNyDvm;/}} ]][kwuyg&Sihf OD;&J...tJ...ud&..q&m&J &Si...}} f hJ k J hf ]][kwfuJhyg...[kwfuJhyg Asm rxifrSwfbJ a&mufvdkY vmola&...}} 54 55 csif;-Arm *E¦0ifcspfMunfa&;NrdKUav;eJY orD;ysKd arMunfvicsKd G f 'k- OD;pD;rSL; a':arMunfvGifcsKd ac: arcsKda&mufvmcJh ojzifh uRefawmfwdkY tm;ydk&SdcJhMu&onf/ rdrd½kH;Xme zGJUpnf;yHk t& 0efxrf;tiftm;zGJUpnf;yHktwdkif; 0efxrf;tiftm;tjynfh t0 cefYxm;Edkifa&;udk qufvufwifjyaqmif&Guf&OD;rnf vnf; jzpfygonf/ uReawmfqonfuvnf; ]]a&Al;aygufwmrvd... a& f kd k ygzdkYomvdk}} [lonfhpum;uJhodkY rjzpfEdkifqdkaompum;oHudk jzpfEif rajymcsiojl zpfygonf/ vkyief;vkyaqmif&mwdi;f wGif kd f f f k Handbook-31
  • 32. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol rnnf;rnLjzifh atmifjrifNyD;ajrmufatmif twwfEdkifqHk;pGrf; aqmifcsi?f pGr;f aqmifwwfonfh vlpm;rsK;d jzpfygonf/ onfvkd tm;BudK;rmefwuf pdwf"mwftrsKd;rsKd;udkom uRefawmfBudKuf ESpfoufavh&Sdygonf/ onfodkYaom oabmxm;jzifhonf NrdKU e,fav;wGif uRefawmfonf EdkifiHwm0efudk BudK;pm;xrf; aqmifaeygonf/ trSefawmh uRefawmfhXmeonf þNrdKUe,fav;wGif þ 0efxrf; (4) OD;ESiyif vkyief;rsm;udk atmifjrifatmif EdiEif hf f k f kd eif;eif;ESifh xrf;aqmifaejcif;vnf; jzpfygonf/ wpfNrdKUe,f vH;k twGuf tvGeta&;ygaom ta&;Bu;D aomvkyief; pDrue;f f f H d vkyfief;BuD;rsm;wdkYudk jynfolwdkYu Edk;Edk;Mum;Mum; wufwuf <u<uESifh atmifjrifatmif taumiftxnfazmfaqmifEdkif wdkYyif jzpfygonf/ wpfe,fvHk; pm;0wfaea&;? pD;yGm;a&;? ynma&;? usef;rma&;? vlrIa&;tp&Sdaom u@wdkif;wGif vsmxm;&nfrSef;csufrsm; jynfhrDzdkYvdkonf/ oufqkdif&mu@ toD;oD;wdkY xkwfvkyfrIrsm; wdk;wufzdkYvdkonf/ ukeueajym&ygvQif atmufajc tajccHtqifh aus;vuf f kf zGHUNzdK;rIr&SdbJ NrdKUjyzGHUNzdK;rIudk azmfaqmifí r&Edkifay/ ]]uRef; udkif;rSD udkif;uRef;rSD}}qdkonfh pum;&yftm;vnf; av;av; eufeuf em;vnfMuzdkYvnf; vdkygonf/ tajccHtkwfjrpf yGm; pnf;aumif;ygrSvnf; opfaumif;wpfyif? wdutrtaqmuf k f d f tOD;wdkY a0pnfaumif;rGefNrJ cdkifEdkifygrnf/ ½kH;vkyfief;awGu rsm;jym;? wm0efrsm;u BuD;rm;us,f jyefYvSaomfvnf; rarmwrf;? rnnf;nLpwrf; uRefawmfwdkY BudK;yrf;vkyfaqmifMuygonf/ tvkyfvkyfaeMuqJrSmyif arcsKd onf tNyHK;rysuf? Munf&TifpGm jrifhrm;wufp&m MunfEl;p&m &,fp&mwduajymwwf? t&Te;f azmufwwfao;onf/ r.,.u Yk kd ½k;H rS arcsKUd aqGrsK;d awG pma&;rav;awGuvnf; vmvnfwwf Muao;awmh ½kH;upnfum;aeonf/ MunfEl;aysmf&Tifp&m aumif;ae&awmhonf/ ]]aMomf...q&m OD;&J&,f.. a&S;acwfy*jH ynfukd owd& k rdyg&JU.. yk*HaejynfawmfBuD;twGuf oufpGefYqHzsm;trIawmf rsm;udk xrf;&GuEiMf uwJh useppfom;? iaxG½;l ? ivH;k vufz,f? f kd f anmifOD;zD;qdkwJh ppfolBuD;av;OD;udk trSwf&w,f/ ck..'Du OD;&J&UJ ½k;H rSmvJ vlpr;f aumif;av;OD;&SaeNyvYkd oabmxm;aygh}} G d D ]]aowl & S i f z uf aqmif & G u f r uif ; tcsif ; csif ; wG i f tcif;Bu;D i,f &Scg0,fvnf; rz,fraoG nDnmuke;f í uke;f Mu d av.. qdwhJ &Sir[m&|om&&JU uAsmvdyJ vkyMf uudiMf u&rSm k f k k OD;&J&JU}} txufygodkYiS,f arcsKdu tvkyfyrf; vlEGrf;udk pdwf rnpfnL;&ap&ef BuHzefajymwwfavonf/ NyD;awmh.. ]]OD;&J ysif;aerSmpdk;vdkYyg.. tvkyfawGu rsm;vGef;vdkY pdwfnpfNyD; &efuejf yefajy;rSjzif..}}[k rsuapmif;av;cswumvnf; ajym k h f d f wwfao;onf/ trSefawmhvnf; arcsKd ajymovdk pdk;&drfrnfqdku pdk;&drf Muayvdrfhrnf/ tvkyfawG ZGwftvkyfawGrsm;NyD; ½kH;qif;um 56 57 Handbook-32
  • 33. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol tdrfa&mufjyefawmhvnf; tysif;ajyp&m tarmajzp&m ½kyf&Sif½kHr&Sd tat;qdkifr&Sd tNidrfhr&SdyGJr&Sd? ESpfwpfESpftwGif; yGJvrf;obiftaejzifh NrdKUay:wGif oHk;BudrfcefYom&Sdwwfonf [k qdkonf/ onfNrKd Uav;udk t&m&Stqif0efxrf;rsm;u awmfawmf d h ESifhra&G;cs,fwwfMu/ ae& xdkif& pm;&aomuf& ukefpnf taxGaxG aps;EIe;f wdwif pm;aomufz,&m om;ig;? [if;oD; Yk G G f [if;&Guf opfoD;opfO tpkpkwdkYu t&rf;aygonf/ aps;vnf; csKdonf/ p&dwfpursm; oufomonfuawmh trSefyif jzpf onf/ odkYayr,fh qufoG,fa&;cufcJum yGJvrf;obif tyef; ajy tyef;ajzp&mwdu enf;yg;onf/ Mumvmawmh pdwtae Yk f ysif;&dum tjcm;aom ajrjyefYa'o&Sd NrdKUe,frsm;odkY tajymif; ta&TUtwGuf BudK;pm;um ajymif;a&TUoGm;wwfMuavonf vnf; jzpf&ayonf/ xD;vif;NrdKUav;wGif Mum&Snfraewwf Muay/ wu,fyg.. tjcm;aomt&mrsm;udk &Snf&Snfa0;a0; awG;p&mrvdk? EdkifiHawmfrS vpmp&dwfwdkYudk csxm;owfrSwf ay;onfudkom Munfhygawmh/ vpmtkyfpktvdkuf cGJjcm;í cHpm;aponf/ ajrjyefYa'orsm;ESifh rwlacs? cHpm;cGifhydkí ay; xm;onf/ vlrIa&;tcufcJqHk; NrdKUe,frsm;u trsm;qHk;&NyD; vlrIa&;cufcJaom NrdKUe,frsm;u 'kwd,jzpfum usefajrjyefY NrdKUjyrsm;um; cHpm;cGifhrjyKacs/ rlt& xD;vif;NrdKUav;onf vlrIa&;cufcJaom NrdKUe,frsm;wGif wpfNrdKUtygt0iftjzpf owfrwjf cif; cHxm;&onf/ &mcdiEe;f jzifh tenf;qH;k ESih f tjrifq;k H S kfI h cHpm;ap&ef vpmpau;tqifhtvdkuf cGJa0owfrSwfcHpm;ap onfudk avhvmod&SdEdkifayonf/ onfvdktaetxm;rsKd;wGif a,me,fajrzGm; xD;vif; a,molt&m&Sdrav;wpfa,mufu vkdvkdvm;vm;ESifh rdb ESpfyg;ESifh aqGrsKd;rsm;&Sd&m ZmwdajrodkYjyefvmí trIawmfxrf; umaeonfudk jrif&awmh uRefawmftm;&Sd&ygonf/ qkd;wkdif yif aumif;wkdifyifqkdouJhodkY tppt&m&mudk ajymqkdnd§EIdif; tajz&SmMu&ef tcGifhta&;vnf; jzpf&ayonf/ xkdYxufru ajym&ygvQif ESpfOD;om;wkdY b0ESpfckwkdYonfvnf; &nf&G,f &myef;wkiwpfcqotwlvr;f í 0rf;ajrmufpmavQmufvr;f zkYd d f k D Ykd S G S ta&;udk uRefawmfawG;rdumvQif MunfEl;rd&ao;avonf/ oZif 'gndKoif;? aygufvvufyyium o&zDtifMuif; J H G hf arT;í &ifcwfuHhaumf ydawmufyef;wkdY xHk;vTrf;cJhNyD;cJhNyD/ ]]oif;ajr&eHYwBudKif pHum;a&T0gESifh anmifoDwm a&awmfoGef;csdefrkdY &Tef;apvdkYvdIif...}} tp&Sdonfh pmqkdawmf OD;MuifO uqkevzGUJ udk trSw&onf/ jrefrmv uqkeqef; f f f prSmyif ta&;tBuD;qHk;yGJBuD;wpfyGJukd ETJ&onf/ ]]NrKd Ue,fprue;f &nfre;f csursm;tm; atmifjrifatmif D H d S f taumiftxnfazmfa&; ESpfpOfpDrHudef;wm0efay;tyfyGJ}} BuD; udk NrdKUe,fcef;rBuD;ü usif;yonf/ NrdKUe,fygwD,lepfOuú|BuD;rS vrf;nTeftrSmpum;ajym Mum;onf/ NrdKUe,fjynfolYaumifpDOuú|BuD;u teD;uyf Bu;D Muyftaumiftxnfazmfa&;udk rSmonf/ v,f,mpkuysK;d d f 58 59 Handbook-33
  • 34. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol a&;udk tm;xm;onfhNrdKUe,fav;rkdY NrdKUe,fjynfolYaumifpD (tvkytrIaqmiftzGUJ 0if) v,f,mom;ig;? opfawm wm0ef f cHu &yfuGufESifh aus;&Gmwpf&Gmcsif;tvkduf vkyfief;tm;om csu?f tm;enf;csuf taxGaxGaqmif&u&efrsm;wkukd aoao G f Yd csmcsmajym&Sif;&Sif;onf/ NrdKUe,fpDrHudef;rSL; uRefawmfu pDrHudef;a&;&mudpö&yf rsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í twwfEkdifqHk;&Sif;jy&onf/ v,f,m? om;ig;? opfawm? owåK? pufrIvufrI? vQyfppf? aqmufvkyf a&;? ukeo,a&;ESihf or0g,r? ynma&;? use;f rma&;? aiGa&; f G f aMua&;? tp&Sdojzifh pDrHudef;awG&SdyHkudkajym&onf/ odap& onf/ txl;ojzifhawmh pdkufysKda&;udk tm;xm;vkyfudkifaeMu aom NrdKUe,fav;jzpfaomaMumifh v,f,m? om;? ig;ESifh opfawmu@wkdY tcsKdUaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk odxm; vkdufemaqmif&GufEkdif&ef &Sif;jy&onf/ v,f,mpdkufysKd;xkwfvkyfa&;ESifh pyfvsOf;í "mwfajr MoZmtrsKd;rsKd;? ykd;owfaq;rStp oGif;tm;pkrsm;ta&;ygyHk? oD;ESHwpfckcsif;pD pdkufpu? atmifpu? txGufEIef;twGuf pkpkaygif;wGif txl;txGufwkd;? omreftxGufwkd;? ½dk;½dk;cGJjcm; pdkufysKd;xGuf&Sda&; udpö&yfrsm;taMumif; wifjyjzpfonf/ oD;xyf oD;n§yf tpm;xk;d oD;ESrsm;taMumif;vnf; yg0ifonf/ H pduysK;d ajr? oD;xyfo;D n§y?f tom;wifpuysK;d ajr? yvyf k f kd f ajr? pdkufysKd;Ekdifaom ajr½dkif;? v,f,majrazmfxkwfrI? yvyf ajrazmfxkwfrI? a&oGif;pdkufysKd;ajr? qnfajrmif;rsm;qkdif&m? a&pkyfpuf? x,fxGefwHk;xGefwH aygufwl;a*:jym; tqHk; odr;f usK;H í jyifqifxm;&Sd vkyaqmiftaumiftxnfazmfa&; f wkdYvnf;yg0ifonf/ jynfolydkif? or0g,rydkif? yk*¾vduydkif ydkifqkdifrIudpö&yfrsm;? uRJEGm;0ufMuuf tp&Sdonhf wd&pämef arG;jrLxkwfvkyfa&;rsm;wkdYudkvnf; rajymrjzpfrSm&ao;onf/ opfawmu@tydkif;wGif jynfolydkif? or0g,rydkif? yk*¾vduydkiftaMumif;jcif;&mrsm;? udkif;zsm;udkif;em;? xif;? rD;aoG;? opfacguf? avQmf? wifwGJyGJnuf? &Sm;ap;? ysm;&nf ponf opfawmxGufypönf;rsm; xkwfvkyfa&;&mudpö&yfrsm;? opfawmBuKd ;0di;f ? tjcm;opfawmajr? tjcm;ajrrsm;taMumif; k uRef;ESifh opfrmpdkufcif;udpö&yfrsm;ponfjzifh tawmfav;pHkpHk vifvifESifh odoifhodxkduf a&SmifMuOfumvkyfaqmifEkdifMuzkdY awGuvnf; rygrjzpfrSm& ajymMum;&avonf/ uRef;ESifh ydawmuftpm;xdk;pkdufjcif;udkvnf; odap&onf/ onfyGJBuD;wGif xl;jcm;onfu tcrf;tem;rSL;yifjzpf onf / Nrd K Ue,f o rD ; ysKd t &m&S d r av; 'k - Nrd K Ue,f O D ; pD ; rS L ; ]]a':arMunfvGifcsKd}} udk yGJxkwfEkdifcJhygonf/ tpdrf;azsmh zuf&Sif0wfpHkwGif yk0gudkpHkcsí tacsmtvS&wemav; arcsKd onf ole,fajr? olNY rKd U? olaqGotrsK;d ta&;ygolwa&SUarSmuf Y Y Yl Ydk pifjrifhay:0,f xifay:cJh&onf/ olYwm0ef ol£a`E´&& vSvS yywnfwnfwHhwHhESifh wm0efausoGm;EkdifcJhonf/ jrefrm qefqef ,Ofaus;odrfarGUpGmaom jrefrmhtrsKd;orD;wpfOD; tjzpf tacsmtvSudkjrifMu&ovkd NrdKUe,fwgifta&;ygol 60 61 Handbook-34
  • 35. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wpfO;D tjzpfEivnf; *kPwiforYdk tm;vH;k uvnf; tHMh ocJMh u S hf f h l avonf/ *kPf,lcJhMuavonf/ tvm;wl uRefawmfonfvnf; ,cifESpfuESifhrwl vlopft&m&SwpfO;D udk olwawGUjrifcMhJ u&ofn/ wm0efyi;f udk d Ydk kd tqifajyajyESihf pDpOfaqmif&uay;EkicjhJ cif;ESitwl &yfuuf G f d f hf G aus;&Gmrsm;rS Ouú|BuD;rsm;ESifhvnf; yxrqHk;tBudrf awGUqHk Mu&jcif;vnf;jzpf&ygonf/ xkonfaeYnrSmyif uReawmfonf arcsKEihf pyfvsO;f Ny;D d f d S tvGepw0ifpm;bG,&m taMumif;t&mrsm;udk odc&onfu f d f f hJ uRef a wmf h t wG u f yd k r k d t H h t m;oif h c J h & ayonf / arcsKd u uRefawmfwkdY½Hk;tzGJUom; rdom;pkESifh olYrdom;pkwkdY awGUqHkyGJ av;udk zdwfMum;cJhonf/ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf aysmf&TifpGm npm pm;yGJav;udk zefwD;ay;cJhonf/ onfnudk uRefawmhfwpfouf rarhEdkifawmhyg/ pm;zG,f&m om;ig;[if;oD;[if;&Guf taMumftavSmf pHkvifpGmaom xrif;pm;0dkif;udk NyD;pD;cJhNyD;í tcsKdyGJESifh a&aEG; Murf;aomufMupOf arcsKdajymjycJhonfh taMumif;&yfrsm;ujm; wefzkd;rjzwfEkdifygay/ ]]arcsKd&JU tBuD;tuJvJjzpf? q&morm;vJjzpf? arcsKdUudk taMumuft&GHUr&Sd wnfwnfNidrfNidrfeJY vlod&SifMum;qkdovkd *kPfwifay;wJhq&maumif;vJjzpfwJh OD;&Judkaus;Zl;wif*kPfjyK jcif;vJjzpfygw,f/ 'DhtwGufa&m trSwfw&taeeJYyg 'D a,mvHkcsnfppfppfav;udkvJ q&mhudkuefawmhjcif;tjzpfeJY ay;tyfyg&ap...}} q&mvJ odNyD;om;jzpfrSmyg...jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&; BudK;yrf;rIorkdif;rSm 0HomEkacwfu emrnftausmfMum;qHk; t0wftxnfjzpfwJh a,mvHkcsnfoabmrsKd;tjzpfeJY tav; teufxm;NyD; ay;tyfuefawmhjzpf&wmyg/ yifeDacsmeJY a,m vHkcsnfvkdY vlodrsm;xif&Sm;cJh& tJonhfacwfumvrSm *E¦0if jzpfcJh&w,faemf/ yifeDtusÐuawmh q&mhudkray;jzpf&bl;/ q&mhcE¨mudk,ftwkdif;txGmeJY tqifrajyjzpfrSmpdk;wmrkdYyg/ yifeDtusÐqkdwmrSmvJyJ yifeDwkdufyHkqkdwmu 0wfqifolrSm yGa,mif;a,mif;BuD;jzpf&ifvJ Munfhraumif;ovkd usOf;usOf; usyfusyfqkdvJ Munhf&qkd;wmaMumifhyg/ a,mvHkcsnftqifu ]]rif;BuD;qif}} vkdYac:ygw,f/ arcsKdwkdYq&mOD;&Jwpfa,muf &mxl;BuD;BuD;rm;rm; tqifhjzpf jzpf? vkyfief;BuD;wpfck&JUtBuD;trSL;BuD;jzpfjzpf vlBuD;rif;b0 udka&muf&SdoGm;EkdifoljzpfygapqkdwJh oabmvJygygw,f/ Ny;D awmh tJonfvjdk zpfom;cJwtcgrSmvJ tJonhvcsnav;udk G h hJ f kH f 0wfc&if arcsKwuvJ owdw&jzpfap&atmifvygyJ...b0 hJ d Ydk kd Ydk wpfauGUrSm awGUqHkcJhzl;wmudk rarh&atmifvkdYayghq&m... aemufNyD;awmh arcsKdudk,fwkdif tcsdef&tm;vyfwJhtcgrsKd;rSm &ufvkyfNyD; ay;tyfuefawmhjzpf&wmygq&m..}} ]]aMomf...arcsK&,f...}}[líom uReawmfajymjzpf& d f avonf/ tdrfa&SU{nfhcef;rpm;yGJ0dkif;wGif olYrdbESpfyg;ESifhtwl uRefawmfwdkY 0dkif;xdkifvsuf a&aEG;Murf;aomuf *sif;(csif;)okyf 62 63 Handbook-35
  • 36. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol vufzufokyfpm;Muonf/ olYrdbESpfyg;rSmvnf; NyHK;NyHK;&Tif&Tif ESihf oabmjynfMh uonftoGiukd jrifoae&onfukd uReawmf h f d f oabmawGUrdygonf/ ]]q&m&,f...orD;av;u NrKd Ue,ftqift&m&Srav; h d jzpfvmawmh tu,fíq&m c&D;oGm;cdkuf q&mr&SdwJhtcdkuf rSmqdk&if olu q&mhae&mrSm tpm;xdk;wm0ef,l&awmhrSmrdkY [kdutpnf;ta0;wuf? 'Dutpnf;ta0;wufeJY wm0efawG u BuD;vmNyD... vkyfief;wm0eft&yf&yfawGtwGuf tpp t&m&mBu;D Muyfoifjyay;ygq&m...ud,rsupatmufrmawmh k hf f d S orD;i,fav;vdkYyJ jrifaeqJrdkYygq&m 'gaMumifh qHk;rp&m&Sd&if q&meJYorD;av;u t&G,fcsif;u rwdrf;r,drf;qdkayrJh tBuD; tuJ0wå&m;tjynfh&SdwJh q&mu qHk;ryg/ trSm;&SdvmcJh&ifvJ axmufjyyg/ jyKjyifp&m&Sd&if jyKjyifMu&wmrdkY arwåma&SUxm; NyD; yJhjyifyg..vdkY rdbESpfyg;u arwåm&yfcHygw,f q&m &,f...}} aMomf...r[kwfwmAsm...OD;eJY a':a':wdkY&JUorD;u &efueNf rKd UBu;D u txifu& pD;yGm;a&;wuúovBf u;D rSmvJ av; k kd ESpfwdwd ynmawGoif,lcJhNyD; bGJUvJ&cJhNyD;NyD/ t&m&Sdtqifh 0efxrf;a&;&m tifwmAsL;vJ atmifjrifcJhvdkY t&m&Sdrav;vJ jzpfcJhNyD/ azmifBuD;A[kdjynfolY0efxrf;wuúodkvfrSmvJ aZ,s tqifhoifwef;udk wufa&mufatmifjrifNyD;ajrmufcJhNyD;NyD/ ½kH;csKyfrSmvJ XmewGif oifwef;wufa&muf atmifjrifcJhNyD;NyD/ ½kH;csKyfrSmawmif 2 ESpfausmf wm0efxrf;&GufcJhNyD;NyDqdkawmh rpdk;&drfrylyefygeJYawmh cifAsm...OD;wdkYorD;u awmfvJawmf wJh orD;ygyJ... tm;vHk;eJYvJ cspfcspfMunfMunfvJ ajymwwf qdkwwf aewwfwJholvdkY uRefawmfjrifodxm;ygw,f... NrdKU u vlawGuvJ olYudk awmfawmfcspfMuyHkudk uRefawmfjrif&yg w,f...}} uReawmfu txufygpum;rsm;udk ajymjyjzpf&ygonf/ f ]]aMomf...cspfcspfMunfMunfqdkvdkY ajym&OD;r,fq&m/ q&mu vkyfief;wm0efxrf;aqmif&if; udk,fhqE´t& tjcm; wm0efwpfckudkvJ avhvmokawoejyKcsifw,fqdkvm; orD; u ajymw,f/ tJ'gudk orD; &efukefu xD;vif;NrdKUudk ajymif; a&TUcGifh trdefYpmxGufawmhrS q&mh&JU 'kñTefrSL; ararpkqdkwm u arcsKdUudkac:awGU? q&mhtaMumif;udk wpfcsKdUwpf0uf ajym jyvmawmhrS orD;odcGifh&cJhwmvdkYqdkw,f...}} arcsKdU tazuajymvmcJhawmhrS uRefawmfuvnf; jyef ajymjzpf&onf/ azazhqE´? uRefawmfhqE´oufoufyg/ tcsdef &vmwJhtcgrSm olwdkYudk,folwdkYu ]]ysL}}vdkYqdkcJhMuavwJh ]]awmifom;}}awGtaMumif;udk *CePavhvmokawoejyK csivyg/ uRu;l a&yg oabmvJjzpfygw,fO;D ...wpfcsucwf f Ykd J f k ESpfcsufjywfqdkygawmh...}} ]]at;...at;...aumif ; ygw,f u G , f . ..od y f aumif;ygw,f...tm;vJay;ygw,f/ 'DNrKd Uav;uvJ jynfreJY wpfjcm;a'owkdYu nDaemifwkdif;&if;om; nDtpfudkarmifESr awG t zd k Y tvmvnf ; enf ; ta&muf v nf ; enf ; &ao;wJ h 64 65 Handbook-36
  • 37. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol NrdKUav;vJjzpfae&w,f/ ayoHk;axmifausmfpDtjrifh&SdMuwJh yHkawmifyHknm awmifwef;jrifhBuD;wkdYu wHwkdif;BuD;awGozG,f ydkif;jcm;umqD;xm;ovkd jzpfaewmaMumifhvJygyg&JU... vrf;yef;c&D;u Murf;&cufcJ&w,faygh/ at;av...'DNrdKUav;taMumif;udk orD;arcsKdu OD;eJY a':a':wkxuf ckEp?f ouú&mZf twdtuseYJ ydNk y;D avhvmod&dS Yd S xm;w,f/ orD;av;u orD;wkdY&JUq&mudk jynhfjynhfpHkpHkajymjy ay;yguG,f}} [k arcsKdUtazu ajymvmcJhonf/ ]]'Dvdk OD;&J&JU...azaz ararwkdYu OD;&Judk ]]xD;vif;NrdKU a&TuGeftkyfbk&m;orkdif;}} qkdwJhpmtkyfvufaqmifay;cJh? OD;&J zwfNyD;cJhNyDod&w,f/ tJ'gu xD;vif;NrdKUav;&JU a&S;&mZ0if orkdif;vkdYyJqkdygawmh...}} ]]ck arcsKdajymjyrSmu acwfopf jrefrmhorkdif;xJu pdw0ifpm;p&m *kP,z,&m rarhtyfb,&m armfue;f urÁn;f f f l G f G f G wif *E¦0ifwifcJhwJhtaMumif;awGyg/ wdwdususeJY "gwfyHk rSwfwrf;eJYvJ jrefrmhorkdif;pmrsufESmay:rSm orkdif;0ifjzpfcJh& wJjh zpf&yfwpfcsKUd udk ajym&rSmyg/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh xD;vif;qdwhJ k NrKd Uav;[morki;f aMumif;rSm rnHcb;l / orki;f &JUtajymif;tvJ d h hJ d a&pD;aMumif;rSm tpOftvmaumif;cJhavwJh wu,fhjrwfEkd; *kPf,lzG,f&m NrdKUav;wpfNrdKUjzpfw,fqkdwmudk jrefrmjynfol jynfom;awGtaeeJY wpfcsewe;f uxuf ydNk y;D ydNk y;D odovmap d f k d csifygw,f q&m...}} ]]'Dvdk OD;&J&UJ ...acwfa&pD;aMumif;eJtwl jrefrmhorki;f Y d [m urÇ m h o rk d i f ; eJ Y ywf o uf v m&awmh t*F v d y f e ,f c sJ U usL;ausmfppfoHk;BudrfjzpfcJh&w,faemf/ (1889) ck? Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufaeYrSm NAdwdoQtifyg,mtwGif; oGwfoGif;cH&? jrefrmh vGwfvyfa&;qHk;½HI;cJh&w,f/ oDaygbk&ifeJY rdom;pkwkdYygawmf rlNyD; (2) vcefYtMum t*FvdyftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrSm yk*Hc½dkif0ef tjzpf G.S AYER (*sDtufpftm,m) qkdwJh ta&;ydkif[m rauG;wkdif;twGif;&Sd a,me,fajra'oeJY csif;jynfe,fwkdYudk odrf;ydkufzkdYpDpOfcJhw,fav...}} 'k Akvf atyDvmwif OD;aqmifwhJ ppfonfvufeufuif d kd tiftm;tcsKdU[m a,me,feJY csif;awmifwef;udka&mufvmcJh w,f/ olwoabmuawmh jrefrmEdiiawmfBu;D wpfcv;kH t*Fvyf Ykd k f H k d ydkife,fjzpfcJhNyD;NyDqdkwJh oabmeJY n§dEIdif;NyD; odrf;ydkufNyD;cgp jrefrmEdkifiH&JU ckcHawmfvSefrIawGudk tqHk;owf tomt,m tay:pD;eJY odrf;,ltkyfcsKyfzdkYyJaygh.../ 'gayrJh...ratmifjrifcJhygbl;/ ckcHwdkufcdkufppfyGJawG [m e,fajrtESHYygyJ/ csif;awmifwef;&Sd a&T*sKd;jzLrif;om;wyf eJY yl;aygif;rdMuNyD; t*FvdyfwdkYudk awmfvSefMuw,f/ xD;vif; NrdKUe,ftwGif; xD;vif;wyfudk AdkvfoJBuD; OD;pD;NyD; usKdif;&Gmol BuD; AdkvfatmifuJ? zl;awmif;&Gmu AdkvfomEdkif? anmifuef&Gm u Advz;kd ESpf polw[m rsK;d cspe,fcspf acgif;aqmifawGtjzpf k f Ykd f eJY xif&Sm;cJhw,f/ vufeufcsif;rrQawmhvJ t½HI;ay;cJh&w,f aygh&Sif...(1887) ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv (9) &ufaeYrSm e,fcsJU wkdYu xD;vif;NrdKUudk odrf;,lcJhw,fqdkygawmh...}} 66 67 Handbook-37
  • 38. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ]]t*FvdyftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudkBudKufvdkY tkyfcsKyfcHaejcif; r[kwfwJh NrdKUe,fol NrdKUe,fom;awG[m tpkd;&udkawmfvSef&ef tNrJBuHqae&if;u *sDpDbDat toif;csKyfBuD;udktaMumif;jyK NyD; 0HomEktoif;awGay:vmjyefw,f/ xD;vif;NrdKUe,frSm OD;nDarmif? OD;pdk;Ekdiftp&SdwJh e,fcspfrsKd;cspfyk*¾dKvfawGu OD;aqmifEkd;Mum;vIyf&Sm;cJhjyefw,f}} (1300) jynhfta&;awmfyHkumv xD;vif;NrdKUe,frSm OD;bcspf? OD;cspfnGefYwkdYu OD;aqmifNyD; NrdKUe,fu ]]&mZrked rif;bk&m;BuD;}} rSm wpfvwdwdoydwfpcef;BuD;zGifhum e,fcsJU qefYusifa&;w&m;yGJrsm; a[majymqefYusifvmcJhMujyef&JU/ ajrjyefYa'o yckuúL? rEÅav;? &efukefponfwkdYeJY qufoG,f aqmif&GufcJhMuw,f/ 0HomEkpdwf"mwfeJYtwl jynfwGif;jzpf ]]a,mvHcsneYJ yifetus}Ð } wku0wfqifjcif;jzifh trsK;d om;a&; k f D Yd dk pdwf"mwfvTrf;NcHKEkdifcJhMuygw,f/ (1941) ckESpf? 'DZifbmv (7) &ufaeYrSm tar&duef ydkif ykvJqdyfurf;udk ppfrausnmbJ *syefuAHk;BuJcJhwmeJY (1939) ckESpfu pwifjzpfyGm;aecJhwJh 'kwd,urÇmppfrD;BuD;[m tm&SwkdufodkYul;pufvmcJhawmhwmaygh/ e,fcsJUt*FvdyfawG ppf½HI;? *syefawGa&mufvm tkyfcsKyfcJhMujyefa&m/ (1-8-1943) aeYrSm ay;tyfcJhwJh twkta,mif ta,mifaqmifvGwfvyf a&;rSef; odvmcJheJY wpfaeYwpfjcm;qkd;0g;vmaewJh ]]zufqpf *syef}} wkdYukdarmif;xkwfzdkY BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfMu&jyefw,fav/ jrefrmhacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;&JU pnf;vH;k nDnwrI pnf;½H;k rI G f atmuf&Sd *syefYacwftaetxm;rSm xD;vif;NrdKUe,ftwGif; ,m,DtkyfcsKyfa&;udk OD;nDarmif? OD;jr? OD;bkd;atmifwdkY OD;pD; aqmif&GufcJhMuw,f/ (1942? 43) ckESpfrsm;rSm ]]tm&Svli,f tzGJU}} udk xD;vif;NrdKUe,frSmvJ OD;Mumpdef? OD;pkd;atmifwkdYu zGJUpnf;cJhNyD; tajctaet&yf&yfwkdYudk vIyf&Sm;aqmif&GufcJhMu ygw,f/ 'DvkdeJY 'kwd,urÇmppfBuD;NyD;qHk;vdkY *syef&efrS uif;vGwf cJayrJh r[mrdwt*FvywyfawG&UJ tkycsKyratmufrm jrefrm h f d f f f I S jynf[m r½kef;om rvIyfomjzpf&jyefw,f/ wwfEkdiforQ jref r mjynf u d k tk y f c sKyf v suf t &if ; &S i f e ,f c sJ U o½k y f j zpf w J h ]]aoG;cGJtkyfcsKyfa&;eJY *kPfaoG;pkyfcs,fvS,fa&;}} twGuf t*FvdyfawG[m jynfrudkvGwfvyfapNyD; awmifwef;a'o jynfe,frsm;udk qufvufpdk;rkd;Ekdifa&; BudK;pm;vmMujyefw,f av...awmifwef;eJY ajrjyefYjynfe,fjynfr aoG;uGJatmif aoG;cGJvmMujyefw,faygh/ (1947) ckESpf? yifvHkpmcsKyfudktaMumif;jyKNyD; ]]csif;Arm wkdif;&if;om;rsm; cspfMunfa&;nDvmcH}} BuD;udk xD;vif; NrdKUav;rSm (1947) ckESpf? rwfv (3) &ufrS (5) &ufaeYtxd oHk;&ufwkdifwkdifcrf;em;odkufNrdKufpGm usif;yEkdifcJhMuw,fav/ tJonhf nDvmcHBu;D udk jrefrmhtrsK;d om;acgif;aqmifBu;D wpfO;D jzpfol ]]'D;'kwO;D bcsK}d } acgif;aqmifNy;D ocifvw?f ocif f G pHwifwkdYeJYtwl csif;vlrsKd;acgif;aqmifawG yg0ifcJhMuw,f/ awmifydkif;csif;awmifrS OD;0A®ol;armif? ajrmufydkif;csif;awmif 68 69 Handbook-38
  • 39. 70 udka,m (abm*aA') rS OD;Z[l;wkdYyg0ifcJhw,f/ tm;vHk;oabmwl vufrSwfa&;xkd; EkdifcJhMuw,f/ vlxky&dowf (5000) ausmfjzifh csif;-Arm cspfMunfa&;udk yl;wGJtkwfjrpfcsay;EkdifcJhMuw,faygh/ arcsKd ESpfzufbkd;bGm;awG&JU tajymt& odyfudkaysmfMu &w,fqy/ xD;vif;NrKd Uav;rSm vlawGuvJtrsm;Bu;D / tJonf dk J vdkwpfcgrS rjrifpzl;? rBuHKpzl;qkdawmhvJ tHhMorqHk;aygh/ aysmvuMf u&wmrsm; rajymygeJawmhw/ vufo;D vufarmif; f dk Y hJ awGwef;? atmfMu[pfMu? a<u;aMumfoHawGwkdifMu? aysmf&Tif nDnGwfaeMu pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; pkpk½Hk;½Hk;eJY aysmf&TifaevdkufMu wm? uMuckeMf utk;d pnf';kd ywfawGeYJ nHaeMuwm...aMumuf cref;vdv&vNS y;D aysmMf u&vGe;f vka&m vGwvyfa&;Bu;D &awmh d dS Yd f rSmrkdYa&mqkdawmh 0rf;om&vGef;vdkY rsuf&nfrsm;awmif usMu& w,fqkdw,faygh/ xm;ygawmhav . . .cspMf unfa&;nDvmcH ud,pm;vS,f k f ocifatmifrif;eJYOD;armifuav;wdkYu awmifydkif;csif;awmif? OD;"r®o;l armifeO;D bqdiwu wduajrmufyi;f csi;f awmifqoYkd YJ k f Ykd Yk kd D tkyfpkESpfpkcGJum jynfe,fjynfrrcGJjcm;bJ awmifweff;ajrjyefY yl;aygif;vdkY vTwfvyfa&;t&,la&; wdkif;&if;om;rsm;aoG;pnf; nDñGwfa&;wdkYudk aqmfMopnf;½Hk;cJhMuw,f/ tJonfwkef;u a,me,fajra'oqkdwm vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;tvGefcufcJ cJhwm? opfawmBuD;av;&yftygt0ifjzpfwJh a,m&yfrJZmqdkyg awmh? tJ'Davmuf oGm;a&;vma&; cufcJvSwJh pdrfhBuD;NrdKifBuD; yHkawmifyHknm awmifwef;BuD;awGqDa&mufatmif vmcJhNyD; *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 71 cspfMunfa&;udk&atmif pnf;½kH;cJhMuwJh EdkifiHhacgif;aqmifBuD; awGudk arcsKdt&rf;av;pm;rdw,f/ csD;usL;rdw,f/ *kPf,lrd w,f&Sif.../ OD;"r®okarmif[m yifvHknDvmcHBuD;odkY wufa&muf&ef jzpfayrJh csif;-Arm cspfMunfa&;vkyfief;awGu rNyD;pD;ao;vdkY rdkY rwufa&mufEdkifcJhbl;qdkwm ordkif;t& od&w,f/ qufvufNyD; ajym&&if 12-2-1947 aeYrSm *E¦0if ordkif;wGif &pfwJhjzpf&yf ]]yifvHknDvmcH}}BuD;udk &Srf;jynfe,f awmifyi;f yifvNkH rKd Uav;rSm usi;f yEdicMhJ uw,f/ wdi;f &if;om; kd k f k tm;vHk; aoG;pnf;nDnGwfrIordkif;oufao ]]yifvHkpmcsKyf}} udk vufrwa&;xk;d EdicMhJ uw,f? tm;vH;k wdaoG;pnf;nDnwcMhJ u S f k f Yk G f onfaygh... AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JU vrf;ñTefcsuft& vGwfvyfa&; udk tEkenf;eJr&ygu wpfjynfv;kH tH<k uwducuMf uzdYk jynfoYl Y k f kd &JUabmfawmfwyfzGJUrs,' zGJUcJhw,f/ xD;vif;NrdKUav;rSmvJ AdkvfñGefYvl OD;pD;NyD; jynfolU&Jabmf 100 cefY zGJUpnf;pcef;cs aqmif&GufEdkifcJhw,f... 'DveYJ Ediiet0ef; &[ef;&Sivjl ynfotaygif; wdi;f &if;om; kd k f H YJ f l k taygif;wdkY pkpnf;nDnGwfaqmif&GufEdkifcJhMuvdkY wpfEdkifiHvHk; arQmfvifhawmifhwcJhMu&wJh? tESpfESpftvvu arQmfrSef;cJhMu &wJh ]]vGwfvyfa&;}} BuD;udk tcuftcJtrsKd;rsKd;eJY &ifqdkifwm tEdi,ausmvm;EdicMhJ uvsuf t&,lchJ 1948 ckEpf Zefe0g&Dv k f l f T k f S 4 &ufaeYrSm vGwfvyfa&;&cJh&w,f... Handbook-39
  • 40. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 'ghaMumifh tvHk;pHkudk jyefcsKyf&if a&S;&mZ0ifu ol&JNrdKU ac: xD;vif;NrdKUav;[m &mZ0ifaemufcHordkif;eJY NrdKUav;jzpf ovdk pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&maumif;vSwJh NrdKUtjzpfomru acwf opfjrefrmhordkif;rSm ZmwdaoG; ZmwdrmeftpOf Edk;Mum;xuf oefwJhNrdKU? pnf;vHk;nDnGwf vGwfvyfaom jynfaxmifpkjrefrm EdkifiHawmf ay:aygufvma&;rSm jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwf trSef wpfu,f arG;zGm;&Sifoef jzpfxGef;cJh&mNrdKU? awmifwef;ajrjyefY jynfe,f jynfrrcGjJ cm;bJ csi;f -ArmcspMf unfa&;eJY wdi;f &if;om; k wdaoG;pnf;nDnwa&;udk rSwwipucwhJ blreufoefNrKd U... Yk G f f kd f kd f hJ d tjzpfeJY jrefrmhacwfa&pD;ordkif;aMumif;wpfavQmuf pnf;vHk; cspfMunfnDnGwfum wdk;wufaomtjrif tpOf&Sifoefaeav wJhNrdKU *E¦0ifNrdKUav;wpfNrdKUjzpfaMumif;ukd aESmif;acwftquf quf jynfoltrsm; od&Sdapcsifw,f OD;&J&,f...}}/ xD;vif;NrKd Uav;taMumif;udk jynfjh ynfppajym&í arcsKd h kH kH armoGm;cJhNyDxifonf? tajymudk&yfum a&aEG;Murf;wpfcGuf aomufaecJhonf/ NyD;awmh vufzufokyfESifh ajryJqHaMumfudk pm;onf/ ]]tif;... aemufqHk;tydkif;... arcsKdwdkYtydkif;... ordkif;eJYawmh rqdkifbl;qdkygawmh..'DtaMumif;av;u OD;&J od½kHoufoufrQomyg/ wu,fawmhvJ ordkif;udk rarhwwf wJh? ordkif;udk cspfwwfwJh ordkif;udk jrwfEdk;av;pm;wefzdk;xm; wwfwJh pdwf"mwfrsKd;vdkYyJ qdkyg&apawmh... 'guawmh uRefr&JU emrnfyJ OD;&J... uRefr&JU ESpfzufbdk;bGm;eJY rdbawGu azmfjyygpdwfxm; pdwf"mwfrsKd;eJY uRefrudk emrnfay; rSnfhac:apcJhMuowJh av... ]]arMunfvGifcsKd}}qdkwm teuft"dyÜm,f&SdwJh trnf emrjzpfap&r,fwJh... ar...qdkwm trsKd;orD;rdef;uav;awGudk &nf&G,f ñTef;qdkw,f? Munf . ..qd k w m vl r sKd ; wpf r sKd ; eJ Y wpf r sKd ; cspf c spf MunfMunfjzpfap &SdapvdkwJh oabmudk qdkvdkw,f? vGif..qdkwmu omrmeftrsm;olwumwdkYxuf ay: ay:vGifvGif xifxif&Sm;&Sm; jzpfEdkif&atmif BudK;pm;&,lydkif qdkifEdkif&r,fqdkygw,f? csKd.. qdkwmuawmh emrnfwpfckvHk;&JU txGwftjrwf qHk;yJ? b,fawmhrS rarh&bl;qkdwJh trSmpum;eJYtwl jrefrm EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;BuD;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrH BudK;yrf;xrf;&Guf cJwhJ jrefrmwd&UJ tmZmenfacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;xJrm 'D xD;vif; h Yk S qdkwJh a,mwdkY|meDNrdKUi,fav;qD tcuftcJaygif;rsm;pGmxJu a&mufatmifvmcJhol csif;-Arm*E¦0ifwdkif;&if;om;cspfMunf pnf;vH;k nDnwa&;udk OD;aqmiftwjf rpfcsay;cJojl zpfwhJ 'D;'kwf G f k h OD;bcsKdudk tpOfxm0&av;pm;*kPf,l tav;tjrwfjyK owd &aejcif;tjzpf ]]csKd}}qdkwJh pum;vHk;udk tjrwfwEdk;,lxm;jcif; yJ jzpfygowJh&Sifh... wu,fwrf;awmhvJ uRefrazaz OD;Munfwifh? arar a':vGifarjrifhqdkwJh arG;rdbESpfyg;&JU trnfwdkYudkvJ yg0ifap 72 73 Handbook-40
  • 41. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol &avatmif ararhtrnfu ]]ar}} eJY azazhtrnfxu ]]Munf}} J wdkYudk,lum 0ef;0dkif;wJh oHa,mZOfoabmvJ qdkifw,fqdkyg w,f...txufygtaMumif;t&mawGudk wpfaeYaomtcg rSmawmh q&mhukd ajymjy&r,fqNkd y;D arcsKUd &ifxrm ude;f atmif; J S wnf&aecJwmudk ckawmhajymjzpf&Ny/ arcsKajymcsiwhJ xD;vif; dS h D d f NrdKUav;eJY arcsKdUwdkYb0 wpfpdwfwpfydkif;udk ajymjyaecJhwmudk pdwf0ifwpm; em;qifay;cJhMuwJhtwGufvJ tm;vHk;udk aus;Zl; wif&ygw,f q&m&,f...}}/ t"dyÜm,f&SdvSpGmaom *E¦0ifxD;vif;NrdKUav;ESifhET,fí arMunfvGifcsKdqdkaom arcsKd pum;rsm;wdkYtm; em;axmif aerd&if;u uReawmfonf arcsKukd rdom;pkpdw"mwft&if;cH f d f oabmudk ydkíav;pm;vmrd&awmhavonf/ rxifrSwfbJ? arQmfvifhrxm;bJ Zmwdajr arG;zGm;&mNrdKU uav;qD a&muf&SdvmcJh? wm0efxrf;aqmifaecJhavaom arcsKd? olYZmwdcsufa<uarG;&yfajr arG;zGm;cJh&mNrdKUuav; trsKd;udk wdk;wufatmif azmfaqmifzdkY rqkwfrepf aqmif&Guf csifpdwf &nf&G,fcsufawG wyHkwyifESifhtwl jyefvmcJholjzpf ygaMumif; uReawmhtm; ajymjycJz;l onf/ arcsKonf xD;vif; f f h d NrdKUav;tm; wzufzufwGif ydkrdkwdk;wufjzpfxGef;vmEdkifap& atmif udk,fpGrf;&Sdoí ÓPfpGrf;&Sdoí tpGrf;ukefBuHaqmif BudK;yrf;rnf[k oHEé|mefcsxm;aMumif; qdkcJhonf/ uRefawmfh tm;vnf; wwfEipr;f orQ vrf;jytm;jznfunay;Ediygap ... kd f G h l D kf [k arwåm&yfcHpum;udk ajymMum;cJhzl;onf/ ]]aMomf...yHkawmif yHknm&yf0ef;rSm csif;-Arm jrefrmh wdkif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;twGuf *E¦0if cspfMunfa&;udk ordkif;rSwfausmufwifcJh&m *E¦NrdKUav;u ]]arMunfvGifcsKd}} qkdwJh Zmwdrmeftxkdxkd&,feJY xD;vif;NrdKUol av;&,f...}} 74 75 ]]AsL}} qkdwm olwdkYyJvm;ESifh obm0ausmufe*g;BuD;qD ]oa&acwå&m EkdifiHawmfBuD;ysufpD;NyD; at'D (107) ckEprm ork'&mZfrif;u yk*EiiawmfBu;D udk wnfaxmifw,f/ S f S ´ H kd f H aus;&Gmaygif; (19) &GmeJY pwifcJhwJh yk*HEkdifiHawmfBuD;[m at'D (107 rS 152) ckESpftxd ESpfaygif; (45) ESpfwkdifwkdif xD;eef;pdk;pHoGm;cJhw,f/ tJonhfumvawGrSm ykyÜg;a'orSm ]]pE´ma'0D}} qkdwJh ysLtrsKd;orD;av;[m tvGefacsmarmvSyw,fvkdY emrnfBuD; w,f/ wkdwkdajymMuygpdkY&JU rif;BuD;uawmfaumufawmfrlcJh rdzk&m;jzpfcJhw,f/ tJonhfrdzk&m;rSm ]]armifpdefY}} qkdwJh yef;yJ q&marmifwpfa,muf&w,f/ a,mufzawmfub&ifu ]]"g;}} dS kd k wpfvufqufockdif;apcJhw,f/ "g;aumif;wpfvufjzpf& atmif BuHaqmifBudK;pm;um "g;wpfvufudkqufoEkdifcJhay r,fh "g;cwf&mtpuftajymufav;awGwpfcsKdU yg&Sdaewm aMumifh aemufxyf"g;wpfpif;qufoGif;bkdY apckdif;jyefw,f/ a,mufzawmfu onfrQxd BudK;pm;tm;xkwfxkvkyf xm;wJ"g;udk tjrifrMunfvifao;wJtvdevYkd oabm&cJwm h h k YJ h Handbook-41
  • 42. 76 udka,m (abm*aA') rkdY rif;BuD;&JUeef;awmfutxGuf eef;awmfwHcg;wkdifudk "g;eJY wGwfcJhrdw,f/ wHcg;wkdifu rdkif;jywfoGm;cJhayr,hf "g;pGrf;&nf aMumifh ,divroGm;cJb;l qkygawmh...? eef;awmfwcg;ydwcsef k f J h d H f d rSm wm0efuswcg;rSL;eJY om;jzpfowcg;ydwpOftcgrS wHcg;rSL; H l H f 'Pf&m& om;ao&jzpf&wmudk armifpe&UJ vufcsuyvYkd wHcg; d Yf f J rSL;u &efNidK;xm;cJhavw,f/ bk&ifBuD;uawmh trSefwu,ftjypfrjrifcJholygyJ/ bk&ifBu;D &JUqE´twGuukd armifpevyJ olyef;yJtzGUJ awmfom; f d Yf J Y awGeJY aemufxyf"g;topfwpfpif;&zkdY tm;BudK;rmefwuf cif;usif;vkyfaqmifaeav&JU/ tjcm;wpfzufrSmuawmh yxr"g;udkpGefYy,fvkdufwm aMumifh rif;BuD;tay:remvkd trkef;xm;NyD; vlolvufeufudk pkaqmif;aeygaMumif;? vdrfvnfumavQmufwifvkdY ppfolBuD; rSL;BuD; rwfBuD;wkdYtm;vJ pnf;½Hk;axmufcHapol wHcg;rSL;&JU pum; rif;BuD;,HkvmrdcJhw,f/ 'ghaMumifh *Hk;acsmwJhpum;udk ,HNk y;D armifpewuzrf;qD;tyfEbYdk trdeay;wmudk rdz&m;Bu;D d f Ydk kd HS Yf k pE´ma'0DMum;od&wmeJY wpfNydKifeuf armifeJYESpfr tvGef cspfcifMuwmaMumifh nOfhwGif;csif;wdwfwqdwf owif;ydkYum aqGrsKd;pkwkdY {&m0wDjrpfBuD;udk jzwful;NyD; taemufbufurf; udk xGufajy;cJhMuawmh0,faygh/ 'DvdkeJY taemufbufopfawmBuD;awG xlxyfvSwJh awmifwef;jrifhBuD;awGqDajy;cJhMu&&Smw,f/ bk&ifhppfwyf &J r uf a wG u d k yk e f ; &if ; ajy;cJ h M u&wJ h awmif w ef ; BuD ; rk d Y *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 77 ]]ykef;awmif}} vkdYac:wGifcJhMu&mu umv&SnfMumvmcJhawmh ,aeYtcgrSm ]]yHkawmif}} vkdYjzpfaecJh&NyD/ ykef;vQKdajy;vTm;Mu&&if;u awmBuD;jrufrnf;? pdrfhprf; NrdKif,HxJrSm wpfzGJUeJYwpfzGJU wpfpkeJY wpfpk vloHay;vkdY nmoH ay;vkdY wuGJwjym;rjzpfMu&avatmif a&Smif&if;wdrf;&if; ykef;&if;uG,f&if; nmoHay;umoGm;cJhMu&wmrkdY ]]ykef;nm}} vkdY trSwfonmjyKcJhwm[m ,aeY ]]yHknm}} awmifwef;BuD;jzpfae &owJh/ ]]tJonfrm &mZ0if0w¬Kvajymrvm;? '@m&Dvq&av S Ydk Ydk dk rvm;? olwkdYawG&JU tjzpftysuforkdif;pOfvkdYyJ ,lq&rvm; OD;&J pOf;pm;rd&atmif arcsKduajymjy&wmygyJ/ rsufarSmuf umvawGrm '@&Duvypfy,fvYkd r&bl;vkajymMu? a&;Mu S kd J Yd wmawGeYJ '@&Dutm½HcNH y;D okawoejyKvywmawG wl;azmf kd k k f aqmif&GufMunhfMuwJhtcgrSm qkdif&mqkdif&m a&S;acwftoHk; taqmifypönf;vufeufud&d,mawG pwmawGudk wl;azmf awGU&S&jyefawmhvJ tcufom;vm;aemf...}} d [k arcsKUd pum;rsm;ESihf oH;k oyfjrifMunhywukd uReawmf f kH Ydk f pdwf0ifpm;pGm em;axmifaerdcJh&ygonf/ ]]uJ qufNyD;awmh ajym&OD;r,fqdk&if rdzk&m;pE´ma'0DeJY rdef;rom;jzpfolawG[m awmtxyfxyfawmiftoG,foG,f awmifjrifhawmifwef;BuD;wkdYudk ausmfjzwfwufqif; c&D;Murf; ESifMu&awmh tvGefw&mrS armyef;EGrf;e,fMu&&Smw,faygh/ pOf;pm;jrifa,mifMunfh&if odEdkifygw,fav/ oem;p&mh b0 Handbook-42
  • 43. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol jzwfoef;rIawGygyJ/ onfawmBu;D jrufrnf; awmifwef;jrifBh u;D awGxJrSm om;&Jwd&pämefawGuvJ aygygbdoeJY}} tJonfrSm acR;xGuf aoG;xGuf xdckduf&Sem'Pf&mawG vJ &Mu&&SmrSm trSefyJvkdY ,lqjrifa,mifrdw,f/ ygvmMuwJh wbuf (apmif) eJY &ifbwfrmpnf;aESmifvsuajy;Mu& oGm;Mu S f & ckatmif;yke;f uG,Mf u&eJyJ c&D;qufMu&rSmygyJ/ awmawmif d Y twuftqif; c&D;Murf;rSm armyef;aeMu&wJh'PfeJY &ifrSm tarmudk tarmrqkdYapbdkY ,laqmifygvmMuwJh wbufeJY acR;awGudkokwf taomhESifvdkY c&D;wGifapcJhMu&w,f/ &ifrSm wbufudkpnf;aESmif&if; c&D;ESifcJhMu&w,f/ ]]tJonhf wbufpnf;wJtusiu ,ck 'Drm OD;&Jjrifae h hf S &wJyptwki;f ygyJ/ oD;oefwrifwum jyifqif0wfpm;aexkif h kH H d Y d Muwm r[kwfwmtrSefygyJ OD;&J &,f...}} txufyguJhodkYES,f arcsKdU ajymqkdwifjyrIrsm;ESifh arcsKdU rdwfaqGwkdY&Sd&m &Gm ]]awmifom;}} wkdYtaersm;Muonhf &Gmrsm; xJrS ]]aq;rif;awm}} qkdonhf&GmBuD;udk olESifh uRefawmfa&muf &SdaecJh avhvmaecJh&jcif;vnf;jzpfygonf/ pae we*FaEG ½Hk;ydwf&ufwkdYvnf;jzpf? aqmufvkyfa&;tif*sifeD,mBuD;u *spfum;av;udk tultnDay;cJhojzifhvnf; onf&Gmudka&muf EkdifcJh&jcif;jzpfygonf/ aq;rif;awm&GmBuD;u xD;vif;NrdKU ajrmuft&yfwGif&Sdum rdkiftm;jzifh (20) eD;yg;cefY a0;uGmyg onf/ ]]ysL}} [k olwu,owajymqkaeMuaom ]]awmifom;}} Ydk kd f l Ydk d wkdYxH avhvma&;c&D;tjzpfa&muf&SdaecJh&ygonf/ xkd&Gm aumifpDpma&;rav;rSmvnf; arcsKdESifh oduRrf;cifrifvSol vnf;jzpfum tultnDudk tjynhft0ay;ojzifh uRefawmf onf rsm;pGmaus;Zl;wif&aMumif;udkvnf; ajymjzpf&ygonf/ uRefawmfuawmh ]]awmifom;}} trsKd;orD;BuD;? i,f wkukd trSww& rSwrw&& "gwfy½u,Eic&ygNy/ aumifpD Yd f f S f kH kd f l dk f hJ D pma&;rav;tdrfü aus;&GmaumifpDOuú|BuD;vnf; a&mufvm cJojzifh ydí[efusvygonf/ em;ae&if; a&aEG;Murf;? pm;p&m h k S awG tpHktvifESifh uRefawmfwdkYtm; {nhfcHauR;arG;aeonfrkdY {nhf0wfausyGefvSonfudkyif uRefawmfwkdYu tm;emaerd& ao;aMumif; Ouú|BuD;ESifh aumifpDpma&;rav; rdom;pkwkdY tm; rkom;ryg [efaqmifpum;r[kwfbJ ajymrd&ao;onf/ odkYpOftwGif; arcsKdESifh olwkdYwpfawG &,f&,farmarm ESihf ajymqkaeMuaom pum;oHrsm;udum; uReawmfrod? vH;k 0 d k f rod? bmawGajymqkdaeMurSef; uRefawmfwpfa,muf vHk;0 em;rvnfcJhacs/ ]]OD;&Judk arcsKdajymr,f...apmapmu pum;awG&JU tqufvJjzpfw,f/ oufqkdifwmawGvJyJjzpfw,fqkdygawmh}} ajy;a&SmifvmcJh&wJh olwdkYtjzpf olwkdYb0u ysLw&m;cH ajy;awGrSef;od&if yk*H&Sifbk&ifxH awmfyg;owif;pum;ay;ydkY rSmudk pkd;&drfcJh xdwfvefYaMumuf&GHUcJhMuwmrkdY awmifwef;jrifh BuD;awGay:rSm aexkdifMuwJh ]]awmifom;}} awGvkdY pum;enf; &efpJajymqkdNyD; olwkdY&JUb0awG ajc&mazsmufcJhMu&Smw,f/ xkdYtwl yk*HrSmwkef;u ajymqkdcJhMuwJh pum;awGudkvJ 'DrSm 78 79 Handbook-43
  • 44. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wpfrsKd;wGifNyD; ajymqkdum aevmcJhMuw,f/ ckeu olwkdYawGeJY arcsKd a jymqk d a ecJ h M uwJ h pum;awG u ]]awmif o m;wk d Y & J U awmifom;pum;yJ qkdygawmh ysL odkYr[kwf awmifom;wkdYeJY teD;uyfawGU& jrif& pum;awGudkMum;&vkdY OD;&J0rf;omae w,f r[kwfvm;}} ]]aMomf...aMomf...[kwwmaygh...rSewmaygh ... f f tm;vHk;udkaus;Zl;wif&ygw,f...}} [k uRefawmfjyefvnfajymjy&avonf/ ]]OD;&J jrifwtwki;f yJ? 0wfpm;qif,ifyu xl;jcm;w,f/ hJ d kH vHcsnf (xrD) udk tjzLxnfoufouf 0wfqifMuw,f/ *g0ef k yHkpHjzpfw,f/ *g0efu ajcusif;0wftxd &Snfw,f/ cg;rSm cg;ywfvdk a&Ta&mifaiGa&mifBudK;rsm;eJY &pfywfxm;wwfMuNyD; vnfyif; (odkYr[kwf) ycHk;ay:rSm yk0gwifxm;wmvJ&Sdw,f/ cE¨mudk,ftxufydkif;rSm trnf; (rJ) a&mifwbuwf (apmif &Snf) udk *sKdif; (csKdif;) atmufrS vQKd&pfywfum &ifom;udk zHk;zdatmifpnf;w,f/ toGifwpfrsKd;eJY vSyyHkqef;w,f/ 'Dvdk yHkpHrsKd;udk OD;&J jrifrdzl;vkdYvm;/ ckawmh toGifqef; tjrifqef; udk jrifz;l oGm;&Nyaygh...tJonfrmyJ &ifrm teDa&mifwbuf D S S eJY pnf;aESmifxm;olawGu tysKd? trnf; (rJ) a&mifwbufeJY pnf;aESmifaeolwkdYu ttdkvkdY cGJjcm;owfrSwfxm;av&JU...}} ]]&Sif;NyD arcsKd a& . . .jrif&ol pdwf0ifpm;olawGtzdkY O.K tdkaujzpf&wmaygh? tawG;rrSm;Edkdifawmhbl;aygh . . . wpfcgwnf;eJYyJoJoJuGJuGJpGJvef;umydk;yef;vdkY&wmaygh}}/ onfodkYES,f uRefawmftajymtm; arcsKdESifh aumifpD pma&;rav;wdkYu oabmusí &,faeMuao;onf/ ]]tef;...qufajymr,f OD;&JUa&...olwkdYawGrSm cuf w mu ]]pmay}} r&S d b l ; jzpf a ew,f / bmompum;yJ usef&pfaecJhwmrsKd;aygh/ a&Munf&m jrufEk&m t&yfa'oawG qD ajy;vTm;&SmazGMu? tdk;tdrfxlaxmifMu? pdkufMuysKdUMueJYrkdY xifyg&JU/ pmayurusef&pfcJhovdk jzpf&w,f...(Spoken Language) omjzpfaew,fqkdygawmh...}} at;av...pmayta&;tom;&SdwJh bmompum; (Written Language) onfyif pmayjriwifrS vlrsK;jrif&r,fh § hf d h tajctaeyJr[kwfvm; OD;&J&,f tck awmifom;wkdY&JU bmompum;[m tajymbmom pum;omjzpfwmaMumifh tcserxe;f odr;f xm;Edijf cif;r&Syg&if d f D d k d trSefyifaysmufuG,foGm;rSmudk arcsKdpOf;pm;pdk;&drfrdygw,f/ urÇmay:rSmvlrsKd;wpfrsKd;pDrSm udk,fydkifbmompum;? pmayeJY ,Ofaus;rI? "avhxHk;wrf;rsm;&SdpNrJr[kwfvm; ...bmom pum;qdkwm[m vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;aysmufuG,froGm;bdkYtwGuf umv&SnfMumpGm xdef;odrf;xm;EdkifbdkYvdktyfvSygw,f? ]]ajr rsKdívlrsKd;rjyKwf? vlNrdKrSvlrsKd;jyKwfrnf...}} qdkwJhpum;vJ&Sd om;... olwdkY&JU0wfpm;qif,ifrIqdkwmaeYBuD;? &ufBuD;? tcgBuD;? &uf jrwfwrmombk&m;oGm;ausmif;wufom;&mrSm tawmfrsm;rsm; Ykd S G vmaeMuNyD...'gawGaMumihfrdkY udk,fpm;jyKvu©Pmwpf&yf 80 81 Handbook-44
  • 45. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol tjzpf ckicpm&yfwnfaeEdia&;rSm ]]trsK;d om;a&;todtjrif}} d f H G k f jzihfoufwrf;&Snfatmifapmihfa&SmufEkdifpGrf;&Sd&efvJvkdtyfvS ygw,fvdkY arcsKd ajymcsifw,f... rdrw&UJ rdcifbmompum;wdYk rdrwu,wif ESpNf cKd upm d Ykd d Ykd kd f dk f G ajymqdk&if;eJY om;pOfajr;qufawGudk vufqifhurf;NyD; tarG qufcHjcif;awG jyKvkyfoGm;yg&ifawmh trsKd;om;a&; todjzihf xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smufjcif;yifjzpfw,fvdkY qdk&rSmyJaygh... 'gawGeywfouf&if awmifom;wd&UJ bmompum;? rd½;kd YJ Yk zvmeJYusihfoHk;cJhMuwJh"avhp½dkuf? 0wfpm;qif,ifxHk;zGJUrIwdkYeJY pyfvsOf;NyD; txl;ojzihf awmifom;pum;ukd tjcm;bmomp um;rsm;? jrefrmpum;rsm;eJY ,SOfwGJvsufa&S;uynm&SifwkdYu a&;om;jyKpkwifjyxm;cJhjcif;awGvJ tenf;tusOf;&Sdyg&JU/ aemufawmhrS OD;&J udkavhvm&atmif arcsKday;ygr,f... awmifom;awG[m Ak'¨bmom0ifawGjzpfMuw,f/ bm omw&m;udk tvGefav;pm;,kHMunf MunfndKMuw,f/ olwdkY awG[mtjcm;aombmom;t,l0g'udk vufcH,HkMunfrI[lí r&SdoavmufygyJ/ okdYaomf ewfudkylaZmfyorIrsKd;awmh&Sdwmudk arcsKdavhvmod&Sdxm;ygw,f... ]]awmifom;wdkY&JUtoGifo@efrSm Armrsm;xufudk,f cE¨mawmifhwif;BuD;xGm;Muonf/ oefrmMuonf/ pufrIvuf rIESihf pdkufysKd;a&;bufwGif Armrsm;xufwDxGifrIomvGef Muonf/ &Sif;&Sif;bGif;bGif;yGifhyGihfvif;vif; ajymqdkwwfonhf tjyif½dk;om;jzLpifMuolwdkYvnf; jzpfMuonf/ olwdkYonf Armrsm;ESifhvnf;rwl? csif;vlrsKd;rsm;ESihfvnf;rwl..}}vkdY (190) ckESpf yckuúLc½dkif a*ZufwD,m; (Palcolcu District Gazetter) rSm ]]rpöwmtkd0if}} qkdolu a&;om;cJhzl;wmudk avhvmrSwfom;xm;zl;w,f/ a'owGif;eJYteD;0ef;usifae aom Armtrsm;pk? csif;vlrsKd;rsm;eJY,SOfNyD; oljrifawGUcJh&rIudk wifjycJhjcif;vnf;jzpfyHk&ygw,f... a&S;tcgu ]]wpf&mhwpfyg;? vlrsKd;jcm;om;? rSwfom; opfopf? ckESpfjrefrm? wvdkif;rSmav;? &Srf;a&;oHk;q,f? ocFsm oG,fjy? ajcmufq,fukvm;? ocFsmxm;onf? jzpfyGm;okwNzdK; NzdK;wnf;}} qkdwJhvlrsKd; (10) yg;&SdaMumif;zGJUqdka&;pyfxm;cJh wmudkpD;&JvJ Mum;zl;rSmyg/ jrefrm (7)rsKd;? wvdkif;(rGef) (4) rsKd;? &Srf; (30)? ukvm;vlrsKd;aygif; (60) qdkxm;w,fr[kwf vm;... tJonfrSm Arm (7) rsKd;&Sdw,f? Arm (jrefrm)? ysL? awmifolawmifom;? urf;,H? a,m? &ckdif? xm;0,fwdkYyg0if w,f/ Arm (7)rsKd;teuf ]]a,m}} qdkwJh arcsKdwdkYeJY a&maESm aexdkifwJh olwdkYawG[m ]]awmifom; awmifol}} wdkYyJaygh/ tJ'Dh ]]awmifom; awmifol}} wkdY[m,aeY jrefrmEkdifiHwdkif;&if; om;rsKd;EG,fpk (100)ausmfrSm ryg0ifao;bl;av/ ysLvlrsKd; wkdY&JUtquftEG,fwpfckvm;? csif;vlrsKd;wdkY&JUaoG;csif;awGv;? ynm&SifawGpOf;pm;p&mjzpfae&qJygyJ/ pdwf0ifpm;bG,f&mvJ aumif;vSygw,f/ arcsKd Mum;odzl;wmwpfckawmh&Sdw,f/ 'Dtifeat (DNA)qdvm;? ppfaq;okawoejyKEic&ifawmh f k kd f hJ tajzrSefay:vmEkdifrSmayghaemf... 82 83 Handbook-45
  • 46. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol olw&UJ aemufcordi;f udazmfjy&mrSm awmiforsm;ay: Ykd H k k l aygufvmjcif;udkxnhfoGif;azmfjyxm;wmudkvJ arcsKd avhvm rSwfom;xm;zl;yg&JU ]]jrifpdkif; rSef &Srf;? ycef; rSef &SJ;? rzJ rSef yif;? pvif; rSef csif;? usyif; rSef urf;ysH? yk*H rSef uEÅK? ipOfhul rSef ukvm;? ykyÜg;rSef awmifom;...qkdwJhazmfjyxm;csufu (jrefrmrif;tkyfcsKyfyHk pmwrf; ('k) pmrsufESm-19 rSmyg&Sdyg w,f)? azmfjyygt&qk&if ]]awmifom;tp ykygÜ ;}} uvkYd qkprSwf d d jyKxm;Muw,fqkdygawmh.../ awmifom;awGu olwkdYudk,folwkdY ac:a0:MuwJh pum;u ]]a&mif;'l; (0g) a&mif;wl;}} vkdYac:w,f/ a&mif;'l; qkdwm[mvJ ]]ajy;0ifvmolrsm;}} vkdY olwkdYpum;eJY t"dyÜm,f &w,f/ a,me,fajrawGqD ajy;0ifvmolawGyJ r[kwfvm;/ ]]orkdif;rSm aysmufqHk;oGm;wJh ysLvlrsKd;wkdYeJY pyfvsOf;NyD; a&S;ESpaygif;rsm;pGmuyif olwu,wif olwb;dk pOfab;quf f Ydk kd f dk Ydk ,HkMunfajymqkdaeMuwJh a&mif;'l;ac: awmifom;awGudk orkdif;ynm&Sif? okawoDynm&Sif? bmomaA'ynm&SdawG taeeJYvJ avhvmrItpkpkwkdYudk qufvufaqmif&GufaeqJvkdY arcsKdodxm;ygw,f/ 'Du OD;&Jtygt0ifaygh...'Du vlBuD; rif;Bu;D uvJ wwfpr;f orQ okawoejyKazmfxway;Ekiygap/ G k f d f &Sif;wrf;wpfck ay:xGufvmEkdifygapvkdYyJ uRefrtqkdjyKyg&JU&Sif tm;udk;yg&ap...}} ]]aMomf...&Sif;jy? ac:awGUjy? ajymjy&wmarmNyDaygh/ a&mh...a&mh a&aEG;Murf;av; aomufvkdufygOD;...rkefYawG vJpm;vkdufygOD;...}} [k uRefawmfonf a&aEG;Murf;cGufudk aumufumiifum arcsKdUtm;ay;ygavonf/ xkdpOftckduf olYqDrSrsufapmif;av;wpfcsuf MunfMunfomom tMunhf av;udk vSpfceJ uRefawmfjrifawGUvkduf&avonf/ uRefawmfh &ifonfvnf; at;jríoGm;cJh&avonf/ trSefvnf; EkdifiHawmfBuD; vlrIa&;OD;wnfcsufrsm; wGif trsKd;*kPf Zmwd*kPf jrifhrma&;ESifh ,Ofaus;rItarGtESpf rsm; trsK;d om;a&;vu©Pmrsm; raysmufysuatmif xde;f odr;f f apmifha&Smufa&;qkdonf acwfwkdif;acwfwkdif;rSm r&Sdrjzpf vkdtyfcsufwpfcktjzpfESifhvnf; &Sdae&rnfrSm uRefawmfwkdY EkdifiHom;tm;vHk; wm0ef0wå&m;ygay/ aumifpDpma&;rav;tdrfwGif aus;&GmOuú|BuD;ESifh twl awmifom;trsKd;orD;wkdYtm; ,ckuJhodkY at;at;aq; aq;awGUqHkum cspfcspfcifcif &if;&if;ESD;ESD;&Sdae&rIrsm;twGuf tm;vHk;udkaus;Zl;wifygwifaMumif; uRefawmfpum;qkdjzpf onf/ arcsKdonfvnf; olwkdYtm; awmifom;pum;jzifh ajymaeonfukd uReawmfjrifawGUae&onf/ olwawGtm;vH;k f Ydk 84 85 Handbook-46
  • 47. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ovnfvnf; vdIufvSJazmfa&GpGm &,fumarmumESifh &SdaeMu onf/ wm0ef u s&G m cH aumif p D p ma&;rav; arcsKd E S i f h uRefawmfwkdYonf &GmBuD;ta&SUbufpDodkY vrf;avQmufum oGm;cJhMujyefonf/ aq;rifawm&GmBuD;um; wGJzuftxufwef;ausmif;? wkdufe,faq;½Hk? jynfolY&Jtcef;wkdY&Sdonf/ 1983 ckESpf? oef;acgifpm&if;t& tdrfajc (148) cefY&SdNyD; vlOD;a& (1073) cef Y & S d a Mumif ; od & onf / vrf ; avQmuf o G m ;ae&if ; rS m yif jrifawGUvkduf&onfrSmum; rdIif;ndKndKtoGifESifh obm0 ausmufe*g;BuD;u wu,ftHhMop&m/ armfawmfum;vrf;ray:rS qif;cJhum &Jpcef;teD;u vlom;vrf;? awmvrf;av;twki;f ausmufe*g;Bu;D qDom;ae G d G Muonf/ v,fuGif;jyifrsm;udk jzwfausmf&onf/ ra0;vSyg? wkdufoHk;&meD;yg; avQmufvSrf;cJh&onfxifonf/ ausmufe*g; BuD;qDodkY a&mufcJh&awmhonf/ wu,fhobm0 ausmufe*g; BuD;ygay/ obm0ausmufe*g;BuD;udk awGUjrifrdMu&olwkdif; tH h M orqH k ; jzpf & jcif ; ES i f h pd w f 0 if p m;jcif ; &S d M u&avatmif ausmufe*g;BuD;u nd§KU"mwfjyif;vSonf[k ajymMuonfudk uRefawmfMum;zl;cJhonf/ wu,fvnf; ausmufe*g;BuD;u tHMh op&mjzpfaeonf/ ausmufe*g;Bu;D onf obm0ausmufcJ rsm;jzifh tpDpDtxyfxyfESifh jzpfaewnf&Sdaeygonf/ vlwkdYu wrifzefwD;xm;onfhES,f jzpfaeonf/ odkYaomf rnfolwpfOD; wpfa,muf tzGUJ tpnf;wpfzUJG urQ zefw;D xm;cJMh ujcif;r[kwf ygav/ a'ocHwkdYu e*g;BuD;tm; ½dkaoMu? av;pm;Mu/ tcsKdUu tm;udk;rI? ,HkMunfrI? tm;xm;rI&SdMu/ e*g;BuD;teD; wGif ewfuGef;wpfckvnf; aqmufvkyfxm;&SdonfudkawGU&/ e*g;BuD;teD;u awmvrf; vloGm;vrf;av;tm;jzifh teD;&Sd awmifpOfwef;rsm;udkjzwfausmfum ausmuftkyf? MumO,smOf? uHom? qifpG,f? tHk;aESmufjrpfudkif;? &SJ? v,fuef; ponhf aus;&Gmrsm;odom;a&mufEionf/ e*g;Bu;D teD;wpfae&m0,f Yk G dk f acwåtyef;ajzem;ckd&ef cefYoGm;aomZ&yfBuD;wpfckudkvnf; awGU&avonf/ xkdYjyif c&D;oGm;trsm;wkdYtwGuf tarmajy aomufoHk;Ekdif&ef a&csrf;pifwpfckudkvnf; xm;&SdonfudkawGU &avonf/ ]]ewfESifh e*g;rvSnhfpm;ESifh}} [laom tqkduvnf; &Sdojzifh e*g;BuD;wnf&Sd&m e,fajrwpf0dkuf 0ef;usifeD;em;0,f r½dkraorjyKrlMu/ tayghtav;oGm;jcif; rjyKMu&ay/ rzG,f r&majymqkdvkyfudkifjcif;? npfnrf;qJa&;wkdif;xGmjcif;wkdYudk vnf; rjyKvkyfMuacs/ trdIufo½dkufwkdYyif r&SdapMuay/ a&S;a&S;ya0oPDacwfrsm;uwnf;u pwifíyif wu,fobm0usus touf0ifvonhf yef;csum;xJu e*g; h S D BuD;yrmES,f&SdaewnfaecJhjcif;jzpfonf/ tifrwefvnf;vSbd onf/ jyKjyifxm;jcif; vHk;0r&Sd/ e*dkaetoGiftjyiftwkdif; 87 88 Handbook-47
  • 48. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wnf&Sdaejcif;yif jzpfavonf/ xl;xl;jcm;jcm; jzpfaejcif;yg ay/ ]]ajrjyiftajcrS pwifum OD;acgif;xdyftjrifhtxd (36) ay&Sdw,f/ ajrmuft&yfudk OD;acgif;axmifvsufeJY awmifbuft&yfoYkd wjznf;jznf;edravQmqif;oGm;cJh ud,v;kH hf k f yHkoP²meftwkdif;yJaygh/ cE¨mudk,fBuD; t&Snftvsm;tm;jzifh tawmif (30)? wpfenf; (54) ay&Snfvsm;jzpfay:aew,f/ tNrD;ydkif;uawmh ajrBuD;xJikyfvQKd;oGm;avwJh oabmygyJ/ pdwf0ifpm;p&mvJ aumif;vSw,fqkd&rSmygyJ...}} ]]pOf;pm;bG,f&m awG;rdwmu ajrjyifrS e*g;BuD; OD;acgif;tarmufBuD;xdyftxd tjrifh (36) ayeJY cE¨mukd,f tvsm; (54) ayqkdwmawGu ]]e0if;}} ynmeJY csdefxdk;Munhf&if xl;jcm;aewmtrSefygyJ/ (36) qkdwJh e0if;u ]]pdwfe0if;}} yJ/ t"d|mef,lvkdolawG aqmif&Guf&ef e0if;vkdYvJqkdMuw,f/ 'D OD;acgif;axmifaewJh e*g;BuD;[m ½kyfeJYemrf oabmw&m; t& emrfpdwfudef;atmif;aeonfvm;? tvkd&Sd&mqE´? tusifh jrwfwkdYudk tm;xkwfusifhBuH&mrSm pdwfudkxdef;odrf;Ekdif&ef[m ta&;Bu;D vSw,fqw,fav/ emrfqwhJ pdwtm½H[m b,fukd dk dk f k rSrajy;bJ ]]{u*¾wm}} jzpfvm&if ]]orm"d}} &vmr,f/ orm"d &vm&if ]]ynm}} &Ekdifw,fqkdwm owdcsyfrdbdkY e*g;BuD;u ajymjyaew,fxifygh...}} þodE,f arcsKu pdwygvufyg&Si;f jyaeqJ uReawmf Yk S d f f uajymjyrdonf/ ]]aumifpDpma&;rav; nDri,fa&U...rif;wkdYrr arcsKduawmh a,m*D 'grSr[kwf oDv&Sifb0eJY &dyfom0ifum wpfoufwm w&m;tm;xkwfawmhr,fxifyg&JU}} ]][dk;...[kd;...raemufeJYav/ e*g;BuD;u odMum; oGm;cJh&if cuf&csnf&JU...[if; aemf q&m}} arcsKu olEwcrf;ESpvmudk vufnK§d ;av;ESihf uefvefY d Y I f f T Y jzwfaxmifxm; yg;pyfydwfxm;onfhoP²mefjyK&if; ajymcJhjcif; jzpfonf/ ]][kw...[kw...}} [k uReawmfonf todtrSwf f f f jyK pum;jyqdkazmfusL;cJh&onf/ ]]qufvufNyD;wifjy&&if (54) ay&Sd cE¨mudk,ftydkif; [mJ (54) qkdwJh e0if;ut"dyÜm,f&SdvSwJh ]]ynme0if;}} ? t&m &mrSm ynm[mta&;BuD;w,f/ ynmÓPfr&Sd&if tqkd; taumif;udk a0zefydkif;jcm;EkdifpGrf;r&SdwJhtwGuf oHo&mrSm vnfapEkdifw,f/ ynm&Sdvm&if ynmjzifht&m&mukd xkd;xGif; odjrifvmEkdif&mu ½kyfudkappm;í &Ekdifw,f/ avmuDcsrf;om rsKd;pHkudkjzpfap? avmukwå&mcsrf;omrsKd;udkjzpfap jzpfxGef;&&Sd apEkiwoabmudk e*g;Bu;D uzGiqaewmavvm; awG;q&ef d f hJ hf dk cufygbdaygh/ 'gwifb,fuOD;rSmvJ e*g;qkdwJh emrtu©&m *Pef; ocsFmt& (e=7? *g;=2 ) qkdawmh aygif;jcif;oabmt& (9) jzpfjyefa&m? e0if;ynmt& (9) [m rlve0if;ac:w,f? tajcwnfe0if;vdkYvJqkdw,f/ e0if;pOft&mrSm ]]'ku©Nidrf; 89 90 Handbook-48
  • 49. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol e0if;}} aygh/ wpfcsKdUuN*dK[fpD; N*dK[feif; tqkd;tnHhawGtwGuf ,Mwmacsr,fqkd&ifvJ ]]toHk;cse0if;}} ac:Muav&JU? rdrdwkdY&JU b0atmifjrifa&;twGuf vkdovkdaqmif&GuftoHk;jyKEkdifyg&JU/ ]]tkd...awmfvkdufwm rr&,f? uRefru uRefrwkdY&Gm u tJonfavmufxatmif odrxm;Mubl;? aumif;vkuwm? d d f 'Dvkdod&awmh tm;vHk;udkjyefajymjy&OD;r,f}} aumifpDpma&;rav; arcsKdUtm;csD;rGrf;axmyemjyK oHudk Mum;&awmh uRefawmfonfvnf; arcsKdUtm; rcsD;usL;yJ raeEkdif/ acgif;Nidrfhum Nidrhfumjyaerd&onf/ arcsKduvnf; NyKH ;umvQiqwfí pum;qkvmjyefonfukd uReawmfwem;qif f d f Ydk Mu&jyefonf/ ]]onfvx;l jcm;eufew?hJ vQKUd 0Sueufeqef;Mu,fvwhJ dk J f J S *rÇD&qefvSwJht&mwkdY Zmwfvrf;wkdY yHkjyifwkdY'@m&DwkdYqkdwm awGudk awGU&jrif&BuHK&Mum;&wJhtcgrSm jzpfEkdifyghrvm;? pdwful;,OfyJjzpfrSmyghrvm;? pdwful;,OfyJjzpfrSmyg ponfjzifh xifwwfawG;rdwwfMuao;ygw,f/ 'gayrJh *rDÇ&wefckd;awG qkdwm[m cufom;vm;}} avmu&JUqef;Mu,frI? obm0&JUqef;Mu,frIawG[m vlom;wk&UJ omreftodÓPfrsK;d eJY vkurrDEib;l av/ rdrw&UJ Yd d f kd f d Ydk ÓPfwpfxmwpfruevJ t&mtm;vH;k wkukd tqH;k tjzwfray; G dk f YJ Yd Ekdifbl;/ ÓPfrrDwJhtaMumif;udpö? tjzpftysuf? jzpfpOfpwm awG[m rsm;pGm&Sdw,fqkdygawmh/ *rÇD&oabmt&rsm;pGm euf½Idif;vSygw,fav/ xD;vif;NrdKUe,feJY e,fedrdwfcsif;xdpyfum ajrmuf t&yfrm&SaewJh *efa*gNrKd U (yk*&mZ0ift& uHaumfNrKd U) jrpfom S d Y H h jrpfBu;D twGi;f u a&mifjcnfawmfuejYf rL;vk&&Scw,fqwhJ jrwf G Yd d hJ dk Ak'¨pG,fawmfudpö? tJonhfjrwfpG,fawmfwpfql[m tvsm;oHk; opf? vHk;ywfwpfopf&SdNyD; pOf;i,fudkif;a&mif&Sdw,fqkdw,f/ jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif&JU e*g;wkdYjynfrSm&Sdw,fqkdwJh pG,fawmfrsm; vm;/ abm*0wDjynfu pG,fawmfrjzpfEkdifbl;vkdY ajymvkdYrjzpf Ekdif/ tif;0aejynfawmfoYkd uHaumf&m(*efa*g)rS yifaqmif h G Y h udk;uG,fcJhwJh pG,fawmfjrwf[m rif;&JUtrdefYeJY yifhaqmifukd; uG,fcJhaMumif; bkef;BuD;&[ef;bk&ifeJYjynfoltrsm;udk a&mif jcnfawmfuGefYjrL;vdkY zl;awGUcGifheJY xl;jcm;rIudk ay;pGrf;cJhaMumif; eJY 'Djrwfp,awmf[m tif;0aejynfawmfrm raysmb;l qdw,f/ G f S f k oHk;Budrfwdkifwdkif tvdktavsmuf uHhaumft&yfudk jyefa&muf a&mufvmcJhw,fqdkw,f/ tif;0bk&if paerif;u ]]uHaumf&ma'oaeolrsm;udk h G udk;uG,fMuap}} vdkYtrdefYawmfxkwfjyefcJh? 'DjrwfpG,fawmfudk |myemum ]]pG,awmf&iapwDawmf}}orkwcMhJ uwm ,aeYwif f S f f kd yJ/ pG,fawmf&SifapwDjrwf&Sd&meJY 'Du e*g;BuD;&Sd&kmeJYqdk&if 18 rdkifcefYavmufyJa0;w,f? 'Dawmh e*g;wdkYjynfu pG,fawmfjrwf rdkY rodEdkifwJhtaMumif;rsm;pGmeJY xl;jcm;aewJh ausmufe*g;BuD; [m pG,fawmf&SifapwDjrwf&Sd&mudk t"d|mefwpfckckeJY tpOf tNrJ OD;cdu&c;kd vdaeonfyvm;av...tod&cuf&vGe;f yg&JU .. k f dS Yk J 91 92 Handbook-49
  • 50. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol tJ'gawGu wu,fyaemf..]]rSeeef;&mZ0ifawmfBu;D rSm? OD;ukvm; J f r[m&mZ0ifawmfrSm}} yg&Sdaeav&JU&Sif...? aMomf... 'Du q&mBuD;u Nidrfcsufom;aumif;vScsnfvm;&Sifh...}}/ ]]aMomf . ..tif ; ...[k w f y g&J U Asm...tajym aumif;vSwJh arcsKdvdkYyJ ajym&awmhrSmygyJ... arcsKdUpum;? arcsKdUtajym ajym[ef? arcsKdUtjrif? arcsKdUawG;qcsufawGu jrifhvJjrifh? tquftpyfuvJaumif;? pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&m jzpf &vGef;vdkY udk,fawmh tHhMoaerd&vGef;vdkYyg/ bmaMumifhrsm; &mZ0ifawG ordi;f awGukd ausnufpm odae&ygvdr...{uEÅ k G hf awmh vl½;dk ½k;d r[kwwef&m...ewfa'0Dyvm;...odueef;&Sif f J k f awGyvm; acwftqufqufu taMumif;t&mawGukd uRr;f usif J aevGef;vdkY awmvdkufwmvdkY...}}/ ]]a[m...ajrmufyifjh yefNywpfa,muf...}}[k &,f&,f § D armarmESihf arcsKwpfa,mufpum;qdvmcJjh yefavonf/ pma&;r d k av;uvnf; &,farmaecJhavonf/ ]]tif;...arcsKdUpum;awGudk em;axmifcJh&&if;u uReawmf odxm;wmav;wpfcsKUd udk ajymjycsirvmao;&JU..}} f f d ]]ajymygq&m&,f...q&meJY rrarcsKdwdkY a&mufvm vdkY 0rf;omaysmf&Tifrd&ovdk pdwf0ifpm;p&mpum;awG wefzdk;&Sd wJh pum;awG A[kowawGtzHzkH todtjrifawGtpHpukd Mum; k k k kH vm&awmh t&rf;oabmusrdw,f/ t&rf;vJMunfEl;rIawG jzpf&w,f/ em;pGiaeNyq&m...wpfcgrS tJonfvkd jynfjh ynfh hf D pHkpHkpum;rsKd;awGudk uRefrMum;rdcJhwmtrSefyJ...}} txufyguJhodkY pma&;rav; &ifzGifhoHudk Mum;vm &jcif;ESifhtwl rvSrf;rurf;&Sd Z&yfBuD;qDodkYoGm;Mu? Z&yfay: wGif at;at;aq;aq; xdkifMu&if;rSmyif uRefawmfonf od xm;onfh taMumif;t&mwpfcsKdUudk ajymjyrd&avonf/ ]]e*g;eJY pyfvsOf;NyD; Ak'¨bmom omoemawmfBuD;rSm txifu& tjzpftysuawGqwm trsm;Bu;D ygyJ/ bk&m;a[m f kd "r®a'oemawmfwdkYrSmrSmvJ trsm;BuD;awGUjrifEdkifw,f/ Ak'¨ bmomrSm pwkr[m&mZfewfrif;BuD;av;yg; &Sdw,fr[kwf vm;/ ewfrif;BuD;av;yg;wdkY&JU ½kyfyHkoP²mefeJY tac:ta0: awGrSm a&S;ynm&SdBuD;awG a&;qGJxm;cJhwJh yk&ydkuf? yef;csD? ½kyfyHkawGvJ &Sdygw,f/ aw&|ewfrif;qdk&if rudk#fyHk? 0d*lVu ewfrif;u *VKefacgufyHk? 0d½lyu©ewfrif;qdk&if e*g;acgif;yHk eJY uka0&ewfrif;qdk&if bDvl;acgif;yHktjzpfwdkYeJYaygh...}}/ 'gwif b,furvJ/ e*g;rsm;&JU trnftrsKd;rsKd;wGif cJwmawGuvJ odEiw,f/ trsm;Bu;D yJ Ak'0ifZmwfeygwfawmf h kd kd f ¨ d vm atmifjcif;&Spfyg;rSm eaE´yeE´ e*g;rif;BuD;udk Ak'¨u atmifjrifawmfry?kH rkÍvEmowåm[rS Ak'j¨ rwfpm zvormywf l ö d ´ G 0ifpm;aewmudk e*g;rif;BuD;u tav;tjrwf t½kdtaoay; e*g;½kr;kd xm;apmifa&Smuf t½ktaojyKy?kH a[m...'Du a,m H h d e,fajrBuD;eJY qufpyfaewJh rif;bl;? puk? pvif;a&Tpufawmf bk&m;ordi;f ? a&S;uokemt&EÅwi;f er®'gjrpf (,ck-ref;acsmif;) k kd urf;rSm er®'ge*g;rif;BuD;&JU avQmufxm;awmif;yefcsuft& Ak'¨u ajcawmf&mcsxm;ay;oem;awmfrlcJhwmudkMunhfOD;/ Ak'¨ 93 94 Handbook-50
  • 51. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol jrwfpGm&JU ajcawmf&mtppfqdkwm urÇmrSm t&Sm;om;? zl;awGU &cJhygbdvdkY rSwf,lMu&wm/ Ny;D awmh e*g;eJywfoufvm&if ,aeYrsuarSmufurÇm Y f BuD;rSm tBuD;tus,fqHk; tpOftvm&Sdw,fqdkwJh w½kwfEdkifiH Bu;D u w½kww&UJ a&S;a[mif;½d;k &m t,ltqudvJ ajymjy&OD; f Ykd k r,f/ w½kwfwdkYu e*g;qdkwm Opöm"eeJY wefcdk;tmPmapmifh a&SmufjzpfxGef;rI jy,k*fvdkY cH,lMuw,fav/ e*g;ESpftwGif; arG;zGm;olw[m olaX;tjzpfaomfvnf;aumif;? 0efxrf;tjzpf Ykd aomfvnf;aumif; bGJUxl;*kPfxl;BuD;awGeJY xif&Sm;olrsm; jzpf wwfMuw,fqdkw,faygh/ e*g;½kyfyHkav;awGudk ausmufom;? opfom;? a&T? aiG? ow¬KponfwdkYtay:rSm xkqpfum tjrwfwEdk; 0wfqifxm; wwfMuw,f/ 'Dvdkaqmifxm;? 0wfxm;jcif;u usef;rmNyD; touf&Snfum tdrfaxmifa&;? arwåma&;? tqifajyom,m 0ajymapw,fvdkY tckdiftrm,HkMunfxm;Muw,fav/ a[m jrefrmrwkdY&JUtcgay; jyu©'defudkMunfhOD;/ &uf &mZm? jyó'g;? 0g&rdwåL? e*g;vSnhfponfjzifhyg&Sdw,fr[kwf vm;/ tcsd e f t cg &uf a umif ; &uf j rwf eu© w f N *d K [f a e? aqmif&efa&Smif&efkwdkYeJYtwl ckepfaeYzGm;aeYemrfydkif trSwf tom;vnf;xm;&Sdw,f/ tJonfrSm paeudk,fpm;jyKum e*g; yJaygh/ vsiwtqdy&whJ e*g;rsK;d awG? jyif;wJtqdy&whJ e*g; f hJ f dS h f dS rsKd;awG? rsufpdvufeuf&SdwJh 'd|0doe*g;rsKd;awG? a&üwnfwJh ukef;üwnfwJh? awmifwkdYüaewJh? jrpfwkdYüaewJh? wefcdk;£'¨dyg'f toD;oD;wkdYeJY jynhfpHkwJh e*g;taygif;...tJonfvdk cyfodrf; ukefaom e*g;rsKd;wkdY[m tuREfkyftm;tcgcyfodrf;jrwfaom csrf;omudkvnf;aumif;? touf&Snfjcif;? temuif;jcif;? tqif;vSjcif;? ab;&efuif;yapjcif;udkvnf;aumif;jyKMuyg ukeavmh...vdwiwnfqawmif;&r,f...qkawmif;&w,f f Yk dk f k aygh/ at;av...acwfodyÜHoabmeJYajym&&if blrdaA' ynm&SiawGu onfe*g;Bu;D udvma&mufavhvmcJMh uwmawG f k &Scw,f/ olwtqkt& ]]ajruseawmif}} vkowfrwaMumif; d hJ Ydk d f Yd S f od&w,f/ a&S;a&S;ESpy&dapä'MumjrifcNhJ y;D csersm;u ajrBu;D rsm; f h d f ud k a &wk d u f p m;NyD ; usef & pf c J h w J h a usmuf c J ausmuf w H k ; ausmufjym;awG&JU yHkoP²mefrSm e*g;OD;acgif;eJY cE¨mudk,fydkif; yHk jzpfaecJhwmaMumifh ]]ausmufe*g;}} vkdY trnfwGifcJhMuyHk& yg&JU/ jrefrmjynfw0ef;rSm 'Du ausmufe*g;BuD;avmufjrifh NyD; BuD;rm;wJhobm0ausmufe*g;qkdwmrsKd;udk rawGUzl;yg aMumif; rSwfwrf;wif rSwfwrf;0,fw,fqkdyg&JU/ tif; 'Dausmufe*g;BuD;uvJ &Sm;yg;xl;qef;ayw,f/ ta&SUbufawmifpOfwef;eJYvJ wGJrae? taemufbufawmif ukef;eJYvJ ta0;BuD;rkdY xD;xD;BuD;vkdjzpf&w,f/ ajrjyefYa'o odkYr[kwf c&D;vrf;yef;tquftoG,fawG tqifajyaumif; rGefvSwJh NrdKUawGrsm;qDrSmomqkd&if 'De*g;BuD;u urÇmausmf 95 96 Handbook-51
  • 52. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol avmufNyD/ EkdifiH&yfjcm; c&D;oGm;awG txl;ojzifh EkdifiHwum rSm&SdMuwJh w½kwfvlrsKd;awGu tjrwfwEdk;eJY trsm;qHk;e*g;BuD; qDudk ta&mufvmMurSmrvGJygbl;/ ]]acsmifususeYJ c&D;vrf;tquftoG,uvJ cufcae f J ao;wJh 'DxD;vif;NrdKUe,fav;u awmvufaus;&GmrSm wnf&Sd aewmrkdY vlodenf;vSao;ovdk jzpfae&wm? aemifumvrsm; rSmawmh wkd;wufvmaewJhacwfBuD;eJYtwl vQKdU0SufeufeJqef; Mu,fvSwJh 'De*g;BuD;aMumifh 'D aq;rif;awm&Gm[m rkcspnf um;wkd;wufvmrSmyJvkdY uRefawmfjrifa,mifrdao;&JUAsm...}} uRefawmf txufygpum;rsm;tm; tqHk;owf ajymMum;cJhonfESifh wqufwnf; ]]tr,fav;...nDra&...'grS 'dkYq&ma[h/ arcsKd wkdYq&m...[kwfzl;vm;...wu,fyg...arcsKduawmh thHMocsD;usL;rd&wmtrSefyJaemf...}} [k arcsKdu pdwfygvufyg ajymvmcJhawmhavonf/ aumifpDpma&;rav;onfvnf; ]][kwfw,f...[kwfw,f rrarcsKa&}} [k aumufccavonf/ tm;vH;k onfvnf; Z&yf d H hJ rSqif;um obm0ausmufe*g;BuD;qDodkY jyefvnfíoGm;cJhMu awmhonf/ ]]uJ...uJ...a&mufwkef;a&mufckduf todcsif; zvS,fNyD; awmfawmfav;vnf; jynhfjynhfpHkpHk odcJhMu&NyD/ 'Dtodudk xyfavmif;jznfhcsifao;wm wpfckudkvJqkdcsifao; &JU...'gu bmvJqkdawmh ]]rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm;}} qkdwJhpum;vkdyJ eufeJwJhtjrifeJY 'DvQKdU0Sufqef;Mu,fNyD; *rÇD& qefvSwJh e*g;BuD;udk cGifhyefNyD; ausmufcJi,fav;wpfckpD udk ,l&r,f/ tBuHatmif qE´jynhf vkd&moHk; ]]taqmif}} tjzpfaygh...}} qkvmcJol arcsKonf ajym&if;uyif e*g;Bu;D OD;acgif; d h d &Sd&m atmufajrjyif? tifwkdif;ajrrS ausmufp&pfcJvHk;wkdYudk aumuf,lavawmhonf/ ]]a&mh...'gu nDrzdkY&m? 'gu rrtwGuf...a[m 'gu OD;&JtwGu}f } [kqum aumufumiifum ay;vmcJonf/ kd h ]]tkd...ausmufcJav;u wpfrsKd;av;yJ...'DrSm MunhfMuygOD;...}} [k uRefawmfhtwGuf arcsKday;tyfcJhaom cJvHk;av;tm; olwkdYESpfOD;udkjyrdonf/ ]]aMomf . ..[k w f o m;yJ . ..ausmuf c J a v;awG u vH;k vH;k acsmacsmav;awGvdk jzpfaeygvm;/ ausmufcwpfv;kH qkd J NyD; aumuf,lay;vkdufwm? ]]0}} (wa) vHk;yl;av;vkdjzpfNyD;ae av&JU? ]]0}} yl;av;vm;? ]]0d}} oabmvm;? ]]0}} ay:w,fqwm dk aumif ; wJ h e d r d w f ? aumif ; wJ h t wd w f , l & r,f / yxrH bk;d bk;d atmifukd uRerwkMYd um;zl;Ny;D om; r[kwvm;/ ]]0}} qkwhJ f f d ]]pr}} udkOD;&Ju tvkdtavsmufvufcH&&SdcJhwm...tJonfh txJ cJv;kH av;wpfcrm taygufuav;uygaejyefao;&JU... k S arcsKdwkdYcJvHk;av;awGu cyfjym;jym;rnDrnm rvSryoabm rsK;d jzpfae&JU...OD;&Juawmh a&SUa&Smufw;kd wufBu;D yGm;aumif; 97 98 Handbook-52
  • 53. 99 udka,m (abm*aA') pm;OD;rSm trSefyJvdkY t"dyÜm,faumufvdkY&NyD...}} ]][kwfyg&JUaemf}} [k pma&;rav;uvnf; cJvHk;av; udk taotcsmMunhumaeawmhonf/ arcsKuvnf;acsmif;udk f d NidrfhumMunhfaecJhavonf/ ]]tif;...obm0ausmufw;kH ausmufcwrm obm0 J Ydk S tavsmuf taygufav;wpfckygvmwmrsKd;udk jyifopfwkdYu odyvcsiwm/ jyifopfvrsK;d awG t,ltqt& udiaqmifol f kd f l k f rSm udkifaqmifxm;&Sdol&JUtdrfrSm 'Dausmufuav;aMumifh ya,m*awGukd Ekieif;w,f/ ab;&efuif;w,f/ twkutckuf d f d f d awGudk Ekdifeif;apEkdifw,fvkdY ,HkMunfMuNyD; olwkdY&JUtaqmif tjypf e J Y Bud K ;av;eJ Y c sd w f q G J x m;wwf M uw,f v k d Y zwf ½ I rSwfom;rd&zl;w,f...}} w½kwfvlrsKd;awGusawmh ]]ay:arh}} vkdY olwkdYpum;eJY ac:w,f/ ]]&wemxkyf}} vkdYac:w,f/ taqmiftjzpf aqmif xm;Muw,f/ *syefawGusawmh om;orD;&zkaqmifxm;Muav Yd &JU}}/ ]][m...wu,fawmh 'dq&myJvxyfr*P,&jyefNyD Yk Ykd H k f l rrarcsKda&...}} [k qkdvmcJholu pma&;rav;yifjzpfonf/ Ny;D awmh olronfuReawmf&&Sc&aom cJv;kH av;rsK;d udk vkuvH f d hJ d f &SmazGaeavawmhonf/ xkdpOftckduf uRefawmfonf arcsKdUteD;odkYuyfcg pum;wpfcGef;ajymrdoGm;onf/ ]]'DrSm arcsKd...]]0}} tzl;av;qkdwmxuf twGJav; *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 100 vkdYajymcsifw,fr[kwfzl;vm;/ wpfenf;tm;jzifhvJ ]]0}} r&SdbJ ]]0d}} vkyfvkdYr&bl;vdkY oabmaygufcH,lrdyg&JU...txl;ojzifh awmh ud,b0twGuf e*g;Bu;D uapmifa&SmufcNhJ yxifyg&JU.. k hf h D udk,fawmhav MuifemazmftwGJav;&vmcJhNyDvdkY ajymEkdif& atmif...}} [líajymrd&if;u arcsKdUudkuRefawmfMunhfaerdpOf awmyef;? awmifyef;? obm0 yef;&eHwtm; o,faqmifwuf Y Ydk dk cwfvmaom oif;ysUH vwfqwfonfav? xkavajyav;acwf h d aoG;wkdufcwfaeonfhtckduf qHauom&SnfwkdYu avrSm vGifharsmae[ef? acsmarmvSywifhw,fvSaom arcsKdU½kyf tqif;oGifjyifESifh olYEIwfcrf;tvTmrS yGifhvmcJhavaom tNyHK;jrjrvSvSav;aMumifh uRefawmfh&ifonf MunfEl;jzma0 oGm;cJh&avonf/ ]]ausmufe*g;teD;rSm [dpum; 'Dpum;awGrajym&bl; k av/ ausmufe*g;BuD;u tvdkrusvkdY pdwfqkd;oGm;rSjzifhaemf ...odvm;}} olYrsufvHk;av;wkdY rSdwf[efjyvsuf olYEIwfcrf;udk olY vufacsmif;av;rsm;ESifh ]]½I;...wkd;wkd;}} [efjyKum uRefawmfh tm;MunhfcJhaom olYtMunhf [efyeftrlt,mav;um; uRefawmfhwpfouf pGJvef;oGm;apcJh&NyD/ olYrsufarSmufwGifyif ausmufcJtwGJav;tm; uReffawmfhESvHk;om;wnf&Sd&mbuf tustdwfuyfodkY xnhfoGif;vkdufrdawmhonf/ ol . ..arcsKd o nf uRef a wmf h vk y f & yf a v;tm; Handbook-53
  • 54. 101 udka,m (abm*aA') Munfom&TifjypGmaom rsufESmtaetxm;av;ESifh pkdufMunhf aecJhonfudk uRefawmfjrifae&avonf/ ]]e*g;BuD;&,f...arcsKdUudkypfrxm;ygeJYaemf...}} [laom olYEIwfrS&G&GwkdifMum;aeonfh pum;oHudk uRefawmf Mum;cJh&&if; uRefawmf,lq,HkMunfrdonfuawmh arcsKdonf e*g;BuD;tm;armfMunhfum awmif;yefaecJhonfvm;/ 'grS r[kwf awmif;qkaeavonfvm; uReawmfrodEif wkiwnf d f dk d f umaeavonfvnf; jzpfEkdifonf/ ]]jyefMu&atmifvm; OD;&J &,f}} [k ryGiwyGihf oltoH hf Y av;u tm;i,faeoa,mifa,mif...ESifh...bmaMumifh rSef;rod...rod...}} wGef;tm;jzifh a&GUcJh&aom apwem&Sifq&mb0 ]]b0[lonf rarQmfvifhyJESifhvnf; jzpfvm&wwf onf}} qkdaompum;udk uRefawmfBuHKvmcJh&ygonf/ pDrHudef;a&;qGJa&;OD;pD;Xme (NrdKUe,f½Hk;) vkyfief;&yf rsm;rSm ESpfpOfpDrHudef;rsm;a&;qGJjcif;? ESpfwkdpDrHudef;rsm;a&;qGJ jcif;? tao;pdwprue;f rsm;a&;qGjJ cif;? pDrcsursm;a&;qGjJ cif;? f D H d H f vpOftpD&ifcHpm a&;qGJxm;&Sda&;ESifh oHk;vywftpD&ifcHpm jyKpkwifjyjcif;? NrdKUe,ftwGif;&Sd OD;pD;Xmersm; (jynfolYaumifpD tqifqiftygt0if) wk bwf*suaiGpm&if;rsm;udk ppfaq; h h Yd f jyKpkum (NrdKUe,fcsKyf) tjzpf aiGpm&if;jyKpkjcif;wkdYonf rjzpf rae wm0ef,laqmif&Guf&onhf wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;yifjzpfyg onf/ *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 102 ynma&;? use;f rma&;? or0g,r? ukeo,v,f,m? f G f aqmuf v k y f a &;? quf o G , f a &; (pmwk d u f ? aMu;eef ; ? w,fvDzkef;)? ukefoG,fa&;? ajrpm&if;? v,f-pdkuf-&Sif; ponf wkuoYkd jynfovxEihf wku½uawGUxdqufq&jcif;oabm Yd hJ l l k S d f kd f H r&Sdacs/ jynfolwkdYESifh aiGa&;aMu;a&;tay;t,l vkyfaqmif &jcif;rsKd;vnf; r&SdvSay/ txl;pDrHudef;BuD;rsm;rSvGJí aiGom; jzifhtay;t,l&Sd&aom vkyfief;oabmrsKd;ryg0ifacs/ odkYapumrl NrdKUe,fwpfNrdKUe,ftwGif;&Sd Xmeqdkif&m toD;oD;rsm;ESifh ywfoufaqmif&Guf&mwGif a&SUqHk;u yg0if onf/ ta&;tBuD;qHk; taetxm;wGif&Sdum vkdtyfvQif vdk tyfovdk tm;vH;k wdEiawGUqHnEi;f aqmif&u&onf/ txl; Yk S hf k d§ dI G f ojzifh tmPmydkiftzGJUvnf;jzpfonfh jynfolYaumifpD(NrdKUe,f) BuD;MuyfuGyfuJrI tpDtpOfatmufwGif wm0ef,laqmif &Gufay;&onf/ pm&if;Z,m;rsm;ESifh vkyfief;taumiftxnf azmfEdkifrI tajctaersm;tm; wifjyay;&onf/ ygwD OD; aqmifrItcef;u@atmuf0,f aumifpD BuD;MuyfuGyfuJrI udk tav;xm;um tm;vHk;aom Xmeqdkif&mrsm;ESifh n§dEIdif; qufpyfaqmif&u&jcif;yif jzpfayonf/ wm0efvnf; tifrwef G f BuD;rm;vSonf[k trsm;u ajymMuqdkMuayonf/ NrdKUe,f twGuf ESpfpOftqdkjyKcsufrsm;udk csdefcgtavsmuf wifjy& onf/ ta&;tBuD;qHk;tcsdefrsm;um; wpfESpfvQifwpfcg bwf*suf&moDtpjzpfaompNyD(odkYr[kwf) arvwGif NrdKUe,f Handbook-54
  • 55. 104 udka,m (abm*aA') pDrHudef;&nfrSef;csufrsm;tm; Xmeqdkif&mtm;vHk; (pD;yGm;a&; ESifhoufqdkif&m)ESifh &yf^aus;toD;oD;odkY ]]pDrHudef;wm0efay; tyfyGJ}} tcrf;tem;jzifh wm0efay;tyf&jcif;jzpfonfh ta&; BuD;vSonf/ xdkYjyif OD;pD;Xmersm;ESifhqdkif&m bwf*suf 9 oef; rSef;ajc &nfrSef;csufrsm;wdkYudk ay;tyf&onf/ ,if;wdkYum; A[drS wdi;f ESijhf ynfe,f NrKd Ue,frsm;odYk twdtus csrway;tyf k k S f vnf;jzpfonf/ aeYpOftvkyfrrsm;wwfvSacs/ &Hzef&Hcg txl; pD&ifcHpm (vdktyfygu) a&;om;jyKpkay;&wwfonf/ tcsKytm;jzifq&ygvQif NrKd Ue,ftwGi;f t&m&mwdi;f f h kd k udk od&Sdxm;EdkifzdkYvnf; vdktyfovdk rsm;aomtm;jzifhvnf; tm;vHk;aomtzGJUtpnf;? ½kH;Xmersm;ESifh tqifajypGm n§dEIdif; xdawGUyg0ifaqmif&uae&onfh Xmewpfcvnf; jzpfygonf/ G f k t&nftcsif;jynfh0aom pDrHudef;rSL;rsm;onf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyf ouJhodkY jynfh0aom 0efxrf;aumif;wpfOD;jzpf&ef vdktyfvS onf/ tajymtqdkajyjypfrGef&nf t&nftcsif;jynfhrDonfhol onf ZmwfobifuyGJwpfck jynfolYtcspfawmf rif;om;uJh odkYqdkvQifvnf; rrSm;acs/ uRefawmfonfum; vlcspfvlcifrsm;í xifay:ausmf Mum;aom yk*Kd¾ vwpfO;D jzpfívmcJ&avonf/ NrKd Ue,fXmeqdif f h k &m tBu;D tuJwpfO;D tjzpf xD;vif;NrKd Uav;udk uReawmfa&muf f &SdvmcJhNyD; &ufowåwpfywfcefYqdkvQifyif uRefawmfhtm; NrdKU aevlrsm;u odcMhJ uNy/ NrKd Uav;u i,fonfjzpfí NrKd UodYk vlpr;f D d wpfa,muf wm0eft&a&muf&SdcJhonfESifh csufcsif;qdkovdk *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 105 owif;wpf&yfuawmh rD;yrmysHUESHY&avonf/ odkYjzpfí vl wpfO;D aumif;qd;k owif;[lonf jrefqefvonf/ xdaMumifh S Yk vnf; wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; wpftdrfESifhwpftdrfwdkYtaejzifh r[kwf wm raumif;wmvkyfMuvQif Mum&SnfrcHMu/ tcsif;csif; r½kd; rom;vkyfpm;ír&acs/ xdkYaMumifhyifvQif xD;vif;NrdKUav;ü cdk;qdk;vk,uf cg;ydkufEIduf raumif;aomZdrfcHr,frsm;vnf; vHk;0r&Sd/ ukefukefajym&vQif wnf;cdkcef;r&Sd/ tESdyfcef;r&Sd/ jynfhwefqmr&Sdacs/ þrQtxd NrdKUav;u oefYavonf/ þ odkYaom taMumif;tcsufrsm;aMumifh wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; tcsdef MumMum rapmifhvdkuf& tcifrif tod jrifwwfayonf/ uRefawmhftazonf pmayorm;? *Dworm;vnf; 0ifaomaMumifh om;jzpfol uRefawmfonfvnf; pma&m *Dw yg 0goem&SdcJhonf[k ajym&rnfyifjzpfonf/ &efukeftdrfüqdk vQif uReawmfonf rMumrMum pE´&m;wD;avh&onf/ wuúovf f dS kd ynmoifumvvnf; wuúodkvftEkynmtoif;0if jzpfcJhzl; onf/ uRefawmf pE´&m;tjyif 'Hkrif;? r,f'vif? armif;ESifh *pfwmwD;wwfol jzpfonf/ tm;upm;bufwirl Muufawmif G f upm;jcif;udk 0goemxHkonf/ ,ckxD;vif;NrdKUav;odkYa&muf cJawmh tm;upm;½ko;D oefr&Sí Muufawmifrupm;jzpfawmh/ h H Y d xD;vif;NrdKUav;odkY vmcJhpOfuyif ]]'Hkrif;}} udk ,l aqmifvmcJhonf/ a&mufcgp&ufowåywftwGif;rSmyif n ntcgrsm;0,f uReawmf 'Hrif;wD;cwf&if;ESifh oDcsi;f qdonf/ f k k tdrf&SdnDri,fwdkYuvnf; tEkynmADZav;awGygcJhMuí xif Handbook-55
  • 56. 106 udka,m (abm*aA') onf/ uRefawmfhxHa&mufvdkYvmMuwm olwdkYoDqdkcsifonfh oDcsif;wdkYtm; uRefawmfhwD;cwfay;&onf/ olwdkYvnf; ESpf oufaysmf&TifMu uRefawmfonfvnf; tazmf&cJh&avonf/ tdrfeD;csif;rsm;ESifhvnf; tcifrifjrefcJh&avonf/ uRefawmfh tm; cifrifMu av;pm;Mu todwuRrf;wdkY wdk;íwdk;í vmcJh &avonf/ trSeawmh xD;vif;NrKd Uav;wGif pE´&m;vH;k 0r&S/ armif; f d yifvQifr&Sd/ 'Hkrif;vnf;r&Sd/ r,f'vif? wa,m? *pfwmwdkY awmh rsm;onf/ NrdKUudka&muf&SdcJhNyD;í rMumrDyif ajrjyefYa'o yckuúLNrdKUrS r,f'vifwpfvufudk vlBuHKESifhrSmum 0,f,l a&muf&SdvmcJhojzifh tcsKdUaomnrsm;wGif vrf;avQmuf&if; r,f'vifw;D jzpfawmhonf/ at;csr;f aomva&mifEihf nt&om S udk cHpm;jzpfcJhavonf/ xdtwGuaMumifyif ]]olawmfcsi;f csi;f owif;avGUavGU k f h aygif;zufawGU}}[k qd&avrvm;? trsK;d wlaom iSutcsi;f csi;f k f pkzGJUaeonfvm; ajym&rnf xifonf/ NrdKUe,fvrf;pdkufcif; refae*sm? ukefoG,fv,f,mrefae*smwdkYESifh aygif;pnf;rdvm &onf/ tpnf;ta0;wdkYwGifawGU&if; qHk&if;u wGJzufrdvm Muawmhonf/ jzpfcsifawmh vrf;pdkuf&Sif; refae*smBuD;u &efueZmwdjzpfonf/ pduysK;d a&;wuúovbUJG &jzpfum &efuef k f k f kd f k ½kH;csKyfwGif tvkyf0if rauG;udk ajymif;& aemuf *efYa*gNrdKUudk ajymif;& *efYa*gNrdKUol tacsmtvS olemjyKq&mrav;ESifh tdrfaxmifuscJhonf/ aemuf xD;vif;NrdKUav;udk ajymif;a&TU *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 107 wm0efuscJhonf/ ZeD;onfESifh uav;rsm;u *efYa*gNrdKUrSmyif aeMuonf/ refae*smBuD;uawmh xD;vif;NrdKUrSm wpfudk,f wnf;aeonf/ v,fpu&i;f ½k;H 0if;Bu;D xJ refae*smBu;D twGuf kd f S oD;oefYtdrfwpfvHk;&Sdonf/ olY0efxrf;rdom;pk tdrfav;awG vnf; &SdonfrdkY olYtwGuf pm;a&;? aea&; ryl&/ olYwynfh 0efxrf;wdkYu tpp vkyfaqmifay;Muonf/ olYyifudk,fADZu tEkynmorm;jzpfí tEkynmudk tjzwfrcH? olu Arm*Dwm udk uRr;f usipm wD;cwfEiojl zpfum naeydi;f tcsewif at;at; fG kd f k df G aq;aq; ]],rum}} av;udk rSD0J&if; *DwmwD;oDcsif;qkdav onf/ aemufwpfO;D rSm ukeo,v,f,mrefae*smjzpfonf/ f G f olu abmvHk;upm;orm;aumif;vnf;jzpfonf/ ajrjyefY yckuúLNrdKUom; Zmwdjzpfonf/ rdom;pkyg xD;vif;rSmaeMu onf/ olurS wu,fhtEkynmrsKd;½dk;[k ajymí&onf/ yckuúL NrdKUwGif olYaqGrsKd;rsm;u Zmwfq&m? Zmwfobifaxmifum e,fwumvSnhfí ujytoHk;awmfcHonfh aMu;pm;tEkynm vkyfief;ukd vkyfudkifaeMuolrsm;[kod&onf/ olonfyif udk;wef;? q,fwef;ausmif;om;b0wkef;u aEG&moDausmif; ydw&ufrsm;wGif ZmwftzGUJ ESihf vkuyg&if; tu? tqk?d tajym f d f awGwwfcJhonf/ twD;trIwfudkrl rwwfuRrf;cJh? pnf;0g;e&D wkdYudkawmh uRrf;usifonf/ tkd;pnf'kd;ywfavmufawmhwwf onf/ Zmwfrif;om;[ef tqk?d tajym? tid?k &,fp&m armp&m rsm;udk waomaomESifh [Jwwf ajymwwf o½kyfaqmifwwf Handbook-56
  • 57. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol onf/ olYudkNrdKUvlxkvnf; cifMu cspfMu ½dkaoav;pm;Muav onf/ a&S;a&S;upm; ]]usD;&,f cg&,f bkwf&,f}} [lonfu uRefawmfwkdYoHk;a,mufom;twGuf jzpf&NyD/ olYudk½dkao udk,fh ½dkaovnf;jzpfMu&wm ajymrem qdkrem qJrem nD&if;tpfudk vkd jzpfoGm;Mu&awmhonf/ rMumrMum naecsrf;ESifh ntcg wkdYwGif v,fpdkuf&Sif; ½Hk;0if;us,fBuD;u refae*smBuD;tdrf onf uRefawmfwkdYtwGuf tjrnf;pHkpHkESifh em;cdkaysmf&TifMu&m ]]edAÁmefbHk}} av;wpfckjzpfvmcJh&avonf/ olwkdYwynfhrsm; u NrKd Ue,ftwGi;f vpOf e,fvnqif;Mu&olawGrYdk e,fujyef S fh vmvQif acs (*sD) om;? awmMuufom;? ,kefom;? cgom;? csKd; (*sKd;) om; tp&Sdojzifh &moDtvkduf zGwf y'wfygrusef olwkdYq&mxH,l ,lvmaeusvnf;jzpfonf/ aEGOD;umvm jrLxaomtcg umvrsm;qkdvQifjzifh xef;&nfaumif;aumif; ESifh oDcsif;ta[mif; topf [pfa<u;Mu&if; acsmifusus xD ; vif ; Nrd K Uav;wG i f pd w f t yef ; ud k xef ; &nf E S i f h a rQmum aysmfatmifaejzpfMu&avonf/ qkdMu uMu wD;MuaysmfMu &avonf/ uReawmfum; ,rumukd rS0avhr&Sojzifh raomuf f D J d acs/ tjrnf;pm;&if; olwkdYESifhwGJzufum *Dwa&tvsOfaMum arsmyg&if; aysm&onf/ ukeo,v,f,mrefae*sm q&ma&Tu f f G f 0dkif;udkOD;aqmifavh&Sdovdkjzpf&onf/ olqkdcsifaom oDcsif;udk uRefawmfwdkYuwD;cwfay;&onf/ q&ma&Tuawmh oDcsif;qdk vk d u f ? xuvk d u f ? ta[mtajymawG E S i f h id k c sif ; csvk d u f ? a&mufwwf&m&m awm"avhtawGUtBuHKrsm;udk [mopHk aESm&if; tcsdefuukefrSef;rod ukefvGef&onfudk auseyfae avonf/ oabmusum aysmfaerdMu&avonf/ onfvcsecgrsK;d wGif uReawmfwrm ]]txm}} Bu;D awG dk d f f Ydk S ESifh raeMu/ uRefawmfwkdY0dkif;twGuf pm;a&;aomufa&;u ryl&/ pm;p&mawG aomufp&mawGu ]]vQH}} aeonf/ qefa& pyg;aygç pm;oHk;oD;ESHaygonfh a,ma'orsm;um; þodkYESifESif jzpfonf[kqkdMuonf/ aysmfp&m tyef;ajzp&m[lí ½kyf&Sif½Hk r&Sd? ZmwftNidrfhyGJwkdYu pyg;odrf;csdef? yJodrf;csdef? &Sif;jyKem;o tvSLr*FvmESifh bk&m;yGJwkdYrS vGJvQifMunfh&cJ &SdcJhonf/ odkY twGuaMumifh ysi;f p&mvdvkd jzpf&wwfonf/ ,if;udk uReawmf f k f wdkYuawmh txufygtwdkif; aysmf&Tifp&m0dkif;av; zefwD;um aeMujcif;vnf; jzpfygonf/ Mumvmaomf uRefawmfonfvnf; xef;&nfav; aomufwwfvmawmhonf/ olwdkYu ]]enf;enf;avmuf... enf;enf;yg}} ESifh qG,fqG,fvmMu&if;u tawGUtBuHKopf pcJh &vmcJh&awmhonf/ ½kyfysufqif;ysuf rl;½l;atmifawmh olwdkYvnf; raomufMuovdk uRefawmfvnf; tjzpfrcHyg/ tm;vHk;u wwfEdkiforQ xdef;odrf;wwfMuygonf/ rjzpfrae vnf; xdef;odrf;Muygonf/ odkYpOfvsuf &Hzef&HcgwGif tmPmydkiftzGJUtpnf;u aysmfwuf uwwfonfh yk*¾dKvfBuD;ESifh w&m;a&;u q&mjzLwdkY 108 109 Handbook-57
  • 58. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol vnf; a&mufvmwwfao;onf/ olwdkYESpfOD;a&mufvmvQif awmh uRefawmfhudk 0dkif;av;u ydkí ]]pnf}} oGm;&.. t&nf t0ifrsm;um awmfawmfav; rl;oGm;wwfMu&onf/ aysmf vnf; tawmfaysmfjzpfMuonfyifqdkygawmh/ onfvnrsm;wGif ukeo,v,f,m refae*smBu;D u kd f G f cPcP rMumrMum uReawmfxvnum pum;pvmonfukd f h H S hf uRefawmfcH&wwfonf/ ]]Opömayg ½kyacsm bGUJ &ynmwwf vlysKvvwf t&m&Sd f d l G jzpfwJh &efukefNrdKUawmfBuD;u rif;om;av;udk xD;vif;NrdKUol eJY ay;pm;&r,f/ rif;om;av;a&mufvmrS uRefawmfydkaysmf vmrd&wm? t&ifuqdk ½kH;eJYtdrf tdrfeJY½kH;yJ jzpfaecJhwm.. rif;om;av; 'DNrdKUrSm tcsdefMumMum ESpfMumMumNrJEdkif&atmif BuHaqmifMurS jzpfrSm...}} xdi;f wGif &SaeMuukeaomoltm;vH;k wduvnf; ]][kwygh k d f Yk f [kwygh...axmufcw,f}}[k oHpOfvuMf uNrJ jzpfonf/ v,f f H kd pdkuf&Sif; refae*smBuD;uvnf; cyfaxGaxGav;ESifh pum;qdk wwfao;onf/ &efukefodkY ½kH;udpöoGm;a&muf&onfhtcgwdkif; v,fpdkuf&Sif;refae*smBuD;onf uRefawmfhrdbrsm; tdrfa&muf onf/ rdbrsm;ESifh awGUqHkonf/ xD;vif;NrdKUrS uRefawmf rdom;pktwGuf a,mvHkcsnfppfppf? ysm;&nfppfppf? qwfom; ajcmuf? acs (*sD) om;ajcmuf? ,kefom;ajcmufponfwdkYudk ref a e*smBuD ; u ,l a qmif o G m ;umay;aeusjzpf o nf / uRefawmf &efukefodkYoGm;a&mufonhftcgwGifvnf; refae*sm Bu;D ypön;f wkukd ,laqmifom;cJum olrbrsm;xHa&mufatmif Yd G h Y d oGm;awGUqHum ay;aeusvnf;jzpfygonf/ v,fpu&i;f refae*sm k kd f S ESifh uRefawmfonfwu,fhaoG;&if;om;&if; nDtpfudk&if;wrQ vnf;jzpf&ygonf/ olonfyifvQif a,mNrdKUawmfol *efYa*gol jzpfonfh olYZeD;aqGrsKd;rsm;xJrS *efYa*gNrdKUolwpfa,mufESifh ay;pm;&rnf[k ajymaeusvnf;jzpfygonf/ enf;enf;av;rsm;onfhtcgrsm;qkdvQif v,fpdkuf&Sif; refae*smBuD;onf uRefawmfhtm;aexkdif&mtdrfodkY rjyef apawmh/ olYwynhfrsm;ESifhvnf; rydkYaqmifapawmh/ refae*sm BuD;tdrfüyiftdyf&atmif pDpOfay;umtdyfaponhf&ufrsm;rSm vnf; wpfBudrfESpfBudrfrucsifawmh/ tBudrfa&ursm;vkdYvm aeonf/ &yfa0;rSa&mufvm wm0efxrf;aqmifaeMu&aom b0ay;tajctaeonf taMumif;aMumif;aMumifhomjzpfNyD; t&m&Swpfa,muf *kPoumudawmh txdtckurcHMuay/ d f d © k d f onfpdwfrsKd;jzifh *kPfodu©mudktoufwrQ wefbdk;xm;aeMu olwvnf;jzpfonfukd tm;vH;k uvnf; odxm;em;vnfMuojzifh Ydk uRefawmfwdkYtm; tm;vHk;wkdYucifrifav;pm;Mu tm;xm;Mu ayonf/ EkdifiHa&;rvkyf? &Twf&Twf&Suf&Sufrvkyf? trsm;wkdYu cspfcif,HkMunfrIudkvnf; &&Sdxm;Muolrsm;omjzpfavonf/ wpfaeYwGifawmh]]opf i k w f r sm;EG J U zef r sm;&if e J Y o wJ h . ..ck d i f r mwJ h ausmufawmifBuD;rsm;awmif wkdufpm;zefrsm;vm&if yGef;&yJh& w,fwJh...aysmf&Tifwmrsm;vmaeNyD; ,rumrBudKufzl;qdkwJh 110 111 Handbook-58
  • 59. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol olu tpyxrtaeeJY obm0yifus&nfppfppf xef;&nfav; avmufaomufjzpfvmcJNh y...Mumvm&ifp?JG pG&mut&ufawG D J aomufvmawmhr,f...n n tdrfjyefrtdyfwmawG&SdvmNyD vkdY OD;av;odef;wdkYrdom;pku ajymaeMuNyDq&m...'gawGeJY qufEG,fNyD; q&mhudkarcsKdpum;ajymcsifw,fq&m...}} ]]udk,fhtxuf vlBuD;rdkYvufatmufi,fom;jzpfolu apwemeJYaxmufjyrdwmudk tjypfwpfckvdkYjrifjcif;eJY udk,fa&; udk,fwmudk pGufzufjcif;vkdYjrifcJh&ifvJ uRefrarMunfvGifcsKd BudKwiftcGifhawmif; awmif;yef&if;pum;wpfcsKdUudk ajymcGifhjyK ygvm;q&m...}} ]]aMomf...ajymyg...ajymyg? rajympzl;ajymvmav awmhvJ uRefawmfem;qif&rSmaygh...bmygvdrfh}} arcsKdu pwifajymvmcJh tcGifhawmif;cHvmcJhonhf pum;udk uRefawmfcGifhjyKay;cJhygonf/ ]]'Dvdkygq&m...vkyfief;ydkif;qkdif&mawGeJY ywfouf vmcJ&if bmwpfcrtjypfajymp&mr&S&avmufatmifawmfwhJ h k S d OD;&Jyg...wkdif;½Hk;eJY &efukef (½Hk;csKyf)udk q&mhudk,fpm;oGm; a&mufcJh&pOfwkef;u rauG;rSmwkdif;rSL;BuD;u uRefrudkajymcJh wmudk uRefrwu,fav;pm;*kPf,lrdcJh&wmyg...}} ]]udk&J uAsm...uRefawmfhq&m&if;&efukef (½Hk;csKyf) u 'k-nTefrSL;BuD;u udk&Judkodyftav;xm; tm;xm;um? udk&J ½Hk;csKyfrSm&SdpOfu 'k-nTefrSL;BuD;xHcGifhawmif;w,f/ wpfEdkifiHvHk; rSm&SdwJh OD;pD;Xme? bkwfaumfydka&;&Sif;? tzGJUtpnf;awG&JU vkyfief;oabmobm0 taetxm;awGudk odxm;em;vnf csifw,fNyD; ½Hk;csKyfawGtoD;oD;udk vSnhfajymif;NyD; udkifwG,f aqmif&GufcGifhudkawmif;owJh...tcGifh&cJhowJh...}} yrmajym&&if 0efBuD;Xmewpfckcsif;pD&JUvufatmuf &Sd XmeawGtm;vHk;udkavhvmcJhwm? tJonfwkef;u pkpkaygif; (170) cefY&Sdw,fxifyg...'gawGudk udk&JuudkifwG,fod&Sd em;vnfEkdifcJhw,f/ qufoG,faqmif&Guf&wJh XmewkdYudkvSnfh ajymif;wm0ef,lw,faygh/ a':arMunfvGifcsKdwkdYu ½Hk;csKyfrSm ESpftm;jzifhvJ (3) ESpfcefYomqkdawmh xdawGUrI rrsm;vSbl;/ XmewGif oifwef;u (4) vwufa&muf&ao;Ny;D awmh e,fbufuajymif;a&TUwm0ef f kd xrf;cJhNyDqdkawmh udk&Jvkdr[kwfcJhbl;aygh/ udk&Ju awmfawmhfudk BuKd ;pm;wJo/ wpfaeYwpfcserm wm0efBu;D Bu;D ud,vmEdivrhf h l d f S k l k f d r,fvkdY 'k-nTefrSL;BuD;u arQmfvifhxm;wmtrSefyJ...udk&Ju ½Hk;csKyfrSmwm0efxrf;aqmifaeaeqJrSmvJ I.F.L (EdkifiHjcm; bmomwuúodkvf) 0ifcGifhpmar;yGJajz-0ifcGifh&vkdY nae½Hk;qif; NyDqkd&if tdkiftufzft,fvfrSm tcsdefydkif; *syefbmomudk wufa&mufoif,latmifjrifEkdifcJhol? tem*wfrSmtm;xm;& r,fh0efxrf;aumif;wpfOD;jzpfEdkifbdkYaygh/ olYe,ftawGUtBuHK,laepOftwGif;rSmyJ pDrH^b@m 0efBuD;XmeBuD;wpfckvHk; atmufrSmyg0ifaeMuwJh Xme? tzGJU tpnf;awGtm;vHk;eJY pyfqkdifNyD; oifhavsmf&mbmom&yfawGeJY Ekii&yfjcm;ynmawmfoif tpDtpOfawGuvJay:vmaeMuyJ? d f H udk&Jb,fvkdpOf;pm;r,frodbl;/ wpfaeYawmh udk&J &efukefudk 112 113 Handbook-59
  • 60. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol jyef0ifvdrfhr,fqkdwmudk uRefawmfjrifw,f/ e,frSm (2) ESpf jynhfoGm;cJhNyDqkd&if udk&JtwGuf &efukefudkjyefajymif;a&TUbkdYu rcufygbl;? olYoabmuom t"duygyJ/ ]]xm;ygawmh a v...Nrd K Ue,f y gwD ? aumif p D p wJ h tmPmydkiftzGJUtpnf;awGeJYuvJ udk&Jwpfa,muftqifajy w,fMum;&vkdY pdwfcsrf;om&ygw,f/ wpfcsKdUaomNrdKUe,fawG rSmu tpmrauswmav;awG &SwwfMuwmrSm owif;aumif; d omMum;&wmrkdY uRefawmf0rf;om&ygw,f/ uRefawmfu udk&J udk pdwfcsNyD;om;yg/ ,HkMunfNyD;om;yg/ udk&JeJY uRefawmfeJYu nDtpfuvcifwma&m? 'k-nTerLS ;Bu;D &JU aus;Zl;t&Set0ga&m kd dk f d f qkdawmhvJ tu,fírsm; udk&Jwpfa,mufrSm vkdtyfcsuf? tjcm;aom tm;enf;csufawGrsm;&SdcJh&ifvJ e,fajrcHjzpfolu today;ajymjyulnDay;vkdufygAsm...}}wJh/ onfpum;awGt&vJ q&mhudkusrt&JpGefYajymjzpf vmrd&wmyg/ q&mvJMum;zl;NyD;om;ygav...rdausmif;rif; a&cif;jyqkdwmvkdjzpfae&ifvJ cGifhvTwfygq&m... ol&mar&,aMumifh q&maumif;owif;? t&nf tcsi;f ? *kPoumawG[m ,kwavsmusqif;roGm;apcsiwm f d © f h f u arcsKdUpdwf&if;yg/ rxifrSwfbJ rNidoifhwm Nid txdtawGU arm[awmrSm oGm;ykyavvGiarsmyg roGm;apcsiygbl; q&m f hf f &,f/ ]]'gawGaMumifh xdef;yg? odrf;yg? aysmfwmawmh aysmfyg q&m&,f...aeYpOf&ufqufawGjzpfvmrSmudk pdk;&drfw,f/ xD;vif;NrKd Uav;rSm a&mufae&wJtckuf tpyxrrSm ysi;f p&m h d aumif;w,f? aysmfp&m&Smw,f? aysmf&Tifvmw,f/ taysmfvGef NyD; ysufpD;oGm;&um NrdKUav;uae xGufajy;oGm;&wJhtjzpfrsKd; (ysif;? aysmf? ysuf? ajy;) rjzpfapcsif½kd; trSefygq&m...arcsKd ajymrSm;? qkdrSm;? txiftjrifrSm;wJhoabmjzpfoGm;cJh&ifvJ cGifhvTwfwwfygap...cGifhvTwfEkdifygapvkdY...}} arcsKd U apwempum;rsm;ud k em;axmif & onf r S m uRefawmfwkdY½Hk;tzGJUtm; rdom;pkav;wkdYonf a&aEG;Murf;ESifh vufzufokyf0dkif;udk qifETJaeMupOfwGifjzpfavonf/ ]]trIdufup jyom'frD;avmif}} qkdwmudk uRefawmf oabmayguf&rSmyJaygh arcsKd}} tjypfjyqHk;rolawG oJvHk;trQ rsm;jym;ygap}} qkdwJh Ak'¨jrwfpGmom;awmf &[ef;awmft&Sif &m[kvmu w&m;&&m&aMumif;tjrifudk zGifhqkdusifhoHk;cJhovkd ayghav...uReawmfoabmaygufc,ygw,f arcsKraeYuyJ f H l d tdrunDrawmfawGuvJ ajymcJMh uNy/ uReawmfwtzGUJ nzuf f D f Ydk av,mOfuGif;a[mif;BuD;xJrSm wD;Mu qkdMu aysmfMu&if;u uRefawmfrl;cJh&ygyaumaygh...}} n (11) em&Davmuf&SdaecJhNyD/ &DwDwD a0awaw aumif;aumif;rjzpfao;bl;qkdwJh q&ma&TUtajymaMumifh refae*smBuD;OD;0if;&JU wynhfawmfom;wpfa,mufu &rf wpfvHk;oGm;,l xef;&nfeJYa&may;cJh...tJ'Dhta&maMumifh 114 115 Handbook-60
  • 61. 116 udka,m (abm*aA') uRefawmfrl;cJh&NyD/ vHkcsnfudk*Gif;odkif;NyD; uaecJholudkyif uRefawmfb,fol b,f0grSef;rodcJhawmh/ r,f'vifvJ wD;vdkY r&awmhEkdif? aexkdif&mtdrfudkydkYapcJhMuw,f/ nOfheufoef; acgifrS wdrfudkjyefa&mufawmh vlrSef;olrSef;rodEkdif&avmuf atmifubr;l cJ...b,fvb,fvdk tdy&mukwifay:a&mufchJ kd J h dk f &rSef; uRefawmfrodEkdifcJhbl;ayghav/ reufrkd;vif;awmh ]]udkav;aemf...vlqkd;BuD;jzpfvkdY vmaeNyD/ aeYwkdif;aeYwkdif;om vlqkd;BuD;jzpfvm&if orD;wkdYu awmh udav;udrcspawmhb;l ...udav;vkvJ rac:awmhb;l k k f k Yd ...vdYk rdviuajymvmcJw,fAsm/ olwrom;pku uReawmf dI f h Ydk d f wkdYom;vkd om;yrmt&mxm;aeMuwm nDtpfroHk;azmfuvJ a&mufcgpuawmh ]]OD;&J}} vkdYac:cJhMuayrJh wpwpMumvm awmh ud,tpfu&if;yrmoabmxm;Ny;D ]]tudav;}} ac:&if; k hf kd k ]]udav;}} vkwivmac:vmMuwJtxd oHa,mZOf&&mMuwm k Yd G f h dS S arcsKdajymcJhovkd (ysif;? aysmf? ysuf? ajy;) jzpfvkdYvmcsifaeNyD xif&JU...qifjcif&r,f...qifqifjcifjcifudk jyKjyifaeOD;rS}} uReawmfpum;udk olwem;axmifaeMuonf/ pum; f h Ydk oHvnf; wdwom;cJawmhovdk NirNf irqrqrf jzpfaecJ&onf/ f G h d d f d f d h ]]tqHk;owfpum;wpfcGef;tjzpfeJY arcsKdajym&OD;r,f q&m...a&xJukd tqdyxnf&if tqdyjf zpfom;NyD aq;xnfh f h G &if aq;&nfjzpf&w,fwJh q&m/ q&m owdxm;em;vnfEdkif wwfygap/ q&mh&JU apwem? arwåmawGudk rsm;pGmem;vnf *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 117 vsufeJY wkYHvS,f apwem? arwåmpum;awGudk arcsKd ajymjy jzpf&jcif;ygyJ q&m&,f...}}/ a&aEG;Murf;0dkif;rS uRefawmfxcJh? uRefawmfhpm;yGJteD; wGif zwfwyf&yfcJh...[kd;ta0;u csif;awmifwef;jrifhBuD;udk ai;MunfhaerdcJhonf/ ESif;jrLoifwdkif; NcHKodkif;vdkY 0ef;caeav onf/ ]]q&m&Ja&... bmawGawG;ae? aqG;aewmwkef;As? nu tawmftxdemoGm;cJhw,fxif&JU...}} ukefoG,fv,f,mrefae*sm q&ma&T pum;oHudk Mum;&&if; ol½;Hk cef;xJ a&muf&aecJonfukd owdxm;rd&awmh dS h onf/ ol uRefawmfhpm;yGJa&SU&Sd cHkwGif 0ifxdkifvmcJhonf/ ]]q&ma&T a emf . ..0ef x rf ; qef qef t d w f a wG u d k aumif;oifh tqifajyatmif taumif;a&m? toifha&mudk ]]udkwm}}tjzpf xkwfay;vdkY&ayrJh arcsKdwdkY q&mudkawmh tJvdk [kda&m onfa&m vlrSef;olrSef;rod rl;½l;ap&atmifawmif rzefwD;vdkufygeJY&Sif...}}[lí arcsKdUpum; tm;vHk;Mum;vdkuf Mu&onf/ ]]aemufaemufudk q&ma&T uRefrwdkY½kH;xJ0ifvm&if wkwfBuD;BuD;eJY ½kdufykwfarmif;xkwfypf&r,f/ udka0vif;a& wkwBf u;D Bu;D wpfacsmif;avmufawmh &Smxm; aqmifxm;OD;rS...}} [laom pma&;rav; &D&Dar &efawGUoHudkvnf; rMum;pzl; uRefawmf Mum;vdkuf&NyD/ ]]a[m...bmawGjzpfaeMuygvdrfh...rausreyf Handbook-61
  • 62. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol &efawGUoHawGygvm;...qlnqne?YJ 'g av,mOfui;f a[mif; H l H G r[kwfzl;? ½kH;aemf ½kH;Xme...[J...[J...[J...}}[kqdkum uRefawmfh½kH;xJ a&muf&Sdvmoluawmh v,fpdkuf&Sif;refae*sm BuD; OD;0if;yif jzpfawmhonf/ ]]'Dwpfcg *efYa*gu refae*smBuD;uawmf tvnf tywf a&mufvmw,fMum;&ifawmhvm;...refae*smBuD; wpfa,mufawmh av,mOfuGif;a[mif;BuD;u blrdurÁvmrSm n..n ]]uJ}} aevduwmrsm; aumif;aumif;Bu;D udk &Si;f jyjzpf k f atmif &Sif;jyvkduf&OD;r,f...}}[laom &D&Dar toHESifh refae*smBuD;udk xGufvmcJhjyefavNyD/ refae*smBuD;rSm xdkifyif rxdkif&ao;/ xdktcdkuf]]a[m...q&m&JwdkY ½kH;cef;u w,fvJpnfum;aeygh vm;? vlBuD;rif;awGpHkvdkY...}} NrdKUe,fjynfolYaumifpDOuú|BuD;u NyHK;NyHK;NyHK;NyHK;ESifh a&muf v mavawmh uRef a wmf o nf xd k i f a e&if ; rS x um uReawmfae&mtm; Ouú|Bu;D twGuf ae&muday;onf/ Ouú|Bu;D f h k u ]]xdi&ao;wmayghav}} [kqum xdicygonf/ uReawmf k f kd k f hJ f wdYk tm;vH;k onfvnf; Ouú|Bu;D udk rsuEmrlum ud,pu,pD f S k f D kd f xdkifcJhMuonf/ ]]usKyvmwm wjcm;r[kwz;l As...q&ma&Tw?Ykd q&m0if; f f wdkY? q&m&JwdkY? orOD;pD;u OD;0if;BuD;? pm&if;ppf½kH;u OD;pef;? w&m;a&;u OD;ydkufwdkYtygt0if q&ma&TwdkYtzGJUudk zdwfMum; pm a&mufvmvdrfhr,f/ xef;yifukef;&Gmu q&maomifhajr; uav;eJY ajr;rav;wdkYudpö? &SifjyK em;o tvSLr*Fvm&Sdw,f/ tJonfrm q&mwdYk 0di;f udtul;yJ zdwMf um;r,fqwmygyJ... S k k kd aumif;aumif; 0g;wD; qdkwD; bmwD; nmwD;ayghAsm...}} Ouú|BuD; cyfNyHK;NyHK;ESifhtajymtqdk uRefawmfwdkY tm;vHk;Mum;cJhMu&onf/ ]][m...tJ'grS jyóemyJ Ouú|Bu;D cifAsm? a[m'Du q&m&J&JU wynfhawGu uRefawmfhudkawmif aemifudk ½kH;cef;xJ 0ifvmcJh&if wkwfeJY½kdufzdkY pDpOfaeMuNyDAs/ olwdkY&JU q&m&Judk umtda`E´zsufaprIeJY uRefawmfhudk w&m;cHvkyf rkef;csifaeMu wm... 'ku©rS wu,fh'ku©BuD; jzpfae&NyDAs...}} [laom q&ma&TU pum;oH/ v,fpu&i;f refae*smBu;D kd f S uawmh ]]t"duuawmh uRefawmfyJAs..."m;udkzsufwm 0g; rsuyg.. oluzsuwm v,fpu&i;f refae*smBu;D yg jzpfc&NyD f Y kd f kd f S hJ Ouú|Bu;D &JU...}}[lívnf; ajymvmcJ&if; q&ma&Ta&m q&m h 0if;yg w[m;[m;ESifh &,farmaeMuawmhonf/ ]][m...[kwvm;...bmawGrsm; jzpfaeMuygvdr... f hf usKyuvJ e,fu&GmawGqD oGm;aecJ&vdYk NrKd Ujyowif; vpf[if; f h cJh&NyDqdkygawmh...}}[laom Ouú|BuD; pum;oH/ ]][kwfw,f Ouú|BuD;&Sifh...v,fpdkuf&Sif;refae*sm BuD;u olYarG;aeYqdkvm;... refae*smBuD;uawmfeJY aqGawmf rsKd;awmftzGJU [dkif;vyfpfwpfpD;eJY vmMur,fqdkvm;...tJ'geJY av,mOfuGif;a[mif;BuD;xJ aysmfyGJETJMuowJh/ obifynm&Sif 118 119 Handbook-62
  • 63. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol BuD; q&ma&TeJY ta[m tajym tqdk tidkaumif;eJY yGJawmif; vdkYqdkNyD; uwJholuvJueJY? reufrdk;vif;awmh e*g;jzpfvkdYyJ ajrvQKd;rdk;ysHwmrsKd; awG;,l&avmufatmif nu udk,fhckwif ay: udk,fb,fvdka&mufrSef; rodwJhvlvJ&Sdav&JU&Sifh...}}[l aom arcsKdtajym... ]]a[..[kwfvm;...}}[k Ouú|BuD;u tHhMo[efjy um &,faeawmhonf/ NyD;rS]]onf;cHpmem em;vnfcivway;vduMf uyguG,... G hf T f k f a':arcsKwYkd &D&arwda&... olwu vlawmf vlaysmawGuUJG / d D Yk Ykd f jyóem&S m wwf M uwJ h o l a wG r[k w f M uaybl ; / wu,f h vlaumif; vlawmfawGygyJ/ olwdkYawG 'DrSm ESpfMumMum&Sdae wm0efxrf;aqmifaeMuwmudkyJ udk,fhrSm 0rf;om*kPf,lae& wm/ udk,fhXmeqdkif&mvkyfief;awGtjyif 'Du xD;vif;NrdKUe,f &JU tusKd;twGuf ygwD? aumifpDu wm0efawGtygt0if &yf xJ &GmxJ bmom omoem vlrIa&;awGyg 0dkif;0ef;xrf;aqmif ulnDvkyfudkifay;MuwJh OD;aqG;qHjrnfh yk*¾dKvfawGyguG,f... emrnfq;kd emrnfysuvJ wpfcgrS &SMd uwJh olawGrS r[kwawmh/ f f ½kyf&Sif½kHr&Sd? tNidrfhyGJ ZmwfyGJqdkwmuvJ&Sm;qdkawmh cufom;vm;? 'DNrdKUav;rSm aysmfaysmf&Tif&TifeJY aejzpfMuwmudk yJ 0rf;omaus;Zl;wif&wm... wpfcsKUd 0efxrf;awG? XmetBu;D tuJawGrsm; a&mufvmwmrS rMumao;? aumif;aumif;rS rcifyif&ao;...wpfEpavmufyaeNy;D ajrjyef&dS NrKd Ue,fawG S f J Y qD ajymif;a&TUp&myif &SdoGm;Muawmhwm/ [kwfawmhvJ [kwfwmygyJ...aqmif;eJYaEG&moDu 'Du yckuLú -ayguf-xD;vif;um;vrf;u 96 rdiqawmh wpfaeY k f kd eJY a&mufEdkifao;? [dk ykvJ-*efYa*gvrf;udk toHk;jyKoGm;vm& wJh rdk;wGif; rdk;Owkusawmh yHkawmif yHknm awmifwef;BuD;awG udk wuf&? qif;&wJh um;vrf;u jrifhrm;rwfapmufeJY? 'DMum; xJ rdk;rsm;vdkY awmifNydK&wm? acsmif;a&usvdkY ESpfn oHk;ntdyf xrif;qdkifrSm Z&yfwdkYrSmtdyf&? pD;vmwJh um;BuD;uysuf awm xJawmifxJuae teD;qHk;&Gmav;wdkYqD ajcvsifukef;aMumif; avQmufMu&eJY 'ku©awGu rsm;vSav&JU/ owif;pmawmif wpfvaerS pkNyD;zwf½IMu&wmrsKd; r[kwfvm;...tif;... tif;...&D&Dar...nnf;wdkYq&m q&m&Judk 'DrSm MumMum av; NrJapcsifw,f r[kwfvm;...}}/ [k Ouú|BuD;u pum;awGu ajym&if;u ar;vmcJh avawmhonf/ &D&Daru ]][kwfuJh&Sifh...}}[k axmufcHonf/ Ouú| Bu;D u qufíajymonf/ ajymwm r[kwb;l aemf...oHa,mZOf f BudK; aESmifBudK; odvm;? igvJ BudK;&SmaecJhwm... awGUawmh awGUxm;NyDa[h...}} [kqdkum Ouú|BuD;u arcsKdUqD vSrf;MunfhcJhonfudk uRefawmfjrifvdkufonf/ arcsKduawmh acgif;udkiHkYum aecJh avonf/ onftcdkuf q&ma&Tu taemufuav; ]]aemuf}} vmcJhjyefonf/ 120 121 Handbook-63
  • 64. 122 udka,m (abm*aA') ]]ck...xD;vif;NrKd UBu;D rSm vQyppfr;D vJ vif;awmhr,f/ f rD;vif;yGJBuD;vJ pDpOfusif;yOD;rvm;rod? ckwavm ajymif;a&TU a&muf&SdvmwJh tm;^umOD;pD;rSL;uvJ *Dwmorm;? rD;vif; a&; vQyfppftif*sifeD,muvJ '&rfwD;q&m? 'Du q&m&Ju awmh acwfay:a&m a&S;a[mif;a&m ta&SUwdi;f a&m taemuf k wdi;f a&m jrefrm*Dwa&m urÇm*wyg uRr;f usiwhJ *DwtEkynm k h D f orm;qdawmh...Ny;D awmh aumvdyausmif;u ausmif;Ny;D vm k f MuwJh armifarmifvif;wdkY vli,ftzGJUeJY wGJvdkuf&ifawmhvm;/ yGJBuD;yGJaumif; 0uf0ufuGJjzpfrSm...[J...[J Ouú|BuD;qD rSm ypönf;aumif;av;awGvJ 'gZifvdkuf yguifvdkuf&Sdw,fvJ Mum;&&JU...}} qdkaom q&ma&TavoH... þwGif v,fpdkuf&Sif; refae*smBuD; q&m0if;uvnf; ]]yifh}}vmcJhjyefonf/ ]]&D&Dara&... nnf;wdkYt&m&Sdr a':arcsKdudkvJ tJ onfhn pifwifyGJrSm oDcsif;wpfyk'f ESpfyk'favmuf csD;jr§ifhay; zdkY yGJawmif;&r,f...tpDtpOfqGJxm;&r,faemf...}} ]]q&ma&T...refae*smBuD;wdkY 'DwpfcgxyfNyD; ajym vdkuf&OD;r,f &Sifh/ wkwfu wpfacsmif;xJeJY rvHkavmufawmh bl;/ ESpfacsmif;awmh &Smxm;rS...}} [k &D&Daru ajymvmonfudk q&ma&TwdkY oabm aygufcJhMuonf/ *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 123 ]]Ouú|Bu;D uawmh...a[...b,fvwe;f [..}} [l dk k íom NyHK;vsufqdkaecJhavonf/ xdaemuf Ouú|Bu;D u OD;aqmifí ]]vmMuAsm...0efxrf; Yk oufomqdiukd vufzuf&nf oGm;aomufMu&atmif...}}[k k f qdkvmcJhojzifh ajymvufp pum;0dkif;udk &yfwefYcJhum ½kH;rS xGufvmcJhMuawmhonf/ aemufwpfaeY ½kH;ydwf&ufjzpfonfhaeYvnfydkif;wGif wpfa&;wpfarm tdyfjzpfcJhonf/ tdyf,mrSx rsufESmopfqJ wdrotvnfa&mufvmaeus tdrem;eD;u reDvmESihf nDtpfr f Ykd f oHk;azmfwdkY tpm;taomufwpfckck vkyfpm;Murnfqdkum pDpOf aeMuonfhtoHudk uRefawmf Mum;ae&onf/ rsufESmopfNyD; í tdrftay:xyfodkY uRefawmf a&mufcJhonf/ rdk;&dyfav&dyf wdkY xifvmonfh&ufawGudk a&mufvmcsifNyD/ 0g*Grf;qdkifawG odkYiS,f a&GUvsm;aeonfh wdrfawmif wdrfvdyfwdkYudk tay:xyf &Sd zGixm;onfh jywif;wHcg;aygufwuausmum jrifae&onf/ hf Ykd kd f bm&,fvdkYr[kwf? 'Hkrif;udktoHnd§umaerdonf/ rdk;OD;opfpNyD rdkY ]]rdk;oufavESif}}oDcsif;udk wD;um oDcsif;qdkaerdcJhonf/ cHpm;rIuvnf; onfoDcsif;udk uRefawmfBudKufESpfoufonf/ ywf0ef;usif obm0taetxm;uvnf; yHhydk;zefqif;ay;ae oa,mif jzpfaeonf/ *Dwa&tvsOfpD;arsm&if; oDcsif;vnf; qHk;...twD;oHvnf; &yfawmhrnftjyK]]udav; a&...{nfonfa&mufaew,f...'DrmvJ k h S tm;vH;k jyifqifNy;D Ny...a&aEG;Murf;eJY tm;vH;k 0di;f Mur,f... D k qif;vmawmh...}}/ Handbook-64
  • 65. 124 udka,m (abm*aA') [k rdviu avScg;rS wufvmwm avScg;xdyem;rSae dI f f í uReawmfukd vSr;f ajymcJaomaMumifh atmufxyfoYkd uReawmf f h h f qif;cJhawmhonf/ ]]aMomf...arcsKvJ a&mufaewmud;k ...}}[k uReawmf d f toHjyKonf/ ]]&efukefudk vGrf;aew,f xifyg&JU...}}[k reDvmu uReawmftm; ]]aemuf}} vmcJonf/ uReawmfuvnf; jyefajym f h h f jzpfcJh&onf/ ]][kwfygbl;Asm...obm0&moDOwkuvJ rkd;OD;p rkd;oufav taemufawmifavav;&awmh &wmawmhvJ rk;d &eHucpm;rdvmwmeJY 'H;k rif;wD; oDcsi;f ygqkjd zpfom;wmyg...}} Y kd H G ]]uJ...uJ tvGr;f taqG;&S&ifvJ ab;z,fxm;? 'Drm d S rrarcsKd,lvmwJh &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; rkd;usvufzufokyf? yJrkefYaMumf? rdvIdifwkdYpDpOfwJh All;oD;aygif;aMumfeJY tcsOfa& a&aEGMurf;eJY tvGrf;awGajyayawmh...rrarcsKdvJ a&mufvmcJhawmh ykdaumif;wmaygh...}} [líyif reDvmu pum;qufcJhonf/ pm;Muaomuf Mu&if;rSmyif reDvmu pum;qufcJhjyefonf/ ]]tm;vH;k pm;Ny;D oGm;MuNyq&if reDvmBuKd uwhJ oDcsi;f D dk f wpfyk'fudk q&muwD;ay;&r,f? qkdvJqkd&r,f? em;axmifyg& apaemf...}} ]]tif ; ..uav;ud k rk e f Y a uR;NyD ; cd k i f ; wmud k } }[k uRefawmf ajymcJhawmh teD;&Sd OD;av;odef;ESifh q&mrBuD;wdkYu yg &,faeMuao;avonf/ *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 125 tvwfr rdciu tay:xyfowufum 'Hrif;udk oGm; kd f Ykd k a&muf,vmay;onf/ reDvm awmif;qdcaom ]]cspNf yKH ;ESi;f qD}} l k hJ oDcsif;udk uRefawmf wD;cwfoDqdkay;&ygawmhonf/ wD;cwf oDqay;aepOftwGi;f trSwwrJronf trSwxifxif arcsKUd kd f h S f udk uRefawmf yefxm;vsufESifhudk uRefawmfjrifae&avonf/ vufpowfawmh reDvm zefw;D cJaom {&d,mtwGi;f h uRefawmf oufqif;usa&mufcJh&jcif;yif jzpfacsawmhonf/ reDvm nDtpfroHk;azmfwdkYu arcsKdUudk ]]vSvdkY}} [lí cspfMu onf/ aqGrsKd;awGvnf; jzpfMuonf/ wpfck&SdonfrSm arcsKd aexkdif&monf &yfuGuf (1) jzpfonf/ uRefawmfwkdYaexkdif&m &yfuGuf (2) udk awmfawmfESifh arcsKdra&mufjzpf? a&mufvm vQifvnf; [kdpOfuwnf;uyif onfnDtpfrav;wkdYtwGuf pm;p&mwpfckckawmhygvmpNrJ? tvSbk&ifrav;wpfyg;rkdY t&m&Srav;wpfO;D rkYd oabmaumif;olav;rkYd tm;vH;k uarcsKUd d udk cifMucspfMuonf/ OD;av;odef;ESifh q&mrBuD;wkdYuvnf; orD;awGudkarcsKdUvkd t&m&Sdrav;jzpfatmif BudK;pm;Mu[k oGeoifq;kH ravhvnf;&Savonf/ olwtm;vH;k uvnf; arcsKd f d Ydk ESifh uRefawmfhtm; eD;pyfapcsifMuonf[k uRefawmfxifonf av/ ]]aumif;vkdufwm q&m&,f...}} [k oDcsif;oDqkd wD;cwftNyD;wGif reDvmuajymcJhonf/ ]]uJ...reDvmeJY orD;wdkYa&...rru q&mhudkajym p&m&SvYdk 'DuwrifoufoufvmcJwm? orD;wkqra&mufcwm kd h Yd D hJ Handbook-65
  • 66. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol vJMumNyDqkdawmh wpfcsufckwfESpfcsufjywfvJjzpfoGm;&wm? orD;wkdYuvJ 0dkif;ulajymay;Muaemf...}}[k pum;yv’ifcHum arcsKduuRefawmfhudk ajymvmcJhavonf/ ]]'Dvyg q&m...'Dupmudk t&ifzwfMunfvuygOD;? dk h dk f NyD;awmhrS arcsKdajymyghr,f...}} arcsKdajymvmjcif;ESifhtwl pmudkuRefawmfhtm;urf; ay;cJhonf/ pmudk uRefawmfzwfonf? pmutdwfzGifhay;pm vnf;jzpfonf/ pmygtaMumif;t&mrSm &efukefNrdKU&Sdtpfukd jzpfolu nDtpf&if;jzpfaom xD;vif;NrdKU&Sd NrdKUe,fynma&;rSL; xH pma&;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ xk&efueu yk*Kd¾ vBf u;D ESihf uReawmfh d k f f zcifESifhuvnf; wuúodkvftwlwufzufrsm; jzpfMuum ,ck jyefvnfawGUqHrMd u&if;u xD;vif;NrKd UtaMumif;udk pum;pyfrd k cJMh uaMumif;? xD;vif;NrKd Uav;wk;d wuf&m wk;d wufaMumif; yg0if ul n D a y;yg&ef E S i f h ynmwwf b G J U &rsm; tem*wf w G i f y d k r k d xGef;um;vmapa&;twGuf ynmtvif;zGifhay;apvkdaMumif; ynmwwfrsm;rsm;vmonfESifhtrQ EkdifiHwpfEkdifiHonf rvTJ raoGwkd;wufaom EkdifiHjzpfvmEkdifrnfjzpfaMumif;? puFmyl EkdifiHav;udk yrmay;í&aMumif;? xkdYaMumifh ½Hk;csdefjyifywGif uRefawmfhtaejzifh ynmjzefYjzL;ay;Ekdifap&efudk a&;om;xm; avonf/ ]]NrdKUe,fynma&;rSL;BuD;eJY OD;&JeJYuvJ cifrif&if;&SdNyD; om;? ynma&;rSL;BuD;uvJ q&mhvDvmOD;r,fvkdYvJ arcsKdKUukd rSmvdkufw,f? wu,fvJ arcsKdarwåm&yfcHyg&ap? OD;&Juynm jynhf0oljzpfavawmh wpfzufwpfvrf;uvJ arcsKdwkdYxD;vif; NrdKUe,f e,fole,fom;awG NrdKUolNrdKUom;awGeJY rdbawGudkvJ ulnD&ma&mufatmif ynmtvif;zGifhay;ygq&m&,f... tm;vHk;u0rf;omMurSmyg}} arcsKwNYkd rKd Uav;rSm pD;yGm;jzpfoabmeJY ]]usL&Si}f } qdwm d k vJ r&Sdygbl;? awmifolv,form; ,morm;om;orD;awGu trsm;pkrdkY aiGaMu;vJcsrf;omMuvSw,fr[kwfavawmh pD;yGm; a&;orm;awGuvJ usL&SifrzGihfvSpfMuygbl;? 'DtajctaerSmyJ usL&Sifav;wpfckawmh&Sdaew,f/ oluvJ 0efxrf;wpfOD;ygyJ? 0efxrf;i,fav;yg? ocsFm? "gwk? ½ly? ZD0bmom&yfudkjyw,f? t*Fvypmygjyoay;w,f? olwpfO;D wnf;eJqawmh b,fv,f d f Y kd G yghrvJ? olu t*Fvdyfpmukd tuRrf;BuD;r[kwfzl;? bmom&yf tm;vH;k twGuf t.x.u ausmif;Bu;D u q&m? q&mrawGu oifjyay;vduwpmawGukd oluxyfraEG;ay;wJoabm pmaus k f hJ H h atmifqwoabmeJY usL&SiqNkd y;D ajym&wmyg/ xyfroifay;wJh kd hJ f H oabmygyJ...ydkufqHav;rjzpfpavmufyJ,lNyD; apwemeJY oifay;aewmyg/ 'Drm arcsKd uq&mhukd wkuwe;f csiwmuawmh t*Fvyf S d f G f d bmomudkjyay;zdkYyJjzpfygw,f/ ausmif;BuD;u q&m? q&mr awGoifjyay;vkdufwmrSefayrJh taMumif;aMumif;aMumifh em;r&Sif; rodwmav;awGudk jyefar;zkdYusawmh q&m? q&mr awGukd aMumufpwu&Sao;wmr[kwvm;...tJ'gukd usL&Sif d f d f 126 127 Handbook-66
  • 67. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol rSmjyay;vkuwtcg olwav;awG em;vnfwwfajrmufom;Mu d f hJ Ydk G &atmifaygh...}} [k arcsKduajymjyaeygonf/ ]]jyay;yg udkav;&,f...orD;wkdYq,fwef;a&muf awmhrSmrkdY ydkaumif;wmaygh...tm;udk;ygw,f q&mBuD; OD;&JjrifhvdIif&Sifh}} [k rdvdIifuygxyfqifh wkdufwGef;vmcJhonf/ ]]usL&Sifjy&vkdY armyrf;cJh...anmif;nmudkufcJvmcJh vm&ifawmh rdvieif;ay;&rSmaemf}} [k uReawmfpç cJjh zpfonf/ Id f f ]]tr,fav;...'gav;rsm;...nDtpfroH;k a,muf wpfa,mufwpfvSnhfpD eif;ay;OD;rSm? zsm;emudkufcJ&ifvJ ryl eJY/ azaz ararwkdYu usef;rma&;0efxrf;yJOpöm? aq;awGvJ &Sdw,f/ aq;vJxkd;ay;OD;rSm....}} [lí vdIif? ckdif? BudKifwkdYu ndEi;f xm;onhtvm; oHNyKd i[pfa<u;vkYd vmcJao;awmhonf/ § Id f f h arcsKd uRefawmfhrsufESmudk tuJcwfMunhfaecJhrSef; uRefawmfodaeygonf/ uRefawmhfxJrS a&&maocsmaom oltvdk&Sdjzpfapcsifonfh qE´twkdif;jzpfaprnhf pum;oHukd arQmfvifhapmifhpm;[efjyum&SdaecJhonfudk uRefawmfjrifae& ygonf/ ]]aumif;Nyav...tvSL'geqkwm tvSLcHwy*Kd¾ vu D d hJ k f vkdtyfvkdY tvSLchvmcJhNyDqkdrSawmh ay;vSLoluvJ pdwfqE´ aumif;aumif;eJY vSLwwf&rSmaygh/ 'grSvJ tvSLcHoleJY vSL'gef; ol ,loleJYay;ol ukodkvfppfppfjzpf&NyD; qkawmif;awGjynhfpHk &wmr[kwvm;...wuúov0ifwef; (10) wef;udk t*Fvyf f kd f d pmjyay;yghr,f/ arcsKdyJ pDpOfaqmif&Gufay;ygav...}} uRefawmfajymjzpfcJhygNyD/ ]]a[;...'grS 'kuav;uG? OD;&Ju?G OD;&Jjrifviwa[h Yd kd h Id f hJ ...}} nDtpfroHk;azmfwkdYtoHESifhtwl arcsKdMunfvif &Tijf yaeaom cspMf uifp&mrsuEmav;udk uReawmftxl;owd f S f xm;rdjrifaerdcJh&avonf/ xkdaeYunaeydkif;wGif arcsKdUudk nDtpfroHk;azmfESifh reDvmwkdYu arcsKdUtdrfodkY vkdufygydkYaqmifcJhMuonf/ NrdKUe,fynma&;rSL;BuD;uvnf; armacsmif;odkY a&vm csKd;&if; uRefawmfhxHa&mufcJh? usL&Sifjyay;rnfhtaMumif;odcJh awmh... ]]aus;Zl;txl;wifygw,f OD;&J&,f...zGUH NzKd ;rIenf;ae ao;wJh 'De,fajrav;ukd ydrzUHG NzKd ;wk;d wufvm&avatmif pGr;f k dk aqmifay;r,fh trsK;d om;aumif; q&maumif;wpfO;D ay:xGuf vkdYvmcJh&NyDrkdY uRefawmf0rf;omw,f/ uRefawmfu xD;vif;NrdKU om;ppfppfrkdY Zmwdajrudk ydkrkdwkd;wufvmapcsifwmuawmh aepOfeJYtrQ jzpfae&olygyJ/ aus;Zl;awGtrsm;BuD; aeYwkdif; wifaerd&rSmygyJAsm/ arcsKUd udvJ Ek;d Mum;wuf<uwJh NrKd Ue,f*Pf k k udk NrKd Ue,ftusK;d udaqmifotjzpfeYJ cs;D usL;rd&ao;&JUAsm...}} k l vdIufvdIufvSvSJ&SdvSaom? tm;yg;w&&SdvSaom? [ef yeftrlt&mrsm;jzifh ½dk;om;yGifhvif;vSNyD; [efaqmifyefaqmif pum;wkdYukd tydkrajymwwfaom ynma&;rSL;BuD; &ifxJu 128 129 Handbook-67
  • 68. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol pum;oHu apwemjynh0vSonhf oabmtm;uReawmfwuf f f G qrdum pmoifay;&rnfudk uRefawmfawG;vsuf aysmfaerdcJh &ygonf/ wjznf;jznf;ESifhodí odívmcJh&if;u wu,fwrf; owå K csMunh f r d a wmh awmif o l v ,f o rm; ausmif ; ol ausmif;om;0efxrf;i,fav;rsm;ygrusef av;pm;tm;udk;cspf Munf&if;ESD;rIudk &mcdkifEIef;jynhf&ap&atmif tusKd;jyKjynfolY 0efxrf;aumif;wpfOD;? twk,lbG,f&myk*¾dKvfwpfOD;tjzpf jzpfvmap&ef aqmifMuOf;ay;cJholrSm arcsKdomjzpfayonf/ taMumif;&if;rSefrSm &efukef(½Hk;csKyf)odkY arcsKdUtm; wm0efwpfckjzifh uRefawmfapvTwfcJh&onf/ wm0efjzifhoGm; a&mufc&pOf arcsKonfazmfjyyg ynma&;rSL;Bu;D tpfuawmf hJ d dk nTeMf um;a&;rSL;Bu;D xH a&mufcawGUqHconf/ aqGrsK;d &if;vnf; hJ k hJ jzpfí xknerLS ;Bu;D tdrwiyif wpfnwmtdyc&ao;onf/ d T f f G f f hJ xkdnu xD;vif;NrdKUe,ftaMumif;rsm;? olwkdYaqGrsKd;rdwfo*F[ wkdY taMumif;rsm;? ajymMuar;MuESifh &SdaecJh&onf/ xkd taMumif;cHrsm;rS arcsKonf ole,fajr? olNY rKd Utm; ydrw;dk wuf d Y k dk apvkdaom&nf&G,fqE´ jyif;jyrIrsm;tm; nTefrSL;BuD;udkajym Mum;cJhonf/ arwåm&yfcHcJhonf/ nTefrSL;BuD;uvnf; tm;& ESpfoufvsuf pDpOfaqmifMuOf;rIaMumifhvnf; uRefawmfonf usL&Siq&mb0jzpfvmcJ&onfukd uReawmfovmcJ&ayonf/ f h f d h þodkYESifh ta&GUpGrf;tm;jzifh uRefawmfonf EdkifiHh 0efxrf;vnf;jzpf? e,frd e,fz NrdKUrd NrdKUz trsm;jynfolawmif ol,mvkyf0g;rckwftygt0if vlwef;pm;tvTmtoD;oD;wdkY om;i,f orD;i,f tem*wfEdkifiHawmfBuD; vli,fvl&G,f ausmif;olausmif;om;taygif;twGuf tm;xm;rSc&mopfwpf D kd yif jzpfvmcJh&onf/ opfwpfyifaumif;awmh iSufwpfaomif; udk em;EdkifapcJh&onf/ usL&Sifq&mb0 wpfzufwpfvrf;u xrf;cJh&onf/ usL&Siq&mqdayrJh uReawmfuawmh pD;yGm;a&;usL&Sif f k f q&m? tojymusL&Siq&m r[kwcyg/ uReawmfonf aiGaMu; f f hJ f wpfjym;wpfcsyfrQudkvnf; vufrcHcJh? r,lcJh? arwåm apwem jzLpifpmjzifh tusK;d aqmifumjyocJaom ]]tcrJh usL&Siq&m}} G h f om jzpfygonf/ ]]aMomf...ta&GUpGrf;tm;um; wefbdk;rsm;jym;vS aypGwum;.../ 130 131 wm0efawGMum;u *kPfjr§ifhol ]]vlESifhemrnfjzpfa&;xuf emrnfESifhvljzpfvmapa&; udk BuKd ;yrf;tm;xkwoifw,fr[kwvm; q&m}}...[k arcsKu f h f d ajymcJhzl;ygonf/ ar;vmcJhzl;ygonf/ wpfzefvnf; ]]ynmwwf&if vlawmf? tusihfpm&dwå aumif;&ifvlaumif;? vlawmfvJjzpfvlaumif;vJjzpfwJh OD;&JyJ Opöm}} ...wJh/ olpum;rsm;udk tav;teufxm;í pOf;pm;rd&wdkif; arcsKudk uReawmfav;pm;rd&onf/ uReawmfuum; av;pm; d f f dk Handbook-68
  • 69. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ,HkMunfolrsm;twGuf uRefawmfBudK;pm;aqmif&Gufay;&yg onf/ tdrfuay (40_60) tjynhfeD;yg;aqmufvkyfxm;aom ESpfxyfwdkufcHtdrfBuD;jzpfonf/ atmufxyfwpfckvHk;onf usL&Sifcef;rBuD;yifjzpfum rD;zdkaqmifu oD;oefYjzpfonf/ usK&Si fq&m rdom;pkuvnf; oabmaumif; Muonf/ uRefawmfusL&SifodkYtvm pmrjyrD pm;p&mwpfckckESihfa&aEG; Murf;udk tNrJpDpOfzefwD;ay;xm;avhvnf;&Sdonf? ynma&;udk tm;ay;Muaom rdom;pkvnf;jzpfavonf/ uReawmfukd OD;pm;ay;um ½H;k zGi&ufqvQif ½H;k qif;Ny;D f fh kd aemufnae (4;15) em&DwGif uRefawmfusL&Sif0if&onf/ wpfem&Dwdwdjyay;&onf/ (5;15) qkdvQif uRefawmfucsdefNyD; NyD/ (15) rdepfem;csdef&aom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;u rlvusL&Sifq&mu (5;30)em&DwGif jyefpNyD; (6;30)em&DcefY wGif wpfaeYwmusL&SifcsdefNyD;pD;onf/ odkYjzpfaomaMumihf uRefawmfonf ½Hk;qif;cJhonfESihf aexdkif&mtdrfodkY rjyefEdkifawmh? usL&Sifjyo&onfhtdrfokdY oGm; &awmhonf/ pae? we*FaEGESihf wjcm;½Hk;ydwf&ufrsm;wGif rlvusL &Sifq&mu "gwk? ½ly? ZD0? ocsFmbmom&yfwdkYudk tpDtpOfcGJ xm;onfhtwdkif;jyonf/ (3)em&Dtcsdef,lonf/ uRefawmf onfvnf;tvm;wl (3)em&Djy&onf/ tm;&yg;&jzpfMu& onf/ olu eHeufydkif; (9-12)em&Dtxd,lonf/ uRefawmf u(3-6)em&Dtxdjzpfonf/ uReawmfwusL&Siwif ausmif;ol f Ykd f G ausmif;om;aygif; (60)ausm&avonf/ txufwef;ausmif; f dS awmfBu;D rS ausmif;olausmif;f om;rsm;tjyif wuúov0ifwef; kd f ESpEp½;kH ? oH;k ESp½;kH olav;ig;OD;vnf; usL&SiovmwufMuonf/ f S f f f Ykd usL&Sifq&mrjzpfrDuawmh ½Hk;ESihftdrf? tdrfESihf½Hk;om jzpfygonf/ ,cktrl ½H;k rSusL&Si?f usL&Sirtrjf zpfc&awmhonf/ f S d hJ uRefawmfhrSm tem;&csdef[lí r&SdvSawmh? odkYjzpfí tcsdefwdkY uvnf; ukefrSef;rodukefvGefovkdjzpf&awmhonf/ bmyJjzpf jzpf uRefawmfaysmf&ygonf/ yifyef;onf[lírajymrd? NrdKUe,f ygwDaumifpDtmPmydkiftzGJUtpnf;rsm;u yk*d¾KvfBuD;rsm;ESihf NrdKUrdNrdKUz ausmif;olausmif;om;rdbrsm;wdkYuvnf; 0rf;om tm;&aumif;cs;D ay;Muojzihf uReawmfrsm;pGm ydwjd zpfr&ygonf/ f d onfoaomvky&yftwGuvnf; twdi;f rod aysm&iauseyf Ykd f f k f T f rd&ygonf/ þodkY aysmf&Tifauseyfaerd&onhfMum;rSmyif tcuf tcJwpfcsKdUudk tqifajypGmajz&Sif;Edkif&atmifvnf; tawmf BudK;pm;,l&wwfygonf/ EkdifiHh0efxrf;yDopGmESifh NrdKUe,fXme wpfck tBuD;tuJyDopGm rjzpfraevkdufygaqmif&Guf&jcif; rsm;vnf; &S&BuKH &ygonf/ ygwDaumifpwrS tcgtm;avsmpm d D Ydk f G ay;tyfvmonfh wm0efrsm;u&Sdacsao;/ ygwDrl0g'rsm;ESifh tnD NrdKUe,fwGifaus;&Gmtkyfpkrsm;wGif awmifolv,form; a&;&m&ufwkdoifwef;udpörsm; zGifhvSpf&mü Xmeqkdif&mtBuD; 132 133 Handbook-69
  • 70. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol tuJrsm;taejzifh tcsdefydkif;oifwef;ydkYcsa[majymay;&jcif; vnf;yg0if/ xkdaus;&GmqDodkY oGm;a&muf&/ awmifol v,form;wkdYuvnf; Xmeqkdif&mtBuD;tuJrsm;udk rysuf ruGufvmapvkdMu/ XmeBuD;uJrsm;rS a[majymydkYcscsufrsm; udk iHhvifhMu/ A[kokwrsm;&&Sdapí tvGefESpfoufoabm usMuay/ uReawmf a[majymydcscsursm;udk vGepmrSpw0if f Yk f f G d f wpm;&SMd u oabmusEpoufMuojzifh aumif;owif;u ysUH ESUH S f &um tjcm;aomaus;&Gmtkyfpkrsm;wGif usif;yonhftcgü vnf; a&Smif;vTír&wwf/ uReawmhu,pm; 'k NrKd Ue,fO;D pD;rSL; J f f dk f arcsKdtm;apvTwf&efrSmvnf; olrrSmrdef;rom;jzpfaeojzifh rvTwf&uf? udk,fwkdifomtepfemcHjzpf&ayawmh/ onf ae&mwGif ntdyfnaec&D;jzpf&onfhtcg oifwef;usif;y onhfaus;&Gmrsm;u ydkíoabmusMuacs/ ,if;um; nydkif; wG i f * D w tEk y nmazsmf a jza&;ud k qif E T J & jcif ; yif j zpf / oifwef;zGifhí a[majymydkYcs&rnfqkduwnf;u xkdaus;&GmrS aus;&GmvlBuD;rsm;u uRefawmfwkdYtEkynmypönf;rsm;jzpf onhf r,f'vif? wa,m? 'Hkrif;wkdYukd BudKwifumawmif;qkdzdkY ,laqmifoGm;MuNyD;vnf;jzpfonf/ olwkdY&Gmü wpfyGJwpfvrf; azsmfajzay;Mu&/ pyDumESifh rkdufu½dkzkef;ESifh wpf&GmvHk;u em;qifMuavonf/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh pmoifausmif;wGif usi;f ywwfavh&&m &GmrS&mol&mom;wku pk½;kH umvma&muf dS G G Yd em;qifMu/ olwkdYawmif;qkdvmaom oDcsif;rsm;udkvnf; wD;ay;&qkday;&onf/ tauR;tarG;um; tvQHty,f? ,r umqkdonfrSmvnf; ajymp&mrvkd/ v,fpu&i;f refae*smBu;D ? ukeo,v,f,mrefae*sm dk f S f G f ESihf uReawmfwum; oifwif½r0MJ uonf/ *kPoumtwGuf f Ydk h h kH DS f d © iJh&xnhfwGufMu&onf/ &Gmuawmh vGefpGmrSESpfoufoabm usMuavonf/ xk*wtEkynmaMumifvnf; trsm;uwrf;w d D h Muonfjzpfí arcsKdUudkapvTwfí rjzpf&jcif;ygay/ xkoaom&ufrsK;d wGif uReawmfusL&Siuzsu&onf/ d Ykd f h f kd f rlvusL&Sifq&mu tcsdefykdí&ayonf/ uRefawmfNrdKUokdY jyefa&mufvmcJhvQif rlvusL&Sifq&muvnf; uRefawmfh twGuf nd§EIdif;umtpm;jyefjznfhay;ygonf/ wpfOD;ESifh wpfOD; um; em;vnfrI&SdMuavonf/ þrQomruao; aph p yf a ocsmtm;uk d ; &onh f o l tjzpfESifh tvGefwm0efBuD;vSaomwm0efukdvnf; ay;xm; ao;onf/ NrdKUe,fa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyGJqkdif&mESifh ywfouf um ]]Mum;jzwfa&G;cs,f wifajr§mufyGJusif;ya&;aumfr&Sif}} twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf uRefawmfwm0efxrf;&ao;onf/ xkdYtjyif &moDOwkom,maom aqmif;ESifh aEG&moDwkdYwGif aus;&Gmrsm;odkY ]]ppfaMumif;BuD;ig;aMumif;}} qif;&mwGifvnf; vkdufyg&ao;onf/ onfodkYaom uRefawmfhtaetxm; ta&;ygaerI udk arcsKdu*kPf,lonf/ aus;&GmtoD;oD;okdYa&mufwkdifvnf; arcsKdUoli,fcsif;rsm;u uRefawmfhtm;vma&mufawGUqHkavh&Sd 134 135 Handbook-70
  • 71. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol Muonf/ olYoli,fcsif;rsm;um; tcsKdUuausmif;q&m? q&mr rsm;jzpfaeMuovkd aumifpDpma&;rsm;vnf;&SdMuonf/ vkdtyf onfrsm;udk tultnDay;wwfMuonf/ xkdYaMumifhvnf; uRefawmfonfydkíaysmfygonf/ aysmfaerd&ygavonf/ uRefawmfhqE´wpfckjzpfaom olwkdYudk,folwkdY ]]ysL}} [k ,HkMunf,lqaeMuonfh ]]awmifom;}} aus;&Gmrsm;tm;vHk;udk uReawmfa&mufEiconf/ xD;vif;NrKd Ue,ftwGi;f awmifom; f dk f hJ aus;&Gm (23) &Gm&Sdonf/ ,if;&Gmrsm;tm;vHk;odkY uRefawmf a&mufcJhavhvmcJhjzpf&onfrSmvnf; uRefawmfhtwGuf wefzkd; jzwfír&Ekdifonhf tawGUtBuHKvnf;jzpf&ayofn/ pmwrf; wpfckudkvnf; a&;om;jyKpkjzpf&avonf/ xkpOf&ufrsm;wGif arcsKonf uReawmftwGuta&; d d f h f tBu;D qH;k aomoljzpfvm&onf/ uReawmhae&mtm;tpm;xk;d f f wm0efxrf;aqmifay;&onf/ c&D;rSjyefa&mufvmonhftcg tppt&m&m taxGaxGt&yf&yfukd aeYpGJESifhwuG jyefvnf wifjy&Sif;jyay;onf/ olYudkuRefawmfwu,fcsD;usL;jzpf&yg onf/ olronf vGefpGmtvkdufodí wm0efvnf;aus/ ]],HMk unfpwcsw,fqwm ol½;kd om;rIu,MkH unfw,f/ d f dk Y kd pdwcsr,fqwmu uReawmhwm0ef vkyief;rsm;pGmukd vTxm; f dk f f f J vk&w,f/ ,HMk unfwmu pm&dweqiw,/f pdwcsw,fqwm Yd å YJ dk f f dk u t&nftcsif;eJY qkdifw,f...}} okdYuvkd uRefawmfuajymwkdif;vnf;...]]q&mu odypum;ajymaumif;w,faemf...vlawGukd em;cHomatmif f auseyfaeatmifqaqmifEipr;f wu,f&wmtrSeyrYdk arcsKd JG dk f G dS f J u twk,lae&wm}} [k tarmajyatmif ESpfodrfhay;wwfol yifjzpfonf/ uRefawmfuvnf; arcsKdajymvmcJhrIudk auseyf aerdwwfavonf/ trSefawmh arcsKdUpdwf"gwfonf rGefjrwf aompdwf"mwfrsKd;jzpfavonf/ pae? we*FaEG ½Hk;ydwf&ufwdkYwGif uRefawmfusL&Sifjy &modYk &Hzef&cg arcsKa&mufvmwwfao;onf/ olrbrsm;udpö H d Y d aqGa&;rsK;d a&; bmoma&; oma&;ema&;udpjö zihf vrf;BuKH vQif 0ifvmwwfjcif;yifjzpfonf/ uRefawmpmoifjyaeqJ aemuf qHk;twef;&SdxkdifcHkwGif xkdifumoifMum;aerIudk avhvmae wwfao;onf/ usL&SifpmoifcsdefNyD;onftxd apmihfqdkif;ae wwfonf/ pmoifom;wdkYvnf;tdrftjyef olY&yfuGufxJu ausmif;olav;awGEifh vufwum uReawmftm;vnf; oltrf S JG f Y d okdYvkdufyg yg&ef tddrfvnfac:wwfonf/ olwdkYESifhtwltkef;EdkY acgufqGJ? rkefY[if;cg;? aumufn§if;aygif;? qDxrif; ponfjzifh wpfckr[kwfwpfckckawmh auR;arG;zdkY&mjzpfavonf/ wpfcg wpf&Hawmhvnf; uRefawmfwpfOD;wnf;jzpfwwfavonf/ wpfaeY ]]q&m jzpf&wmvJrvG,fbl;aemf}} [k arcsKdu ajym vmcJhygonf/ ]]tif;...udk,feJYnDtpfudkvkdcif...ukd,fxuf(2)ESpfapmNyD; bGJU&oGm;wJh pDyGm;a&;wuúokdvf arcaqmifausmif;om;BuD; ayghav? olu rEÅav;Zmwdaygh/ oltazudk arcsKdvJMum;zl; 136 137 Handbook-71
  • 72. 138 udka,m (abm*aA') NyD;om;jzpfoGm;rSmyg/ q&mBuD;jrauwkav? trnft&if;u OD;csrfajrUwJh? jrefrmpmygarmu©BuD;yg/ q&mBuD; qDa&mufcJh pOfu q&mBuD;uolYtawGYtBuKHudk ajymjy&if;rSm ukd,frSwf om;xm;cJhzl;&wJh pum;av;wpfcGef;ygyJ... ...bmwJh...q&mqkdwm ]]emoHk;em}}wJh apwem? tepfem? 0goemwJh b,furvJwJh/ emoHk;emtjyif pmzwfem tMuifemwnf;[laom ]]emig;em}}tjyif toHem wpfckwkd;NyD; ]]emajcmufem}}jzpf&w,fwJh... uRefawmhpum;rqHk;ao; odkYayrJh arcsKduajymvmcJh onf/ ]]'gaMumihfrdkYxifyg&JU q&mOD;&JjrihfvIdif emrnfausmf &wm? tajymtqdkuvnf;aumif;? Opömayg ½kyfacsm t&m&Sd vJjzpfjyefqdkawmh t[rf;...t[rf;...pmay;pm,leJYbGJU,l Mur,fh pmay;pm,lajzqkdaeqJ q&mrav;awGuvJ tdrfudk pmvmar;Muw,fMum;yg&JU...'gaMumihf arcsKdu wpfckxyf jznfpuumajymcsiw,f... 'gubmvJqawmh ]]tMuifem}} ukd hG f f dk EG,fNyD; ]]tcspfem}} r&ygapeJYvdkY}}... ]]tk...arcsK&,f...rajymaumif;bl;av...}} [k d d olYbkruswus ceJYwJhwJhpum;qkdcJhrItm; uRefawmf þrQom ajymrdcJhonf/ oltwGif;pdwfudkvnf; vSpf[ovkdjzpfvmcJh &onfudk uRefawmfowdxm;jrifvmrdcJh&avonf/ olYpum;u rukefao;? qufvmcJhjyefao;onf/ ]]tvGrf;emuvJ &Sdao;w,fxifaygh...a'gufwm *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 139 rav;qkdvm;...&efukefupmwpfapmifvJ a&mufvmcJhw,f qkdyJ tdrfvdyfpmeJY a&mufvmwmwJh...}} ]]tif;...tJ'grS 'ku©rS wu,fh'ku©jzpfNyD/ i&JawG awmhBuD;ukefawmhrSmyJ...usm;awGvJ udkufcHae&OD;r,f a':arcsKd&JU...rQpfcsKd;rdI&Sm roGm;aveJYOD;aemf...}} onfoE,f cyfjrefjrefcyfqwfqwfuav; uReawmf Ykd S f ajymjzpfcJhonf/ ]]rodvkdYyg q&mBuD;&,f...'Du wynhfrarcsKdu tvkdufrodovdkjzpf&w,fxifygh? q&mrBudKuf&if arcsKd rçp awmhygbl;av...}} ]]tif;...ajymjyw,f/ tjrifrm; txifrm;olBu;D a&U S S ...od v m;? aocsmem;axmif ? tMuif e mqk d w J h p um;eJ Y pyfvsOf;vm&if odxm;apcsifoltwGuf odxm;oifhNyDqkdwJh tcseusawmh odap&r,fpum;wpfce;f udk uReawmftMuifem d f h G f tjynfheJYajymjyEkdifbdkY ajymjzpfbkdY&Sdygw,fav/ ckawmh ckcsdef xdawmh uRefawmhf&ifxJrSm apmihfpnf;ae&wJhtodpdwfeJY ude;f atmifumae&ao;wmrsK;d eJY odr;f qnf;xm;ae&qJygyJ...}} tMuifemudk zGitrdawmhrS trke;f emwkYd toJ (onf;) hf emwkdYqkdwmrsKd;eJY BuHKqHkvmzG,f&mtjzpfrsKd;udk uRefawmfcHpm; Ekdifr,frxifvkdYyg/ i,fpOfcav;b0wkef;u udk,fESpfoufoabmuswJh ,rif;½kyav;wpfcukd olrsm;awG0,f,om;rSmpd;k vkYd ]]0,fay; f k l G jrefjref0,fay;}} qkdwm twif;ylqm idkjy&wmrsKd;awmifjzpfcJh Handbook-72
  • 73. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol &&JU? ckawmhvJ pOf;pm;csifhcsdefwwfwJh t&G,feJYtodu tirf; r&oabmeJYjzpfap? tcGifhomvkdYjzpfap tvQiftjrefodrf;ydkuf &,lvkdpdwfeJY rawmif;qkdr,ljzpf&wJh pdwfrsKd;jzpfaerd&w,f/ cav;b0uawmh ,rif;½kyfuav;&vmvkdY aysmf&TifpGmjzpf& qJrSm ,rif;½kyfuav;rSm tjzpftemtqmawGUw,fqkdNyD; qkdif&SifudktopfwpfckeJY vJvS,fay;ygvdkYajymvdkY...qdkif&Sif uvJ cav;rdvqNdk y;D cGivwumtopfwpfck jyefay;vk&yg&JU Yk Ykd hf T f Yd ...jyefay;wwfMuyg&JU.../ 'Dtouft&G,frSmawmh upm;p&mt½kyfr[kwfwJh Muifemol,rif;½kyujkd zifh tcsewav;wpfctwGi;f oabmrsK;d f d f dk k eJYomjzpfaeao;avwmuwpfaMumif;? cav;wGvdk tvk t,ufoabmrsKd;eJYawmhvJ &,lvkdpdwfrjzpfvkdwmuwpf aMumif;aMumifh udk,fhukd,fudkEIwfukdapmihfpnf; pdwfudkapmifh pnf; cE¨mudk,fudkapmifhpnf;vkdY aeaejzpf&wmyg/ rrkef;ayr,fh emoGm;cJhMu&r,fhtjzpfrsKd; b0rsKd;udkvJ rjzpf a pcsif b l ; / rjrif & wJ h B ud K ;wpf B ud K ;[m bmyJ j zpf j zpf qufwHk;ygwJhBudK;rsKd;ukdvJ rvkdvm;bl;/ rjzpfapcsifbl;qkdyg awmh.../ at;av...uk,eteD;qH;k vlurS uk,uem;vnfrI d f YJ d hf kd r&Sc&if? ud,uraumif;jrifoabmeJY b,foawGu bmawG d hJ k hf kd l b,favmufajymvkdufMurvJqkdwm awG;rd&if; pdwfylyefrd& ao;yg&JU...&Sdygapav...vlwpfOD;&JU*kPfodu©mqkdwm vQKdU0SufESvHk;om;vdkY ajym&avrvm;...NyD;awmh ESvHk;om;eJY pyfvsOf;vm&if tMuifemcGeftm;qkdwm vlom;wkdif;&JU arG;&m ygpGrf;tifwpfrsKd;yg...MuifemvdkwJh pdwfuwm;rEkdifqD;r& ESpO;D ESpzuf wlnrQwhJ pyfwu,wl vufw&ifqiEir,fol f f D l kd f JG dk f dk f h jzpfzkdY[mta&;BuD;vSygw,f/ tod&cufwJh ESvHk;om;[m tifrwefwefbdk;xm;wwfzkdYvkdyg&JU arcsKd&,f.../ ]]tk...OD;&J&,f..aqm&D;D aemf q&m? arcsKUd udrsm;pGm d k cGifhvTwfyg? qE´aZmwpfckeJY ajymcJhrd&jcif;u tjypfjzpfoGm;& NyrYkd pdwraumif;awmifjzpfvmrd&ygw,fq&m...q&majym D f aecJ h w J h p um;awG u wu,f h b 0pum;awG q k d w mod & NyD ; wu,fhukdq&mhudk av;pm;vmrd&wmtrSefygyJ/ ajymcJhrdwJh pum;awGtwGuf uefawmhaemfq&m...}} arcsKdvuftkyfcsD[efjyKvsuf uRefawmfhudkMunhfum awmif;yef&Smygonf/ ]]MunfjzLwJtodeYJ arcsKUd uduReawmf tjypfrwif&uf h k f ygbl;av? wu,fawmh arcsKqwm ta&mifvif;vufawmuf d kd yavh&SdwJh ywåjrm;wpfvHk;udk ydkrkdwefzdk;jrifhvmap&atmif tpOftNrJta&mifwifay;aeol uRefawmfh&mxl;*kPfodef*kPf &Sdefjrifhrm;vmap&atmif BuHaqmifBudK;yrf;aewJh tusKd; aqmifay;aeolayyJav...wm0efawGMum;u arcsKd&JUrem; raeapwemawGeJY *kPfydkrkdwufap&atmif *kPf&Sdefukdjr§ifhay; aewJtwGuvJ arcsKUd uduReawmf *kP,aevQuygqkwmudk h f k f f l f d ,HkygarcsKd&,f...}} onfodkYES,f uRefawmfarcsKdUtm; wHkYjyefrd&yg/ 140 141 Handbook-73
  • 74. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ]aMomf...q&m&,f... cdkifcHhwJh tkwfjrpfudk csNyD;rS wpfqifhNyD;wpfqifh? wpfxyfNyD;wpfxyf jrifhoxufjrifhatmif jrifaeatmif wnfaqmuf&r,fav... 'grS wd;k wufatmif h jrifwhJ vlaumif;vlawmfwpfa,muf odr[kwf NrKd Ue,fwpfe,f Yk EdkifiHawmfwpfcktjzpf ydkrdkwifhw,f *kPfjrifhvmrSmbJ r[kwf bl;vm;...vdkY...} azmfjyyg arhcsK wefb;kd &Svaompum;wdk pum;rsm; d d S udk Mum;&aom uRefawmf... ]][kwf...[kwf...a':arMunfvGifcsKd}}[k ajymrd avonfukd oljrifconf/ rsuarSmifMuKwvmvsuEihf oljyef hJ f f f S ajymvdkufyHku... ]][if;...aemf...q&m tajymaumif;Bu;D *kPBf u;D olBuD;&JU...}}[lownf;/ qpfcsKd; tajymif;tvJtjzpf ajray:ygwDtjzpf &yfwnfcGifh r&aomtcg ajratmufawmcdygwDtjzpf vufeufpuium k JG kd f aomif;usef;vmcJhMuonfh uGefjrLepfESifh aomif;usef;olordkif; um; Mumavav qd;k avavjzpfvmcJ&avonf/ awmifue;f h k awmifwef; awmifpOftxyfxyfrsm;wGif vQKdajrmifpdrfhprf;rsm; aygrsm;um obm0opfyif opfawmBuD;rsm; xlxyfzHk;vTrf; vsu&&m yHawmifynm&yf0ef;a'oBu;D um; emrnfausma'o f dS k kH f Bu;D wpfcyif jzpfonf/ awmifwef;Bu;D awGujrifh awmBu;D jruf k rnf; awm&dyfawmif&dyfuBuD;onfhtjyif qufoG,foGm;vm a&;u tvGecufcc&onf/ ajrjyefa'owdEihf taepdr;f ovdk f J hJ Y Yk S jzpfcJh&wm zGHUNzdK;rIenf;cJh&aom a'owpfckjzpfcJh&onf/ ajr jyefYu nDaemifom;csif;wdkYvnf; ta&muftayguf enf;cJh& onf/ a&mifpHkaomif;usef;olykefwdkYonf yHkawmifyHknma'o BuD;rsm; cdkatmif;BuD;pdk;rif;rlí tvGefaumif;onfh e,fajr BuD;tjzpf tm;xm;um aexdkifvmcJhMuonf/ 1948 ckESpf? ESpfOD;ydkif;rSpwifí awmwGif;oHk;ygwDwdkY yHkawmifyHknmwnf&Sd&m&yf0ef; a,me,fajra'oudk a&muf&Sd cJMh uonf/ tEkEitMurf;yHptrsK;d rsK;d jzihf pnf;½H;k rIatmufwif S fh k H G tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwDonf bD;vif;NrdKUe,ftwGif; tiftm;t aumif;qHk;taetxm;okdY a&muf&SdcJhavonf/ 1949 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmvwGif xD;vif;NrdKUtm; tvHeDwkdYu pD;eif;wkdufckdufodrf;ydkufEkdifcJhNyD; wpfvcefYpdk;rkd;cJh onftxdjzpfcJh&onf/ (1954-55) ckESpfceYfwGif tvHeDwkdY tiftm;taumif;qHk;tajctaeodkY a&muf&SdcJhonf/ 142 jrefrmhordkif;pmrsufESmay:u ]]qifpG,f&GmvlowfuGif;}}qD ]]'dkYrsKd;qufoufwrf;rSmawmh vmprf;a[h xyfrH aomif;usef; rvGwfwrf; azmfxkwfvdkY wjyKwfaqmfr,f...}} rsufESmaMum vnfyif;aMumBuD;awG axmifvsuf rausreyf tm;rmefcJ aowGif;xJrS vGwfajrmufcJhol tb OD;atmifcdkifu jrefrmhordkif;wGif emrnfqdk;ESifh pwif&atmif ½ki;f pdi;f ,kwrmcJMh uonfh aomif;use;f olawGtaMumif;udk ajym d k f jyvmcJhonf/ jrefrmEdiiH uGejf rLepfygwD pwifvmcJjh cif;rsm;ESihf wpf k f 143 Handbook-74
  • 75. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol (1956) ckESpfwGif wyfrawmfonf a,me,fajrrsm; twGif;&Sd aomif;usef;olwkdYtm; ]]atmifrmC}} ppfqifa&; xkd;ppfjzifhpwifacsrIef;wkdufckdufonf/ MunfndKESpfvkdír[kwf bJ taMumufw&m;jzifhay;cJh? auR;cJh? aeaecJhMu&aom? eD;&m "g;udkaMumuf&GHUum aexkdifcJhMu&aom a,me,fajr&Gmtrsm; u &Gmol&mom;wkonf wyfrawmfEihf vufwnwyg0ifunD G Yd S JG D l l um tvHewtm;wkucuvmEkicMhJ uawmhonf/ wyfrawmf D Ydk d f dk f d f aMumifh tm;rmefwkdYEdk;Mum;vmcJhMu&awmhonf/ taMumif;r&Sd tjypf&Sm vnfpif;um"g;jzifh tckwf cH&? BudK;ESifhwkyfum rwfwyfa&m? ikwfwkwfyg paw;cHMu& aom &Gmol&Gmom;wkdYb0u rQpfcsKd;? rdI&Sm? xif;ckwf0g;ckwfESifh v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;tvkyfudkyif aumif;aumif;rvkyf&JcJhMu/ wxdwfxdwfwvefYvefY usD;vefYpmpm;b0rsm;jzifh aeYnrsm; pGm vrsm;pGm ESpfrsm;pGmudk ukefvGefum vlYb0wefbkd;r&Sd/ tvHewYdk ESypufonh'PftrsK;d rsK;d cHaeMu&onhb0u tqd;k D d f f f &Gm;qHk; tajctaeodkY a&muf&SdvmaeMu&onfvnf; jzpfae& awmhonf/ wpfaeY...xkdwpfaeYum; (1960 ckESpf? {NyDv (27) &ufaeY/ jrefrmouú&mZf (1322) ck? uqkefvqef; (3) &uf) Ak'¨[l;aeYjzpfonf/ wyfrawmf (109) 0,f&if; ,leDazmif;0wf ta,mif aqmiftvHeDwkdYu qifpG,f&GmxJ0ifcJhNyD/ wyfrawmfqkduf*kdPf zrf;NyD; &Gmudkvnf; olwkdYu0dkif;xm;cJhMuNyD/ ]]awmwGi;f rSm tvHeqefawGawGUxm;w,f/ xefawG D udkzrf;,lEkdifMubkdY &Gmom;awGxrf;ydk;eJY BudK;,laqmifvkdYvmcJh Mu...}} [lí t&dyfaoaoyHkpHcsKd;cJhMu/ &Gmawmifbuf rlvwef;ausmif;odkY tjrefvma&mufpka0;Mu&ef EdI;aqmfcJh atmfcJhMu/ xGufvmol &Gmom;wkdYtm;vnf; apmifhMunhf apmifhMuyfum &Gmtjyifbuf xGufckdif;apcJh/ rk;d vif;vke;D t½kPwufcsecefwif AdvcsKyvyouf d f Y G k f f k f l ]]rif;wk&mu vlp&wmMumvScsnvm;/ rif;wkawGu Yd G k f Yd tvHeDac:rS jrefjrefvmMu? tvHeDawmif;rS jrefjrefay;Mu w,f/ 'dkYwyfrawmfudkawmh rif;wkdYwpfawGu *½krpkdufbl;/ 'du tvHeawGvkd &uf&ufpufpufrowfayrJh rif;wkurwrd Yk D Yd kd S f om;rd&&avatmifawmh 'Pfay;jyr,f/ &JabmfwYdk olwygvm dS Ydk MuwJh BudK;eJYolwkdYawGudkwkyfMuprf;...}} [k a'gESifh armESifh trdefYay;cJh/ wpfcPtwGif;rSm yifvQif &Gmom;wdkYrSm vufeufjyefBudK;wkyfcHMu&avawmh/ av;ig;a,mufwpfwGJjzpfap? ESpfa,mufwGJ oHk;a,mufwGJjzpf ap? ausmcsif;uyftaetxm;jzifh BudK;wkyfcsnfaESmifjcif;udk cHMu&av/ vlpkvla0;jzpfaeaom &Gmom;wkdYtm;BudK;jzifh csnfaESmifumxm;½HkiESifh rNyD;ao;? csnfaESmifwkyfaESmifjcif; cHaeMu&onfh twGrsm;tm; wef;pDwiapcJao;/ Ny;D awmhrS J dk f h olwdkYZmwd½kyfudk jyvmavhawmh/ olwkdYonf tvHeDjzpf 144 145 Handbook-75
  • 76. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol aMumif;? vufpm;acsjcif;jzpfaMumif; em;rcHomatmifqJqkd Budrf;armif;&if; aoewfwkdYjzifh '&pyfypfcwfawmh/ xkdifae &mwGifyifaoMu&awmh/ raor&Sif &Sdaeao;olrsm;ukd vSH pGyfrsm;jzifh xkd;ckwfowfjzwfcJhMuacs/ vlowfuGif;&SdajrwkdY um; aoG;rsm;wkdYjzifh csif;csif;eDumoGm;cJh&acsNyDwnf;/ aMomf ...,kwfrm&ufpufvGef;vSaypG/ tvHeDa,musfm;? tvHeD&JarrwkdY tiftm; (100) ausmfcefY&Sdonf[kqkd/ olwkdYawGum; qifpG,f&Gm&Sd t&G,f a&mufNyD;a,musfm;wkdYtm; &ufpuf,kwfrmpGm owfjzwfcJh½Hk ESifh tm;r& rauseyfEkdifao;cJh/ wpf&GmvHk;udkvnf; rD;½dIUxm; ypfcJhMuao;av&m tdrfwpfvHk;ESifh bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;BuD; om usef&pfcJh&onfum; tjzpfqkd;vSaypG/ xdkpOfu qifpG,f&GmwGif pkpkaygif; tdrfajc (71) tdrf? rlvwef;ausmif; (1) ausmif;ESifh bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif; (1) ausmif;&Sd/ &Sd&SdorQt&G,fa&mufNyD; a,musfm;OD;a&teuf c&D;vGefaecJhol oHk;av;OD;omtowfrcH&bJ touf&Sif use&pf&/ &GmwGire;f rESihf cav;rsm;omusec&onfh tjzpf f f d f hJ qkd;ygay/ xkdpOfu jrefrmhorkdif;wGif þtjzpfrsKd;udk rMum;zl; cJhMuay/ t&G,fa&mufNyD;a,musfm;OD;a& (74) OD;wkdYtm; wpf&ufwnf;? wpfaeYwnf;? wpfae&mwnf;? wpfcsewnf;rSm d f pkNyHKumtowfcHMu&? t&Sifvwfvwf "g;ESifhtckwfcHMu&? aoewfESifh ypfowfcHMu&aom tjzpftysufBuD;um; qkd;&Gm; ,kwfrmurf;ukefatmif &ufpufrkdufrJvGef;vSaypGwum;/ &Gmol&Gmom;wkdYum; O'gef;rausEkdif/ ]]tJ'Djzpf&yfqkd;BuD;uawmh urÇmwnfoa&GU arh aysmufvkdY&Edkifawmhr,f rxifygbl;q&mwkdY&,f...}} [laom tvHeDwkdYowfjzwfcJhpOfu toufraobJ usef&pfcJhavol tbOD;atmifckdifESifh tbOD;barmifwkdY NydKifwlpum;oHwkdYu uRefawmfhem;xJ0,foH&nfylodkYES,f yl avmifvGef;vS&onf[kom qkdcsifygawmhonf/ ,rf;aiGUawG rD;ck;d awGu jrLcd;k awmifc;dk wkEihf a&m,Suf Yd S zHk;tkyfchJ&um xdkonhfaeYu ta&SUrkd;ukyfpuf0dkif;rS xGufay: vmcJhavaom a&mifjcnfwpfaxmif tvif;aqmifonfh aerif;BuD;onfyif onfjzpftifudk r½I&ufEkdifcJhNyDxifh/ qif pG,f&Gm vlowfyGJtcsdefum; eHeuft½kPfwufcsdef/ xdkaeYum; qifpG,f&Gmav;tzdkY eHeufcsdefwGifyifae0ifcJh&awmhavaom aeYjzpfcJh&acsawmhonf/ ]]aomif;usefolawG owfcJhaví aoyef;awGyGifh aomuqifcJh oGm;ESifha&mhav trQa0Mu aovludkppf a,musfm;jzpf ckepfq,fhav; renf;ao;awmh awG;wkdif;raMu ajzwkdif;tHBudwf twdwfZmwfem [dkwpfcgu 146 147 Handbook-76
  • 77. 148 udka,m (abm*aA') wkdY&Gmtjzpf qkd;vGefvGef;/ qifpG,farmfuGef; vGrf;apnTef;...}} qkdwJh uAsmydk'fwpfck[m arcsKdUb0xJrSm b,fvkdrS azsmufvdkYr&EdkifwJhtjypfudk cHpm;&w,fq&m/ uAsmq&mu atmifqef;odef; (yckuúL) av? q&modw,fr[kwfvm;? yck uúLZmwdjzpfwJh atmifqef;odef;[m xD;vif;NrdKUe,fu ]]'dkYjym; &Gm}} Bu;D rSm aus;&Gmaumifppma&;0efxrf;tjzpfeYJ xrf;aqmif D tJonhf&GmolvHkrysKdav;eJY tdrfaxmifjyKolaygh/ arcsKdeJYuvJ t&rf;cifygw,f/ tJ'g uAsmtydk'f (37) ydk'fyg ]]eHeufcsdefwGif ae0ifonf}}...qkdwJh qifpG,f&GmtaMumif;udk zGJUpyfxm;wJh uAsm&SnfBuD;xJu wpfykd'fygyJq&m&,f...}} qifp,&m tjzpfq;kd Bu;D udum; wpf&mvH;k od? xD;vif; G f G k G NrdKUe,fwpfe,fvHk;od? wdkif;jynfod EdkifiHodjzpfcJh&onf/ jrefrmh ordkif;pmrsufESmay:0,f jrefrmwnfoa&GU urÇmwnfoa&GU xifusef&pf&NyD/ 0rf;enf;rsuf&nfus&rIu rarhawmhEdkif/ uReawmf pdwraumif;jzpfc&? vH;k 0pdwrcsr;f ajrUjzpf f f hJ f cJh&pGmESifhyif tb OD;atmifcdkif? tb OD;barmifESifh tb OD;rif;axG;? aus;&Gmpma&; OD;cifarmif0if;wdkYu arcsKdESifh uRefawmfhtm; ac:aqmifum aus;&GmtESHY vdkufvHjyoay;cJh Muygonf/ vHk;ywfav;ayausmf&Sd uRef;wdkifaygif; 100 ESifh aqmufvyxm;onfh bke;f awmfBu;D ausmif;Bu;D odvnf; a&muf k f Yk cJh& Munfh½IcJh&onf/ wdkifwpfvHk;vQif tjrifhay 50 ausmf *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 149 tenf;qHk;&Sdonf[k qdkonf/ xdkrQavmufBuD;aom &Snfaom ausmif;wdiBf u;D rsm;wdEihf bke;f awmfBu;D ausmif;Bu;D um; 1940 k Yk S ckESpf0ef;usifu aqmufvkyfxm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf[k od&onf/ xdktcsdefu qifpG,f&Gmav;wGif tdrfajc 50 ausmfcefYom&Sd ao;aMumif;ESihf qifp,&mol&mom;wd nDnwrI BuKd ;yrf;rI G f G G Yk G f wuf<urI pnf;½kH;MurIwdkYudk bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;BuD;u oufaoxlaeayawmhonf/ ae&mtESHY vdkufvHjyo&if;u pma&; OD;cifarmif0if; u ajymcJhonf/ ,ckawmh qifpG,f&Gmav;onf tdrfaxmifpk 150 ausmfESifh vlOD;a& 1000 eD;yg;&SdaMumif; (R.H.C) use;f rma&;aq;cef;ESihf q&mrvnf;&ScNhJ y/ wGzuftxufwef; d D J ausmif;BuD;yif &SdaecJhNyD/ wuúodkvf0ifwef;atmifí bGJU&NyD; ol vli,fwdkYvnf; wpxufwp rsm;jym;wdk;yGm;vmaecJhNyD/ wdrfBuD;wdrfaumif;awGjzifh aus;&Gmav;udk xlaxmifum pnf pnfum;um; jzpfaeygNyD/ qifpG,f&Gm wGJzuftxufwef; ausmif;wGifyif qifpG,f&GmZmwdausmif;q&m? q&mrwdkY&Sdae cJhMuNyD[kvnf; qdkcJhavonf/ aomif;usef;ol tvHeDwdkYaMumifh towfcH&ol 74 OD; trnfpm&if; twdtusudk ausmufpma&;xdk; urÁnf; wifxm;onfh ausmufpmwdkifudkvnf; jrifcJh&onf/ tvm;wl udk ausmufpmwdkifwpfck xD;vif;NrdKU &mZrked (rif;bk&m;BuD;) bk&m;teD; pmMunfhwdkuf taqmuftOD; ta&SUbufwGif Handbook-77
  • 78. 150 udka,m (abm*aA') vnf; pdkufxlxm;onfudk uRefawmfjrifawGUod&Sdxm;NyD;jzpf onfudk jrifa,mifowd&vdkufrd&ao;awmhonf/ qifp,&muav;um; xD;vif;NrKd Ue,ftwGi;f xD;vif; G f G NrdKU ta&SUajrmuf,Gef;,Gef; awmvrf;c&D;tm;jzifh 12 rdkif cefYtuGmwGif wnf&Sdaeyg/ rsufarSmufumv uRefawmfwdkY a&mufcJhpOfrSmyifvQif om,mpdkjynfat;csrf;wnfNidrfvsuf pnfyifzUHG NzKd ;wd;k wufvmaecJygNy?D nDnwruvnf; tm;&p&m h G f I aumif;vSonfh &Gmuav;ygay/ ordi;f pmrsuEmay:u þqifp,&muav;taMumif; k f S G f G pHkpHkvifvifESifh uRefawmhftm; odapcsifvSaom olum; arcsKd yifjzpfonf/ ygwDaumifpD wm0efay;rIt& tzGJUrsm;zGJUap um awmifolv,form;wdkYtm; pdkufysKd;p&dwfacs;aiGxkwfacs; ay;&ef wm0efjzifh aus;&Gmtkyfpkwpfpkudk uRefawmfwm0ef,l cJh&onf/ uRefawmfu tzGJUacgif;aqmifjzpfonf/ pdkufysKd;a&; bPf0efxrf;wpfOD;? v,fpdkuf&Sif;0efxrf;wpfOD; (aus;vuf refae*sm)? ajrwdkif;pma&;wpfOD;? jynfolY&JwyfzGJUrS vHkNcHKa&; 0efxrf; (2) OD; pkpkaygif; (6) OD; jzpfonf/ wm0efusaus;&Gm tkypBk u;D &Sd aus;&Gmwpf&mcsi;f pDoYkd wpf&m0ifwpf&m xGuom; f G G G f G a&mufMu&onf/ aus;&GmwdkY&Sd Ouú|? tzGJU0if aus;&Gmpma&; wdkYESifh pDpOfxm;NyD; pm&if;rsm;t& awmifolv,form;wpfOD; csif;pDudk pdkufysKd;p&dwfaiGaMu;xkwfay;jcif;yif jzpfonf/ aus;&Gmrsm;odYk uReawmfwtzGUJ a&muf&&rnfh aeY&uf f Ykd dS c&D;pOfZ,m;tm; arcsKdUudk ay;xm;onf/ ta&;ay:udpö&yf *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 151 rsm; ay:aygufvmyguvnf; tqifajyap&ef xdkuJhodkYyif ay;xm;aeusjzpfonf/ pae? we*FaEG½kH;ydwf&ufESifh qifpG,f &GmwGif a&muf&aernfh uReawmhtwGuf qifp,&mvlowfyJG dS f f G f G udpöudk txl;odapcsifívnf; arcsKdonf olYtpDtpOfESifhol tqifajypGm a&muf&vmcJjh cif;vnf; jzpfygonf/ wpfaMumif; dS vnf; arcsKdESifhtwlwuG vdkufygvmcJhMuaom olESpfOD;rSm vnf; tdrfeD;csif;aqGrsKd;rsm;vnf;jzpfum ausmif;q&mrav; ESpfOD;[k od&onf/ *efYa*gNrdKUrS acwåvma&mufcJhaom olwdkY aqGrsKd;wpfOD;ydkif *spfum;av;udk iSm;&rf;um emrnfausmf ]rdk;aumif;&Gm vQm&Snfq&mawmf (vQmvu©Pm&Sif) BuD;xH vma&mufzl;ajr§mf&if; qifpG,f&GmodkYvnf; a&mufvmcJhMujcif; jzpfonf/ *spum;udk aq;rif;awm&GmBu;D ü xm;&pfcum olwYkd f hJ onf qifpG,f&Gmudkrl ajcvsifukef;aMumif;c&D;ESifcJhMujcif; vnf; jzpfonf/ tm;vHk;u qifpG,f&Gm&Sd aqGrsKd;rsm;ESifhvnf; awGUMu&efvnf; yg0ifonf/ þwGif arcsKdonf txl;u@ tjzpfESifh Zmwfvrf;tpu ]]om;onfrdcif}}ESifh uRefawmfhtm; awGUqHkay;jcif;vnf; yg0ifcJhonf/ ]]om;onfrdcifum; rlvwef;q&mrjzpf/ arcsKdwdkY tm;vH;k ESivnf; cifrif/ q&mrav;onf uReawmfukd awGU hf f h qHk&ef xD;vif;NrdKUodkY wpfBudrfvma&mufcJhao;aomfvnf; uReawmfu c&D;oGm;aeojzifh rawGUEdic&yHukd ajymcJao;/ f k f hJ k h olrtdroYkd tm;vH;k udtvnfac:cJojzifh a&mufcMhJ u&ao;/ f k h uRefawmfhtm;vnf; a,mvHkcsnfwpfxnfudk trSwfw&vuf Handbook-78
  • 79. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol aqmiftjzpf ay;tyfcJhav/ xifrSwfrxm;cJhaom apwem onf ,cktcg0,f t&mxifcJh&avNyD[k 0rf;omrd&aom tjzpfwdkYudk uRefawmfjyefajymif;um ajymrdcJh&ao;avonf/ arcsKwu qifp,&m vlBu;D rdbaqGrsK;d rsm;a&m om; d Ykd G f G onfrdcif q&mrav;ESifhyg uRefawmfhtm; awGUqHkapum NyD; jynfhpHkNyD;aemuf qifpG,f&GmrS jyefvnfxGufcGmoGm;cJhMuav onf/ aMomf... bmaMumifhrsm; uRefawmfhtwGuf onf avmufxdatmif yg&rDjznfhay;&if; &yfusKd;? &GmusKd;? trsm; tusK;d ? NrKd Ue,ftusK;d wdtwGuf tzufzufrm pdwa&mud,yg Yk S f k f ESpfjr§yfum xrf;aqmifBudK;yrf;aeygvdrfh? apwemrsm;pGmESifh apmifha&Smufapmifhxdef;ay;ygvdrfh/ wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh xD;vif;NrdKUESifh NrdKUe,fwpfckvHk; ESifhpyfvsOf;NyD; *kPf,lzG,f&mudk *kPf,lcsD;usL;csD;jr§ifhwwfapzdkY ½Iwfcsoifhonfh taMumif;udpöjzpf&yf[lorQwdkYtm;vnf; em; vnfumvQif tem*wfumvwpfavQmuf a&Smif&Sm;wwfEdkif MuapzdkY tqdk;tjriftaMumif;w&m;rsm;tm; qifjcifrd&vsuf rusL;vGefrdMuapzdkY? ZmwdaoG;Zmwdrmeftjynfht0ESifh NrdKUe,f wpfpv;kH udk ydrzUHG NzKd ;wd;k wufapvdonfh trsK;d om;a&; trsK;d om; k k kd k aoG; cspfMunfpnf;vHk;a&; tm;rmefaoG;wdkYu arcsKdUcE¨mudk,f xJ0,f ae&mtESHY pD;qif;aejcif; jzpf&ygonf[kvnf; arcsKd onf uRefawmfhtm; tBudrfBudrfajymcJhzl;onfudk axmufcsifh rd&jcif;tm;jzifh arcsKUd udk uReawmf aumufcsucs&rnfqvQif f f kd awmh... aMomf... av;pm;NyD;&if; av;pm;vmrd&if; av;pm; vdkYvmaerd&jyefygNyDaum arcsKd&,f... 152 153 a&S;a[mif;ordkif;0if a&TuGeftkyfapwDawmfjrwfxHyg;0,f ]]b0qdkwm om,majzmifhjzL;avhr&Sd}} qdkonfhpum; udk uRefawmfMum;zl;NyD; jzpfygonf/ vlom;wdkYb0 vlwpfOD;? vlEpO;D ? rdom;pkwpfpponfw pm;0wfaerItpkpaom b0 S f k Ykd k oH o &mc&D ; vrf ; onf tNrJ x m0pOf om,mat;csrf ; pG m avQmuf v S r f ; Mu&onf r [k w f y g/ b0cvk w f u ef o if ; ql;an§mif;ESifh taxGaxGtxpftaighwkdYudk wpfcsdefr[kwf wpfcsecsewif BuKH &qH&awGUBuKH wwfMu&ygonf/ yef;arGU,m d f d f G k r[kwfaom ca&mifvrf;udkvnf; avQmufvSrf;wwfMu&yg onf/ arcsKdESifh uRefawmfonf wpfOD;udkwpfOD; em;vnfrI? Muif e mw&m;rsm;jzif h o m wpf a ,muf E S i f h w pf a ,muf taxmuftulay;vsuf az;rpGmaevmcJhMuygonf/ ywf0ef; usiftjriftm;jzifhrl ]]&nfpm;awGjzpfaeMuNyD}} [k ,lqaeMu onfudk arcsKda&m uRefawmfyg &dyfpm;odxm;rdMuonfvnf; jzpfygonf/ ]]ESpfOD;pvHk;[m t&m&SdawGvJjzpfMuavawmh awmfvJawmfMuygw,f/ aewwfxkdifwwf oGm;wwfvmwwf &SMd uygw,f/ tm;vH;k uvJ oabmus oabmwlaeMuwm... aeeJYv a&TeJYjrygyJ}} [kvnf; uRefawmfwkdYESpfOD;om; a&SUwGif a&m aemufuG,fwGifyg ajymqkdaeMuonfudk udk,fwdkifMum;& Handbook-79
  • 80. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol BuHK&vnf;jzpfMu&ygonf/ wpfcsKdUu ar;vnf; ar;jref;vm onfrsm;udkvnf; arcsKdBuHKawGU&rnfrSm trSefyif&Sdaeygvdrfh rnf/ uRefawmfonfvnf; BuHKawGUumvmae&ygonf/ odpOfvsuf uReawmfwEpO;D om;rSmrl wpfO;D udwpfO;D Yk f Ydk S f k cspfpum;udkrajymjzpfMuao;cJh/ &nf;pm;vnf;rjzpfMuao;cJh/ ,if;udk rsm;aomtm;jzifh wkdYu,HkMuvdrfhrnfrxifacs/ arcsKd onfvnf;aumif;? uReawmfonfvnf;aumif; tppt&m&m f udk xdef;umodrf;umomvQif aeaeMuygonf/ a&S;uvlBuD; rdbwkajymzl;aom ]]oH;k ESpo;kH rk;d }} qkonfh pum;vnf;t&Som; Yd f d d [kyif ajym&rvdkjzpfygonf/ &Hzef&Hcgajymvnf; ajymMu&yg onf/ uRefawmfhpdwfqE´ESifh oabmt&qkd&ygvQif arwåm [lonf tpdkiftcJ? t&nftckd;taiGUponhf ½kyf0w¬Kj'yfrIefwkdY taeuJhodkY MunfhEdkif? jrifEdkif? odEkdifaom t&mr[kwfay/ &ifwGif;qE´ aphapmfrIaMumifh pdwftm½HkrSapvTwf ydkYvTwf vkdufaom pdwfvdIif;rsm;yifjzpfonf[k qkdcsifygonf/ wpfenf;vnf; avmuüapwemonf uHw&m;jzpfay&m apwemrSefolrsm; ESvHk;om;a&;&m tm;xkwfrIonf tNrJ wapt&mxifavh&Sdygonf/ tvkyfwm0eftay: apwem xm;ouJhodkY arcsKdUtay:udkvnf; uRefawmfapwemxm;yg onf/ uRefawmhfapwemxm;rIum;vnf; arcsKduwefbkd;xm; onfudk uRefawmfodae&ovkd arcsKdonfvnf; wkefYjyef em;vnfxm;onf[k uRefawmf,lq,HkMunfcsifygonf/ tcspO;D ESihf tcspq;kH [laom &ifceowonf &ifcif f f k f H Ydk G wpfcküqHkrSwftjzpf aysmf0ifpD;arsmcGifh&MuonfqkdygvQif MumavwaoG; rcH0HhMuonfrSm "r®wmvnf;jzpfonfrkdY xkd &ifckefoHwkdYtm; Mum;Edkif&rnhfwcsdefonf ra0;vSawmh[lí vnf; (0g) wpfaeYrSmawmh rvTJraoGBuHKvm&awmhrnf[lí vnf; arcsKdESifh uRefawmfxifxm;Muygonf/ ]]qkdygawmhav...onfodkYaom pdwfrsKd;awGudk,fpD udk,fpDrSm&SdMuvsufvnf; jzpf? a[mha[mh&rf;&rf;r[kwf/ taysmfBuHpdwfxm;ESihf aemifcgvmaemifaps; wtm;yl;uyf ZGwftwif;t&,l ydkif;vHk;vkdoabmr&SdMuvdrfhbl;...}} [k ,HkMunf,lqxm;MuonhftwGufaMumifhvnf; a&TuGeftkyf bk & m;yG J a wmf B uD ; waygif ; vjynh f a eY n 0,f arcsKd E S i f h uRef a wmf E S p f O D ; om; bk & m;zl ; a&muf j zpf c J h M uavonf / rdef;uav;&Sif rdbrsm;uvnf; cGifhay;cJhygonf/ a&S ; a[mif ; ork d i f ; 0if a&T u G e f t k y f b k & m;BuD ; um; NrKd Ue,fv;kH qki&m bk&m;Bu;D vnf;jzpfygonf/ ,ckEpwif oH;k csD d f S f G yGJygonf/ oHk;csDyGJqkdonfrSm waygif;vqef; (14) &ufaeY nwGifZmwfyGJujyNyD; vjynhf (15) &ufaeYv,fwGif tNidrfhu jyay;&um nwGifZmwfyGJBuD;ujy toHk;awmfcH&jcif;udk qkdvkd ygonf/ wpfe,fv;kH uvnf; bk&m;zl;vmMuavh&ojzifh ESppOf dS f vkdvkdyif xkd&ufwkdYwGif pnfpnfum;um;vnf;&SdvSygonf/ yGJawmf&Sd&m bk&m;BuD;ukef;ajruvnf; us,f0ef;vSygonf/ &Gmrsm;rSvmMuaomolw EGm;vSn;f tpktzGUJ rsm;uvnf; olY Ydk 154 155 Handbook-80
  • 81. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol tkyfpkESifhol 0dkif;zGJU&SdaeMuygonf/ aps;qkdifwef;wkdYuvnf; ypönf;awGpHkvifvSonf/ t0wftxnfqkdifwef;rsm;? opfoD; opfOqkdifwef;rsm;? a'oxGufysm;&nfppfppf? ysm;za,mif;? oeyfcg;acguf? aq;jrpfaq;Orsm;? v,f,moH;k toH;k taqmif ypönf;rsm;? uav;upm;p&mypönf;rsm;? pm;aomufqkdifwef; rsm; ponfjzifhpHkvSonf/ a&Tuetyb&m; ½kyym;awmfjrwfuz;l onf/ xD;vif; G f k f k f G kd NrdKUwpfckwnf;aom bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;BuD;jzpfaom ]]r*Fvmausmif;}} ausmif;wkuq&mawmfBu;D t&Sitm'dp0o d f f ö H ud k OD ; csuef a wmh o nf / oif h a wmf & m rvS r f ; rurf ; wG i f uRefawmfESifhtwlvmcJhol arcsKdUtm;vnf; q&mawmfBuD;u jrifonf/ arcsKdUudkawmh txl;ajymp&mrvdk? q&mawmfBuD;u odNyD;om;jzpfonf/ uRefawmfhtm;vnf; q&mawmfBuD;u cifonf/ bmoma&;ESihf pyfvsO;f í uReawmfaqmif&uay;cJh f G f rIrsm;udk q&mawmfBuD;uodonf/ NrdKUe,ftwGif; oHCm*kdPf; aygif;pHk tpnf;ta0;wGif uRefawmfuo,f,lydkYaqmifa&; aumfrwDwm0efudk,lum wpfe,fvHk;&SdyifhoHCm oHCmawmf taygif;udk BuKd yaqmif&uay;&onf/ armfawmfum;vrf;ray: Ykd G f &Sd &Gmrsm;teuf pk&yftjzpfowfrSwfxm;&Sdonhf &GmwkdYxH armfawmfum;Bu;D rsm;jzifh ud,wita&mufom;um apmifBh uKd k f dk f G &-qGrf;uGrf;udpörsm; tqifajyatmifpDpOfay;&? a0,sm0pö udp&yfrsm;udk aqmif&uay;&onf/ vpf[mrIr&S&avatmif ö G f d xrf;aqmif&onfESifh xD;vif;NrdKUwGif&SdaepOf vjynhfvuG,f tcgBuD;&ufBuD;rsm;0,f ausmif;BuD;odkY Oykofapmifha&mufae Muvnf;jzpfonf/ tv’myov’mypum;rsm;udkvnf; ausmif; Bu;D ay:rSm q&mawmfBu;D ESihf teD;uyfaqG;aEG;ajymMum;aeus vnf;jzpf&avonf/ Mumvmawmh q&mawmfBu;D u uReawmfh f udk ]]&efukefom;'um}} [k trSwfonmjyKum ac:awmhonf udk bk&m;BuD;a*gyuvlBuD;awGyif odaecJhMuNyD;vnf;jzpfav onf/ ]]&efukefom;'um...'DNrdKUav;rSm taeMumvm awmh bke;f Bu;D u ]]yg&rD}} qkwpum;udk owd&rd&UJ ? yg&rDqwm d hJ dk &,ljcif;? odrf;ydkufjcif;r[kwfzl;? pGefYvTwfjcif;? ay;qyfjcif;jzifh om wnfaqmuf&wmuG,fh...jrifhjrwfolwkdY&JUtvkyfyJuG,fh ...}} avmurSm jrifzqwmuawmh odwcufvwmr[kwf h Ydk kd f S aybl;/ BudK;pm;zkdYeJY yg;eyfzkdYomvkdwm? jrwfzkdYuawmh eJeJcuf w,f/ ½d;k om;jzLpifajzmifrwfzvw,f/ tJonhpwxm;? qE´ h Ykd dk f d f rGeeYJ ay;qyfvwhJ ESv;kH om;&SrS wpfO;D wnf;Bu;D yGm;aumif;pm; f dk d a&;xuf 0ef;usieavmuudk aumif;usK;d jyKzvtyfvayw,f f YJ Ydk dk S uG,.../ hf &efueom; 'umav;taMumif;u bke;f Bu;D xHa&muf k f ouGUJ / 'umav;u awmf&mygw,f/ 'DNrKd Ue,fav;&JU tusK;d udk S jznfpr;f ay;ouG,/ trsm;tusK;d xufoefoayud;k / tJ... h G f l jrpfwkdYobm0 jrifh&muae edrfh&mudkpD;qif;w,fqkdw,f/ vlY obm0usawmh edr&mrS jrif&modwufvr;f EdibjYdk zpfw,fuUJG / hf h Yk S k f 156 157 Handbook-81
  • 82. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol avmuBuD;udk tvSqifEkdifbkdY/ vlom;awG&JU vkdtyfrIpdwfqE´ awGudk b0awGudkjyifbkdYu bkef;BuD;ajymjycJhwJh yg&rD&SdOD;rSuGJU ...'grS b0awGjrifh&rSmuGJU.../ wpfcsKdUu trdtzqkdwm bmvJvdkYar;&if rajzwwf Mubl;/ bke;f Bu;D u&Si;f jyodap&w,f/ trdqwm &ifüjzpfaom dk om;orD;udkjrwfEdk;wwfwJhaMumifhvkdY/ tzqkdwmu om;orD; ukd apmifha&SmufwwfwmaMumifhvkdY odap&w,f/ tif;...'dkYawG jrefrmjynfBuD;&JUAk'¨bmom omoem udkxGef;yatmif pwifcJhwJhyk*HaejynfawmfBuD;umvu &[ef; awmfwpfyg;jzpfwhJ yk*Kd¾ vjf rwf &Sit&[HuoMd uwmrsK;d omrsm; f kd w,f/ &Sift&[H&JU emrtrnf&if; &Sif"r®'óDqkdwmudk rod Muaybl;r[kwfvm;/ a[m [dk 'umrav;u bkef;BuD;udkajymzl;awmh bkef;BuD;odxm;cJh&w,f/ 'D&efukef'umav;u a,mwkdYXmae taMumif;udk azmfxkwfcsifol? awmifom;awGudk avhvmum trsm;jynfolwkdYxH wifjycsifol? xD;vif;NrdKUav;udk *kPfwifh atmifazmfaqmifcsifol qkdayw,fudk;/ aumif;ygay&JUuG,f/ yg&rDqkdwmuvJ jznfhrSjynhfwmuGJU/ aemufacs; (EGm;acs;) uaygufwJhBuHvJcsKdw,f/ trdIufxJu&wJh a&TvJ aumif;w,f/ EGxuaygufwhJ Mumyef;vJarT;jraewmyJqawmh H J dk tcsif;csif;xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufvsuf ulnDaqmif&GufMu wwfapuG,faemf/ 'umav;? 'umrav;wkdY om"k...om"k ...om"k...om"kuG,f/ q&mawmfBu;D u NyKH ;NyKH ;Bu;D ESihf Mo0g'xl;awGukd pdwyg f vufygajymcJhonf/ uRefawmfwkdYvnf; bk&m;BuD;a*gyutzGJU 0ifwkdYteuf OD;av;OD;atmifodef;xHarSmufü bk&m;BuD; vdktyfaomjyKjyifrIrsm;twGuf tvSLawmfaiGvSL'g;ay;tyfcJh Muonf/ a*gyuvlBuD;rif;rsm;uvnf; 0rf;ajrmufpGmESifh uReawmfwEpa,muftm; qkawGtrsm;Bu;D ay;cJMh uao;av f Ydk S f onf/ uRefawmfudk,fwkdifyifvQif raeYnu tvSLawmfaiG vufcjH zwfyi;f ay;aom þtzGUJ þ0di;f wkwiwm0efuscao; kd k Yd G f hJ ygonf/ þbk&m;BuD;udpöü rlvuwnf;uyif NrdKUe,ftmPm ydkiftzGJUtpnf;rS yk*¾dKvfrsm;? NrdKUrdNrdKUzrsm;? NrdKUe,fXmeqkdif&m tBuD;tuJrsm;? a*gyutzGJU0ifrsm;? yGJawmfatmifatmif jrifjrif pnfpnfum;um;jzpfajrmufapa&; aysmfyGJ&TifyGJusif;y a&;aumfrwDrsm;? bk&m;zl;? bk&m;yGJvmolrsm;twGuf usef;rm a&;aq;cef;? yGJawmfvHkNcHKa&;? bk&m;BuD;odkY<ua&mufvmMu onhf q&mawmf oHCmawmftaygif;twGuf a0,sm0pötzGJU rsm;...ponfwkdYrSmtm;vHk; nd§nd§EIdif;EdIif;ESifh pkpnf;nDnGwf umomvQif usif ; yaqmif & G u f j cif ; vnf ; jzpf & ayonf / pkaygif;nDnGwfrIjzifh oHCmawmfrsm;wnf;ckdem;ae&ef Z&yf (17) aqmif? bk&m;vlBuD;rsm;wJwef;? tkyfcsKyfolXmeBuD;uJ rsm;twGuf tkyfcsKyfa&;wJwef;? vQyfppfrD;ay;pufpuf½Hk? a&csrf;pif tp&Sdonfjzifhvnf; &Sdaeayonf/ bk&m;BuD;tm½HkcHtaqmuftOD;rS arcsKdeJY uRefawmf xGufvmcJhMuum ajrmufzufapmif;wef;u (18?) aytjrifh&Sdj 158 159 Handbook-82
  • 83. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol jcaoFBh u;D ESpp;D &S&mqD avQmufvr;f jzpfMuonf/ yHawmifynm f d S k kH &yf0ef; a,mwkdYa'oum; ajrjyefYrSmvkdr[kwf/ xD;vif;ajrrSm aqmif;ESif;jrLawGua0qJ/ waygif;v[lonf vrsm;xJwGif tom,mqHk;v[k qkdxm;onfhtavsmuf waygif;vjynhf nvrif ; BuD ; xd e f x d e f o maeaom va&mif a tmuf rkd;atmufajrjyifonf vSyvGef;aeonf/ [dk;ta0;rS jymvJh oG,fwef;aeaom yHknmawmifpOfwef;ESifh taemufbuf&Sd csif;½dk;rawmifwef;jrifhwkdYtm; vSrf;jrifae&onf/ awmifpOf awmwef;rsm;u teD;av;wGifwnf&SdaeonfrkdY xkdt&yfa'o qDrS wkdufcwfvmaomavwGif tifMuif;yef;&eHYwkdYukd&ae onf/ tifMuif;yef;&eHYwkdYu BudKifavsmufysHUoif;arT;NyD;&if; arT;&if;jzpfaeavonf/ ]]om,mvGef;aevkdufwm arcsKd&,f...}}[k bk&m; BuD;vQyfppfrD;a&mif? va&mifatmuf0,f vrf;avQmufae Mu&if;u uRefawmfajymrdcJhonf/ ajym&if;u arcsKdUudkapmif; iJhumMunhfrdcJhonf/ ]]vSaevkdufwm}} [k olYudkuRefawmfajym csifaerd&onf/ odkYayr,fh rajymjzpfcJh? olYrsufESmav;u odyMf unfvifaerI r&Sovkjd zpfeonf/ avQmufvr;f vmMu&if; d S u jcaoFhBuD;wkdYteD;a&mufvkdYvmonf/ cg;v,fcefYomom nmbufapmif;wef;bufü &yfjzpfMuonf/ arcsKonf apmif;wef;wGi&yfaeMu&mrS xD;vif;NrKd UqD d f arQmMf unh&if;u rodromoufjyif;csoukd uReawmfMum;vm f H f cJh&&if;u olpum;pwifajymvmcJhonf/ ]]pdwxrm rMunfrvifjzpfvmae&rIav;awGu b0 f J S &JUtwm;tqD;ozG,frsm; jzpfvmavrvm; OD;&J&,f... jyóemwpf&yfvdkY jrifvmcJhNyDqkd&if wpfa,mufcsif;yJjzpfjzpf? wpfpkwpfzGJUtaeeJYjzpfjzpf aygif;pkqHkpnf;aqG;aEG;MuygrS oifhjrwfrIudk&aprSmygyJ/ trdIufup jyó'frD;avmifqkdwm owdayghavsmhrI? trIrJhtrSwfrJhvkdufavsmumaerIwkdYu pwif wmvJjzpfr,faemf OD;&J/ jzpfEiajct&if;cHvvJ qk&r,fxifyg dk f Ydk d &JU...}} vQKdU0SufEkdifvGef;tm;BuD;ol wpfa,muf&,fvkdYvJ tjypfrqkom? tjypfrqk&ufygbl;/ NiKd jiifr&w,fvvJ ajymbkYd d d d Ydk roifhawmfbl;xifyg&JUav...arcsKduawmh xdefcsefrxm; wwfb;l qdygawmh? xm;ygav...OD;&J&UJ &efueowif;awGu k k f trSefyJvm;vkdY arcsKrar;&ufygbl;/ OD;&Jukd arcsKtjrifrrSm; d d apcsib;l / axhaighajymqkMd u&r,foawGrS r[kwwmyJav... f h l f vkdYcH,lxm;rdawmhvJ cufom;vm;... OD;&JqkdwJh udk,fhq&morm;udk,Hkw,f/ udk,fh&JUq&m wpfa,muftaeeJYvJ OD;&Judkav;pm;rd&ovdk trsm;tcsKd;? NrdKUe,ftusKd; rkd;csKyfae0ifxdawmif rem;r&yf &THxJAGufxJ aeyl r k d ; &G m ra&S m if wpf a wmif w uf q if ; wpf a wmeif ; vk d Y wpf&mcsi;f pDukd tvDvtcgcgoGm;cJ?h wm0efxrf;&GucwoyrYdk G D f hJ hJ l J ydkvkdYav;pm;rdygw,f/ a,me,fawm&yf awmiftxyfxyfrm om;&JtEÅ&m,f S awGuvJ rao;vSbl;/ aMumuf&GHUxdwfvefYzG,f usm;[def;oHeJY 0Howå0gwkdYeJY yufyif;wkd;rdwJh vlawGawmif&SdaeBuHKaeMuwm 160 161 Handbook-83
  • 84. 162 udka,m (abm*aA') awmif &Sdao;ayr,hf wm0ef,l&&mt&yfa'oawGqD rnnf; rnLoGm;cJavwJh OD;&Judk arcsKq;kd vJp;kd &drrw,f...cs;D usL;vJ h d f d csD;usL;rdygw,f/ awmawGawmifawGeJY tuRrf;w0ifr&SdvSwJh &efukefom;...NyD;awmh tppt&m&mudk raMumifhrusaeEkdif oljzpfygvsueYJ qkawmhvJ ydNk y;D tHMh oaerd&ygw,f...trSeyg/ f d f trSefawmh NrdKUe,f&JUXmewpfcku tBuD;tuJwpfOD; [m olYvufatmuf0efxrf; i,fom;wpfa,mufudk trdefY wm0efeJY ckdif;apcGifh&SdolayyJ/ NrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL;uJhodkY tvm;wl wm0ef,lEdkif&r,fh 'k-NrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL;udk apvTwfoifhwmyJ r[kwfvm;/ cufcJMurf;wrf;wJh rkd;wGif;umv rkd;awGavawG a&awGeJY rkd;arSmifarSmifawmifBudKawmifMum; awmvrf;? jzwfvrf;udk qifoGm;&mvrf;udk vkduftyifyef; tepfemcHum oGm;a&mufaqmif&Gufolu arcsKdUq&m? arcsKdUtwGuf tepf emcHay;oltjzpftrsm;uvJ jrifMuovkd arcsKvJ tNrjJ rifygw,f d q&m...}} q&mhqE´eJY q&mç &nf&G,fcsufrsm;pGmeJY 'DNrdKUav;udk ajymif;a&TUcJ?h a&mufvmcJq&moGm;vmaexdif vkyuiBf uKd ;yrf; h k f kd rIawG[m tem*wfxD;vif;NrdKUe,fav;twGuf tzufzufu zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufvmap&if; trsm;jynfolawG od&Sdxif&Sm;vmEdkif &avatmif apwemtjynfheJY xm;&Sdaqmif&GufEdkifwmudkvJ arcsKdtxl;yJ0rf;ajrmufrdygw,f/ q&mpdwf0ifpm;wmu udk,fh&JUXmeav;wpfcktwGuf omru NrdKUe,fwpfckvHk; yPm&zdkY tjrifus,fus,feJY BudK;pm; *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 163 aewmyJ r[kwfvm;... arcsKd q&mhudkjrifwJh tjrifu rSm; vdrr,fvYkd vH;k vH;k rxifb;l / q&m[m vkyief;wpfck b0wpfck hf f udk wduywpfccyrmES,tav;xm;? oabmxm;wmuvm;/ k f JG k k f auo&mZmjcaoFhrif;wdkYvdkyJ qdkygawmh/ owå0gwpfaumifudk ao;w,f? i,fw,f? BuD;w,f&,fvdkY rcGJjcm;? olYcGeftm;udk wpforwfwnf;xm;NyD; vuf&zrf;tkyfodrf;ydkufwwfwmrsKd; yg/ 'Dawmh...q&m[m a'gifh (axmifh) aphatmifjyifNyD; rS wkdufyGJudkwm0efxrf;aqmifwwfolyJvkdY arcsKdjrifw,f... q&mhukdb,fawmhrS txifrrSm;bl;/ tjrifroefYrjzpfbl;qkd wmudk,Hkygq&m.../ ]]xm;ygawmhav...q&mhtwGuMf um;&wJowif; u h q&mhudk,fa&;udk,fwmrdkY arcsKdrar;&ufwmtrSefygyJ/ q&m ajymrS uRefrarcsKdem;axmifyg& odyg&ap/ q&murajym oí uRefrr,HkMunfrjzpfygbl;qdkwmudkawmh q&modapcsif ygw,fq&m...arcsKdUpum;awGvJ awmfawmf&SnfoGm;cJh& w,faemf...}} arcsKonf pum;<u,fonf/ t&m&mudcsicsicsecsef d k hf hf d f d awG;awG;qq pOf;pm;ajz&Sif;wwfol[kvnf; uRefawmfjrif onf/ oltawG;tjrifwu rSm;cJvonfjzpfí uReawmfarcsKUd Y Ydk S f tm; b,fawmhrSvnf; rvSnhfpm;cJh? rvSnfhpm;csif? rvSnhfpm; &uf/ olaxmufjyajymqkdcJhjcif;rsm;aMumifhvnf; &Hzef&Hcg tyef;ajzwD;cwf pm;aomuf0kdif;udkqifETJMu&onhf tcgrsm; Handbook-84
  • 85. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol rSmyifvQif awmfoifh½HkqkdouJhodkY usifhBuHcJhjzpfonf/ onfvkdyGJ rsK;d awGBuKH vmcJ&wki;f vnf; aemufwpfaeYqvQif arcsKUd udjk yef h d dk ajymjyjzpfonf/ rvdrfnm? xdefcsefírxm;/ jyóemrrnf apumrl odu©mudkrxdckdufapvkdaom arcsKdUoabmqE´tm; uRefawmfav;pm;vkdufemjzpf&jcif;[kvnf; qkd&rnfyifjzpfyg onf/ rnfodkYqkdap? arcsKdonf vlY*kPfodu©m? vlYwefbkd;udk enf;enf;av;rS tnd§K;EGrf;rcHapvkdjcif; pdwf&if;&Sdonfukd uRefawmfuod&onhftwGufvnf; olYudkaus;Zl;wifrd&yg onf/ ywåjrm;ta&mifrrSeatmif tusK;d aqmifum awmufy d f &Te;f jrapol[vnf; tpOftNrjJ rifwm;rd&ygonf/ bmyJjzpfjzpf k ,cktcsdefonf arcsKdajymvmcJhavaom pum;rsm;twGuf oloap&ef yGiyivif;vif; &Si;f vif;ajymjyay;&rnf/ wu,fh d hf G hf trSefukd odxm;apoifhNyD[kvnf; uRefawmfqHk;jzwfvmrd&yg onf/ rnfodkYqkdap? arcsKdonf vlY*kPfodu©m? vlYwefbkd;udk enf;enf;av;rS tnd§K;EGrf;rcHapvdkjcif; pdwf&if;&Sdonfudk uReawmfuod&onhtwGuvnf; oluaus;Zl;wif&ygonf/ f f f Y kd ywåjrm;ta&mifrrSdefatmif tusKd;aqmifum awmufy&Tef;jr apol[vnf; tpOftNrjJ rifwm;rd&ygonf/ bmyJjzpfjzpf ,ck k tcseonf arcsKajymcJavaompum;rsm;twGuf oloap&ef d f d h d yGifhyGifhvif;vif;&Sif;vif;ajymjyay;&rnf/ wu,fhtrSefudk odxm;apoifhNyD[kvnf; uRefawmfqHk;jzwfvmrd&ygonf/ xdkodkYqHk;jzwfvmrd&avmufatmif jzpfvm&jcif; uvnf; tHhMop&mvdkjzpfvmaejcif;aMumifhyifjzpf&onf/ uHMur®mu wkdufqkdifvGef;vSonf[lí ajym&awmhrnfomjzpf awmhonf/ uRefawmfowif;tjyif arcsKdUowif;uvnf; ck wavmav;wGifyif ysHUESHUvmcJhonfudk uRefawmfMum;ae& onf/ wpfcsdefwnf;rSmvkdvkdyif oufa&mufvmcJh&avaom owif;ESpf&yfrSmvnf; xl;xl;qef;qef;vkdjzpfaerd&onfu awmhtrSef/ uRefawmfhowif;uawmh v,fpdkuf&Sif;refae*smBuD; q&m0if;&efukefujyefvmcJhNyD;onfhaemufwGif jzpfvmcJh& onf/ nDtpfukdt&if;yrmES,f cifrifpdwfxm;jzifh pwifum ]]ab;wD ; }} vmcJ h j cif ; vnf ; jzpf y gonf / q&m0if ; BuD ; u tifrwef pç wwf? aemufç wwfonf/ twnfyJvkdvkd? &,f p&mjzpfap&atmifyvvEihf pç ae? aemufç aeMu/ uReawmhf J dk dk S f tay:oHa,mZofxm;vGef;&wmaMumifhvnf; jzpf&onf/ olu arcsKdESifh uRefawmfhudk&nf;pm;awGjzpf? cspfolawGjzpfum b0vufwGJazmfjzpfapcsifvSonf/ tvGefvSyrGef&nfum usufoa&&SdvS cspfpzG,faumif;vSavaom arcsKdUtm; uRefawmfu&,lydkifqkdifoifhaeNyD[k cPcPyifajymavh&SdNyD; jrefjrefeD;pyfoGm;apcsifoljzpfonf/ ,ckq&m0if;BuD;u Xme vnf;ul;ajymif;awmhrnf/ xD;vif;NrKd Uav;rSvnf; rMumrDwif G ajymif;a&TUoGm;&awmhrnfrkdY arcsKdESifh uRefawmfhtm; ab;wD; umzefwD;aeonfvnf;jzpfonf[k ajym&awmhrnfomjzpf 164 165 Handbook-85
  • 86. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol avonf/ usef&pfarcsKdjzpfaeOD;rnf[kvnf; qkdwwfao; onf/ q&m0if;BuD;u uRefawmfhrSm&efukefwGif &nf&G,fol &SdaeNyDvdkvkd...q&m0efrav;ESifh oHa,mZOf&SdaeMuovkdvkd uRefawmhf0efxrf;pma&;rav; &D&DarwkdY ukda0vif;wkdYudk aemufawmufawmufpum;ESifh &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&Sd ajymcJhjcif; vnf;jzpfEdkifonf/ xkdonfrS pwifum ,ckvkdarcsKdu pum; t&SnfBuD;ajymvmcJhjcif;[k uRefawmf,lqjzpfygonf/ ]]&efukefowif;qkdwmeJY pyfvsOf;NyD; ajymcsifw,f arcsKd/ ukd,fhnDrav;eJY taMumif;taygif;oifhaewJh q&m0ef rav;wpfa,muf&w,f/ olrMum;rjrifEiwhJ ae&ma&mufae dS dk f wJh udk,furdef;uav;wkdY&JU £a`E´eJY *kPfodu©mukd wefbkd;xm; pGmeJY oljrifEirS r[kwwmbJqNdk y;D r[kwwrf;w&m; vdrvnf dk f f f f pum;vJrajymcsifygbl;arcsKd...}} q&m0efrav;eJY udk,feJYu bmrSjzpfao;wmr[kwf zl;/ oluukd,fhxuf (2) ESpfausmfi,fw,f/ i,fpOfu udk,fh nDrav;eJY wpfausmif;wnf; wpfwef;wnf;twl? aq;wuúovf kd &MuawmhvJ twlwljzpfMuw,f/ ESpftdrfhwpftdrf oabmrsKd; 0ifxGufoGm;vmaexkdifwmrsKd;jzpf&w,f/ ESpfzufrdbwkdYtae eJYuawmh om;ay;orD;,loabm vHk;0r&Sdao;wmtrSefygyJ/ a&&SnfrSmawmh zdwfjcif;zdwf udk,fhtdwfwJzdwfapcsifwmrsKd; awmh rdbawGrSm&Sdcsif&SdaeMurSmayghav...olYrdbudk,fhrdb awGqkdwmuvJ acwfynmwwfawGyJqkdawmh olwkdYajymwwf MuwJpum;uvJ ]]Avig;wefevjJ ynhpcMhJ uNyy...vli,fawG h YJ f kH D J b0aumif;qkd;ESpfwef a0zefydkif;jcm;wwfMuNyDrkdY olwkdYb0c&D; olwkdYvGwfvyfpGm zefwD;avQmufvSrf;Muygvdrfhr,f}} vdkYom oabmaygufxm;MuNyD;om;yJaygh...}} xm;ygawmh a v...tJ o nh f q&m0ef r av;u wpfrsKd;yJarcsKd&JU/ olu xkdif0rfaoG;enf;enf;ygav&JU? olwkdY aqGrsKd;BuD;awG tajccsaexkdifaewJh xkdif0rfEkdifiHudk tawmf oGm;csifaeyHk&w,f? [dkrSmyJtvkyfvkyfcsifaewmeJY [kdudkyJ txifBuD;aewmrsKd;jzpfaeav&JU/ at;av...udk,fuawh rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf&ifoef jrifhrm;wJholvkdYyJ qkd&rvm;...Zmwd ykn *kPfrmevdkYyJajym &r,fxifyg&JU? olYudkcifrifpdwfuvGJNyD; udk,fhb0wpfavQmuf vHk;&JU vufwGJMuifemazmftjzpfeJYawmh rjzpfEdkifwmtrSefyJ/ oleJY ukd,fbmpum;rS rajymxm;Muao;ovkd udk,hfpdwfqE´ uvJ qefYusifzufawmh r[kwfao;ayr,fh uGJvGJaewmawmh trSefyJaygh...trkef;w&m;awmh olYtay:r&SdEdkifwmrSefay r,fh cspfarwåmusawmhvJ ESif;tyfjcif;rjyKEkdifbl;.../ 'gaMumifh OD;&Jzufuawmh&Sif;NyD...&Sif;ygonfvkdY arcsKdwpfOD;wnf;udk tpOD;qHk;&Sif;jyajymjzpfrd&jcif;yJygav/ ]]q&mhb0udk pyfpkw,f? pGufzufw,fvkdYawmh rxif vkuygeJY q&m/ wpfcsKUd vlawGu arcsKUd udajymvmMuwJh pum; d f k awGt& r[kwrrSewmqk&ifvJ oJouuoEiMf uapbdtwGuf f f d J JG JG d kd Yk arcsKdwkdYuq&mhtay: tumtuG,fay;Mu&rSmyJaygh...}} 166 167 Handbook-86
  • 87. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol *kPoumqkwm taumiftxnfr&Sayr,fh usqif; f d © d d oGm;&if jyeftzwfq,fvdkY vG,fulwmrsKd;rS r[kwfwm? olY pGrf;tm;uBuD;rm;vSygw,f/ ]]EIwfaMumifhaMu vufaMumifh ao}} qkdwmvJ&Sdw,fr[kwfvm;/ toHaMumifhzm;ao rjzpf apvkdrkdY q&mh&JUemrnf*kPfowif;aumif;[m jzpfEkdif&if r[m pBum0VmwHwi;f xdatmif ysUH ESUH oufa&mufom;apcsiwhJ qE´ F dk G f rsKd;eJYvJ arcsKdajymjzpf&wmyg/ oabmxm;BuD;wwfwJhq&mu arcsKdrsm;em;vnfrIwpfpHkwpf&m rSm;,Gif;w,fvdkY ,lqcJhrd&if vJ cGifhvTwfay;wwfrSmygaemf...}} ]]aumif;ygNyD arcsKd&,f/ q&mhtaeeJYuawmh trSef wu,fpnf;rusK;d pnf;razmufcb;l qkwmudk ckvajymjyjzpf& hJ d dk wmuvJ ukd,fhudk,fudk,HkMunfEkdif&atmif oHo,uif;uif;eJY aeaejcif;ygyJ onfpdwfrsKd;eJYyJ udk,fhb0tem*wfrSm cspfjcif; arwåmtjynhygwJowpfa,mufeYJ wpfoufwmaysm&iMf unfE;l f h l f T csrf;ajrU&r,fh tcspftdrfuav;wpfckudk wnfaqmufoGm;Ekdif zdkY &nf&G,fBudK;pm;aeqJygav...}} onfpum;udk uReawmfajymcJjh cif;ESihf wpfqufwnf; f oufjyif;&Snfudk rIwfxkwfrd&vsuf&SdcJhonf/ ,if;udk arcsKd jrifoGm;odoGm;cJhonf/ pum;qkdvmcJhonf/ ]]arcsKdtar;xlcJhovkd jzpf&vkdY OD;&JajzqkdcJh&NyD; tvkd rusjzpfrd&vdkYyJvm; q&m&,f...oufjyif;&Snfudk rIwfxkwf rsufESmawmfBuD;uvJ ykyfokd;ovkdvkdjzpfoGm;ovdkyJ...}} ]]tif;...ykyf&ifay: [kwf&ifausmf...wJh? ausmif; q&muawmfjzpfawmhr,fqdkvm;? ukefonfyGJpm;BuD;&JU acR;r jzpfawmhr,fvJ Mum;rd&&JU? ckwavmav;rSm owif;ysHUaewm ...}} odkYuvdkajymaeqJ pum;pyiftqHk;rowf&ao;... ]]q&maemf...arcsKdUudkr,HkrMunfeJYrsm;? ajym&uf vkdufwm q&m&,f...}} ]]aMomf...arcsKd&,f... q&mu r,HkMunfvdkYrS ajymrSrajym&ao;wm? arcsKduom ajymjyvmrS OD;&Jod&rSmyJ Opöm? OD;&Ju udk,fuajymwmxuf olrsm;u ajymwmudk OD;pm; ay; em;axmifwwfwJhtavhrsm;wJholrsKd;av...}} ]]aumif;ygNyq&m&,f...&efueom; &efueoawG D k f k f l vdk pum;udk tqifwefqmaumif;aumif;eJY rajymwwfolu arcsKdyg? axhwmawmh r[kwfzl;aemfq&m...arcsKduawmh awmNrKd UolvyJ ajymyg&apawmh...ajymp&mwnfwnfyJ ajym Ykd h h csifwwfwm...rsKd;qdkawmh...}} &Sif;&Sif;yJ ajymjzpf&NyD/ [kdbufe,fu bDtD;'DbGJU& q&mwpfa,mufygyJq&m/ NyD;cJhwJh oHk;av;&ufavmufuyJ xD;vif;udk a&mufvmw,f/ tdrrmwnf;cdom;cJw,f/ olrb f S k G h Y d eJY uRerrdbrsm;uvJ wpfzufwpfvrf;u ta&mif;t0,fvyf f k ief;eJY qufEG,faeMuolawGvJ jzpfMuw,f/ olu arcsKdUrdb awGqDvm&mrSm &nf&G,fcsufawGu wpfckxJ r[kwfbl;/ olY rdbrsm;vkyfief;udpöu ygvmcJhovdk arcsKdUudk tMuifempum; awG vmajymwm/ wpfpcef;jyefxvmjyefwmyJvdkY ajym&rSmyg 168 169 Handbook-87
  • 88. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol yJ q&m&,f... wpfcseu wuúovausmif;aeb0udk jyefp d f kd f &jyefOD;r,fq&m... arcsKp;D yGm;a&;wuúovausmif;olb0? oluvJ ynma&; d dk f wuúovausmif;om;b0? arcsKewpfcef;wnf;twlae olwYkd kd f d YJ NrdKUoludktrSDjyKNyD; oluarcsKdwkdYtaqmifudk cPcPa&mufvdkY vmw,f/ arcsKdUudkvJ ta&mw0ifvkyfNyD; &nf;pm;pmay;cJhzl; w,f/ arcsKduawmhtwlae oli,fcsif;eJYvJ rsufESmrysufcsif? wpfOD;eJY wpfOD;vJ rpdrf;um;csifwmaMumifh jyefvnfvkdYpum; ajymcJh&w,f/ 'DvdkcspfwJhpdwfrsKd;awG&SdzkdYxuf udk,fhrdbudk,fhNrdKU udk,fXmaerSmtvkyftudkif &mxl;wpfckeJYaexkdifoGm;EkdifzdkYudk om tav;txm;qHk;jzpfae&ao;w,f/ tcspfvrf;c&D;udk ravQmufvr;f csiao;bl;/ cifrifwpwrsK;d yJxm;Ediao;w,f S f hJ d f k f vdkY ol&JUurf;vrf;vmrIudk pum;jyefajymjzpfcJh&w,faygh.../ jzpfcsifawmh olYrdbrsm;eJY arcsKdUrdbrsm;eJYu wpfzuf wpfvrf;u pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;t& oduRrf;qufoG,fvmMu jcif;u tpjyKNyD; aemufxyfwpfzef arcsKdUukdBuH&G,fvmjyefcJh wm? azazararwduvJ olowif;udMk um;xm;Ny;D om;? olpmjy Yk Y wJhausmif;u q&mrav;wpfa,mufeJyu bmvkdvkd? ydkum 0dkif;uvJ xkdifwwfao;? xef;&nft&ufuav;wjrjreJYvlyJ ukefonfyGJpm;om;rdkYvdkY ajym&rvm;yJ? pum;tajymav;eJY qufqa&;uaumif;ovdvdk 'gayr,fh a,musm;pum;r[kwf H k f bl; q&m&JU? rdef;rvdkrdef;r&oabm&SdowJh/ 'ghaMumifhvJyJ [kd q&mrav;eJY cGmNyJoGm;Muw,fqkdav;yJ/ vlysKdawmhvlysKd vlvwygyJ...wu,fwrf;awmh aumif;owif;ur&Svygbl; G f d S q&m&,f...rdbawGeJY qufpyfywfoufNyD; rvdrfhwpfywfeJY vlBuD;csif;oabmwlay;MuzdkY ajcvSrf;vmvSrf;wm? 'gudk b,fub,fvjdk zpfvm&w,f rajymcsiawmhygbl;/ owif;u f jyefYcJh&awmhw,fqkdygawmh/ olvma&mufcJhwmudk {nhf0wf ausyGefay;cJhwJh azazararwkdYuvJ aemifudkqifjcifEdkif&av atmif pum;vSpf[cJhw,f/ arcsKdUararuyJ ajymvkdufowJh ...arcsKdUoabmqE´rygbJ tdrfaxmifwpfckudk rwnf aqmufcsib;l / bGUJ &ynmwwfawGyrYdk ESpO;D om;cspraeMuyg f J f f d NyDqdkcJh&if rdbpHknDeJY vma&mufNyD; aphpyfaMumif;vrf;awmif; &rf;ygvkdYajymvkdufowJhav at;a&m.../ arcsKduvJajymjzpfatmifajymvkdufw,f...tcif rifrysuomvmzkBYd uKd ;pm;yg...aemufxyf&nf;pm;pum;ajym f zdkY vHk;0rBudK;pm;ygeJYawmhvkdYaygh/ uJ...arcsKUd owif;uawmh &Si;f &Si;f yJaemf q&m... wu,fygq&m&,f...udk,fhcspf&r,fholeJY MuifazmfMuifzuf tjzpfb0wpfckudk avQmufvSrf;Mu&r,fhc&D;vrf;rSm olvJ&if udk,fuwl? udk,fvJ&ifolu uxlrwfr,fhpdwfxm;rsKd;eJYom oGm;csiwm? pdwwu,wb0rsK;d eJY vlrsK;d udom b0qufwi;f f f l kd f l k dk qHkqnf;csifrdygw,f/ b0qufwi;f qufwi;f qHpnf;vk&if armifr,fEpO;D dk dk k d S f [m wlrQaomo'¨gw&m;&S&r,f? wlrQaomoDvw&m;&S&r,f? d d wlrQaom pGefYBuJrI&Sd&r,f? wlrQaomtodÓPfynm&Sd&r,f 170 171 Handbook-88
  • 89. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol vdkY xD;vif;NrdKu? r*Fvmausmif;wkdufq&mawmfBuD;u [dk wavmav;uyJ arcsKdUudkrdefYcJhzl;ao;w,fav/ arcsKu rde;f rom;qkawmhvJ q&mr&,f...razmuf d d jyefwJhopöm&,f? vHkNcHKNrJckdifwJh arwåmuGef&uf&,frsKd;eJYom om;a&Ttkd;xrf;vmwJhtjzpfudk ydkifqkdif&&if; olY&ifrSmaysmfydkuf yg&apvkdY qkd&rSmygyJav/ qkawmif;jynhf0vSapw,fvdkY emrnfausmwhJ 'Dua&Tuetyb&m; a&TuetyapwDawmfxH f G f k f k G f k f arSmufrSm arwåm&if;rSefwJholeJY opömtyfESHumom ESpfa,muf wpfb0 b0wpfckudk vlYb0oHo&mc&D;rSm wnfaqmufEkdif cGifhtrSefwpfu,f& &ygapaMumif; qkawmif;rd&ygw,f OD;&J &,f...}}/ ]]aMomf...arwåmeJY opömud...[k;d a&S;a&S;yk*acwf k H u tavmif;pnforif;Bu;D wnfxm;ud;k uG,cwhJ 'Du a&Tuef l f hJ G tkyfbk&m;? a&TuGeftkyfapwDawmfxHarSmufrSm arwåm&if;rSef wJholeJY opömtyfESHumom ESpfa,mufwpfb0 b0wpfckudk vlYb0oHo&mc&D;rSm wnfaqmufEdkifcGifh trSefwpfu,f& &ygapaMumif; qkawmif;rd&ygw,f OD;&J&,f...}} ]]aMomf...arwåmeJY opömud...[d;k a&S;a&S;yk*acwf k H u tavmif;pnfolrif;BuD; wnfxm;udk;uG,fcJhwJh 'Du qkawmif;jynha&TuetyapwDawmfxyg;rSm wpfaeYaomtcg f G f k f H wGifawmh...cspfcifpHkruf&wJh tcspfOD;eJY tcspfqHk;olqkdwm eJY...arcsKdav...}} jrefrmEdkifiHjynfaxmifpktvHudk udkifaqmifo,f,lcGifh&&Sd cJhaom apmfbGm;tEG,f ]]b,f-nm-b,f-nm-b,f-nm-b,f}} [laom toH/ NrdKUe,fjynfolY&Jpcef;rS &JwyfMuyfBuD;u oifwef;ol oifwef;om;wkdYtm; atmf[pfumavhusifhay;aeonhftoH jzpfonf/ tkyfpkvkduf tkyfpkvkdufudk nDnDnmnmjzpf&av atmif oifwef;ay;aejcif;vnf;jzpfygonf/ &JwyfMuyfBuD;u þrSmzufrS toHay;ae&if; av,mOfuGif;a[mif;BuD;wGif ta&SUt&yfqDodkY ajy;vkduf? xkdrSwpfzef taemuft&yfxH jyefajy;vkdufESifh jzpfaeonf/ [dkrSmzufurl &J 'k-t&mcHAkdvf u avhusifha&; b,f-nm toHESifhtwl oluvnf;vkdufyg vsuf tajctaet&yf&yfudk BuD;Muyfonfhtaejzifh tkyfpkESifh twl vkdufvHajy;um Munhf½Iay;aeavonf/ b,fnmajy; um avhusifhonhftzGJUaemufü NrdKUe,ftm;^umrSL;u vkdufygxdef;odrf;ay;vsufudkvnf; awGU&onf/ pHepfwus vnf; avhusiaeMuonfukd jrif&onfu tm;wufp&m? aysmf hf p&m/ a&SUqHk;u vrf;pOfvli,f bifc&mwD;0dkif;ESifh yef;yGm; tzGJU? aemufu awmifolv,form;tzGJU? tvkyform;tzGJU? ynma&;0efxrf;tzGJU? usef;rma&;0efxrf;tzGJU? awmifom; (trsKd;orD;rsm;om) tzGJUponfwkdYum; qkdif&m qkdif&mtzGJU tpnf;taejzifh yg0ifvy&m;aqmif&uMf u&onf/ tzGUJ wpfck I f S G csif;pDxdyfwGif tzGJUacgif;aqmifwpfOD;pDyg0ifum ,if;tzGJU 172 173 Handbook-89
  • 90. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol acgif;aqmifonfvnf; rdrdtzGJUenf;wlpnf;csufrSefpGm vkdufygajy;Mu&ygonf/ þuJhodkYavhusifhaeMujcif;um; tjcm;r[kwf/ &Srf;? csi;f ? ucsi?f u,m;? u&if? rGe?f Arm? &ckif tp&Sonfwi;f &if; d d h dk om;vlrsK;d aygif;pHw pkpnf;pnf;vH;k nDnwrjI zifh yg0ifzUJG pnf; k Ykd G f xm;Mujcif; &vm'ftxG#ftjrwf trSwftom;jzpfaom ]]jynfaxmifptvHawmf}} tm; o,f,a&;tpDtpOfwpf&yfukd k l uHaumif;pGmo,f,aqmif&ucihf &&ScjhJ cif;aMumifjh zpfygonf/ l G f G d EkdifiHawmft0ef; cspfMunfpnf;vHk;rI ckdifNrJapa&;udkvnf; &&Sd apvsufav;eufí t"dyÜg,fjynhf0vSaom cH,lcsuf? &nf&G,f csufaumif;rsm;ESifhvnf; jzpfavonf/ onfwpfESpfukefjzifh rauG;wdkif;twGif; tvHawmf o,f,a&;c&D;pOfwif rBuKH pzl; &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg;tcGix;l wpfcukd l G hf k xD;vif;NrdKUe,fav;rSvnf; &&SdvmcJh&ívnf; jzpf&ygonf/ ,if;tcGifhta&;udkonfyifvQif cufcufcJcJESifh&&SdEdkifcJh&yg onf/ tvHawmfu ykvJ-*efYa*gum;vrf;rBuD;twdkif; *efYa*g NrdKU(a,ma'oNrdKUawmf)odkYa&muf&Sdum ntdyf&yfem;rnfh c&D; pOfjzpfonf/ xD;vif;NrdKUay:rS jzwfoef;oGm;rnfhc&D;pOf r[kwacs? okayrJh jynfaxmifptvHawmftm; xD;vif;NrKd Ue,f f Yd k ole,fom;rsm;;uvnf; trGeftjrwf tjrwfwEdk;av;pm; wefbdk;xm;onfhoabmudk euf½Idif;pGm jyvdkMuonf/ &orQ tcsdeftawmtwGif; wpfwyfwpftm;yg0ifaqmif&GufvdkMu onf/ wm0efBu;D rm;vGe;f vSaom jynfaxmifptvHawmfo,f k ,la&;vkyief;&yf Bu;D rm;vnf; tav;xm;od&MdS uvsuEiyif f f S hf xD;vif;NrdKUe,fole,fom; vkyfom;jynfoltaygif;udkuvnf; wwfpGrf;orQ wm0efausyGefcsifMuonf/ jynfaxmifpkpdwf "mwfESifh EdkifiHawmfBuD;tm; tcef;u@av;wpfcktaejzifh yg0ifum cspfMunfjycsifMuavonf/ ]]ud&a&...[da&SUqH;k u OD;aqmifaewJh wpfa,muf k J k aomtrsKd;orD;u b,folb,f0gvJAs/ jrLESif;awgua0a0 aqmif;avuat;at;rSm apmifNcKH auG;&wm nwmuvJ &Snf vGe;f awmh auG;&wmMum cg;awGuanmif;nmvm? tdya&;vJ f 0vdkYapmapmx vmcJhwmrdkY rsufrSefu ,lrvmjzpfbl;qdkawmh apmapmujycJhwJh tcsKd;tqpfuvJus vSrSvS acsmrSacsm trsK;d orD;udk usKyo&atmif ajymjyygOD;As...[J...[J...}} f d ygwDOuú|BuD;toH? teDyk*¾dKvfBuD;u tmPmydkif tzGJUtpnf;u yk*¾dKvfrsm;xJrSmawmh tvGefpçwwf aemufç wwfqHk;jzpfonf/ NyHK;NyHK;NyHK;NyHK;ESifh &,fp&mvnf; tvGefajym wwfqHk;? yHkudk ywfpvnf;&SmBuHum tajymwwfqHk;jzpfonf/ wpfcgwpf&H twnfaygufoabmrsK;d ESihf ajymaeonfuvnf; olYpum;qHk;awmhrS aemufçaerSef;od& &,f&avonf/ ]]rodygbl;Asm...&Sifr[m&|om&pmqdk&JU ]]ajcmuf wefewf&GmbHkuvmodkY}}qdkovdk ewfwrQvSyayw,f/ a,m a&TjynfqdkwJh a,mjynfa,me,fxJu ol&J ac: xD;vif;NrdKU a&TjynfBuD;&JU ola,mifr,favvm; rodygbl;/ r[mu½kPm awmf&Sif ocifBuD;&JU OD;aqG;qHjrnfh trIawmfxrf;&Jrufawmf 174 175 Handbook-90
  • 91. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol av; armif&JeJY oifhawmfaypGvdkY ravQmufwif&JwJh owådudk azmfxwum t&Jpevsuf oHawmfO;D wifjzpf&ygw,fcifAs...}} k f G Yf Ouú|BuD;ESifh uRefawmfaemufu wdwfwqdwfav; a&muf&SdaecJhol ukefoG,fv,f,m refae*smBuD; q&ma&T toHudk uRefawmfwdkY Mum;vdkufMu&jcif; jzpfonf/ ]][k w f y gh . ..[k w f y gh . ..rS e f y gh A sm...apmbG m ; tEG,fawmf rif;orD;av;wpfyg;ayrdkY olYtdrfawmfa&SU &mw rwfum oJjzLcif;vdYk usKy&rufawmfav; ud&eYJ vufcsi;f quf f J k J um av;pm;zdkY tBuHtxdef;awmfBuD;u jywfjywfom;om;eJY em;azmufvdkY tjrefqHk;aqmifMuOf;aprsm;...wpfcsufvTwf trdefYawmf...}} [laom ygwDOuú|BuD; w[m;[m; &,fusJusJESifh w0g;0g;toH a[rEÅaqmif;eHeufcif;0,f vGifhysHcJh&if; uRefawmfwdkYoHk;OD;om;rSm &,faecJhMu&avonf/ ]][kwfw,f Ouú|BuD;? rajymrNyD; rwD;rjrnfwJh/ udk&J taeeJY arcsKdUudkvuf&odrf;ydkufzdkYoifhvSNyD/ bmvkdvkdeJY udk&J 'DNrdKUudka&mufvmcJhwmyJ (3) ESpf (3) rkd;jynfhcJhNyD/ owif;trSef uvJ olwkdYESpfOD;qDu r&Ekdifao;bl;/ xdefcsifxm;Muw,f xif&JU? xdefcsefrIeJY pGJcsufwif&r,fxifyg&JU? cspfMunfa&; owif;trSeuvJ olwEpO;D qDu r&Ediao;bl;/ xdecsexm; f Ydk S f k f f f Muw,fxif&JU? xdefcsefrIeJY pGJcsufwif&r,fxifyg&JU? cspfMunf a&;owif;xGuvYdk vmcJ&ifawmhvm;...armfawmf (Bottle) f h aumif;aumif;? r,f'vifoHaumif;aumif;? 'Hkrif;vufoH aumif;aumif;eJY taygif;toif;wpfodkufudk wkdufzkdYawmh aumif;aumif;BuD;jypf'Pfcwf&r,fAs...}} q&ma&TtoHu ajr§mufyifhoH rauseyfoHaESmu Ouú|BuD;xH udk,ftrlt&mjy[ef? vuf[efESifh uRefawmfhtm; ]]xnfh}} aeonf/ uReawmfuvnf; twnfrcH? jyefajymrS jzpfawmhrnhf f h [efjyifum jyefajymrd&awmhonf/ ]]udk&JwdkYu r&JbJeJY rwGJ&Jbl; rETJ&Jbl;As/ trsKd;jrwf tEG,fawmfudkvJ iJh&ao;yg&JU? ausmcsrS"g;jyrSef;odqkdwmvkd yg;csrSyg;½dk;uGJaeygOD;r,fAsm...}} ]][kwfygNyD...[kwfygNyD...rif;orD;av;crsm arm aea&mhr,f/ wef;jzKw?f em;apvkyay;OD;rS...armfawmftem; f ac:ay;xm;OD;rS...[J...[J...}} Ouú|Bu;D uaemufNy;D &if;aemuf&if;u oifwef;acwå &yfem;apbdYk avhusia&;rSL;xH q&ma&Tuom;íajymaponf/ hf kd G arcsKdonf uRefawmfwkdYteD;odkY a&mufvmcJhonf/ ]]Ouú|BuD;...uRefrwkdYawmfawmfnDnDnmnm jzpf aecJhNyDaemf...}} [k NyHK;&TifaomrsufESmxm;jzifh olYrsufESmudk acR;okw&if;uajymvmonf/ oifwef;jy&J't&mcHAv?f &Jwyf f k kd MuyfBuD;? NrdKUe,ftm;^umrSL;wkdYvnf; toD;oD;a&muffvmMu &if; w&if;wESD;&,farmum&SdaeMuonf/ ]]at;...a':arcsKuawmhAsm? azmifBu;D A[d0efxrf; d k wuúodkvfBuD;u 0efxrf;avmif;oifwef; (aZ,s? qif;vJ 176 177 Handbook-91
  • 92. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol jzpfawmhtm;rmefuvJtjynfheJY tom;usaeNyDaygh/ a':arcsKd uvJ ud,tzGUJ udk &Hzef&cgab;uMunf...olwetwlvuf k hf H h Ydk YJ kd Munhf ajc[ef vuf[eftaetxm;tm;vHk; nDnmayhapaemf ...ajymomajym&wmygAsm...tzGJUawGtm;vHk;u tkdau aeygNyD/ tm;&w,fAsm...}} Ouú|Bu;D tajymESihf uReawmfwtm;vH;k tarmajy f Ydk Mu&yg/ ]]tif;...'Drm a':arcsKa&...a':arcsKvJ ckvyif S d d kd yef;ae&wm t"duw&m;cHawGu b,folawGvJqkdwmod&JU vm;/ wu,frodavmufygbl;...[kwfw,fr[kwfvm;}} Ouú|BuD;tar;? arcsKduvnf; ]][kwfygw,f &Sifh}} [k ajzqkdoH/ ]]w&m;cHawGuawmh usKyfyJ...tJ...cifAsm;&JU q&m OD;&JvJygw,f/ t"duawmh OD;&JupwiftBuHjyKwifjy cJ h w m? a':arcsKd & J U OD ; &J u awmh awmf & S m ygayw,f . .. a':arcsKUd udEypufwae&m 'Dutm;vH;k udk ESypufwae&mrSm k dS f hJ d f hJ av...wu,f jrifwwf awG;ac:wwfwJholygyJ...a&SU avQmufvBl u;D jzpfvmOD;rSm odvm;...toufBu;D vmvd...}} Yk qkcawmh teD;&Stm;vH;k wku &,fMu&ao;avonf/ d hJ d Yd [kwfygonf/ BuHKawmifhBuHKcJ jynfaxmifpktvHawmf jrefjynftESHYe,fvSnhfc&D;pOfBuD;u rauG;wkdif;twGif; *efYa*g NrdKU (uHhaumfNrdKU) BuD;wGif ntdyf&yfem;&ef tpDtpOfjzpfay: vmcJhonf/ *efYa*gNrdKUwGif ntdyf&efem;pOf ZmwfyGJ? tNidrhfyGJ? aysmfyGJ&TifyGJ? tm;upm;yGJ? ½kyf&SifjyyGJ? *efYa*gNrdKUwGif ntdyf&ef em;pOf "mwfyGJ? tNidrfhyGJ? aysmfyGJ&TifyGJ? tm;upm;yGJ? ½kyf&SifjyyGJ? Xmeqkdif&mjycef;rsm;? aps;a&mif;qkdifcef;rsm;...ponfjzifh 0SJcsD;usif;y&efjzpfvm&onf/ a,mwdkYXmeDrSmu xD;vif;NrdKUe,fESifh aqmNrdKUe,fwdkY taejzifh NrdKUi,fav;wdkYomjzpfaeNyD; *effYa*gNrdKUonf a,m a'o NrdKUawmfozG,f NrdKUBuD;jzpfonf/ zGHUBuD;wdk;wufrI taumif;qHk;vnf;jzpfí aeonf/ oufqdkif&matmufajc tqifhqifhrS usKd;aMumif;jywifjycsufrsm;udk wkdif;a'oygwD? wdkif;aumifpD? A[dktqifhwdkYrS toD;oD;oabmwlnDNyD;cJhMuí jynfaxmifpktvHawmfu a&muf&Sdvmayawmhrnfvnf; jzpf ygonf/ rlvatmufajctqifhwGif xl;xl;jcm;jcm; wifjycJh onfrSm olwdkYudk,folwdkY ]]ysL}}awG[k ,HkMunf,lqxm;Muol ]]awmifom;}}wdkYtm; yGJxkwfwifjy&ef uRefawmftBuH&cJhrd& onf/ awmifom;wdukd wifjya&;wGif txl;ojzifh awmifom; Yk trsKd;orD;rsm;wdkYtm; olwdkY½kd;&m0wfpHkjzifh yg0ifwifjy&efonf ygwDOuú|BuD;ESifh uRefawmfwkdYpOf;pm;ajrmfjrifrIrsm;aMumifh vnf; ay:aygufvmEdkif&jcif;[k ajym&rnfyifjzpfygonf/ ,if;taMumif;t&mrsm;wkdYtm; ygwDOuú|BuD;u&Sif;jycJhawmh teD;&Sdtm;vHk;wkdYu t&if;ppfawmh tjrpfajruudkaumif;pGm odjrifcGifh&oGm;cJhMu&avonf/ uRefawmfonf tvHawmfBudKqkda&;vkyfief;&yfBuD; 178 179 Handbook-92
  • 93. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wGif jyefMum;a&;ESifh pnf;½Hk;vIHYaqmfa&; qyfaumfrwDü wm0ef,l&onhftjyif pmwrf;jyKpka&;tzGJUacgif;aqmifvnf; jzpfc&onf/ ud,wivnf; 0efxrf;tzGUJ tpnf; (tvkyorm; hJ k f dk f f aygif;pH) wGif yg0ifcum tvHawmftm;BuKd qcovnf; jzpfyg k hJ dk hJ l onf/ tvHawmfo,f,la&;&uf eD;uyfvmNyDjzpfaomaeY wpfaeYwGif xD;vif;NrdKUuwå&mvrf;rBuD;twkdif; tm;vHk;aom tzGJUrsm;onf nDnmzszsESifh 0wfpHkjznfhtprf;avhusifhcJhMuyg onf/ xD;vif;wpfNrdKUvHk;ESifh teD;tem;aus;&Gmrsm;rS &Gmol &Gmom;vlxktaygif;wkdY Munhf½IcJhMuavonf/ tzGJUwkdif;u olYrdepfpHEIef;twkdif; aqmif&GufMu&onf/ AD'D,kd½dkufívnf; rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf/ jrifawGUMunhf½IjyolwdkYvnf; oJoJvIyfrQ rsm;jym;cJhavonf/ xkdaeYu tzGJUrsm;tm;vHk;wGif txl;jcm;qHk;tzGJUum; ]]awmifom;vHkarysKd}} wkdYtzGJUyifjzpf/ NrdKUe,fwGif;&Sd0efxrf; rsm;? NrdKUay:&yfuGufrS &yfuGufolrsm;? t.x.u ausmif;ol av;rsm;wkdYxJrS tacsmtvSrsm;wkdYudk a&G;cs,fapcJhumyg0if zGUJ pnf;xm;jcif;vnf;jzpf/ awmifom;0wfpEihf tacsmtvS kH S rde;f uav;rsm;udk wpfpwpfa0; pkppnf;pnf;toGiqef;tae k k f txm;jzifh jrifawGUae&jcif;um; pdwfwGif&Tifvef;tm;& wuf<ubG,f&mjzpf&av/ xdk awmifom;vHarysKw tzGUJ acgif;aqmif tacsm k d Ydk tvSydkif&SifrSm t&m&Sdrav; a':arMunfvGifcsKdyifjzpfonf/ arcsKdtygt0if (17) OD;&Sdonf/ wpfzufvQif (8) OD;pDESifh twef; (2) wef;zGJUpnf;um yg0ifcsDwuf&avonf/ arcsKum; omrnr[kw/ apmfbm;tEG,awmfwnf;/ d f G f a&S;jrefrm&Sifbk&ifrsm;acwfu xD;vif;NrdKUav;tm; apmfbGm; rsm;cefYxm;tkyfcsKyfapcJhMu/ apmfbGm;rsm;tpOftquf tkyfcsKyfvmcJhavaom apmfbGm;qufrsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í arcsKd aqGpOfrsKd;qufZ,m;udk uRefawmf&,lodrf;qnf;xm;yg/ ouú&mZf (900) ausmfumvcefYwGif [Hom0wD qifjzL&Sirif;w&m;Bu;D vufxuf rk;d aumif;apmfbm;om;udk f G apmfbGm;t&mcefYonf/ ¤if;rkd;aumif;apmfbGm;om;udk cEÅD; apmfbGm;cefYonf/ ¤if;cEÅD;apmfbGm;ukd xD;vif;NrdKUapmfbGm; t&mcefYtyfawmfrlcJhonf/ aqGpOfrsKd;qufZ,m;t& arcsKd onfa&S;a&S;u apmfbGm;tEG,fawmfaywnf;/ rnHHhacs/ jrifhjrwfaom awmf0iftodkif;t0kdif; rsKd;EG,fjzpfonfudk uRefawmfavhvm od&Sdxm;ojzifhvnf; þodkYajymEkdif&jcif; vnf; jzpfonf/ odkYjzihf EdkifiHawmf tpDtpOftwdkif; jynfaxmifpk tvHawmfo,f,lMu&rnfhae&ufrwdkifrD wpf&uftvdkodkY a&muf&SdvdkYvmonf/ BudKqdkpDpOfae&mcsxm;ay;a&; qyfaumf rwDtpDtpOfjzihf xD;vif;NrdKUrS ta&SUajrmufbuf (28) rkicefa0;uGmaom ]]a&jrufe}D } aus;&GmBu;D odYk o,f,yaqmif d f Y l Ykd a&;um;Bu;D rsm;jzihf oGm;a&mufc&onf/ ,if;&GmBu;D wGivnf; hJ f xD;vif;NrdKUe,f tpDtpOft& Xmeqkdif&mjycef;rsm;? or0g 180 181 Handbook-93
  • 94. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ,rypönf;ta&mif;qdkif? yk*¾vduaps;qdkifrsm;? vHkNcHKa&;apmihf a&SmufrItzGJYrsm; ponfjzihfyGJawmfusif;ycGifhaMumihf &GmeD;csKyf pyfaus;&Gmrsm;u jynfolawGESihf pnf;um;aeonf/ &GmBuD; um;vrf;rawmifbufab; v,fui;f Bu;D xJwif jzpfavonf/ G G xkdnu uRefawmfonf rdrdESihfoufqkdifaom vkyfief;wm0ef rsm;tm; xrf;aqmifaecJh&ao;onf/ (28-1-1986) aeYeHeufydkif;wGifawmh ppfukdif;wkdif; rSa&muf&Sd qdkufa&mufvmrnhf tvHawmftm; vufqihfurf; o,f,a&;tpDtpOft& wpfzUJG csi;f pDonf owfrwwm0ef,l l S f &rnhfae&mtoD;oD;odkY a&muf&Sdum apmihfBudKaeMu&onf/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxufayaygif; (3000)ausmfpD tjrihf &Sdonfh yHkawmifyHknmawmifwef;jrihfnDaemifudk ausmfjzwf azmufvkyfxm;aom ykvJ-*efYa*garmfawmfum;vrf;rBuD;t wdi;f rlvowfrwxm;onhf tcseEiavsmnpm jynfaxmifpk k S f d f S fh f D G tvHawmfuqdkufa&mufvmchJygonf/ jynfaxmifpktvHawmfum; vmcJhacsNyD/ xD;vif;NrdKU e,fav; tvHawmfBudKqkda&;tzGJUrSmvnf; tzGJUwpfzGJUcsif; pD vufqifurf;tpDtpOft& BuKd qMkd u&Ny;Dd tzGUJ acgif;aqmif h vkyou tvHawmfuvajymif;&,lNy;D tjcm;tzGUJ wpfcxjH yef f l kd JT k vnfvufqihfurf;vTJajymif;ay;&onf/ tzGJUwpfckESihfwpfck Mum; nDnDnmnm rSefrSefav;ajy;um csDwufMu&&if; jynf axmifptvHawmf vufqifurf;o,f,a&;c&D;pOftavsmuf k h l wDA½uu;l xkwvia&;tzGUJ rsm;uvnf; rSwwrf;wif½uu;l DG kd f f T fh f dk f aecJhMuonf/ yHkawmifyHknm&yf0ef; awmxJawmifxJNrdKif,HxJ0,f omom,m,mwifhwifh&Tef;&Tef;wvQrf;vQrf;a0 aysmf&TifMunf El;auseyfc&aom xdaeY&ufukd xD;vif;NrKd Ue,foe,fom;tm; hJ k l vH;k wdu vIuvuvv0rf;ompGmjzihf jynfaxmifptvHawmf Yk d f dI f JS JS k tm;NcdrfhNcdrfhoJoJBudKqdk&if;atmifjrifNyD;pD;EdkifcJhMu&avonf/ wdi;f &if;om;rsm;twGi;f jynfaxmifppw"gwfxm0pOf&ihoef k k d f f ckirmapa&;aqmif&uusi;f yay;jcif;tm; aomif;aomif;zszs d f G f BudKqdkMuvsufESifhatmifjrifjynfhajrmufEdkifcJhygavonf/ tvHawmftm; xD;vif;NrKd Ue,fu wm0ef,ausyepm l G f G ESifh vufqifurf;o,f,Nl y;D pD;cJonfEifh wpfnwmtdy&yfem; fh h S f rnhf *eYfa*gNrdKUBuD;qDokdY qufvufxGufcGmoGm;cJhNyD; um;av; um;BuD;toD;oD;ESihf armfawmf,mOfwef;BuD;um; tvHawmf apmifha&Smufa&;tzGJYrsm;ESihf woDwwef;pDwef;umjzpfonf/ uReawmfwYkd xD;vif;NrKd Ue,frS tvHawmfBuKd qo,f,a&;tzGYJ f kd l rsm;tm;vHk;wdkYvnf; tqdkyg,mOfwef;BuD;aemufuaeí tpD tpOftwdi;f vduygcGi&&ScMhJ uojzihf *efa*gNrKd UBu;D qD uReawmf k k f hf d Y f wdkYa&mufjzpfcJh&avonf/ *efa*gNrdKUe,frSvnf; jynfaxmifpk Y tvHawmftm; tifwutm;wkuf BuKd qcMhJ uonfh jynfovxk kd f d kd l l BuD;wdkYrsm; jynfolYtm;upm;uGif;BuD;ESihf tjynfh&SdcJhonf/ þwGif *efa*gNrKd Ue,foe,fom;taygif;wdu xD;vif; Y l Yk NrdKUe,frS tvHawmfBudKqdko,f,la&;tzGJUrsm;teuf ]]awmif 182 183 Handbook-94
  • 95. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol om;vHk;arysKd}}wdkYtzGJUtm;rsufpdtusqHk; oabmtusqHk;? tESpoufq;kH tjzpf vIuvpmMunh½tm;ay;jcif;udk t&&Sq;kH f d f JS G f I d jzpfcJh&onf/ jrefrmh½kyfjrifoHMum;wDADGrSvnf; arcsKdOD;aqmif yg0ifonhf ]]awmifom;vHkarysKd}} tzGJYudk tom;ay;umazmfjy cJojzihf EdiiEit0ef;u ½IjrifcMhJu&onf/ xkwa0aom owif; h k f H S fh f pmrsm;üvnf; arcsKdjynfaxmifpktvHawmf vufqifhurf; o,f,l&if; olYtzGJUESihfnDnmzGzG tajy;uavm;o,f,laeMu yHkyg&SdcJhayonfudk &ufydkif;twGif; uRefawmfwdkYjrifawGU& zwf ½IcJhMu&avonf/ xdkaeYu nbufwGif vGwfvGwfvyfvyfvnfywfcGifh &&SdMuonf/ vQyfppfrD;awG xdefxdefvif;vsuf ZmwftzGJU? tNidrfh? armuGef;½kyf&Sif? jycef;pHkvif? aps;qkdifwef;wdkYyg0ifum &Sdaeaom *efYa*gNrdKUtm;upm;uGif;BuD; jynfaxmifpktvH awmf ntdyf&yfem;pOf n½Icif;um;vGefpGmvSyvSygbdawmh/ arcsKdESihfuRefawmf ESpfOD;om;eD;eD;uyfuyfyHkpHjzihf aiGz vm;BuD;wGif pdkufxlxm;onf jynfaxmifpktvHawmftm; aemufcxm;um trSww&"gwfy½ucMhJ uao;onf/ xkonhf H f kH kd f d nu rD;a&mifpHktvStyrsm;atmuf0,f arcsKdonf pdwf"gwf tiftm; &TTifvef;tm;&pGmESihf tNyHK;wa0a0 rsufESmcsKdaecJh? aysmf&Tifcsrf;ajrUMunfEl;[efjzpfaecJhonfudk uRefawmfjrifae &onf/ ]]q&m&,f...arcsKdawmhav wkdif;&if;om;aygif;pHk tygt0if jynfolvlxkwpf&yfvHk;u *kPf,l0ihf<um; tjrwf wEdk;wef;bdk;xm;av;pm;cspfMunf Mu&wJh? pnf;vHk;nDñGwfrI &JUtiftm;jzpfwJh jynfaxmifpktvHawmfjrwfudk xdawGUudkif aqmifo,f,ljzpfwJh jynfaxmifpktvHawmfjrwfudk xdawGU udkifaqmifo,f,lcGifh&cJh&NyDrdkY aysmfvkdufwm? *kPfvJ,l&w,f av...NyD;awmh tJonfvkdudk,fwkdifudkifaqmifcGifhqkdwm tvGefw&maom &cJvSwJhtcGifhta&;yJrdkY ydkNyD;wefbkd;xm;rd& um aowyefoufwqHk; rarhEdkifawmhbl;...}} aemufNyD; txl;ojzifh tJonfvkdtcGifhtvrf;udk&&Sd atmif eufeufeJeJpOf;pm;awG;ac: ajrmfjrifrdcJh&wJh aus;Zl; &Sifrsm;...tJonfrSmrS arcsKdU&JUaus;Zl;&Sif? arcsKdUudkay:vGif atmif pifwifay;cJhwJhq&m...a[monfu arcsKdtvGef av;pm;*kPf,l&wJh q&mhudktNrJwrf; aus;Zl;wifaerd&rSmyg q&m&,f? vuftkyfcsDuefawmhw,faemf q&m...}} teD ; uyf t aetxm;wG i f onf o d k Y E S , f arcsKd u ajymvmawmh uRefawmf0rf;omaerdcJh&ygonf/ wpdrfhpdrfh Munhfumjrifae&vsuf&Sdaeaom arcsKdUrsufESmav;aMumifh uRefawmfh&ifonf rsm;pGmckefaecJh&onf[k uRefawmfajymcsif onf/ uRefawmfh&ifwGif; ESvHk;om;vdIufarm&ifckef&rIu arcsKdUtm;wpfpHkwpfckaom pum;wpfcGef;udkajymcsifvmaerd awmhonf/ ESpftwefMumyif ajymcsifaerdcJhaom? odkodyf NrdKodyfum odrf;qnf;xm;aerdcJh&aom pum;wpfcGef;twGuf uRefawmhfpdwftpOfonf ,cktcg0,fxdef;xm;ír&Ekdifjzpf vmcJh&NyD? xdef;xm;írjzpfEkdifawmh? r&EdkifcJhawmhacs/ 184 185 Handbook-95
  • 96. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ]]apmfbGm;tEG,fudk oufqHk;wkdifwG,fwmoGm;yg&ap awmh arcsKd&,f...}} [k uRefawmfzGifhtefrdawmhonf/ ]]wu,fyJvm;q&m...trSefwu,fyJ apmfbGm; tEG,av; arcsKUd udw,wm MuifemcJygNyvm;q&m&,f... f k G f h D MunfEl;pGmMum;cGifh&&SdcJh&wmaMumifh xifyg&JUq&m? rsuf&nf qkdwJhtcspf&JUoufao pGwfpkd&yf0ef;av;rSm Munfvifat;jr wJh rsu&nfav;awGawmif &SvmcJ&Ny&i&,f...0rf;omvGe;f f d h D S f vkdY usvmcJh&wJh rsuf&nfav;awGyg...}} arcsKdUrsufESm&Tef;jrjr vSyonhftNyHK; at;csrf;wnf Nirvef;qef;aeonhf ud,[eftaetxm;av;ESihf arcsKUd tm; d f k f uRefawmfonf rsufawmifrcwfMunhfaerdcJhonf/ odkYpOf twG i f ; rS m yif ol Y v uf u av;ES p f z uf u d k El ; nH h o m,mpG m uRefawmfqkyfudkifrdcJhonf/ tomt,mqkyfudkifqGJ,lrdcJhav aom taetxm;rSmyif olYcE¨mudk,fav;u uRefawmhf&ifcGif odkY tvkdufoifhwkd;0ifvm&onf/ olYcE¨mudk,frS a&arT;eHYoif; oif;av;udk&onf/ cPtMumwGif arcsKdonfacgif;uav; armhívmcJhonf/ ESpfa,mufpvHk; wdwfqdwfaecJhMuonf/ pum;rajymjzpfMu/ odkYayr,fh pum;awGtrsm;BuD;ajymae onfudk aumif;uifxufu Mu,fyGifhav;awGu udk,fcsif;pm NyD; odaeMuvdrfhrnf[k uRefawmfxifavonf/ uRefawmfwkdY xifaeMuygavonf/ ]]apmfbm;tEG,ukd w&m;0ifazmfxwjf zpfcwhJ ud,&UJ G f k hJ k hf pum;eJY wG,wmMuifemcJ&wJonfuaeYrm ud,wEpa,muf f h h S k f Ydk S f wpfb0twGuf MuifemazmfvufwGJazmftjzpf cspfaerd&ygNyD arcsKdqkdwJhtcspfav;&,f...}} arcsKdonf uRefawmfh&ifcGifrS tomav;½kef;xGufcJh onf/ Nidrf;at;vSaom tNyHK;av;jzifhpum;qkdvmcJhonf/ ]]zGHUNzdK;rIvkdtyfaeao;wJh yHkawmifyHknm&yf0ef;u a,mwkXmae&JU *E¦0ifcspMf unfa&;NrKd Uav;eJY wki;f &if;om;awG Yd d NrdKUe,fole,fom;jynfolawGtwGufvJ aowyefoufwqHk; twwfEkdifqHk; cspfMunfoGm;Mur,fqkdwmvJygw,faemfOD;&J}} ]]aMomf . ..tES p f o m&jynh f 0 vS w J h trnf a v;eJ Y vkuzufvol a':arMunfvicsKtwGuf ud&uav oufq;kH d f S G f d k J wkdifatmif *E¦0ifcspfMunfpwrf;...vdkY...}} ]][kwuyg...q&m OD;&Jjrihviqw?hJ OD;&Jqw... f hJ f Id f dk dk hJ ud&qw...armifw...*E¦0ifrrke;f pwrf;eJY *E¦0ifcspMf unf k J dk hJ hJ pwrf;aemfwJh...}} ]][kwuygcifAsm...[kwyg&JUcifAsm... aumif;vS f hJ f ygNyD rzk&m;av;a&...csKd...a&...vkdY...}} 186 187 NrdKUolBuD;r zGm;zGm;av; tawG;prsm;ESifh wpfaeuG,faysmuf wpfrkd;aomufvsuf wpfaqmif; ajymif;um aqmif;rSonfaEG? aEGrS onfrkd;? rkd;rSonfaqmif; vawGtvDvanmif;cJ?h ESpawGcsc?hJ a,mwkXmae xD;vif;ajr D f D Yd rSm uRefawmfMumcJhNyD[k jyefvnfawG;rdcJhao;onf/ xD;vif;e,fajrudk tusKd;jyKvkyfief;wpfcktaejzifh Handbook-96
  • 97. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol yHhydk;ulnDay;cJhaom tcrJhapwem usL&Sifq&mb0u wpfESpf ausmfausmfomjzpfcJh&onf/ EkdifihH0efxrf;sm; usL&SifjycGifhrjyK onfh Oya'xGuf&SdvmcJhojzifh apwemynm&dyfNrHKav;vnf; r&Sd&awmh/ EkdifiHawmfOya'? pnf;rsOf;? pnf;urf;udk uRefawmf wkdYrcsKd;razmufrzsufcJh/ (10) wef;ausmif;ol ausmif;om; av;rsm; oDwif;uRwfwpfBudrf? rwfvqef;wGif wpfBudrf apwemjzifh rdrwq&morm;udk uefawmhvufaqmif xD;vif; d Ydk pyg,f&S,f a,mvHkcsnf? rsufESmokwfyk0g? vufudkifyk0g? arT; qyfjym? oGm;wkuaq; oGm;wkuwH tp&Sojzifwum; trSwf d f d f d h Ydk w&av;rsm;tjzpf &SdaecJh&onf/ pmrjy&awmhvnf; wpfzufuBuHzefí aus;Zl;wifrd &ao;onf/ tcgtm;avsmfpGm wm0efay;tyfvmrIrsm;rS awmfawmfrsm;rsm;udk uRefawmfudk,fwkdifvdkufygum xrf;&Guf jzpfonf/ &Hzef&HcgrSomvQif 'k-NrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL; arcsKdUudkwm0ef ay;jzpf&onf/ xkdYaMumifh xD;vif;wpfNrdKUe,fvHk; &yfuGufBuD; (2) ck? aus;&GmBuD;rsm;ESifh &Gmi,fav;rsm;tygt0if (95) &GmvHk;odkY uRefawmfa&mufEdkifcJh&avonf/ onfoomruao;? rdr½;kH Xmevkyief;rsm;tm;vH;k wkYd Ykd d f udk 'k-OD;pD;rSL; arcsKd? uRefawmfhvufxufrSmyif ti,fwef; pma&;rS txufwef;pma&;b0jzpfvm&ol y&D&Dar? ½Hk;tul b0rS vufESdyfpufpma&;&mxl;odkY wkd;jr§ifhí&&SdvmcJh&ol udka0vif;wkdYawGonf toD;oD;cGJa0,lwwf? uRrf;usifpGm em;vnfumvsif aqmif&GufEdkifaecJhMuavNyD/ olwkdYtm;vHk; tm; pdwfcspGmtm;udk;í&cJhNyD/ odkYjzpfí uRefawmftao;pdwf avhvmvkdcJhaom ]]awmifom;}} wkdYtrsm;pkaexkdifMuonhf xef;yifue;f ? awma&mif;? 0g;bk;d acsmif? ypif;acsmif? 0ufouf k ajrmuf? 0ufouf&Gmr? [if;cwfukef;? oHy&m? tdkif;r? a&TcHk wkdif? ZD;awm? tkef;awm? ausmuftkyf? MumO,smOf? tMunf 0g;bif;? xdefwkdif;? aq;rif;awm ponhfaus;&Gmrsm;tm; tao;pdwfavhvmEdkifcJh&onf/ xdkrQESifh rauseyfEdkifao;? *efYa*gNrdKUe,ftwGif;u awmifom;wdkY&SdMuonfh &Gm (5) &Gm? aqmNrdKUe,ftwGif;&Sd (26) &GmwdkYodkYyg a&muf&SdEdkifcJhonf/ ½kH;rScGifh,lum oGm;a&muf EdkifcJhjcif;vnf; jzpfonf/ txl;ojzifhawmh arcsKdUtultnD udk trsm;qHk;&,lEdkifcJhjcif;aMumifh awmifom;wdkYb0udk ESHYESHY pyfpyf odvmEdkifcJh&ygonf/ tppt&m&m tcuftcJr&SdEdkif cJh&yg/ arcsKdonf Arm (jrefrm) vlrsKd;jzpfaomfvnf; awmif om;wdkYpum;udk i,f&G,fpOfuyif oif,lwwfajrmufcJhum uRrf;uRrf;usifusif ajymEdkifonf/ olYxHwGif uRefawmfu oif,lcJhojzifh uRefawmfonfyif tawmfuav; ajymwwfcJh NyD/ ajymwwfaeNyD/ tcseukd aumif;pGmtusK;d &Sapjcif;jzifh uReawmfonf d f d f awmifom;wdkYb0udk avhvm&if; awGUoifh awGUtyfonfh &[ef;oHCm? vlyk*¾dKvftcsKdUtm;vnf; oGm;a&mufawGUqHkEdkif cJhonf/ rdk;aumif;&GmvQmvu©Pm&Sifq&mawmfBuD; (aemif wGif;t*¾r[mo'¨r®aZmwdu"Z b'´EÅynmomrdt&Sifjrwf) 188 189 Handbook-97
  • 98. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ESifh &yf&GmvlolESifh ap;&mt&yfwGif w&m;tm;xkwfaeonfh anmifuef&mawm&ausmif;q&mawmfwxoYkd oGm;um zl;awGU G Ykd H cGifh? 'gwAÁ0w¬KtpkpkwdkYudk uyfvSL vSL'gef;cGifhESifh q&mawmf wdkYu rdefYrSmaom w&m;awmfrsm;tm;vnf; emMum;cGifhudk &&Sd cJh&ygonf/ vly*Kd¾ vrsm;teuf ]]zGm;zGm;av;}}[k wpfNrKd Ue,fv;kH u k f ac:a0:aeMuonfh a,m*Dr,fawmfBu;D ]]a':ode;f ar}}ukum; d uRefawmftav;teuftxm;qHk; jzpf&onf/ av;pm;csD;usL; *kPfjyKcHwifxdkifaom yk*¾dKvftrsKd;orD;pGrf;aqmif&SifBuD; wpfOD;vnf; jzpfavonf/ MunfndKzG,f&mvnf; aumif;vS avonf/ xD;vif;NrdKU? r*Fvmausmif;wdkuf y"meem,uq&m awmf t&Sitm'dprax&f (aemiftcg r[mo'¨raZmwdu"Z f ö ® r[mur®Xmep&d, q&mawmf) OD;aqmifrIatmuf0,f xD;vif;NrKd Uay: &yfuuf (1) ta&SUajrmuf,e;f ,Ge;f awmifajc G G awmpyfwGifzGm;zGm;av; &dyfomausmif;BuD;&Sdonf/ xkd&dyf omausmif;BuD;wGif NrdKUolNrdKUom;? e,fole,fom;wkdY w&m; pcef;0ifEkdif&atmif q&mawmfBuD;u OD;aqmifyHhydk;ulnDum zGm;zGm;av;utkyfcsKyfpDrH aqmif&Gufonfvnf;jzpfygonf/ uRefawmfonf arcsKdESifhtwl a&mufjzpfonfrSm oHk;BudrfjynhfcJhNyD/ arcsKdESifh zGm;zGm;av;u aqGrsKd;t&if;BuD; teD;av;jzpfonf/ zGm;zGm;av;onf apmfbGm;tEG,fawmfyif jzpf o nf / &d y f o mpcef ; 0if ; twG i f ; a&muf & S d & wk d i f ; vnf ; at;Nidrf;csrf;omjcif;okcukd uRefawmfcHpm;&onf/ &dyfom pcef;tm; vSnhfvnfMunfh½IcGifh& tvSLawmfaiGvSL'gef;cGifh &&if;u arcsKdajymjyvmcJhaom zGm;zGm;av;b0taMumif; udkvnf; od&SdcGifh&cJh&onf/ jrefrmhorkdif;wGif orkdif;0if*E¦0if cspfMunfa&;NrdKUav;jzpfonfh xD;vif;NrdKUav; tarwpfOD; tjzpf rav;pm;bJraeEdkifawmh/ ]]'D & d y f o muk d aAm"d o moemh & d y f o mvd k Y a c:w,f / zGm;zGm;av;vdk trnfwGifum ajymajymaeMuwJh a,m*Dr,f awmfBuD;trnf&if;u q&mrBuD;a':odef;arvdkYac:ygw,f/ xD;vif;NrdKU&JUapmfbGm;tEG,f0if NrdKUolBuD;OD;jr? ZeD;a':yGm;vdIif wkdYrS (1297) ck? 0gqkdvjynhfausmf (3) &uf? aomMumaeYzGm; aygh/ [kpOftcgu pul;rufx&pf (10) wef;atmifjzpfcoyg... d hJ l jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&NyD; a,mwkdYXmaersm;xJrSm wpfacwfwpfcgaygufaygufa&mufa&muf trsKd;orD;wpfOD; tjzpf NrKd UolBu;D rvdYk emrnfausmapmcJoygyJ/ NrKd UolBu;D rtjzpf f h l wm0ef,ltusKd;aqmifcJholjzpfygw,f/ NrdKUolBuD;t&mudkxrf; cJholyg/ trIxrf;cJh&pOfumvrsm;u rNidrf;csrf;wJha&mifpHk olykef aomif;usef;olawG&JU vufeufeJYppfrD;vQHatmufrSm trsKd;rsKd;aom ESdyfpufn§Of;qJowfjzwfaewmawG? taxGaxG qif;&J'ku©awGudk udk,fwkdifjrifawGUMum;odcHpm;cJh&w,f/ 'ku© tzHkzHkjrifuGif;pHkawGukd oHa0&NyD; avmukwå&me,fbufudk ul;ajymif;cJhawmhw,faygh/ 190 191 Handbook-98
  • 99. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ykodrfNrdKUq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;&JU&dyfomrSm (12) ESpf? &efukefNrdKU? r[mpnf&dyfomrSm (18) ESpfcefYrQ w&m;tm;xkwf cJw,f/ r[mpnfomoemh&yomBu;D rSm [dawoDacgif;aqmif h d f tjzpfaqmif&Guf&if; &dyfomBuD;wpfck&JU wnfaqmufrI? Bu;D Muyfuyur?I w&m;tm;[kwvmMuwJh a,m*Drsm;udw&m; G f J f k jyvrf;nTefwJh ynm&yftoD;oD;wkdYukd w&m;tm;xkwf&if; qnf;yl;cJhw,fav/ 1339 ck? vaygif;vjynfhausmf 12 &ufaeYrSm a,m*D 90 wdkYudk xD;vif;NrdKU? r*Fvmausmif;wdkufBuD;atmufrSm tp jyKNyD; w&m;pcef;pwifzGifhvSpfcJhawmhw,f/ r*Fvmausmif;wdkufBuD;q&mawmf b'´EÅtm'dpörS 'DaAm"domoemh&dyfom ausmif;aqmufvkyfzdkY ajrav;{uudk cGijhf yKcw,f/ waygif;vjynfausmf 13 &ufaeYrpwifcwxif hJ h S k f G &Sif;vif;Muw,f/ 1340 ck? uqkefvjynfhausmf 11 &ufaeYrSm 'Du &dyfomqGrf;pm;aqmifudk pwifaqmufvkyfjzpfcJhygw,f/ ygwDaumifpDrSyk*¾dKvfrsm;tygt0if q&mq&mrrsm;? Xmeqdkif&mt&mxrf;? trIxrf;rsm;? "r®pBuFm0wftoif;rsm;? e,fole,fom;taygif;wdkY&JU yg0ifyHhydk;0dkif;0ef;ulnDaqmif&Guf rI? BudK;yrf;xrf;aqmifcJhMurIwdkYaMumifh wifhwifhw,fw,f 0if;xnfay:xGufvmcJhw,f/ ,ck jrifawGYae&wJh av;{u&Sd &dyfom0if;udk ta&SUbufeJYajrmufbufrsufESmwdkYrSm tkwf wHwdkif;um&HEdkifcJhw,f/ taqmuftODaygif; 18 aqmifudk a,m*DrdcifBuD;&JU BuD;MuyfuGyfuJrIeJY aqmif&GufEdkifcJh&ygw,f/ avmuD avmukwå&maumif;usKd;? y&d,uúdomoem awmf ydkrdkxGe;um;vmatmif pGrf;aqmifaeaeqJ zGm;zGm;av; ESivnf; uReawmfonf at;at;aq;aq; awGUqHci?hf pum; hf f k G ajymcGifh? Mum;odcGifhwdkYudk &&SdcJh&ao;onf/ at;csrf;wnfNidrf Nid r f ; at;vS o nf h t oG i f E S i f h zG m ;zG m ;av; pum;rsm;ud k em;axmifcJh&onfu MunfndKzG,f&m &SdvSonf/ 'umav;u &efukefNrdKUBuD;u udk,fqE´eJYudk,f 'DNrdKU av;av;rSm wm0efxrf;aqmifzYkd a&muf&vvmcJvmudk cs;D usL; dS Ykd h &ygw,f/ rda0;za0;qdkwmvdk wpfe,fwpfaus; a0;vHvSwJh acsmifusus awmawmiftxyfxyf 'Dt&yfa'orSm tcuf tcJawG 'kuawGawmh awG&rSm trSwygyJ/ tJonftxJrmbJ © Y f h S 'umuav;&JU aumif;owif;pHkudk Mum;od&wJhtcgrsm;rSm *kPf,lrd&ygw,f/ ]]apwem t[Hbdu©Kur®H0'grd}} vdkY "r®a'oemawmf u qdkxm;w,f/ apwemonf uHvdkY qdkw,faygh/ apwem aumif;rSef&if uHaumif;wwfygw,fuG,f/ uH? pdwf? Owk? tm[m&taMumif;w&m;av;yg;eJY ½kyfemrfcE¨mjzpfvmMu&wJh vlowå0gwdkYrSm taMumif;w&m;eJY uif;Muw,fr&Sdaybl;/ twdwfuH? ypöKyÜefuHESpfyg;u b0jzpfpOfudk owfrSwfjy|mef; NyD;vJjzpfw,f/ a&SmifvTJvdkYr&wwfaybl;uG,f/ odkYaomf 'ge? oDv? bm0em ypöyÜefuHtrIwdkY[m qdk;arGudk y,fazsmufNyD; aumif;uHua&mufapwwfw,fqwhJ todÓPfrsK;d &Sz?Ykd apwem kd kd d aumif;eJY aumif;rIukodkvfawGudk yGm;rsm;jyKMuzdkYudk wdkufwGef; 192 193 Handbook-99
  • 100. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol &w,f/ a&rsm;a&Edi?f rD;rsm;rD;EdioabmudvJ atmufarhqif k k f k jcifwwf&r,f/ 'umav;[m yHkawmifyHknm awmifwef;jrifhBuD;awG udk ausmfjzwfoGm;vm&pOfc&D;wpfckrSm [D;Edk;um;BuD;wpfpD; arSmufwmudk BuKH awGU&awmh c&D;onfawG qd;k qd;k 0g;0g; xdcuf kd 'Pf&m&Mu? yGJcsif;NyD; aoaMuMu&wJhtcdkufrSm t"duvIyf&Sm; ulnDaqmif&Gufay;cJholvdkY od&w,f/ aooGm;MuwJh ½kyfoGm; tavmif;udk udkifwG,f&Jolr&SdjzpfMu&mrSm 'umav;wpfOD; wnf;u tqifajy&mudk ayGUcsDo,frxm;ay;wJholvdkY ajymMu onf/ oGm;&mvrf;c&D; twm;tqD;ozG,fjzpfysufrItzHkzHkudk tvHk;pHkz,f&Sm;ay; aqmif&Gufay;pOfrSm raMumufr&GHU r&GHU r&Sm rGefjrwfpdwfxm;eJY xrf;aqmiftusKd;jyKcJhwmawG[m wu,ftmZmenfpw"mwfayyJ/ jzLpifvpmaom pdwaumif; h d f S G f pdwfjrwfygyJ/ udk,fhb0oufwrf;wavQmuf b,fNrdKUb,f&GmrSm a&mufaeae wu,fwrf;ezl;awGU 'l;awGUBuHKawGU&ifqdkifvm &wJtajctaerSm ulnu,fwifaqmif&uvwhJ ol&aumif; h D G f kd J pdwf"mwfrsKd;? owåd AswådrsKd;u vlwdkif;rSm &SdcJhw,f? cJ,Of;vS w,f? tJonfvdkpdwfxm;aumif;rsKd;&SdwJhyk*¾dKvfu a&mufav &m&mrSm 'kuawG awGUvm&w,fq&ifaomfrS tJonf'uqif; © kd h k © &JrsKd;u vGwfuif;apwwfw,fhoabm&Sdygw,f/ ajrjyefYa'ou udk,fhEdkifiHol EdkifiHom;awG[m yHk awmifyHknmqdkwJhemrnfausmf awmifwef;jrifhBuD;wdkYudk jzwf ausmfoGm;vmMu&wJhtcgrsKd;rSm uav;tygt0iftm;vHk;wdkY [m wwfEdkiforQ ab;roD&efrc 'ku©rSvGwfuif;pGmeJY vdk&m c&D;udk a&mufEdkifMuygapvdkY zGm;zGm;av;u aeYpOfarwåmydkY vTwf qkawmif;trQawG ay;a0&w,fuG,f...wpfquf wnf;ajym&&if onfyawmfynm&yf0ef;omru jrefrmwpfEiiH kH kH kd f vHk;rSonf wpfurÇmvHk;twGuf ouf&Sdowå0gtm;vHk;twGuf arwåmydkYqkawmif;ay;&wmu aeYpOfygyJuG,f/ tif;...taMumif;uHraumif;MuvdkY jzpfvmcJhMuNyD qkdcJh&ifvJ olwkdYwpfawGtwGuf oaAÁowåmur®oumvdkYyJ w&m;oabmeJY ½I&ayw,f...'umav;vJ b,ft&yf b,fa'oa&mufa&muf c&D;wpfckoGm;&NyDqkd&if c&D;xGufcGm &&mtprSonf oGm;vkd&mc&D;vrf;tqHk;odkYwkdif tm;vHk;udk arwåmydkYvdkYoGm;uGJU/ or®ma'0ewfaumif;ewfjrwftaygif; uvJ apmifha&Smufygvdrfhr,f/ t"duawmh wkEdIif;r&Sd jrwfAk'¨ udk tm½HkjyK? &wemoHk;yg;? teaEÅmteEÅig;yg;udk jrifa,mif O;dnTwfumoGm;vmrIjyKuGJU/ zGm;zGm;av;u *gxmawmfav;wpfckay;r,f? &Gwfqkd oGm;vmaygh ]]od'¨db*0g t&[H Aka'¨g ar owåygum&H Ak'¨Ho&PH *pämrd? od'¨db*0g t&[H "ar®m ar owåygum&H "r®Ho&PH *pämrd? od'¨db*0g t&[H oHaCm arowåygum&H oHCH 194 195 Handbook-100
  • 101. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol o&PH*pämrd...wJh...&wemjrwfoHk;yg;wefcdk; awmfaMumifh tEÅ&m,f'ku©qkd;awG ra&mufEdkif&avatmif umuG,fwm;qD;ay;ygvdrfhr,fuG,f/ tJ'Dh*gxmawmfjrwfBuD; [m &uúef;pifawmifq&mawmfbk&m;BuD; tpOftNrJ&Gwfqkdae us *gxmayyJuGJU/ ]]uJ...uJ...trsKd;om;aumif;? trsKd;aumif;orD; av;wkdY avmuDtusKd;? avmukwå&mtusKd;wkdYudk a&muf&m a'owkdif;rSm o,fykd;aqmif&Gufwwf&if; aumif;owif;*kPf tzHkzHkeJY *kPf,lMu&r,fh yk*¾dKvfawGjzpfEkdifMuvsuf vlYb0qE´ awGeJYvJ jynhfpHkvmEkdifMu&um r*fzdkvfedAÁmefcsrf;omjrwfudk &atmiftm;xkwfaqmif&GufEkdifMuonfvJ jzpfMuygapuG,f/ uJ...om"k...om"k...om"k...}} zGm;zGm;av;onf acwfynmwwf? ÓPftajrmftjrif &Sd qifjcifww&m;rsm;ESijhf ynhpum Ak'Nir;f at;aom w&m; kH f kH ¨ d "r®tusijhf rwfrsm;ukd usiBhf uym;rsm; tm;xkw?f trsm;twGuf H G tvkyvyvsuf avmuD? avmukw&mtusK;d twGuf &nf&,f f k f å G csuftjzmjzm xm;&SdpGmjzifh jynhf0aomvlom;wpfOD; b0 oHo&mc&D;onf tjzpfESifh r*fzdkvfedAÁmefeef;odkY avQmufvSrf; aeolvnf;jzpfygonf/ jzpf v m&rnh f uH M ur® m uygvmcJ h N yD x if h ? a,m*D r,fawmfBuD; zGm;zGm;av;ESifh awGUcJh&NyD; rMumrDrSmyif rauG; wkdif; (25) NrdKUe,f tpnf;ta0;wufa&muf&ef xD;vif;NrdKU av;rS rauG;NrdKUodkY rmZ'g*spfjzifh c&D;xGufcJh&onf/ Ekd0ifbm aqmif;&ufwGifjzpfonf/ nOfhoef;acgif,HcefYwGif xD;vif;NrdKU rS xGucmcJMh uonf/ ajrjyefotvm yHnmawmifwef;jrifBh u;D f G Y Ykd k udk ausmfjzwfcJhNyD;NyD/ yHkawmifawmifwef;BuD;udk ausmfjzwfae qJ ykvJ-*efYa*gum;vrf; rkdifwkdiftrSwf (56^3) teD;wGif armfawmfum;wdrf;arSmufrIjzpfcJh&onf/ b&dwfaygufum rxddef;Ekdifrodrf;Ekdifjzpf&vsuf awmifurf;yg;,HBuD;udk wkdufNyD; um;av;rSmwH;k vH;k Bu;D jzpfom;cJ&onf/ um;av;ay: vkuyg G h d f vmMuolwkdY 'Pf&mtemw&wkdY&SdcJh&onf/ 'Pf&mBuD;BuD; us,fus,fawmh rcHpm;Mu&/ onftxJwGif uRefawmfonf um; rnfonhf'Pf&mrSr&cJhay/ tHhMozG,faumif;vSonf? wpfzufuawmifjrifhurf;yg;eH&HBuD;? tjcm;wpfzufrSmu acsmufeufBuD;? acsmufeufBuD;xJodkY um;av;omxkd;usoGm; vkdufvQifawmhjzifh rawG;&Jp&m/ um;av;ay:0,f ygwD? aumifpDrS yk*¾dKvf (2) OD;yg0if vkdufygcJhonf/ tm;vHk;udktqiftajyqHk;jzpf&atmif tul tnDawmif;? tultnD&cJ?h ajrjyefoa&muf&c&awmh txuf Y Ykd dS hJ ygyk*¾dKvfBuD;wkdYu rauG;wkdif;odkYvnf;aumif;? xD;vif;NrdKUodkY vnf;aumif; aMu;eef;jzifhowif;ydkYMu&onf/ tm;vHk;aom Mum;Mu&oltaygif;u pdwfraumif;EkdifcJhMu&/ rMumrD&ufrsm;wGif xD;vif;NrdKUav;odkY uRefawmfwkdY tzGJUjyefvnfa&muf&SdcJhMu&onf/ uRefawmfwkdYra&mufcJhrDrSm yifvQif NrKd Uav;ui,fi,frYkd uReawmfwtzGUJ um; wdr;f arSmuf f Ykd cJh&onfhowif;u awmrD;yrmysHUESHYaecJh&NyD/ jyefvnfa&muf&Sd 196 197 Handbook-101
  • 102. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol vmcJh&onhfaeYu ae0ifrkd;csKyfcsdefrS a&muf&SdcJh&jcif;vnf;jzpf onf/ uReawmfaexki&m bBu;D ode;f wktroYkd um;'½dibm f d f Yd d f k f u vdkufvHydkYaqmifay;cJhonf/ um;av;u tdrfodkYxkd;qkdufcJh onfESifh tdrfem;eD;0ef;usifwdkYu0dkif;í0ef;ívmcJhMuonf/ ]]raoaumif; raysmufaumif;? uHBuD;ayvdkY? uHaumif;ayvkdY &wemoHk;yg;eJY ewfjrwfewfaumif;wkdYu apmifha&Smufay;ay vdkY...}} ponfjzifh ajymqkdMu? ar;jref;MuESifh bBuD;odef;wkdY tdronf owif;ar;vmolwEihf pnf;um;oGm;cJ&awmhonf/ f Ydk S h owif;Mum;Mum;csif;[kqkdum arcsKd? pma&;rav; &D&Dar? pma&;av;udka0vif;wkdY n (8) em&DcefYwGif uRefawmfh xHa&mufvmcJhMuonf/ ]]onftpnf;ta0;udk wufa&mufapbkdY q&mu uRefrudk&nf&G,fcJhwm? ta&;wBuD;vJjzpf? wpfnvHk; wpfaeY vHk;armif;ESifrS tpnf;ta0;ukdtcsdefrDrSmqkdawmh rdef;rom; uRefrtwGufc&D;yef;rSmuawmh taotcsmyJzdkY...qkdNyD; uRefrudkpmemaxmufxm;pGmeJY q&mvkdufoGm;jzpf&wm uH Mur®muz,fayvdkYom touftEÅ&m,fra&muf&wm uRefr twGueYJ xrf;aqmifc&wJwm0efeYJ 'kuawGuvJ renf;awmh f hJ h © bl;/ wu,fwrf;ajym&&if q&mhapwem? q&mharwåm? q&mh aus;Zl;awGukd b,fvrqyfvYdk ukeEiawmhr,frxifygbl;&Sif dk S f kd f wu,fyg &Sif...}} onfodkYES,f arcsKdqkdcJhawmh tdrfeD;emcsif;av;av; a':cif o d e f ; u Mum;0if í ajymvmcJ h o nf / av;av; a':cifodef;qkdonfu reDvmtarjzpfonf/ ]]bkef;eJYwefckd;eJY q&mOD;&JyJav...b,fao&OD;rSm vJ/ trsm;oligu arwåmxm;Mu? arwåmydkYMu? av;av;uvJ aeYwkdif;arwåmydkYay;ae&wm/ udk,fhom;vkdcspfae&wmrsKd;? 'Hkrif;wD;&if; oDcsif;oDqkdaewmudk Mum;ae&&ifyJ av;av; uawmh wpfaeYwmv,fxJ ,mxJrSmarmvmcJh&orQ tyef; awGtarmawGajyoGm;&wm/ zG[...aemufaemifukd 'DvrsK;d hJ kd xyfrHrBuHKawGUyg&apeJYvdkY qkawmif;ay;Mu? uJ...uJ... rdvi?f rdci?f rdBuKd iwYkd tdruAl;cif;rSm Al;oD;&Sw,f...oGm;cl; Id dk f f d Mu? Al;oD;aMumfpm;Mur,fa[h...}} xdoYkd ajymaeqJrmyif bBu;D ode;f ? q&mrBu;D vIiwu k S d f Ykd tdrfem;eD; OD;wif0if;av;tdrfodkY bk&m;udk;ql qGrf;uyfvSL&ef ESifh ,ckn "r®pMum0wf&GwftzGJU0wf&GwfpOf? tauR;tarG; udpwjYkd zifh acwåom;a&mufMuOD;rnfqum tdruxGuMf uonf/ ö G kd f at;at;aq;aq;em;aeMu pm;Mu a&aEG;Murf;0dkif;0dkif;Mu[k vnf;rSmcJhao;onf/ uRefawmfowif;ar;&efa&muf&SdvmcJh aom pma&;av;ukda0vif;vnf; cPvdkufygoGm;yg&ap[k qdkum ygoGm;chJavonf/ tdrfrD;zdkaqmifrSmawmh tvkyfawG½IyfaeMuonf/ tdrfa&SU{nhfcef;rxJwGifawmh av;av;a':cifodef;? arcsKdESihf uRefawmfomusef&pfaeonf/ ]]wu,faemf...q&m...arcsKu pdwyvu&wm&Si}f } d f l kd f 198 199 Handbook-102
  • 103. 200 udka,m (abm*aA') [k arcsKpum;pcJjh yefonf/ ]]aMomf...aouHra&muf oufr d aysmuf wJh...? zGm;zGm;av;uajymcJhzl;ovkdaygh/ jzpfoGm;cJh avNyDqdkawmhvJ oaAÁowåmur®oum yJaygh arcsKd&,f/ vl awGqdkwm oHo&mc&D;onfawGyJav rNrJaomw&m;oabm twdkif;ajym&&if &SifuGJuGJMu&wmrsKd;&Sdovkd aouGJcGJMu&ao; wmyJOpöm? avmu"Hudk BuHBuHcHEkdifzdkYyJ pdwfcE¨mrSmNrJapMu&rSm qdkygawmh...w&m;oabmtwdkif;aygh...}} [k uReawmfajymjzpfrawmh teD;&Sav;av; a':cifoe;f f d d d u ajym&Smonf/ ]]'gawmh 'gayghav...'gayrJh...'gayrJh u&Sdao;w,f}} [k&,farmum aemufcJhao;onf/ xdkaemuf av;av;a':cifodef;onfvnf; rD;zdkaqmifqDodkYoGm;cJhawmh onf/ tdrfa&SU{nfhcef;rxJwGif arcsKdESihfuRefawmfESpfOD;om usefae&avonf/ tif;...cspfolawGjzpfcJhMuNyDqdkawmhvJ ydkvdkYyJpdk;&drf aomuawGu &ifeJYtrQjzpfaeygw,farmif? armif? armihfvdk vludkrQ cspfarwåmydkcJh&whJ xD;vif;NrdKUolav; uRefr...uRefr arcsKdav armifukdtqHk;½HI;rcHEkdifbl; armifhukdom qHk;½HI;oGm;cJh &ifawmhav arcsKdawmh ½l;rsm;oGm;r,fxifyg&JU? armifhukd arcsKb0xJu aysmufu,roGm;apcsiovdk rsupatmufrm d G f f f d S yJ tNrJvdkvdk jrifaecsifrdwm... ]]w&m;oabm w&m;oabmeJ Y ajymajymaewJ h armihfudk a[m'DavmuBuD;xJ? jrefrmjynf jrefrmhordkif;xJu *EÅ0ifxD;vif;NrdKUav;rSm tcsdefMumMumaeapcsifao;wmyg/ *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 201 NrdKUuav;ukdcspfwJhpdwf trsKd;om;cspfpdwfawGeJYjynfh0aeolu uRerarcsKukd cspwpwawGtrsm;Bu;D eJY cspwwfzawGukd oif f d f hJ d f f Ykd jyay;&OD;r,fvdkY qufqufajymcsifao;wm? tm;udk;ygw,f armif...odvm;...tif;...Ny;D awmh ckryJ pdwat;&awmh S f w,farmif&,f...}} uReawmfonf arcsKrsuEmav;udk Munfaerdconf/ f d f S h hJ Munhfír0EdkifcJh? xkdtckdufNrdKUvQyfppf"gwftm;ay;pufrS aeYpOfr;D ay;cseo;kH em&Donf (9) em&Dü Ny;D qH;k oGm;cJí vQyppf d f h f rD;urSwom;cJonf/ vomrSetrEiza,mif;wkiukd xGe;f n§d d f G h f d f S fh d f cJMh uonf/ uReawmfw&&modYk av;av;a':cifoe;f ESi&&ar f Ykd dS d fh D D wdkYu vomrSeftdrfudk ,laqmifuma&mufvmMuonf/ uRef awmfwdkY&SdaeMu&m pm;yGJ0dkif;wGiftwlvmxkdifMuonf/ arcsKd ckeu ajymvmcJaompum;rav;rsm;ukd &nf&,um uReawmf h G f f onf olwdkYtm; pum;wpfcsKdUudkajymrdavonf/ w&m;oabmESihf,SOfvsufb0wGif &SifoefaexdkifcGifh uav;&aeao;orQawmh trsm;jynfotusK;d twGuf a&muf l av&ma'orSm us&mwm0efxrf;&Gufa&;udk OD;aqG;qHjrnhfr nnf;rnL rNidKrjiif 0efxrf;aumif;yDopGm aqmif&GufoGm; Edia&;rSm uReawmf cH,csuyifjzpfaMumif;udk odap&onf/ k f f l f [kbufacwfrsm;u aomif;use;f olwu taMumif;r d Ykd &Sd taMumif;&Smum e,fajrvlxktay: enf;rsKd;pHkESihfEdSyfpuf umpdk;rdk;cJhonf/ ,if;odkYaomumvqdk;rsm;xJwGifyifvQif rdef; rom;wpfOD;jzpfol zGm;zGm;av;u owdå&Sd&Sd? &J&J0H0HESihf xD;vif; Handbook-103
  • 104. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol NrdKUav;twGufa&m xD;vif;NrdKUe,ftusKd;twGufygawmifpOf jrihfwef;awG txyfxyfMum; EdkifiHawmfta&;udpörsm;tvdkY iSmonfvrf;onf c&D;awGudktxyfxyftcgcgoGm;cJh jyefcJh& zl;onf/ onfoaom tajctaersK;d ESifh tajctaersK;d rsm;ESifh Ykd EdIif;,SOfvmcJhvQif uRefawmfonfrajymyavmuf/ &GmawGucsponf? NrKd Uudcsponf? e,fajra'oudcspf kd f k f k onfrS Ediiawmfucsponf qd&mwGif pum;t&mtajymouf k f H kd f k oufrQjzihfawmh &mZ0ifrSmusefchJonfr[kwf? ordkif;rSm usef &pfrnfr[kwf/ uRefawmfwdkYordkif;vSbdkY uRefawmfwkdYBudKyrf; azmfxkwfvsuf ordkif;pmrsufESmtwGuf jy,k*faumif;awG jzpfvmap&rnfomjzpfonf/ a&S;a&S;utac: (ol&) qkaom xD;vif;NrKd Uav;onf J d jrefrmh&mZ0ifordkif;pOfwGif NrdKU*kPfa&mifxGef;ajymifcJhonfh NrKd Uav;jzpfonf/ ol&aumif;rsm;pGmwkYd xGu&ay:xGe;f &m apmf J f dS bGm;wkdYtkyfcsKyfaomNrdKUav;jzpfonf/ tcsuftcsmusus xD; pdkufeef;wnf a&S;bk&ifhaejynfawmf bk&ifrif;w&m;wdkY EdkifiH awmftwGuf ppfonfol&J trIxrf;aumif;wkdYESihfwuG ema&; emcH tMuyfwyfom;ygrusef ppfonftiftm; wyftiftm;wdYk pkpkpnf;pnf;nDnDñGwfñGwfzGJUpnf;ydkifqdkifaexdkifMu&mt&yf cHwyfNrdKU wyfNrdKUav;vnf;jzpfbdonf/ þonfwukd odygvsuEifh uReawmfonf ud,Xme? Ydk f S f k fh ud,½;kH vkyief;rQEiomru NrKd Ue,ftwGuvtyfraMumihay; k hf f S fh f dk I f tyfvmonfh wm0eftaxGaxGudk aemufwGefYwGefYqkwfí a& omckum avSBuKH p;D c&D;udrvduygvd?k oufawmihoufomae d k k f f í &pGmjzihfraeygvkd/ NrdKUe,fwdk;wuf&m wkd;wufaMumif;? zGHU NzdK;aMumif;&nf&G,fcsufaumif;wkdYtwGuf tpOfawG;qum vQif ½kyfvHk;ay:atmifyHkazmfay;csifoljzpfonf/ NrdKUe,fta&; ESihfpyfvsOf;ygvQif t&m&mudk odxm;em;vnfpGmjzihf trsm; jynfoltusKd;ukd &nfarQmfum tvkyfwm0efawGudk arcsKdonf vnf; ydkrdkumaqif&GufapcsifcJhonf/ arcsKdonfNrdKUe,ftusKd; udkarQmfcsihfvsuf NrdKUe,futm;xm;&rnfh trsKd;aumif;orD;& wemav;wpfOD;tjzpfESihf pdwftm;xufoefckdifrmpGm BudK;pm; jznhfqnf;ay;aeEdkifvm&NyDvnf; jzpfcJhNyDjzpfonf[k ajymEkdif &onf/ 'k-NrdKUe,fOD;pD;rSL; arcsKdonf t"dyÜm,fjynfh0vSaom a':arMunfvGifcsKdtjzpfESihf trsm;wumESihf EIdif;pmvQif vkyfydkifcGifh? vkyfEkdifcGifh? BudK;pm;cGifhawGydkrdkydkifqkdifaeoljzpfaecJh ygNyD olwumxufydkí BuD;us,fjrihfrm;aom wm0eft&yf&yf udk xrf;aqmifae&olvnf;jzpfcJhNyDrdkY oltifrwefwG,f wmjrwfE;kd cspcif&onhf xD;vif;NrKd Ue,ftusK;d twGuf qxuf f xrf;yd;k BuK;d pm;ay;Ediygap...[laom apwempum;&SnBf u;D k f udk uRefawmfajymaerdcJh&ygavonf/ aMomf...jrefrmhordi;f ...xD;vif;NrKd Ue,f orki;f wGif k d jrefrmtrsKd;orD;rsm;avmu trsKd;orD;rsm;pGmxJrSm &Sm;&Sm;yg; yg;rdef;rom;wpfOD;jzpfcJh&ol NrdKUrolBuD;rjzpfaom a,m*Dr,f awmfBuD;? q&mrBuD;? zGm;zGm;av; a':odef;aronfum; csD; 202 203 Handbook-104
  • 105. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol usL;*kPfjyKtm;usbG,f&mt&nftcsif;rsm;ESihfjynfhpHkolygay? xD;vif;NrdKUe,fordkif;ü &SmrS&Sm;pHjyKxkdufolwpfOD;ygay/ xkda,m*Dr,fawmfBuD; ac:? q&mrBuD; ac:? zGm;zGm; av; ac:? xD;vif;NrKd UrolBu;D r ac: a':ode;f aronf arcsKEihf d S uRefawmfhtm;olYtawG;prsm;tm; ajymjycJhzl;onfukd arcsKdu trSwf&vmrdonf[k ajymjyvmcJhonf/ ]]aumif;owif;tzHkzHkeJY *kPf,lMu&r,fh yk*d¾KvfawG jzpfEdkifMuygap}} qdkonhfzGm;zGm;av; trSmpum;tawG;p rsm;wkdYtm; arcsKdonf BudK;pm;umazmfaqmifygrnf[k uRef awmfhukd ajymjycJhavonf/ uwdukdvnf;ay;cJhavonf/ onfNrKd Uuav;ESihf uReawmfwtm; cGcmí oGm;&ygawmhrnf/ f Ykd J G v,f,mESifhopfawm0efBuD;Xmeatmuf&Sd rdrdXme? bkwf aumfydka&;&Sif;rsm;wGif wpfcktygt0ifjzpfaom jynfolYvkyf tm;ae&mcsxm;a&;wyGJ (y.v.z) okdY ul;ajymif;um wm0ef xrf;&Guf&ef EIwfqufyGJyif NyD;cJhNyD/ qnfajrmif;pwifwnf aqmufum pdkufysKd;ajrrsm; azmfxkwfa&;twGuf pDrHudef;BuD; wpfckudk OD;pD;wm0ef,ltaumiftxnf azmfaqmif&rnfhol jzpfcJh&NyD? vltiftm;? vkyfom;tiftm;? pufud&d,mtiftm; aiGaMu;tiftm;awGtrsm;BuD;ESifh a'oBuD;wpfck zGHUNzdK;wdk; wufap&atmif wm0efBuD;BuD;udk,l&avawmhrnf/ olu uRefawmfwdkY todkif;t0dkif;av;udk EIwfqufumvnf oGm;cJh acsNyD/ oloGm;cJhNyD;awmh uRefawmfonfvnf; udk,fhudk,fudk qef;ppfa0zefrIawGudk vkyfrd&onf/ uRefawmfonfyif onf NrdKUav;ü 4 ESpfyif ausmfvmcJh&NyD/ onftawmtwGif;umv rsm;twGuf uRefawmfwdkY ½kH;csKyfrS pmrsm;a&muf&SdcJhonf/ wpfESpfvQif wpfBudrfawmh a&muf&Sdvmaeusjzpfonf/ ajzvdk u ajzqdkEdkif&ef jzpfonf/ taMumif;Mum;pm jzefYa0ay;ydkYrI wGif uRefawmfwm0efxrf;aqmif&m xD;vif;NrdKUav;odkY pm a&muf&SdrIu tcuftcJ&SdcJh&onf/ rdk;tcg acsmif;a&usjcif;? awmifNydKjcif;? wHwm;usKd;aejcif;ponfhtaMumif;rsm;aMumifh ajzqdk&rnfh&ufu vGefpGmeD;uyf&jcif;vnf;&Sdovdk oGm;a&; vma&;jyefa&;udkvnf; wnfhwGufrd&um &efukefNrdKUodkY oGm; 204 &wufu,ftjzmjzm aeY&ufrsm;rSmv pma&;q&m? ½kyf&Sif'g½dkufwm q&mBuD;OD;okc ]]booH&m}} Zmwfum;Bu;D udk jrifa,mifronfEifh b0oHo&m d S oDcsi;f vdyif uReawmfwb0u BuKH aeMuonfomjzpfygonf/ k f Ykd rwnfNraom avmuobm0udk odyifovsuEihf jzpfcsiwi;f J d f S f kd vnf;rjzpf? rjzpfcsivnf;r&onfb0tjzpfwu a&muf&BdS uKH f h Ykd awGUvmMu&onftcg jzpfoifjh zpfxupmaom b0ysK;d udk oifh h kd f G awmfovdk a&G;cs,favQmufvSrf;Mu&efonfom taumif;qHk; [k xifjrif,lqxm;Muonfvnf; jzpfygonf/ ,ck uRefawmfwdkY rsufpdatmufrSmyifvQif b0wdkYu ajymif;vJí vmcJh&NyD; uRefawmfwdkY tifrwefcifrif&ygaom v,fpdkuf&Sif;refae&*smBuD; q&m0if;wpfa,mufonfum; 205 Handbook-105
  • 106. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol a&mufum uRefawmf rajzjzpfcJh/ bmom&yfqdkif&m avhvmrI tm;uvnf; &efukefNrdKUBuD;rSmvdk rsm;rsm;avhvmtm;&Sd rae Edkifojzifh EdkifiH&yfjcm;ynmawmfoif tpDtpOfudk uRefawmf vufavQmí aecJonfom jzpf&awmhonf/ &efue&dS rdrq&m h h k f d orm;rsm;uvnf; uRefawmfu wGef;tm;ay;ayyif uRefawmf uvnf; &efukefodkY tajymif;ta&TUvQufxm;? &efukefudkjyef 0ifawmhrS BudK;pm;awmhrnf[k pdwfrSmqHk;jzwfxm;rdonf/ rdrd touft&G,ftm;jzifhuvnf; i,f&G,faeao;onfrdkY tcsdef awG trsm;BuD;? tcGifhta&;awG trsm;BuD;&Sdygao;onf[k oabmxm;um aerdcJhonfudkvnf;jzpfí ynmawmfoifudpö udk rajzjzpf&jcif;ygay/ bmyJjzpfap b0wufvrf;twGuf uRefawmf BudK;pm;&,lrnfhol? atmifjrif&matmifjrifaMumif;? BuD;yGm;&mBuD;yGm;aMumif;? trsm;twGuf tusKd;jyKEdkif&m jyKEdkif aMumif;rsm;ESifh jynfhpHkEdkif&atmif BudK;pm;&rnfhol[lívnf; tpOftNrJpdwfxJwGif cH,lxm;csufu &Sdaeygonf/ aysmf&mrSm rae&? awmf&mrSm aeEdi&atmif pGr;f aqmif&ygOD;rnf[vnf; k f k oHEéd|mefcsxm;rdygonf/ tvSnfhtajymif;qdkonfu wpfcgwpf&HwGif ajymjy &ef cJ,Of;wwfonf/ arQmvifrxm;ygbJEihf oltvdva&muf f h S Y k kd vmcsifa&mufvmwwfonf/ uRefawmfuawmh taumif;qHk; tvSnfhtajymif;jzpfzdkY&mtwGuf tNrJBudK;pm;aeonfvnf; jzpf y gonf / uRef a wmf w d k Y pD r H u d e f ; a&;qG J a &;OD ; pD ; Xme vkyfief;rsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;vmygvQif XmewpfckESifhwpfckta&; qufqHn§dEIdif;aqmif&GufMu&mwGif ESpfOD;ESpfzuf oifhawmf nDnGwfvufcHEdkifrnfh rZÑdrtaetxm;jzpf&atmif n§dEIdif; aqmif&Gufaomrludk uRefawmfpGJudkifavh&Sdygonf/ twwf Edkifbl; pDrHudef;rsm; atmifjrifpGm taumiftxnfazmfEdkif a&;udkvnf; az;rxm;yg/ rjzpfEdkif rjzpfoifhaom tae txm;rsm;udk em;vnfumomvQif usKd;aMumif;jy nDnGwfpGm ajymwwfqkdwwf ajym&Jqdk&J pdwfvnf;&Sdygonf/ odkYjzpfaom aMumifh trsm;uvnf; av;pm;cspfMunfrIudk uRefawmfcHpm;& ygonf/ uRefawmfhXmu cHpm;&ygonf/ ]]uJ... &D&ar a& arcsKUd qDukd wifjyp&m&SwhJ rd;k a&csef D d d udpörSm NrdKUe,fv,fpdkuf&Sif;? NrdKUe,fusef;rma&;OD;pD;Xme (NrdKUe,fjynfolYaq;½kH)? usif;jynfolY&Jpcef;? qifpG,f? aq;rif; awm... pwJh wdi;f wGma&;pcef;toD;oD;u ay;ydcwpm&if;? k Yk hJ hJ vtvdkuf? ESpftvdkufpm&if;wdkYudk wifjyvdkufygOD;/ arcsKdpdppf oHk;oyfNyD;cJh&if udka0vif;udk puf½kdufzdkYav;? za,mif;azmuf? pufvn?hf pkpaygif; (6) pHvn&rSm arcsKUd qDu twnfjyKcsuf S k k S hf rSefuefNyD;NyDqdkrS pufvSnfhaemf... [kwfNyDvm;....}} 'DuJhodkY ajymae pDpOfaepOf arcsKdu vcsKyfaiGpm&if; wdkYudk pDpOfaecJhonf/ ]]AsKdU... q&m&JU... bmawGtvkyfrsm;aewmwkef; As... tvkyftNrJwrf;rsm;aewJh ½kH;ygyJAsm... usKyfOya'½kH; uawmh usKyfwdkY ½kH;0efxrf;wdkYom ½kH;wufae&ovdkjzpfae&JU? wGufp&m csufp&m a&;p&m jcpfp&mr&Sdaybl;... r&Sdbl;qdk 206 207 Handbook-106
  • 107. 208 udka,m (abm*aA') &wmu e,fole,fom;awGu Oya'udk av;pm;vdkufem em;vnfMuoudk;As... t[rf;...}}[k Oya't&m&Sd OD;rsKd; u a&mufvmum pum;ajymaecJhonf/ ]][kwwmayghAsm... OD;rsK;d wd½;Hk tvkyrsm;&atmifqkd f Yk f &if NrKd UuvlawG &Gmu vlawGukd &efwuay; &efjzpfap&atmif kd f vkyfay;&rvdk jzpfaeNyDAs...}} [kajymum ½kH;xJa&mufvmol uawmh NrdKUe,fvQyfppftif*sifeD,m OD;apmyifjzpfavonf/ OD;apm ajymvmcJhonfhpum;aMumifh uRefawmfwdkYtm;vHk; &,f Mu&ao;onf/ OD;rsKd;uvnf; tm;usrcH jyefajymvmcJhaom pum;udMk um;Mu&aom uReawmfwrm wcG;D cG;D ESihf &,fMu&jyef f Ykd S awmhonf/ ]]a':arcsKa&... OD;apmvm&if owdxm;Mu odvm;? d olu wdkYawGeJYwlwm r[kwfbl;? ocsKØif;ukef;uxvmcJhol pm; p&mawG bmawG&&if zGu(0Su) xm;Mu? zkw0ifovdk pm;vdrhf dS f f f r,faemf...}} [l/ trSeuawmh NrKd Ue,fvQyppftif*sie,m f f f D rD;ay;puftaqmufttHkBuD;u ocsKØif;ukef;ajrae&mtpyf wGif &SdaeaomaMumifh ,ckuJhodkY BuHzefumaemufçí ajymjy jcif;yif jzpfavonf/ odkYuvdktawmtwGif; pmydkYorm;upmawGay;vm onfudk udka0vif;u,laeonf/ ½Hk;pmudkoD;oefYcGJxm;um uRefawmfhxHpmwpfapmif ay;vmcJhonf/ uRefawmfhemrnfjzifh pmrSm uRefawmfh&efukeftdrf rdbrsm;uay;ydkYvdkufaom pmyif jzpfavonf/ *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 209 ]]uJ...uJ q&m&J a& pmudktomxm;OD;? usKyfu ocsKØif;ukef;uwwfvmwm? vufzuf&nfav;aomufrvkdYAs tJ . ..vuf z uf & nf ' umuawmh a':arcsKd a ygh A sm... [kwfzl;vm;...a':arcsKdu Asm...wpfOD;wnf;aomorD; NyD;awmh olYzcifBuD;u &Sm;ap; tifwGJyGJnufawG xkwfvdkufNyD Mum;w,f...awmfawmfjrwfw,f owif;&w,f...'Dawmh orD;tvdrmav;jzpfou vufzuf&nf'umayghAsm...[kwf ® l zl;vm;...}} [lí OD;apmu arcsKdUudkpç cJhonf/ arcsKduvnf; jyefajymvmonf/ ]]OD;apm pum;aMumifh arcsKdwkdYtdrfawmh "g;jywkdufcH& awmhr,fxifyg&JU...trItoGm;tvmenf;aewJh OD;rsKd;&JU Oya'½H;k ukawmh ra&mufyg&apeJY &Si...vufzuf&nfomru d f ygbl; rkefYvJauR;ygr,faemf...}} ]]a[;...'grS wk d Y n D r av;uG . ..cspf o l a umif ; &nf;pm;aumif; a,musfm;aumif;eJYawGUNyDvdkY cspfc&D;vrf;rsm; vJ om,majzmifhjzL;EdkifMuygapAsm...}}[lí OD;rsKd;uwG,fç cJhonf/ arcsKdUudkyg vufzuf&nfqkdifodkYvkdufyg&ef ac:aqmif cJhMuojzifh uRefawmfwkdYonf NrdKUv,furdom;pkvufzuf&nf qkdifodkY oGm;cJhMuawmhavonf/ onfNrdKUav;rSmonfvdkyJ 0efxrf;tcsif;csif;u cspfcifpGm&Sdavonf/ txufazmfjyyg ajymMuqkMd u&if;u vufzuf&nfqif dk üvnf; [dktaMumif;onftaMumif; aomif;ajymif;axGvm pum;awG ajymjzpfMuonf/ onfhrwkdifrDvydkif;uav;wGif Handbook-107
  • 108. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol uRefawmfwkdYtm;vHk;onf EkdifiHawmftwGufta&;BuD;onfh orki;f a&;tul;tajymif;umvudk BuKH cMhJ u&onf/ onfumv d wGif xD;vif;NrdKUav;onf thHMobG,f&majym&avmufatmif wpfpHkwpf&maom tysuftpD;r&SdcJh/ ½Hk;? wdrf? ausmif;rS tp Z&yf t qH k ; tysuf t pD ; rjzpf c J h & / wpf p H k w pf O D ; rQ tao taysmufr&Sc/ NrKd Uay:a&m e,fajrwGi;f u aus;&Gmrsm;tm;vH;k d hJ onf NrdKUrdNrdKUzXmeqkdif&m tBuD;tuJrsm;wkdY arwåm&yfcHrI tpDtpOfatmuf0,f arwåmw&m;xm;Mujcif;jzifh Nir;f csr;f pGm d 0dkif;0ef;xdef;odrf;ay;cJhMuíjzpfonf/ wu,fhudk tHhMop&m aumif;vSatmif pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; az;az;rr&SdcJhMuygonf/ aoG;xGufoH,dk vHk;0r&SdcJhygav/ wyfrawmfwyf&if;wyfzGJU uyif rsm;pGmtHhMocJhygonf/ NrdKUe,fjynfolY&JwyfzGJUom ½Hk;pdkuf ygonf/ emrnfqdk; r&SdcJhygav/ xdkaeYu ½Hk;qif;cJhNyD;aemuf tdrfodkYrjyefjzpfMuao;? arcsKdUrdbu ckdif;xm;í[kqkdum NrdKUuGufopfxJ&Sd olYaqGrsKd; td r f u d k o G m ;&OD ; rnh f t aMumif ; arcsKd u ajymvmcJ h o nf / uReawmhum;vnf; vkucyg&efac:cJonf/ odjYk zpfí arcsKEihf f f d f hJ h d S twl ½H;k rSxucMhJ uNy;D aemuf av,mOfui;f a[mif;Bu;D twki;f G f G d vrf;avQmufumoGm;jzpfMuonf/ arcsKdu uRefawmfhtm; pum;ajym&efvnf;&Sdonf[k qkdvmcJhojzifhvnf; olESifhtwl vkdufygjzpfcJh&onf/ &efukeftdrfrS pmukdaeYv,fydkif;uyif uRefawmfzwf½IcJhNyD;aemuf arcsKdUtm;vnf;ay;um zwfapcJh ygonf/ vQKdU0Sufxm;p&m taMumif;vnf;r&Sdygacs/ r&Sdawmh ygav/ &efukeftdrfrSpmudk taMumif;jyKí arcsKdvnf;pmudk zwfNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh od&SdNyD;vnf;jzpfygrnf/ uRefawmfh rdom;pkwGif azaz? arar? uRefawmf? uRefawmfhESrESifh ti,f qHk;nDwkdYyg0ifygonf/ uRefawmfu tBuD;qHk;om;jzpfonf/ uReawmfatmuf ESrav;u aq;wuúovrS bGUJ &Ny;D q&m0ef f h kd f rav;yifjzpfcJhygNyD/ ti,fqHk;nDi,fonf bDtD;pD (ynma&; bGJU)udk t*FvdyfpmESifh NyD;qHk;NyD; r[mbGJUwufa&mufcGifh&&SdcJh aomfvnf; qufvufroif,ljzpfawmhyg/ nDi,fonf pD;yGm; a&;vkyfief;rsm;vkyf&efukdom pdwftm;xufoefoljzpfygonf/ wuúodkvfubGJU&onfqkdonfESifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfygawmhonf/ rdom;pktm;vHk; nd§EdIif;pDpOf oabmwlcJhMurIt& bm;vrf; (r[mAE¨Kvyef;NcHvrf;) txufwGif ½kyfjrifoHMum;ESifh quf pyfypönf;rsm;ta&mif;qkdifudkzGifhum apmpD;pGmae&m,lEkdifcJhyg onf/ ta&mif;t0,fvnf; oGucaumif;rGecygonf/ odjYk zpf f hJ f hJ í rEÅav;NrdKUBuD;wGifyg aps;uGuf&SdEdkif&efvnf; &nf&G,fum tcsuftcsmus&m NrdKUv,fwGifqkdifBuD;wpfqkdifudk iSm;&rf;cJh onf/ &efukefuJhodkYyif qkdifzGifhEkdifcJhonf/ &efukefrS refae*sm wpfOD;ESifh ta&mif;0efxrf;rsm;udk apvTwfcefYtyfxm;EkdifcJhyg onf/ wzef [kw,f? rkw,f? tif; ponfwYdk zGivpcirt& d d hf S f G hf l A[ef;&SdrdrdwdkY aexkdif&m rdom;pkwkdufBuD;tm; [dkw,ftoGif zefwD;cJhonf/ azazhtpDtpOft&jzpfonf/ ESpfa,muftdyf tcef; (3) cef;? wpfa,muftdyfcef; (8) cef;yg ESpfxyfwkduf 210 211 Handbook-108
  • 109. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol jzpfonf/ rlvua&ul;uefvnf;&SdNyD;om;jzpfí EkdifiH&yfjcm; c&D;onfrsm; at;at;csrf;csrf; em;cdkcsifhpzG,fjzpfcJh&onf/ EkdifiHjcm;om;jzpfMuaom vma&mufwnf;ckdolwdkYuvnf; azmfa&Gaomqufqa&;ESihf 0efaqmifraMumifh {nhonfrjywf H I f vS/ refae*smESpO;D udk cefxm;aqmif&uaponf/ 0efxrf;rsm; f Y G f udkvnf; cefYxm;&onf/ aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfusifhoHk;csdef azazESifh ararvnf; XmerStNidrf;pm;b0udkajymif;vJcH,l um azazararwkdYu BuD;Muyfay;aomaMumifhvnf; &efukef qkdifESifh rEÅav;qkdifwkdYu emrnf&a&mif;tm;aumif;aeonf/ rdom;pkydkif [kdw,fuvnf; tqifajyonf/ vkyfief;udpö0dpö awGursm;awmh a&&SnfumvwGif pD;yGm;a&;avmuü ydkrkdí tqifajyajyatmifjrifwkd;wuf BuD;yGm;vmapa&;tvkdYXm tm;tud k ; &qH k ; jzpf r nh f o l [ k &nf & G , f x m;jcif ; cH & aom uRefawmfhtm; tm;vHk;uwrf;wrf;ww tvkd&SdaeMuonf/ i,fi,fuyif Mum;aeusazazhpum;udk ESpfrjzpfol ua&;vmaom pmxJwGifygvmonf/ xkdpum;udk rjzpfrae xnhfa&;ckdif;í a&;&ygonf[k ESpfri,fuqkdxm;onf/ ]]vlqwm aysm&mrSmrae&/ awmf&mrSmae&r,fqwhJ dk f dk pum;udktrsm;BuD; em;vnfzdkYvkdw,f/ rlvwef;ausmif;om; b0wkef;u aumif;? oifh? nHh cGJNyD; tqifhowfrSwf&mrSm ]]aumif;}} qkwmud&rS vlawmfac:Muwm? ausmif;wpfausmif;? d k &Gmwpf&Gm? NrdKUwpfNrdKU? rdom;pkwpfpk? jynfolawGeJY EdkifiHawmf tm;vHk;aumif;rGefwkd;wufwJhtqifhrSm &Sdaea&mufaewmrsKd; jzpfEkdifbkdYpdwf"mwfudkarG;Mu&r,f/ tJ'Dpdwf"mwfrsKd;&SdapzdkY qd&if rdru,rrd ynm&SowdjzpfcJ todejYJ riwifowday;Edif k d dk f d d § hf k rS awmf½kHusw,f/ rawmfrw&m;pdwfrsKd;udkawmh y,fNyD; rsm; rsm;&Srrsm;rsm; aumif;usK;d aqmif&uEir,fvYkd cH,xm;Muap d S G f kd f l csifwm...}} txufyg azazpum;udkxnfha&;ae&if; uRefawmf onf *syefbmom? pum;wwfuRrf;atmifjrifcJhNyD; 'DudpöESifh ta&;tBuD;qHk;udpö&yfu yg0ifvmcJhonf/ rdrdwdkY [kdw,fwGif vma&muf wnf;cdkaeus *syefvkyfief;&SifolaX;BuD;taMumif; udk qufconf/ ,if;*syefoaX;Bu;D onf tvGeaphpyfaocsm hJ l f onf/ rMumrMum wnf;cdkvm&if;u uRefawmfwdkY rdom;pk0if tm;vHk; taMumif;pHkudk od&SdoGm;cJhonf/ &if;ESD;jr§yfESHxm; aom aiGaMu;t&if;tESD;? vkyfief;rsm;? ydkifqdkifrItp&Sdonf wdkYudkvnf;aumif; odoGm;cJhonf/ rdom;pk0ifwdkYtm;vHk; ynmt&nftcsi;f rsm;udvnf; cs;D usL;onf/ txl;ojzifawmh k h *syefbmomwwfuRrf;xm;aom uRefawmfhtm; awGUqHkcGifh awmif;onf/ *syefolaX;BuD;ESifh uRefawmf? olYrdom;pkESifh uRefawmfhrdom;pk? ESpfOD;ESpfzufpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk vkyf aqmifcsifonf/ uRefawmfhtm; *syefEdkifiHodkY ac:aqmifoGm; vdkonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;wdkYudk avhvmEdkif&efESifh ESpfEdkifiH tusKd;pD;yGm;a&;wdk;zdkY awmif;qdkcJhNyD;[k ESri,fu a&;vm onf/ tqHk;owftydkif;rSmawmh arcsKdUtaMumif;ygvmcJh onf/ v,fpdkuf&Sif;refae*smBuD;q&m0if; &,f&,farmarm 212 213 Handbook-109
  • 110. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wGef;wGef;wkdufwkduf pum;rsm;ESifh uRefawmfESifharcsKdUudk oabmwlr&aMumif;? arcsKUd aumif;aMumif;awGajymvmcJao; d h aMumif;jzpfonf/ q&m0if;BuD;u Xmetajymif;ta&TUudpöESifh uRefawmfxHrS rdom;pkodkYvufaqmifay;ydkYcJhonfh ypönf;rsm; vma&mufay;oGm;cJhpOfu ajymMum;xm;cJhonfhpum;tcsKdUwdkY vnf;ygonf/ a&;om;xm;onf/ arcsKdESifh uRefawmfcspfolawGjzpfaeMuygNyD[laom pum;tm;vnf; ESpfOD;om;rSwyg; rnfolYtm;rQtodray;chJ onfukd arcsKem;vnfcygonf/ todray;ayrifh taetxm; d hJ udtuJcwfrd aumif;aumif;em;vnfwwfonfh pdw&owu k f dS l Ydk odygvdrfhrnf/ rsufESmjrifcspfcifygap? toHMum;oem;ygap}} qkdonfh qkawmif;aumif;ESifh jynhfpHkavol arcsKd[kajym&rnf vnf;jzpfonf/ arcsKdUudkvnf; uRefawmfrdom;pku awGUzl;? jrifzl;Muí oabmusMu? cspfMuygonf/ þonfudk &nf&G,f umvQif ]]rrarMunfvicsKu udu&&UJ cspovm;}} [ka&;xm; G f d k kd J f l um ½Ir0atmifacsmonfh a,molau&Dxdyfxm;av;udk &efukeftdrfu&mEIef;jynhf BudKqkdaeMuygaMumif;? azazarar wkdYu orD;av;wpfa,muf wkd;vmwmaygh[k ajymMuaMumif; awGESifh pmudktqHk;owfxm;avonf/ ES p f O D ; om;vrf ; avQmuf p um;ajymvmMu&if ; u av,mOfuGif;a[mif;BuD; taemufbufxdyf tqHk;pGefem; a&mufvvmcJonf/ NrKd UuGuopfu tedryi;f wGi&onf/ cP Ykd h f hf kd f dS avmuf x d k i f N yD ; pum;awG a jymcsif a o;onf [ k arcsKd u ajymvmcJhojzifh av,mOfuGif;a[mif;jyifrSm vGwfvGwf vyfvyftaetxm;vnf;&Sdí ajrBuD;jyifwkdifjzpfonf/ ]][kd;...rSmMunhfprf; OD;&J&,f...aerif;BuD;u taemufcsif;½dk;rawmifwef;BuD;rSm ar;wifvkeD;aeNyD? aerif; BuD;[m ol&JUwpfaeYwmwm0efudk xrf;aqmif&vdkY wm0efaus awmhr,fhtcsdefrSmawmif azsmhawmhwJhtvif;a&mifeJY avmu tvSudkaqmifaew,faygh/ ae0ifqnf;qmqkdwJh tvStyudk tpGrf;ukefjyoGm;cJhao;wmyJaygh/ tJonfvdkyJ arcsKdav... b,fudkyJa&mufae a&mufae'DxD;vif;NrdKUe,fav;twGuf pGr;f tm;&Soí tusK;d jyKEiwojl zpfcsiw,f...jzpfatmifvJ d dk f hJ f BudK;pm;r,fOD;&J&,f...}} wjznf;jznf;eJY OD;&JeJY arcsKdwkdYb0u wpfpHkwpfckaom qHk;jzwfcsufudk csrSwfumb0vrf;udk avQmufvSrf;Mu&awmh r,fqwm ra0;awmhb;l vkYd awG;aerdNy;D cJygw,f? OD;&J&UJ azaz dk h ajymaeuspum;twkdif;ygyJ? tm;vHk;aumif;rGefwkd;wufwJh tqifhrSm&Sdae? a&mufaeEdkifzdkYeYJ aumif;usKd;aqmif&GufEkdifzdkY qkdwmudk arcsKdoabmaygufygw,f/ arcsKdUudk 'g½dkufwmtzGJU 0ifjzpf&atmif vl&m0ifqHhum trsm;twGuf vkdtyfaewm awGeYJ vdtyfaewJh uGuvyfawGujkd znfqnf;ay;Ediap&atmif k f h k f OD;&Jrom;pku pDpOfxm;ygw,fqwhJ [d;k wavmav;u OD;&J&UJ d dk &efueupmudyg arcsKaumif;pGmem;vnfxm;ygw,f OD;&J&,f... kf k d wjznf;jznf;eJY OD;&JeJYarcsKdwkdYb0u wpfpHkwpfckaom qHk;jzwfcsufudkcsrSwfum b0vrf;udkavQmufvSrf;Mu&awmh 214 215 Handbook-110
  • 111. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol r,fqwm ra0;awmhb;l vdYk awG;aerdNy;D cJygw,f/ OD;&J&UJ azaz dk h ajymaeuspum;twkdif;ygyJ? tm;vHk;aumif;rGefwkd;wufwJh tqifhrSm&Sdae? a&mufaeEdkifzdkYeJY aumif;usKd;aqmif&GufEdkifzdkY qkdwmudk arcsKdoabmaygufygw,f/ arcsKdUudk 'g½dkufwmtzGJU 0ifjzpf&atmif vl&m0ifqHhum trsm;twGuf vkdtyfaewm awGeJY vdktyfaewJh uGufvyfawGudkjznfhqnf;ay;Ekdifap& atmif OD;&Ju OD;&Jrom;pku pDpOfxm;ygw,fqwhJ [d;k wavm d dk av;u OD;&J&JU&efukefupmudkyg arcsKdaumif;pGmem;vnfxm; ygw,f OD;&J&,f/ vlYb0rSmwkd;wufwJhtjrifqkdwm vlwkdif;rSm&SdMurSm trSefygyJ? reufjzef[m 'DuaeYxuf ydkaumif;rGefvm&r,f qkwmrsK;d udk vlwi;f uarQmvifMh uwm trSeyjJ zpfw,f? arQmvJ d dk f f f arQmfvifhMu&rSmyJav...arQmfvifhMuw,faygh/ EdkifiH&yfjcm;udk txifBuD;wJhpdwfeJY olYaemufvdkufjzpf roGm;zdYk vdw,f/ rzGUH NzKd ;ao;wm zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufvmap&atmif k qdwm tajymeJawmh r&Edib;l qdwm&,f... tyifyef;tepf k Y k f k emcHNyD; pdwf&Snfvuf&SnfeJY vkyfief;wdkif;udk pOf;pOf;pm;pm; awG;awG;ac:ac: csdefcsdefqqeJY BudK;pm;Mu&rSm aumif;rGefwJh enf;ynmtqifhqifhudk &,lwwfMu&rSm.../ arcsKdwdkY txufwef;ausmif;om;b0u ½lyaA' bmom&yfxu e,lwef&UJ ed,mrvdyaygh "To Every Action J k J There is Equal And Apposite Reaction" qdkwmvdkygyJ? oufa&mufrIwdkif;rSm oleJYnDrQwJh wefjyefoufa&mufrIudk jrif zYdkvdkw,f? wdkif;jynfudk tusKd;jyKw,f... wdkif;jynftwGuf tvkyfvkyfqdkwJhae&mrSm? wdkif;jynftusKd;o,fydk;&mrSm b,f ae&m b,f&mxl; b,ftqifha&mufrS EdkifiHh0efxrf;rS ukrÜPD 0efxrf;rS apwem0efxrf;rS tp&Sdojzifh cGJjcm;xm;vdkYrS rjzpf Edkifwm? a&muf&mae&m us&mwm0efrSm rnnf;rnL udk,f tm;&SdorQ pGrf;tm;&SdorQ aqmif&GufvkyfaqmifMur,fqdkwJh pdwf"mwf&SdzdkYyJvkdwm r[kwfvm;.../ awmifo,mvkyf "m;rçckw?f wHigonf? opfcworm; l k f pwJh tvkyvyuiotm;vH;k twdi;f wdi;f jynftwGuf tvkyf f k f kd f l k k vkyaeMuolawGyvYkd qdMk u&w,f/ ol[m ud,wm wm0efu,f f J Y k hf kd pDnDMuvsuf tzufzufu wdk;wufap&atmif pGrf;aqmifMu r,fqdk&if &Gmuav;wpf&GmrS 'DNrdKUuav;wpfNrdKU NrdKUjyBuD;qD odkYwdkifatmif tqifhqifhajymif;vJwdk;wufvmrSmygyJ... 'gh aMumifhvJyJ avSacwf? vSnf;acwfrS onf,aeY oabFm? armf awmfum;? rD;&xm;? vQyfppfoHvdkuf&xm;? av,mOfysH vlrJh av,mOfysH? 'Hk;ysHN*dK[fwkawG ay:aygufvm? ,aeY uGefysLwm qdwm ay:ayguftqH;k jyKvmaeMuNyD ckqkd wDAD AD',acGawmif k D kd 'DNrdKUav;udk a&mufvmcJh&NyDav.../ aemufususef&pfraecJhzdkYeJY wu,fhwdkif;jynfcspfwJh pdwfudk aozdkYqdkwm[m us&mb0uae EdkifiHhtusKd;o,fydk; aqmif&Gufaejcif;yJ jzpf&r,f/ BuD;rm;wJh &nf&G,fcsufawGeJY ouf&Sdxuf ydkrdkjrifhrm;atmif pGrf;aqmifjycsifw,f/ tusKd; oufa&mufrI ydrjkd zpfxe;f vmvdrr,fvvJ ,HMk unfw,f/ yrm k G hf Ykd 216 217 Handbook-111
  • 112. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol ajym&&if rlvwef;jyq&mrav;wpfa,mufu olYtwef; av;udkom wm0ef,l&wmeJY NrdKUe,fynma&;rSL;BuD;usawmh twef;pOfawGtm;vHk; ausmif;awmfBuD;wpfckvHk;tjyif wpf e,fvHk;twGif;rSm&SdMuwJh rl? v,f? xuf ausmif;awG[lorQwdkY udk wm0ef,lae&ovdkrsKd;aygh.../ 'gawGaMumifhav... arcsKdawmh twwfEdkifqHk; trsm;jynfotusK;d twGuf a&SU½INy;D wm0efawGukd xrf;aqmif l Edkifatmif BudK;pm;r,fvdkY av;av;eufeuf qHk;jzwfxm;olyg av...}}/ onfodkYES,f arcsKdUpum;rsm;udk uRefawmf em;axmif cJh&ygonf/ ]]uJ...'gawG 'gawGaMumifav qdcavwJh arcsKUd udk h k hJ OD;&Jajymawmhr,f/ 'gubmvJqdk&if arcsKdeJY OD;&JwdkY[m tm;vH;k twGuf a&SU½INy;D qH;k jzwfcsuawG csMu&awmhr,f... f taocsmawmh em;axmifaemf arcsKd.../ wpftcsufu arcsKdUudk OD;&JU aphpyfxdrf;jrm;vufxyf Edkif&atmif udk,fhrdbESpfyg; aqGrsKd;pHknDeJY rMumrD&ufydkif;rSm aphpyfMuzdkY azaz ararwdkYu OD;&Judk ar;cdkif;aeNyD.../ ESpftcsufu arcsKdcspfwJh q&mOD;&JtaeeJY 'DNrdKUe,f OD;pD;rSL;&mxl;uae EIwfxGufcGifhawmif;cHzdkY OD;&J&efukef (½Hk;csKyf) udk oGm;rSmudkoabmwlzdkYajym&NyD... oHk;tcsufu rsm;rMumrDvxJrSmyJ arcsKd[mOD;&J&JU ae&m &mxl;udkqufcH&vdrfhr,f/ qufcHNyD;vkdY rMumao;rD vrsm;rSmyJ 'DXme0efxrf;b0 t&mxrf;b0u EIwfxGufum &efukefrSm&SdwJh OD;&JwkdYrdom;pkukrÜPD&JU 'g½dkufwmtzGJU0if wpfOD;tjzpfeJY wm0ef,lvm&vdrfhr,f/ av;tcsufu aemufqHk;tcsufvJjzpfw,f/ tJonhf tcsufu arcsKdtifrwefcHkrifvS cspfvSygw,fqdkwJh 'DNrdKUav; udkcspfvsufeJY cGJcGm&vdrfhr,f/ BuD;rm;jrifhjrwfwJh &nf&G,fcsuf awGeJYtwl 'DNrdKUav;udk 'DNrdKUe,fudkydkrkdtusKd;jyKEkdifap&atmif rwwfomvkdY cGJcGm&jcif;yJvkdY &ifwGif;rSmcH,lxm;wwfEdkifzkdYygyJ arcsKdtcspfav;&,f...}} txufygpum;rsm;udk uRefawmfajymjzpf&awmhNyD/ ajymjzpfcJh&ygNyD/ arcsKdauseyf ESpfoufvdrfhrnf[kvnf; uRefawmf ,HkMunfygonfav/ ]]½kww&ufBu;D qkawmh OD;&J&,f...arcsKbmjyefajym f d d &rSe;f rodEiavmufatmifygyJav...wu,fyg...aoQmif dk f aemufqHxHk;yg jzpf&r,fhoabmrSm wpfOD;wnf;aomorD;jzpf aewJhtjzpf? azazararwkdYukd cspf&wJhpdwf? azazararwkdYu awmh olwarG;&yfZmwdajrvJjzpfNy;D touft&G,tydi;f uvJ Ydk f k BuD;vmNyDqkdawmh tNyD;tydkifoabmcGJcGmNyD; b,fawmhrS oGm;MurSmr[kwfzl;qkdwmudk odxm;&wJhtjzpfwkdYuwpfykdif;/ NyD;aemuf OD;&JudkMuifemcJh& cspfcJh&um OD;&JeJYrcGJrcGmaevdkYwJh pdwuwpfyi;f ...'DNrKd Uav;uvJ aiGvaEGr?Ydk rk;d vJr;dk rk?Yd aqmif; f dk J vJaqmif;rkYd tifMuif;ydawmufawGa0Mu? wdrrnKd nKd nKd UndKUeJY f J awmifpOfwef;wkdYMum; rkd;ykvJawG&GmoGef;aewmudk jrif&wwf 218 219 Handbook-112
  • 113. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol wJjh rifui;f tjyif oZifcmndKawG oif;Ny;D ESi;f awGjrLawGywq;D G G d f um qD;ESif;usoHwajzmufajzmufawGeJY pdrf;Munfat;jrvSwJh armacsmif;a&...'gawGudk ESpfoufwG,fwmaerd&wJh arcsKdU b0av...}} ]]aMomf aomu&wufawGwjzmjzmeJY jzpfae&ygaygh vm;&Sif&,f...wJh/}} ajymzdkYvkdr,frxifayr,fh ajymcsifwmudkajymyg&ap OD;aemf/ ydkuJvGef;vSw,fvdkYawmh rxifvkdufygeJY OD;&J&,f/ OD;&Jukd arcsKw,wmw,f? Muifemw,f? jrwfE;kd w,f? d G f cspw,f ajymrjywwfatmifygav...Ny;D awmh av;pm;w,f? f ,HkMunfw,f? 'Dxuftxl;ajym&&if toufeJYxyfwlqkdwJh pum;twkdif;ygyJ...,Hkygaemf}} pGJpGJNrJNrJ rcGJ&ufEkdifavmufatmif oHa,mZOfawGu aES m if z G J U vk d Y c spf a ecJ h & ygNyD . ..'D b 0 'D o H o &momru aemufb0 b0 b0qufwkdif;rSmvJ OD;&JudktNrJtNrJ cspfcGifh ydkifqkdifEdkifygapvdkYawmif ajymcsifawmhw,f/ 'DavmufxdatmiffygbJvm;vkdYajym&if bmjzpfvkdYvJ odvm;/ OD;&Jav cav;vli,fvl&G,f vlvwf vlBuD; aqGrsKd; rdb NrdKUrdNrdKUzrif;Ekd;&mZm trsm;jynfoltm;vHk;udk MunfjzL atmif MunfjzLap&atmif cspwwfzawGukd pnf;½H;k vdjYk ycJwm f Ykd h ygvm;? odyfawmfwJh OD;&JyJyaygh/ tm;upm;udkcspf? pmayudkcspf? bmomudkcspf? vlrsKd;pk udkcspf? jynfolawGudkcspfwJhtjyif obm0udkygcspfwwfwJhol? obm0eJYpyfvsOf;vkdY OD;&JajymwJhpum;/ bmwJh...opfyifopfawmawG[m vlom;awGudk tusKd;rJhapwJh umAGef"mwfawGudkz,f&Sm;ay;NyD; vlom;awG twGufr&SdrjzpfvkdtyfwJh atmufqD*sif"mwfudk xkwfvkyfay; w,fwJh? iSufwpfaxmif ESpfaxmif wpfaomif;ruem;ckdEkdifwJh 220 vGrf;&wJhNrdKUol ]]oifzGm;aomajr oifhXmaeum; tajcwdk;jrifh usefaumif;oifh oifrsKd;om; pmpum;vnf; BuD;yGm;wwfjrifh usefaumif;oifh oifOD;csí trQa0&m apwDomvQif opömta&mif ÓPfwefYaqmifvnf; ajymifvsuf0if;vsuf usefapownf;....wJh/}} ]]OD;&JU odNyD;jzpfrSmyg? q&maZmf*sD&JU (1935) ckESpfu pyfqxm;cJwhJ ]]oifaooGm;aomf}} uAsmxJupmyk'av;av/ dk h d f arcsKUd &ifxJ ESv;kH om;xJ OD;aESmufxrm wpfoufv;kH pGNJ raer,fh J S J pmom;av;awGygyJ OD;&J&,f...arcsKdUtaoG;tom;xJrSm xm0&aysmf0ifpD;qif;aer,fh ESvHk;aoG;tvuFmpmom;awGyg yJ&Sif...'DuAsmydk'fxJuvkd arcsKdtpOftNrJ BudK;pm;aerSm ...emrnfaumif;usefap&rSm...}} 221 Handbook-113
  • 114. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol opfyifaumif;ozG,fjzpfygap? vlom;awGudk atmufqD*sif xkwfvkyfay;wJh opfyif opfawmawGvdkjzpfygapwJh... aumif;vkdufwJhpum;yJav...wu,fyg...OD;&J&JUpum;u wefzdk;&Sdvkdufwm/ NyD;awmh orkdif;udkcspfwwfwJhol jzpfapcsifowJh... orki;f udcspvwm0efawGukd em;vnfwm? jynfoUl oabmxm; d k f Ydk awGudk odwwfwm? vlrIa&; pD;yGm;a&; EkdifiHa&; OD;wnfcsuf awGudk jrifwwfwmawGtm;vHk;[m OD;&J&JUcE¨mudk,fxJu touf&Sifoefjcif;&JU ZpfjrpfESvHk;tdrfBuD;xJrSm odkrSD;wnf&Sd zGJUwnfaewmr[kwfvm;wJh/ arcsKdawmhav...OD;&JtaMumif;awG;rdwkdif; vlBuD; olrawGajymMuwJhpum; ]]ajrtkwfwkdYNydKav&m ausmuftkwfeJY tpm;xk;d }} qkwmudk OD;&Jua&SUaqmifvrf;jyay;cJNh yvjYkd rifw,f/ d D OD ; &J u d k , f p m; arcsKd U ud k t pm;xk d ; xm;Ek d i f c J h N yD / arcsKd u vJ vufqifurf;ay;&OD;rSmvdYk wm0efooeYJ cH,xm;Ny;D ygNy... h d d l D arcsKdUudktppoifjy ajymqkd ajrmfjrifwwfodapcJhwmawG twGuf aus;Zl;w&m;awGu BuD;rm;vSygw,f q&m&,f/ ck vydkif;umvav;twGif;rSmyJ OD;&Jyifyef;vGef;vS ygNyD? wkdif;½Hk;udk A[kd½Hk;csKyfudk oGm;a&mufcJhNyD;NyD tm;vHk;u OD;&Judktvkyfwm0efu rxGufapcsif rxGufapvkdMubl;? Xme &JU om;aumif;&wem 0efxrf;aumif;wpfOD; avsmhenf;oGm;& r,ftjzpf ½IjrifcMhJ uw,fr[kwvm;/ tem*wftwGuf ESajrm h f MuwmtrSefyJ/ OD;&JajymcJhzl;ovkd tjcm;wpfzufrSm EkdifiHawmfBuD; twGuyNkd y;D taxmuftyHjh zpfEiap&atmifvqw,f r[kwf f kd f Ykd dk vm;/ [kwfrSmyg...[kwfygw,fav...'geJY wpfquf wnf; aemufqufwGJ arcsKdUudpöukdMunhf&if odEkdifwmyg/ OD;&J a&m arcsKyg ESpO;D pvH;k wm0efrEwxuciukd awmif;cHwifjy d f S I f G f G hf vkdY&Edkifayr,fh t&m&mudkiJhuGufNyD; OD;&JpDpOfcJhw,faemf/ NrdKU e,ftusKd;? XmetusKd;? EkdifiHhtusKd;twGuf tm;vHk;tquf tpyfaumif; uGif;qufrjywfap&avatmif arcsKdUudktvkyf wm0efurxGufapbJ xm;cJhjzpfwm? wpfESpftwGif;rSmawmh arcsKwm0efrS EIwxuciu&? aemufrsK;d qufopfudk vufqifh d f G f G hf kd urf;vTJajymif;ay; tppajyvnfapa&; Nidrf;csrf;a&;tjrifeJY pDpOfcJhwm? iJhuGufrIxm;wwfwmawG[m ]]b,folaoao iawrm&ifNyD;a&m}} qkdwJhpdwfxm;rsKd; pdwfnHhpdwfykyfpdwf,kwf rsKd;rS r[kwfwm? tem*wfrsKd;qufudk ysKd;axmifqGJ,lcsDwuf apwmygvm;/ NrdKUe,fudk XmeudkEdkifiHawmfudk tppftrSefcspfwwf jcif;ygyJvm;qkdwm od&awmh arcsKdOD;&Judk odyfav;pm;rdwm trSefyJ? OD;&JeJY arcsKdUtwGuf uGufuGufav;? usOf;usOf;av; omMunhfNyD; om,maysmf&Tifa&;udk arQmfawG;vsuf tjrifusOf; usOf;eJY cspfjcif;arwåmrSm aysmf&TifpGmaevkdY&ayr,fh OD;&J[m oabmxm;BuD;pGm avQmhcscJhw,f/ wpfudk,faumif; ESpfudk,f aumif;tjrifrsKd;udk ab;z,fEdkifvsuf trsm;aumif;zkdYta&; 222 223 Handbook-114
  • 115. 224 udka,m (abm*aA') jrifhjrwfwJhpdwfxm;rsKd;udk aqmifMuOf;EkdifcJholyJaemf...thHMo *kPf,l csD;usL;rd&ygw,f q&m&,f...}} txufyg arcsKduRefawmfhtay: csD;rGrf;aerIrsm;udk em;axmifae&onfrSm Mum;jzwfum ]][dk;...xm;? awmfyg awmhvm; a':arcsKcifAsm}} [lí oluMkd unhumvQif uReawmf d Y f f pum;qkdcJh? ]]uRefawmfhtm;vJ pum;ajymcGifhav;awmh cGifhjyK ygOD;}} [kajymcJhjzpfon/f ]]tif;...[kwfayom;yJ ajym... ajym}} [lí arcsKdujyefvnfpum;qkdcJhavonf/ ]]udk,hfEIwfxGufcGifh? cGifhjyKtrdefYpmeJYtwl arcsKdUukd NrdKUe,fOD;pD;XmerSL;wm0ef,lzkdYeJY aiGxkwfolt&m&Sd (Drawing Officer) &mxl;cGifhjyKrdefYyg a&muf&SdvdkYvmawmhrSmyg/ udk,f arcsKdeJYa0;vdkY? 'DNrdKUav;eJY a0;vdkY? trdjrefrmjynfBuD;eJY a0;vdkY aeae&OD;r,fh tckduftwefYumvrsm; aeY&ufrsm;rSmvJ arcsKd wpfa,muf &yfol&Gmom;? NrdKUe,fole,fom;awGeJY jynfoleJY EdkifiHawmftusKd;udk pGrf;pGrf;wrH tusKd;jyKEkdif&atmif BudK;pm; xrf;aqmifEdkifvdrfhr,fqkdwm OD;&JarcsKdUudk arQmfvifh,HkMunfyg w,f/ ,HkMunfrIawGeJYvJ OD;&JjyefvmrSmyg}} onfpum;awGudk uRefawmfajymjzpf&onf/ xdkonfh cPrSmyif arcsKduuRefawmfhtm; pum;awGqufcJhjyefonf/ ]]aowl&Sifzuf aqmif&Gufruif; tcsif;csif;wGif tcif;BuD;i,f &Sdcg0,fvnf; rz,fraoG nDnmukef;í ½kef;Muav...}} qkdwJh pmqkd&Sifr[m *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 225 &|om&&JU rdefYrSmcJhwmav;udk arcsKdoabmayguf&if; arcsKd toufeJY xyfwlrQcspf&wJh OD;&Judkuwday;ygw,f&Sif&,f/ &Sifr[m&|om&urSmxm;cJhovkd tJonhfpdwfrsKd; t&if;cHvYdk Ny;D awmh...aemufaemifrmvJ awmfawmfeajymcGihf S YJ BuHK&awmhrSm r[kwfavawmh arcsKdavOD;&Judk pum;awGw0 BuD;ajymcsifao;w,f/ ajymcGifhjyKygvkdY awmif;yefyg&apaemf ...tcGifhjyKaemf... vlYorkdif;eJY csDajym&&if ]]Zmwdykn *kPfrme}} qkdwJh qkd½dk;pum;eJYtnD yHkawmify½dkif;rdwf yHkawmifvlom;&,fvkdY urÇmrSmvlom;tp jrefrmu a&S;a[mif;orkdif;0if *kPfj'yf &Sd&me,fajr[m yHkawmifyHknm&yf0ef;BuD;ygyJ/ tJonf *E¦0if yHkawmifyHknmawmifwef;jrifhwkdYwpfcGif awmifpOftxyfxyf a'o a,majr&yf0ef;rSm xD;vif;NrdKUav;&Sdaew,faygh/ awmifwef;awGMum;u acsmifusus xD;vif;NrdKUav; [m acwftqufquf e,fajrcsp?f trsK;d csp?f EdiicspotoD;oD; k f H f l wdkY&JUatmufrSm ordkif;*kPfod t&Sdeft0gcefYjcm; x,f0gpGmeJY jzwfoef;avQmufvr;f vmcJMh uwmtrSey/ tpOftvmaumif; S f J eJY nDnGwfcJhMu? ,dkif;yif;MueJY NrdKUav;&JU b0udk avhvmvdkY odEdkifygw,fav... a&S;a&S;ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmuyJ ol&Jaumif;awGay:xGuf &m ]]ol&JUNrdKU}}vdkY emrynufowfrSwfcJhayonf/ yk*Hjynfh&Sif tavmif;pnfolrif;[m a&TpBuFmazmifawmfeJY c&D;xGufcJh? onft&yfa'oudk a&mufvmcJh? urÁKxD;jzLawmftvdkvdkyGifh Handbook-115
  • 116. udka,m (abm*aA') *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol vif;cJhvdkY NrdKUem*& yxr ]]xD;vif;NrdKU}} vdkYwGif &pfcJhapw,f/ xD;jzLawmftvdkvdkyGifhum a&TpBuFmazmifawmf &yfwefYem;cdkuf jrwfAk'¨bk&m;&Sif&JU "mwfawmfarGawmfawGu a&Tig;Muif; a,mifwlpGmaqmifvdkY ½kd;½kd;uGefeJY zrf;atmfr&? a&TuGefeJYtkyf zrf;apawmhrSom&wmaMumifh ]]a&TuGeftkyfapwDawmf}} vdkY orkwfum wnfxm;udk;uG,f ausmufpmyga&;xdk;apcJhw,f aemf/ uke;f abmifacwf tavmif;rif;w&m;Bu;D OD;atmifaZ,s vufxuf eu©wf? aumZm? tcgaumif;awGeJY &[ef;ynm&Sd ykPÖm;ynm&SdwdkYu aqmif&Gufum 'kwd, ]]xD;vif;NrdKU}} jzpfcJh &jyef&JU... twdwf edrwaumif;eJY wG,csujf zpfwnfcwhJ xD;vif; d f f hJ NrKd Uav;u jrefrmhordi;f &JU acwfopfpmrsuEmrsm;rSm vGwvyfa&; k f S f qdkwJh tcsKyftjcmtmPmudk jynfolvlxkwdkYu wcJeuf &,l atmifyGJqifEdkif&atmif vGwfvyfwJh jrefrmEdkifiHa[hvdkY a<u; aMumf0ifh<um; cHpm;Edkif&atmif jrefrmjynfom; wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;aygif;pHktwlwuG e,fcsJUwdkYvufatmuf tESpf 100 ausmf olYuRefb0uae ½kef;xGufEdkifatmif BudK;zrf;cJhMu&wm r[kwfvm;.../ ucsif? u,m;? u&if? csif;? rGef? Arm? &cdkif? &Srf;? ytdkYpftp&SdwJh vlrsKd;pkaygif; (100) ausmf a&m>yrf;pkpnf;ae xdkifMuwJh arcsKdwdkY jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf[m tm;vHk; aom &[ef;&Sivl wdi;f &if;om;jynfoawG&UJ acR;awG? aoG;awG f k l eJY wduyBJG u;D i,fawGukd pnf;pnf;vH;k vH;k eJY tzGzEum ckcawmf k f J JG JT H vSefarmif;xkwf&if; nDnGwfcdkifNrJEdkifMurSom vGwfvyfa&;qdk wJh yef;udk qGwfcsLqGwfvSrf;,lEdkifMu&rSmjzpfw,fvdkY cH,lod&Sd xm;Muw,f... olwpfAdkvf igwpfrif;jynfwGif;rSm tcsif;csif;aoG;uGJ Mu ppfcif;Mu&avatmif? aoG;uGJMurS jrefrmjynfeJYvlrsKd;pk awGtay: e,fcsJUwdkYu tcsdefMumjrifhpGm *kwfaoG;pkyf ydkrdkae av&JU? taemufrSm ndKUndKUrIdif;rIdif; csif;½kd;rawmif&H wHwdkif; jrifhBuD;eJY ta&SUbuf yHknmyHkawmif awmifpOfoG,foG,fMum; u 'DNrdKUav;udk tNrJyJ owd&aerd&wmyg... bmyJajymajym ukdk,fhig;csOfrdkY udk,fcsOfw,fyJ qdkMu apawmh? tydkpGufNyD; #DumcsJUvdkYvJ rqdkcsifbl;/ Zpfjrpf&if; trSefudkawmh wpfjym;rSravsmhEdkifbl;/ ordkif;uvJ odygw,f av... xm;ygawmhaemf ,Hwrf;pum; r[kwz;l qdwmudawmh k f k k ,Hkyg... pdwfcsvdkY ,Hkygav... yHkawmifyHknm awmifpOfawmifwef;toG,foG,feJY a,mwdkYXmae&yf0ef; ol&JUtvGrf;jywdkufxJu b0tydkif;tp awGvdkYyJ ajymavrvm;... om,mat;csrf;vSwJh xD;vif; NrdKUav;qdkwm ESif;aiGU? ESif;puf? ESif;rIef? ESif;zGJawGeJY ae&mtESHY jzefYusuf&pfNcHK odkif;xm;wwfwJh obm0eJY... - a&S;a&S;&mZ0ifawGrSm tckdiftrm emrnf&Sdxm; wJhNrdKU.... 226 227 Handbook-116
  • 117. udka,m (abm*aA') 228 - - - - - jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om; awmifay:om;? ajr jyefYom;rcGJjcm; wpftlxHkqif; nD&if;tudkyrm pkpnf;Mu? aEG;axG; vSwJh tvSjzma0 pnf;vHk; nDnwrukd cdiNf rapcJ&m csi;f -Arm cspMf unfa&; G f I k J h eJY aoG;pnf;cJhMuwJhNrdKU... nDnm nDnGwfMuzdkYqdk&if acwfra&G;? pepfra&G;? tcsdeftcgumvra&G;? aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&; pdwf"mwf tav;tjrwfxm; a&SUwef;u vdkuf ygoGm;csifwJhNrdKU... aomif;usef;olqdk rMum;csif? rjrifcsif? tpOf tNrJ yJrkef;wD; ]]qifpG,f&Gmu vlowfyGJBuD;}} rsKd;aemifray:ayguf apvdkwJhpdwfeJY (1973-74) ckESpfupwifNyD; ,aeYwdkif olykef[lír&Sd? "m;jy [lír&S?d aomif;use;f ol[í vH;k 0r&Saom tjzL l d a&mife,fajrppfppf jzpfwJhNrdKU... urÇmqdwm Global Village *vdb,fvab;vpf k k f í wJh? urÇm&GmBuD;pepfrSm enf;ynmqkdwmawG [m topftopf wd;k wufvYkd vmae&mrSm xD;vif; qdwhJ NrKd Uav;rSmvJ trsm;eJY &ifabmifwef; vSr;f wG,f k vdkY vdkufyg... usef&pfum rae&pfcJhwJhNrdKU wyfrawmfvufxufrSmvJ yHk&dyfaumif;wJhNrdKU qefa&pyg;oD;ESHrsm; txl;txGufwdk;? txGuf aumif;? ½kd;½kd;eJYoD;xyf? oD;n§yf"mwfajrMoZm *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 229 rsKd;aumif;rsKd;oefY ydk;owfaq;ponfwdkYqdkwm enf;ynmt& trSefpdkufysKd; oHk;pGJumvQif opf wpfyifcwwpfyif jyefpuf &moDOwkrevYkd *½kpuf k f kd S f kd wJhNrdKU - ynma&;? use;f rma&;? pD;yGm;a&; pDrue;f pDrcsuf H d H vdkufemvsuf tpOfwpdkuf azmfaqmifatmif jynfhatmif jznfhpGrf; tvSrf;nDnDeJY nDapMuwJh NrdKU... NrdKU... txl;tav;xm;vsuf tm;vHk;udk ajymcsifao;&JU ol u bmvJqdk&if ordkif;udkod&ifawmh wdkif;cspfjynfcspfpdwfu enf;vmEdkifwmrdkY acwfumvudk jyKjyifajymif;vJ&ef BudK;yrf; olawG[m ordi;f todynmvdygw,f/ ordi;f udk od&em;vnf k k k dS rSmomvQif ordi;f uay;wJtiftm;awGukd tcef;csNy;D &nf&,csuf k h G f rsm;udk jznfhpGrf;EdkifrSmyg/ ajymMupwrf;qdk&&if trSefu Bwd*H puGJ,m; tcsif; puf0dkif; tvif;tarSmif toH ta&mifvIdif; &pf o rf t m;vH k ; avmuD e ,f t awG ; tjrif a wG [ m tquftoG,f&Sdw,f/ trSD&Sdw,f/ aygif;pnf;nDnGwf&r,f aygh... ordkif;udk cspfjrwfEdk;pdwf xdef;odrf;vdkpdwf? wefzdk;xm; vdpw?f ordi;f &Siwukd aus;Zl;wifvpwrsm; ay:aygufvmap k d k f Ykd kd d f zdkYudk odapcsifw,f q&m&,f... pkpnf;nDnGwfrItydkif; nDnGwfpnf;vHk;jcif;&JUtydkif;awGudk eufeuf½Idif;½Idif; jrifap csifw,f... Handbook-117
  • 118. 230 udka,m (abm*aA') ...at;av... ...arcsKuawmh 'D xD;vif;NrKd Uav;udk tNrwrf;yJ d J atmufarh aerSm? owd&aerSm? ESvHk;om;xJu &ifxJu rarh w rf ; yJ tpOf xm0& &S d a erd w mrd k Y v J tNrJ w rf ; yJ vGrf;&wJhNrdKUvdkYom ajymcsif awmhw,f OD;&JjrifhvIdifqdkwJh OD;&J? OD ; &J q d k w J h q&m? NyD ; awmh arcsKd U t&S i f o cif ? arcsKdUtMuifemarwåm&Sif opöm&SifqkdwJh armif&,f.. ...aemf... armifvdkY... ...vGrf;&wJhNrdKUvdkY....}}/ ]]aMomf aemufuG,frSm teuft"dyÜm,fjynfh0pGmeJY tESpfom& &SdvSpGm rSnfhac:vdkY &Sifoefaeol arMunfvGifcsKd qdkwJh arcsKd&,f... xD;vif;NrdKuav;udk arcsKdu vGrf;&wJhNrdKU wJh... 'DvkdqdkcJhavawmh arcsKdu vGrf;&wJhNrdKUolaygh... r[kwfzl;vm;... ud&u toufxufq;kH csp&r,fh vGr;f &wJNh rKd Uolygav k J f aemf...}}/ uRefawmf arcsKdUtm; txufygodkYES,f ajymrdygav onf/ arcsKd auseyfaerSmygav[lívnf; ,HkMunf,lqaerd ygavonf/ ]]tdk;... udk&J&,f... aus;Zl;wifvdkuf&wm... wu,fyg... t[kwf ,kwfpGtqHk; yHkawmif yHknm&yf0ef; pHkprf;*EdkifNrdKif,H tauGUrSmav... r,fxrf;vdkYac:& ac:&? vSrf;cJhygh&,fvdkY *E¬0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJh vGrf;&wJUNrdKYol 231 *E¦0ifcspfMunfpwrf;eJY vGrf;&wJhNrdKUolu qdkyg&apawmh &Sif &,f... teaEÅ teEÅig;yg;OD;xdyfxm;vsufudka,m? abm*aA'? Handbook-118