A project report on dabur


Published on

A project report on dabur

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

A project report on dabur

  1. 1. 1.INTRODUCTION TO THE INDUSTRY I.IHISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DABUR Dabur derives its name from Devanagri rendition of Daktar Burman. In 1884, the Dabur was born in a small Calcutta pharmacy, where Dr. S.K. Burman launches his mission of making health care products. In 1896, with growing popularity of Dabur products, Dr. Burman expands his operations by setting up a manufacturing plant for mass production of formulations. In early 1900s, Dabur enters the specialized area of nature-based Ayurvedic medicines, for which standardized drugs are not available in the market. In 1919, the need to develop scientific processes and quality checks for mass production of traditional Ayurvedic medicines leads to establishment of research laboratories. In 1920, Dabur expands further with new manufacturing units at Narendrapur and Daburgram. The distribution of Dabur products spreads to other states like Bihar and the North-East. In 1936, Dabur becomes a full-fledged company - Dabur India (Dr. S. K. Burman) Pvt. Ltd. In 1972, Dabur's operations shift to Delhi. A new manufacturing plant is set up in temporary premises in Faridabad, on the outskirts of Delhi. In 1979, Commercial production starts in the new Sahibabad factory of Dabur, one of the largest and best equipped production facilities for Ayurvedic medicines and launch of full- fledged research operations in pioneering areas of health care with establishment of the Dabur Research Foundation. 1
  2. 2. In 1986, Dabur becomes a Public Limited Company. Dabur India Ltd. comes into being after reverse merger with Vidogum Limited. In 1992, Dabur opens a new chapter of strategic partnerships with international businesses. It enters into a joint venture with Agrolimen of Spain. This new venture is to manufacture and market confectionery items in India. In 1993, Dabur enters the specialised health care area of cancer treatment with its oncology formulation plant at Baddi in Himachal Pradesh. In 1994, Dabur India Ltd. raises its first public issue. Due to market confidence in the Company, shares issued at a high premium are oversubscribed 21 times. In 1995, In order to extend its global partnerships, Dabur enters into joint ventures with Osem of Israel for food and Bongrain of France for cheese and other dairy products. In 1996, For better operation and management, 3 separate divisions created according to their product mix - Health Care Products Division, Family Products Division and Dabur Ayurvedic Specialties Limited. In 1998, Dabur enters full-scale in the nascent processed foods market with the creation of the Foods Division and Project STARS (Strive to Achieve Record Successes) is initiated to give a jump-start to the Company and accelerate its growth performance. In 2000, With changing demands of business and to inculcate a spirit of corporate governance, the Burman family inducts professionals to manage the Company. For the first time in the history of Dabur, a non-family professional CEO sits at the helm of the Company. In 2002, Dabur establishes its market leadership status with a turnover of Rs.1,000 crores. From a small beginning and upholding the values of its founder, Dabur now enters the august league of large corporate businesses. 2007 - Dabur announces bonus after 12 years 2
  3. 3. Dabur India announced issue of 1:1 Bonus share to the shareholders of the company, i.e. one share for every one share held. The Board also proposed an increase in the authorized share capital of the company from existing Rs 50 crore to Rs 125 crore. 2011 - Dabur Red Toothpaste joins 'Billion Rupee Brands' club Dabur Red Toothpaste becomes the Dabur's ninth Billion Rupee brand. Dabur Red Toothpaste crosses the billion rupee turnover mark within five years of its launch. DABUR AT A GLANCE Dabur India Limited has marked its presence with significant achievements and today commands a market leadership status. Our story of success is based on dedication to nature, corporate and process hygiene, dynamic leadership and commitment to our partners and stakeholders. The results of our policies and initiatives speak for themselves.  Leading consumer goods company in India with a turnover of Rs. 2834.11 Crore (FY09)  3 major strategic business units (SBU) - Consumer Care Division (CCD), Consumer Health Division (CHD) and International Business Division (IBD)  3 Subsidiary Group companies - Dabur International, Fem Care Pharma and newu and 8 step down subsidiaries: Dabur Nepal Pvt Ltd (Nepal), Dabur Egypt Ltd (Egypt), Asian Consumer Care (Bangladesh), Asian Consumer Care (Pakistan), African Consumer Care (Nigeria), Naturelle LLC (Ras Al Khaimah- UAE), Weikfield International (UAE) and Jaquline Inc. (USA).  17 ultra-modern manufacturing units spread around the globe  Products marketed in over 60 countries  Wide and deep market penetration with 50 C&F agents, more than 5000 distributors and over 2.8 million retail outlets all over India Consumer Care Division (CCD) adresses consumer needs across the entire FMCG 3
  4. 4. spectrum through four distinct business portfolios of Personal Care, Health Care, Home Care & Foods  Master brands:  Dabur - Ayurvedic healthcare products  Vatika - Premium hair care  Hajmola - Tasty digestives  Réal - Fruit juices & beverages  Fem - Fairness bleaches & skin care products  9 Billion-Rupee brands: Dabur Amla, Dabur Chyawanprash, Vatika, Réal, Dabur Red Toothpaste, Dabur Lal Dant Manjan, Babool, Hajmola and Dabur Honey  Strategic positioning of Honey as food product, leading to market leadership (over 75%) in branded honey market  Dabur Chyawanprash the largest selling Ayurvedic medicine with over 65% market share.  Vatika Shampoo has been the fastest selling shampoo brand in India for three years in a row  Hajmola tablets in command with 60% market share of digestive tablets category. About 2.5 crore Hajmola tablets are consumed in India every day  Leader in herbal digestives with 90% market share Consumer Health Division (CHD) offers a range of classical Ayurvedic medicines and Ayurvedic OTC products that deliver the age-old benefits of Ayurveda in modern ready-to- use formats 4
  5. 5.  Has more than 300 products sold through prescriptions as well as over the counter  Major categories in traditional formulations include: - Asav Arishtas - Ras Rasayanas - Churnas - Medicated Oils  Proprietary Ayurvedic medicines developed by Dabur include: - Nature Care Isabgol - Madhuvaani - Trifgol  Division also works for promotion of Ayurveda through organised community of traditional practitioners and developing fresh batches of students International Business Division (IBD) caters to the health and personal care needs of customers across different international markets, spanning the Middle East, North & West Africa, EU and the US with its brands Dabur & Vatika  Growing at a CAGR of 33% in the last 6 years and contributes to about 20% of total sales  Leveraging the 'Natural' preference among local consumers to increase share in perosnal care categories  Focus markets: - GCC - Egypt - Nigeria - Bangladesh - Nepal - US  High level of localization of manufacturing and sales & marketing 5
  6. 6. C & F AGENTS, DISRIBUTORS & RETAILERS The objective of appointment of Carrying and Forwarding Agents ('C&FA') is to achieve improved service levels in despatches made, order processing, FMFO issuance of stocks, transportation, efficient and proper maintenance of stocks and sales return recording procedures. The outsourcing of the C&FA function ensures smooth and efficient movement of products from the Company to its dealers, stockists etc. There is a wide market penetration on the part of Dabur through 47 C&F agents, more than 5000 distributors and over 1.5 million retail outlets all over India. The company under restructuring exercise has started focussing on distribution network. The company has shifted to zonal setup for its sales and marketing. The company is planning to shift to C&F agents system and has appointed more than 50 such agents in the market. It has also connected its C&F agents and its key distributors online for better management of its stock. The company has also implemented ERP system to cover all its activities. The company also started its interactive website during the year. It has plans of going for B2B and B2C transactions CORPORATE GOVERNENCE Good corporate governance and transparency in actions of the management is key to a strong bond of trust with the Company’s stakeholders. Dabur understands the importance of good governance and has constantly avoided an arbitrary decision- making process. Our initiatives towards this end include: 6
  7. 7.  Professionalization of the board  Lean and active Board(reduced from 16 to 10 members)  Less number of promoters on the Board  More professionals and independent Directors for better management  Governed through Board committees for Audit, Remuneration, Shareholder Grievances, Compensation and Nominations Meets all Corporate Governance Code requirements of SEBI CERTIFICATION FOR QUALITY ISO 9002 Dabur India Limited has been awarded the ISO 9002 certification after the Quality Management Systems of the company were assessed in November 1995. The product areas assessed include Health care Products, Family and Food Products, Bulk Drugs and Chemicals, Ayurvedic specialities and Pharmaceutical products. This implies that for Dabur quality is an attitude that has been translated into action. For the company quality is a culture and not a stop gap arrangement and believe that quality is a corporate responsibility towards its customers, employees and the environment in which it operates. Sustaining consumer confidence for over a century is a true reflection of the quality of the company’s products. CRISIL GVC Level 2 CRISIL, the leading rating agency in India, has been assigning top credit ratings to Dabur India limited for its institutional borrowings. Recently, CRISIL launched the Governance and Value Creation Rating (GVC) and Dabur India Limited was one of the first companies to volunteer for getting itself rated on GVC. Dabur has been assigned `Crisil GVC Level 2’ rating which is the second highest rating on an 8-point scale. The rating indicates that capability of the Company on wealth creation for all its stakeholders including shareholders, 7
  8. 8. employees, creditors, suppliers, dealers and society, while adopting sound corporate governance practices is `high’. This takes into account past track record as well as future expectations of wealth creation by the company. Some of the quotes of CRISIL : (1) The rating reflects Dabur India’s strong wealth management practices, high disclosure standards, and satisfactory track record on creating value for its various stakeholders. (2) The management’s long experience and good track record coupled with Dabur India’s consistent performance in its existing businesses exemplify its wealth management capabilities. (3) Dabur India follows good disclosure standards in terms of its financial performance and ownership pattern. Dabur India Limited is the fourth largest FMCG Company in India with interests in Health care, Personal care and Food products. Building on a legacy of quality and experience for over 100 years, today Dabur has a turnover of Rs.1232 Crore with powerful brands like Dabur Amla, Dabur Chyawanprash, Vatika, Hajmola & Real. The story of Dabur began with a small, but visionary endeavor by Dr. S. K. Burman, a physician tucked away in Bengal. His mission was to provide effective and affordable cure for ordinary people in far-flung villages. With missionary zeal and fervor, Dr. Burman undertook the task of preparing natural cures for the killer diseases of those days, like cholera, malaria and plague. Soon the news of his medicines traveled, and he came to be known as the trusted 'Daktar' or Doctor who came up with effective cures. And that is how his venture Dabur got its name - derived from the Devanagri rendition of Daktar Burman. Dr. Burman set up Dabur in 1884 to produce and dispense Ayurvedic medicines. Reaching out to a wide mass of people who had no access to proper treatment. Dr. S. K. Burman's commitment and ceaseless efforts resulted in the company growing from a fledgling medicine manufacturer in a small Calcutta house, to a household name that at once evokes trust and reliability. 1884 – Established by Dr. S K Burman at Kolkata 1896 – First production unit established at Garhia (W.B.) 8
  9. 9. 1919 – First R&D unit established Early 1900s - Production of Ayurvedic medicines Dabur identifies nature-based Ayurvedic medicines as its area of specialisation. It is the first Company to provide health care through scientifically tested and automated production of formulations based on our traditional science. 1930 – Automation and up gradation of Ayurvedic products manufacturing initiated 1936 - Dabur (Dr. S K Burman) Pvt. Ltd. Incorporated 1940 – Personal care through Ayurveda Dabur introduces Indian consumers to personal care through Ayurveda, with the launch of Dabur Amla Hair Oil. So popular is the product that it becomes the largest selling hair oil brand in India. 1949 – Launched Dabur Chyawanprash in tin pack Widening the popularity and usage of traditional Ayurvedic products continues. The ancient restorative Chyawanprash is launched in packaged form, and becomes the first branded Chyawanprash in India. 1957 - Computerization of operations initiated 1970 – Entered Oral Care & Digestive segment Addressing rural markets where homemade oral care is more popular than multinational brands, Dabur introduces Lal Dant Manjan. With this a conveniently packaged herbal toothpowder is made available at affordable costs to the masses. 1972 – Shifts base to Delhi from Calcutta 1978 – Launches Hajmola tablet Dabur continues to make innovative products based on traditional formulations that can provide holistic care in our daily life. An Ayurvedic medicine used as a digestive aid is branded and launched as the popular Hajmola tablet. 1979 - Dabur Research Foundation set up 1979 - Commercial production starts at Sahibabad (U.P.), the most modern herbal medicines plant at that time 1984 - Dabur completes 100 years 9
  10. 10. 1988 – Launches pharmaceutical medicines 1989 - Care with fun The Ayurvedic digestive formulation is converted into children's fun product with the launch of Hajmola Candy. In an innovative move, a curative product is converted to a confectionery item for wider usage. 1994 - Comes out with first public issue 1996 - Enters oncology segment 2000 - Leadership in health care Dabur establishes its leadership in health care as one of only two companies worldwide to launch the anti-cancer drug Intaxel (Paclitaxel). Dabur Research Foundation develops an Eco- friendly process to extract the drug from its plant source 2003 - Enters foods business with the launch of Real Fruit Juice 2005 - Burman family hands over management of the company to professionals 2008 - The 1,000 crore mark Dabur establishes its market leadership status by staging a turnover of Rs.1000 corers. Across a span of over 100 years, Dabur has grown from a small beginning based on traditional health care. To a commanding position amongst an august league of large corporate businesses. 2009 - Super specialty drugs with the setting up of Dabur Oncology's sterile cytotoxic facility, the Company gains entry into the highly specialised area of cancer therapy. The state-of-the-art plant and laboratory in the UK have approval from the MCA of UK. They follow FDA guidelines for production of drugs specifically for European and American markets. 2010 - Dabur record sales of Rs 1163.19 crore on a net profit of Rs 64.4 crore 2011 - Dabur demerges Pharmaceuticals business 10
  11. 11. CORE VALUES Ownership: This is our company. We accept personal responsibility, and accountability to meet business needs Passion For Winning: We all are leaders in our area of responsibility, with a deep commitment to deliver results. We are determined to be the best at doing what matters most People Development: People are our most important asset. We add value through result driven training, and we encourage & reward excellence Consumer Focus: We have superior understanding of consumer needs and develop products to fulfill them better Team Work: We work together on the principle of mutual trust & transparency in a boundary-less organization. We are intellectually honest in advocating proposals, including recognizing risks Innovation: Continuous innovation in products & processes is the basis of our success Integrity: We are committed to the achievement of business success with integrity. We are honest with consumers, with business partners and with each other DABUR AT A GLANCE Dabur India Limited has marked its presence with some very significant achievements and today commands a market leadership status. Our story of success is based on dedication to nature, corporate and process hygiene, dynamic leadership and commitment to our partners and stakeholders. The results of our policies and initiatives speak for themselves.  Leading consumer goods company in India with 4th largest turnover of Rs.1163.2 Crore (FY02)  3 major strategic business units (SBU) - Family Products Division (FPD), Health Care Products Division (HCPD) and Dabur Ayurvedic Specialties (DASL)  5 Subsidiary Group companies – Dabur Foods, Dabur Nepal, Dabur Oncology, Dabur Pharma and Dabur Egypt 11
  12. 12.  13 ultra-modern manufacturing units spread across 4 countries  Products marketed in over 50 countries  Wide and deep market penetration with 47 C&F agents, more than 5000 distributors and over 1.5 million retail outlets all over India FPD, dealing with personal care, the largest SBU contributing to 45% sales of Dabur • Products related to Hair Care, Skin Care, Oral Care and Foods • 3 leading brands - Vatika, Amla Hair Oil and Lal Dant Manjan with Rs.100 crore turnover each • Vatika Hair Oil & Shampoo the high growth brand • Strategic positioning of Honey as food product, leading to market leadership (over 40%) in branded honey market HCPD, dealing with daily health care, 2nd largest SBU with 28% share in sales • Products related to Health Supplements, Digestives, Baby Care and Natural Cures • Leadership in Ayurvedic and herbal products market with highly popular brands • Dabur Chyawanprash the largest selling Ayurvedic medicine with 65% (Rs.127 crore) market share. • Charted high growth with 15% in 2001. • Dabur Chyawanprash and Hajmola account for sales of over Rs.100 crore each • Leader in herbal digestives with 90% market share • Hajmola tablets in command with 75% market share of digestive tablets category • Dabur Lal Tail tops baby massage oil market with 35% of total share DASL, dealing with classical Ayurvedic medicines • Has more than 250 products sold through prescriptions as well as over the counter • Major categories in traditional formulations include 12
  13. 13. -Asav Arishtas –Ras Rasayanas –Churnas - Medicated Oils • Proprietary Ayurvedic medicines developed by Dabur include: -Nature Care Isabgol –Madhuvaani - Trifgol Dabur's mission of popularizing a natural lifestyle transcends national boundaries. Today there is global awareness of alternative medicine, nature-based and holistic lifestyles and an interest in herbal products. Dabur has been in the forefront of popularizing this alternative way of life, marketing its products in more than 50 countries all over the world. Dabur’s products World Wide Dabur have spread itself wide and deep to be in close touch with our overseas consumers.  Offices and representatives in Europe, America and Africa;  A special herbal health care and personal care range successfully selling in markets of the Middle East, Far East and several European countries.  Inroads into European and American markets that have good potential due to resurgence of the back-to-nature movement.  Export of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), manufactured under strict international quality benchmarks, to Europe, Latin America, Africa, and other Asian countries.  Export of food and textile grade natural gums, extracted from traditional plant sources. Partnerships and Production  Strategic partnerships with leading multinational food and health care companies to introduce innovations in products and services. 13
  14. 14.  Manufacturing facilities spread across 3 overseas locations to optimize production by utilizing local resources and the most modern technology available. MAJOR PRODUCTS AT A GLANCE Health Care Personal care Foods Health Supplements Hair Care- Oil Real *Dabur Chawanprash *Amla Hair Oil *Fruit Juice *Glucose D *Amla Lite Hair Oil *Active *Honey *Vatika Hair Oil *Anmol Digestives Hair Care- Shampoos Cooking *Hajmola *Vatika Henna Conditioner *Coconut *Hajmola Candy *Vatika Anti Dandruff *Pudin Hara *Pudin Hara G Oral Care Skin Care *Gripe Water *Gulabari *Dabur Red Toothpaste *Dabur Lal Dant Manjan *Binaca Tooth Paste Baby Care *Dabur Lal Tail *Dabur Baby Olive Oil *Dabur Janma Ghuti OTC Products *Nature Care *Sat Isabgol *Shilajit *Ring Ring *Itch Care *Back Aid *Shankha Pushpi *Dabur Balm 14
  15. 15. *Sarbyna MAJOR PRODUCTS AT A GLANCE Ayurvedic Specialties Pharmaceuticals International Range *Dasmularishta Oncology Health Care *Ashokarishta *Intaxel *Dabur Chawanprash *Lauhasava *Pudin Hara *Daxotel *Kemocarb *Mahanarayan Tail *Adrim *Honey *Juritap *Hajmola Tablets *Vinelbine *Madhuvani *Thalix *Shilajit *Lavan Bhaskar Churna Oral Care *Herbal Toothpaste Hair Care *Vatika Shampoos & Conditioners *Amla Hair Oil Foods *Real Juices *Hommade Food Pastes Dr. Burman (Russia) *Health Supplements *Ayurvedic Toothpaste 15
  16. 16. 2.INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANIZATION Every company should be fully committed to the continuous development of its staff, in the same ways as we continuously develop our services. This will be achieved by helping all staff identify and meet their own job and business related development needs. This policy will ensure that we have the adaptability and flexibility to thrive and succeed as a business. To do this, all line managers, through the Performance Review process, will • Ensure that staff have a level of knowledge and skill to fully perform their role • Encourage staff to develop within their current role • Look for potential, and find ways for staff to demonstrate potential • Recognize and reward staff development (utilizing it wherever possible) • Create a learning culture by providing opportunities for learning Equal opportunities All staff are entitled to and can expect to receive training they need to carry out their current role. This includes fixed-term contract or short-term contract staff. Permanent employees can expect to benefit from further commitment for each individual to devote at least 5 days a year towards training and development. First priority will be towards job-related training, but we will also encourage individuals to undertake personal development training. This may entail taking professional qualifications; undertaking research into a particular field of interest or experiencing a particular aspect of another job in order to gain an insight into the role and fuller understanding of the work. Training should not be viewed purely as “attending a training course”. There are a variety of different methods that can be used to help train and develop individuals and 16
  17. 17. Personnel Services will be happy to help individuals and managers select the most appropriate method. For-example, using open learning materials; computer-based packages; videos or CD-ROMs; e-learning; and reading literature, to name but a few. Shared responsibilities It is recognizes the need for everyone to learn and develop their skills on a continuous basis and will support individuals to help them achieve this. Equally, the company expects individuals to take on some responsibility for their own self-development. For example, identifying suitable training activities (with the help of line managers and Personnel Services) and adopting a flexible and positive approach to any training and development that is identified with them. Identifying training & development needs Identifying training and development needs, and helping individuals to improve their performance, are key responsibilities for line managers, so they are expected to be actively involved in their team’s training and development. Line managers are also responsible for measuring the effectiveness of any training and development undertaken by team members, with assistance from Personnel Services. The skills and knowledge that will be needed for the future success of the company will become apparent as each year’s business (corporate) plan is drafted and communicated to teams within the company and individual performance objectives agreed. Where individual skills, knowledge or the development of competencies are needed to achieve our business objectives, these should be recorded on the Development Needs Assessment plan, which forms part of our Performance Review process. Setting and evaluating learning objectives/outcomes The company has a number of key business objectives that it needs to achieve. These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities and skills of everyone in the company and by releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. If individuals need to learn in order to achieve business objectives, it is important that any training and development in which we invest has a relationship to our business objectives, so we can demonstrate the contribution learning makes towards overall organizational success. 17
  18. 18. To demonstrate this contribution, individuals will agree with their line managers, prior to undertaking a learning activity, “learning objectives”. Learning objectives will be the means by which managers and company can measure how effective training and development has been towards achieving our business objectives or performance. Setting learning objectives will therefore provide a benefit for everyone: For individuals, objectives give a better understanding of what is expected of them; where priorities lie; where their contribution fits into the organization and how they are progressing. For managers, objectives provide a basis for allocating responsibility to individuals for achieving certain results; monitoring the achievement of results and providing solid evidence, which is less subjective, for assessing an individual’s performance. For the organization, objectives give a greater likelihood of strategic and corporate plans being achieved. Once someone has experienced a training and development activity or learning, we will measure its impact and effectiveness on individual performance and the organization. Again, line managers are expected to be part of this process by defining the performance standards (or measures) when setting objectives and deciding on the methods that they will use to evaluate the learning.(Personnel Services will of course be available throughout the process to provide guidance and support). There are three key stages that will be used to evaluate training and development: Reaction: At this level, evaluation provides information on the attitudes of a participant to learning, but it does not measure how much they have actually learned. That being said, if a participant has a positive reaction to the learning experience they are more likely to implement what they have learned. Evaluation at this level will be measured by a post- learning questionnaire, which will be completed immediately after the learning activity has taken place. Normally, Personnel Services will be responsible for issuing this type of questionnaire. Performance: Evaluation at this level looks at the impact of a learning experience on individual performance at work. Key to this area of evaluation will be the need to have established smart learning objectives prior to the learning experience so that when evaluation takes place there are measures to use. For example, an important learning objective for a junior secretary attending a Word training course may be “to produce typed correspondence with no spelling or typographical errors.” In this example, a manager would be able to evaluate the secretary’s performance using a measure of “no spelling or typographical errors”. Ideally, evaluation on performance should take place approximately 18
  19. 19. 3 – 4 months after the learning activity. Line managers should undertake this evaluation and send a copy of the results to Personnel Services. Organizational impact: At this level evaluation assesses the impact of learning on organizational effectiveness, and whether or not it is cost-effective in organizational terms. Personnel Services will undertake this evaluation as part of a wider training and development evaluation process. In summary then, Personnel Services will evaluate training and development at the reaction and organizational levels, and line managers will be responsible for evaluating the effectiveness of training and development at the performance level. However, there will be some types of learning activities, for example attending conferences or seminars, where it may not be appropriate to undertake any evaluation. If any doubt, please contact Personnel Services. To assist line managers, there are a variety of methods that can be used to measure the effectiveness of the learning. Some of these include: • Participant self-assessment • Written or practical tests • Structured interviews • Questionnaires • Feedback – for example, internally from colleagues, peers, and managers and/or externally from partners, customers or clients • Qualifications obtained Line managers should contact Personnel Services, who will be pleased to help set-up an evaluation method to use to measure the effectiveness of a training activity. Funding Funding for training and development will be paid from a central training budget, therefore the Head of Personnel Services must approve any training and development that involves a financial cost before any financial commitment is made. Details of how to apply for a training and development are explained under the section headed “Selecting a training provider and applying for training”. In addition to job-related training and development, company also recognises the need to help individuals to improve within their chosen career path by encouraging individuals to gain professional/vocational/academic qualifications. With this in mind, company has established a company sponsorship scheme whereby full or partial 19
  20. 20. sponsorship will be provided. Information about the scheme can be found under the section headed “Company sponsorship”. Time off to attend training courses Where an individual needs to attend a training course funded by company, time off during working hours will be given to attend the course. Individuals are expected to travel to and from a training venue within the normal course of the day. Where company is providing sponsorship towards a professional qualification, time off to attend lectures/workshops/summer school will be agreed on an individual basis, taking account of the business needs. The Head of Personnel Services will approve any such requests, in full consultation with line managers. Non-training course learning activities Typically, a training course is designed to transfer new skills or knowledge to an individual. Invariably new skills and knowledge will be developed over time to improve performance. However, not all learning has to be addressed through a training course. There is a wide range of development methods available that can be used without leaving the office. For example, being coached by a fellow colleague or manager; using a computer aided training package; on-the job training; reading books; undertaking research or practising a particular skill. Finding out about training courses or alternative learning methods Personnel Services is building up a range of literature from training suppliers and a selection of books/videos/computer discs available for individual use. To find out more, please contact Personnel Services. Selecting a training provider and applying for training Before booking a training event, individuals should research the costs and course availability with possible training providers. Personnel Services will be happy to help as they keep details of various training providers, so please contact them for information/advice. Company organised training programmes, for example Customer Service Training, Team Building training, will be co-ordinated through Personnel Services (so individuals do 20
  21. 21. not have to complete any forms). All other training and development activities must be authorised by Personnel Services before any training is booked. Company sponsorship Company recognises the need for continuous professional development and are pleased to be able to offer a sponsorship scheme to all permanent and fixed-term employees (whose contracts are for at least one year). The scheme covers professional, academic or NVQ (or equivalent) qualifications. The following guidelines are designed to give individuals an idea of the sort of funding that may be available and how individuals may apply. TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS Training is often included as an essential element of an organization’s strategy to gain a competitive advantage. Regulatory agencies require that employees be trained certain topics and personal development/career paths often specify skill and knowledge areas which must be mastered. These are the factors that influence an organization’s overall training program. With all these sometimes-divergent factors competing for resources training systems can become stressed, ineffective, inefficient and fragmented. Organizations need a structure approach when developing/improving their training system. For purposes of this discussion we will divide the training process into three phases: (1) Needs identification (2) Training Systems (courses, modules, training aids, presentation, instructors, records) (3) Evaluation PHASE ONE: Needs Identification The first phase is the identification and analysis of an organization's training needs. As a minimum, the organization should be able to accomplish the following four things: 1. Systematic review of each trade, occupation or process by a team of knowledgeable individuals 2. Conduct verbal and/or written surveys of managers, supervisors, leaders, technicians and workers 21
  22. 22. 3. Conduct a complete review of legislated training requirements 4. Review the results of Hazard Analyses, Occupational Health surveys and other survey or process analyses. Identification of training needs (ITN) Identification of training needs (ITN), if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. Also requiring careful thought and analysis, it is a process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity: people’s learning important to them, and the success or the organization may by to stake. It is important to know exactly what you are doing, and why, when undertaking ITN. This is the reason we have included material to help you make considered decision and take thoughtful action. You will find, however, that the return on the investment you make in fully understanding what ITN is all about will make it well worth while. Training Needs Identification and Analysis  Training needs identification detects and specified the training and development needs of individuals within organization and of the organization as a whole.  Training needs analysis follows on from need identification and determines the most effective and appropriate ways in which the needs might be met. If can, of course, lead to decisions that there should be no training provision in view of the limited scale of the needs, the cost of provision future development envisaged, and so on. Within the identification and analysis of these ‘need’ the actual nature of the need must be defined. A ‘need’ is not a ‘want’. Identification of an individuals needs has been a result of the question ‘what’ sort of training do you want? Effective training and development in an organization depends on the need for the improvement of human performance being identified and satisfied by the provision of appropriate development opportunities. ‘Wants’ can frequently be ‘need’, but the analyst must be certain of the value of any aspect raised and eventually provided. ITN is as important in the training process as the training itself and subsequent evaluation. ADVANTAGE OF ITN 22
  23. 23.  It pinpoints the problems  It identifies the size of the problem  It identifies the scale of the need  It indicate the type of solution  It provides training objectives DISADVANTAGE OF ITN The list of disadvantages is considerably smaller than the benefits of advantages. The only one of any significance is the need for a skilled person to be employed and consequently the use of that person’s time. This has been quoted earlier as one of the common criticisms of ITNs. If the trainer alone is responsible for conducting the analysis in addition to all the other areas of work for which they are responsible, this may be a justifiable criticism. Organization open to criticisms of over-uses and wastes of money spent on unnecessary training. So every attempt must be made to identify and analyze the needs accurately. Identification of Training needs (ITN) is the examination or diagnostic portion of the training system, the symptoms that ITN examines are often referred to as perceived performance deficiencies. A perceived performance deficiency exists when there is a difference between expected and perceived job performance. A ITN can be categorized based upon whether it is reactive or proactive. A reactive. ITN occurs when the perceived performance deficiency is a discrepancy between perceived and expected performance for the employee’s current job. A proactive ITN is conducted o respond to the perception that current job behavior reflects an inability to meet future standards or expectations. The preventive approach is designed to assure that an employee will be able to meet future expectations for his or her current job. The second is development approach. This is conducted when current job behavior leads to the perception that the individual has the potential but is not yet ready to perform at a higher level position. A proactive ITN rests on the ability of someone to predict anticipate a future problem. It may survey trainees to identity specific topics about which they want to learn more. Another HR-approach is task identification. Trainers begin by evaluating the job description to identity the salient tasks the job requires. Production records, quality control reports, grievances, safety reports, absenteeism and turnover statistics, and exit interviews of departing employees may reveal problems that should be addressed through training and development efforts. Training needs also 23
  24. 24. may become apparent from career planning discussions or performance appraisal reviews. Supervisors see employees on daily basis and thus are another source of recommendations for training. The HR department also reviews self-nominations to learn whether the training actually is needed. Self-nomination appears to be less common for training situations but more commons for development activities. A job analysis should focus on what the trainee needs to be able to do to perform the job satisfactorily. In ITN, a job analysis should take both a worker and task oriented approach. A worker oriented approach focuses on the skills, knowledge and ability to perform the job. These might include elementary notions, job demands, and the specific human behaviors involved such as division making, communication etc. a task oriented approach focuses on a description of the work activities performed. These are typically expressed in terminology used by job incumbents an would involve a description of how, why, and/of when a worker performs an activities preferred to as a job description. Assumption about the organisation: The organisation has objectives that it wants to achieve for the benefit of all stakeholders or members, including owners, employees, customers, suppliers, and neighbours. These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities of its people, releasing potential and maximising opportunities for development. Assumption about people: 1. People have aspirations, they want to develop and to learn new abilities and use them. 2. In order to learn and use new abilities, people need appropriate opportunities, resources, and conditions. 3. Therefore, to meet people aspirations, the organisation must provide effective and attractive learning resources and conditions. 4. There needs therefore to be a match between achieving organisational goals and providing attractive learning opportunities. If our aim is to ensure that learning opportunities match closely the aims and goals of the organisation, than an effective ITN process enables us to do this. It will then be possible to achieve our other training objectives, see: • To make learning opportunities effective and attractive. This is what training design and delivery and implementation are about • To keep a constant check on how far this match is being effectively continued. This is what training needs evaluation is about. 24
  25. 25. • To keep a constant check on how far this match is being effectively continued. This is what training evaluation is about. We need good ITN processes in order to provide then learning opportunities required achieving the goals of the organisations. The sequence of thinking can be for example: • In order to achieve our objectives we need our people to question the way we do things. • Therefore our people need to learn to question the way we things. The training need was about learning to question the way we do things. The solution was not direct training in questioning, but a subtler longer-term process of encouraging employees to take an active involvement in their own development, thus increasing their commitment to learning, to their work, and to the organization as a whole. It will useful to consider how the concepts of training need and ITN have evolved over recent decades. Level of performance and need We find it helpful to consider performance (whether of people, systems, processes, teams, or the organisation as a whole) at three different levels. This means that the need arising from these levels of performance, and hence levels of need are: Level 1 Implementing (I1) doing things well Level 2 Improving (I2) doing things betters Level 3 Innovating (I3) doing new and better things Level 1 Implementing level needs arise where the main problem is the gap between desired and actual performance. In other words, this is where people need to learn how to do the job well – as defined by current standards. It is about learning to satisfy basic requirements and needs, in order to bring performance up to standard and maintain in there. Level 2 Obviously, level 1 need is, in a way, about improving individual or group performance that is currently lagging behind. However, when we refer to needs at level 2, we are talking about improving the performance of everybody • Of the organization as a whole – by raising current standards. This is where continuous improvement comes in 25
  26. 26. • Where we look at what we as an organization are doing and make systematic, organization-wide improvements so as to do it better, more efficiently and economically. Level 3 This represents a still further level of improvement – making a step-change rather than one that is continuous or incremental. This can be done only by a through review of all our processes and of how they are interrelated, based on a review of our purpose – why we do what we do. What are we trying to achieve? It must be stressed that these level are additive, i.e. • To make successful to improvements we need to learn at level and then implement (level) the improvements. • To be successful in innovation we need to learn at level and than implement (level) the new methods and continuously improve (level) than. This is shown in the Figure 1. Fig.1 The additive nature of the three level of performance 1 : Implementing • Adhering (1) – learning to carry out basic tasks correctly. This is done by sticking closely to the rules laid down for doing the job and following precisely the set procedures. • Adapting (2)– when we may need to bend the rules slightly and make adjustment to procedures in order to make things work better. There may be minor changes in work circumstances as the job is being carried out. • Relating (3) – involves learning to understanding why things have been set up the way they have and why procedures work as they do – as well as appreciating what needs to be done. Adhering, adapting and relating are the focused of most basic instruction and training, whether designed for newcomers to the work or to “get people up to scratch” if their individual performance has failed to match the standard required, or if for some other reason they are lagging behind. 26 I1 Implementing I2 Improving I3 Innovating
  27. 27. I2 : Improving For Improving performance, where our aim is “to do things better”, different types of learning are needed. This level requires (1), (2), (2) an ability to act more independently, to take initiatives and to make your own meaning and sense out of what is going on. So we are concerned with the following modes. • Experiencing (4), i.e. being able to reflect on experiences and make our own meaning from them. • Experimenting (5), i.e. learning to design and carry out systematic processes, in the form of experiments, in order consciously to discover more about the job and the work, normally in the terms of particular target areas deemed in need of improving. If people are encouraged to learn in these way (i.e. (4), (5)) considerable improvements can be made and performance enhanced. I3 : Innovating Performance at this level requires two sets of learning in addition to modes 1 to 5. here we are concerned with doing “new and better things”, and therefore learning has to concentrate on a more sophisticated and complex set of factors. • Connecting (6), i.e. making connection between things, events, and people, and allowing integration and synergy to be achieved. We thus learn to work better with others, and particularly with people from different disciplines, who may have different perspectives and assumption, all of which need accommodating. • Dedicating (7), where we learn to work out of a sense of purpose – why we are doing something, and why we are doing something, and why we are doing it at a certain time and in a particular way. This should mean that we develop a clear sense of “what is in it” not just for ourselves, but for our colleagues, the organization as a whole, and the wider community. Organizational, group, and individual needs As well as the three levels of need - implementing, improving, and innovating (I1, I2 and I3) - there are also three areas of need: organisational, group, and individual. Because we shall be devoting, specific chapters to each of these, at this point we shall give only a quick overview of them. Organizational needs These concern the performance of the organisation as a whole. Information about this overall performance may identify areas of need either for training or other interventions. 27
  28. 28. I1: implementing level Here ITN is about finding out whether the organisation is meeting its current performance standards and objectives, and, if not, exploring ways in which training or learning might help it to do so. I2: improving level Organisational needs arise at this level we want not just to meet current objectives but, for various reasons, to raise their level. I3 : innovating level These needs occur when the organisation decides that it has to adopt a major new strategy, create a new product or service, undergo a large-scale change programme, or develop significant new relationships, such as joining with others to form new partnerships. The reason that so many major change programmes fail (over 75 per cent, according to various research studies) is that they do not recognise the need to take a holistic view of all the systems - technical, human, financial, and marketing - and they do not involve a wide range of stakeholders in designing and implementing the change. Group needs These concern the performance of a particular group, which may be a team, department, function, sub-unit, or so on. Information about this group′s performance may identify areas of need - which, again, may be for training or other interventions. I1: implementing level In this case ITN is about finding out how efficiently a particular team or group goes about its business and meets its current objectives. I2: improving level This level is where many continuous improvement projects are to be found, because these are usually carried out by teams. The team is able to identify improvement areas and also works together effectively to carry out many process and systems improvements. I3 : innovating level By working effectively with other teams across boundaries, major changes can be brought about, better relationships and communications be established, and new ways of working together be formed. Individual needs These concern the performance of one or more individuals (as individuals, rather than as members of a group). Again this information may identify specific needs. I1: Implementing level Here ITN is about finding out to what extent individuals need to learn or be trained 28
  29. 29. • to bring their current performance up to the required level • as a result of changes in methods and processes that call for new competencies and skills. I2: Improving level Here ITN is about looking at the extent to which individuals need to learn or be trained in systematic, continuous improvement skills and how to take initiatives. I3 : Innovating level Finally, this is where we find out whether individuals need to learn how to think holistically, work across boundaries, examine their assumptions, or work with people from different backgrounds and with different perspectives. In Table 1 individual, group, and organisational learning needs are brought together at each of the three levels of performance, showing the wide range of what we may need to consider when carrying out a thorough training-needs analysis. STUDY OF NEEDS OF TRAINING In Dabur India Ltd., Sahibabad across training is customized product wise. If any defect comes in a product or process, a training session is initiated to eradicate root cause. There are normally two work stations in production, 1. Critical station 2. Normal station At critical work station an efficient worker should produce 5000 to 6000 units in one shift. At this work station minor job is done. At normal work station an efficient worker should be produce 8000 to 10000 units in one shift in normal circumstances. In this company there are two types of worker are working. 1. Permanent worker 2. Temporary worker A worker get the permanent job after the good and consistent performance in the company, these people are well experienced in their relative jobs. Temporary worker is a layman. They don’t know any thing about the work, so these types of people require training. When a new person joins the company, he got the training about the safety and maintenance. For getting these training he is send in technical training cell (TTC). In TTC he has to go some basic knowledge and instruction, which is given by the just senior boss. 29
  30. 30. That person is called line in charge. During the training a person gets the job. He is watched by the line in charge. At any point the line in charged found any fault in the work, the line in charge instructed at that time, so that the worker does the job in a proper way and come out with zero-defect product. There are several types of operations in the production, • Ink filling • Stopper • Point tipping • Capping • Packing After the TTC training employees are divided among various teams and send to the different operations, on the different operations. A line-in charge is there, who will watch each and every steps during the work. If any fault in the work is found, he takes that serious and instructs to remove the fault immediately. After some experience the worker is transferred from one operation to another operation area. Where same procedure is performed. He works and if get any confusion regarding the job, he may ask the line in charge or if line in charge see any fault during the operation, he educates the worker to do the job better. This process is repeated on each and every operation. This is how each and every employee is familiarized to the job . The main advantage of this job rotation is, if any worker does not come on the particular day, that place can be filled by any other worker and the works progress without any interruption. After job rotation and getting experienced the entire worker divided into three groups, • Highly efficient • Efficient • Adequate If a person can handle all the machines related to any particular job. That worker is called highly efficient worker. After getting training 40% out of them became as highly efficient worker. These workers are very efficient and can handle any situation during the work. He can work on any machine at any time without any problem. These people can take decision at the critical point of time. So that these type of worker are called highly efficient worker. After highly efficient the second category is called ‘efficient’. In this category those type of person are master in their job. He is master in one job. In this category 50% worker 30
  31. 31. comes. These types of people are well known people in their particular job. They are not able to handle the different machines. They feel problem in some job. After that the third category comes, that is called adequate. This type is not beneficial for the company. So that they are not acceptable. They have less knowledge and not will to work. Highly efficient person is well-known about their job. He can handle any situation. So that this type of people doesn’t require training. Efficient people are master of just on job. So that they need training to be highly efficient worker. Company is giving training to the efficient worker. For them there are three types of training; • Counseling • Give the opportunity to work with highly efficient worker. • Give the expert knowledge about the work. In counseling the instructor or line in charge counsel the worker. A line in charge tries to motivate the worker to do their job in proper way. This is a verbal communication. With the help of words a senior person tries to make them as effective as highly efficient worker. The second option “provide them opportunity to work with highly efficient people” helps those people to learn. During the work he can watch how the highly efficient people work? How can they handle the situation? They got the idea about the problem, which may be arising during the work. They also get the idea about dealing those types of problems. This way an efficient worker is developed to be highly efficient worker. Before start working every worker should get the knowledge about the job profile. Without proper knowledge no one can perform better. There must be some defective in the product due to less knowledge about the production process. So specific knowledge is essential for zero-defect product. This is the duty of management to educate them and provide full knowledge about the production process and quality control. For adequate people company has some other way for giving them training. The work pressure is the best way for make them work. Under this the adequate person is send to work between two highly efficient workers. Highly efficient people can work faster than adequate person. So from both sides he faces the pressure for work faster and effectively. This way an adequate worker can be the efficient and highly efficient worker for company. In any company some factor effect the training: • Strategies changes 31
  32. 32. • Technical changes • Matter of cost saving If the top management of the company want to change their strategies. Here company wants trained people for work. So firstly company looked for the experienced people, but it is very difficult to get trained people. So they hired semi- skilled people and after joining them they give them training. So that this can work effectively and according to the requirement of the company. If company wants some technical change in product, they also require trained people for work. Technical change requires more technical people. If company wants to retain the same people who are working form last some times then company has to give them training. After getting training a worker can adjust in any environment and work effectively. Today’s era is the cost cutting era. In the intensive competition cost of the product is very important. We can’t survive in the market with high cost. So we need to cut the cost of the product. For cutting the cost we need more trained worker who can work faster and quickly. So that the production time can be reduced. At lastly we can get the low price product. So that in every area we need trained people. For getting trained people we have to make them trained by giving training. Supervisory training: Supervisory training needs reveal utmost divergence in view of divergent duties of supervisors. Employee attitude surveys help in identifying area of supervisory training. Likewise, supervisors themselves may be requested to indicate the areas where they need training. Frequently, these surveys indicate that supervisors need training in human relations, production control, company policies and how to instruct. Supervisory courses consist of job methods training (JMT) and job relations training (JRT). The JMT helps the supervisors to improve methods in their departments, while the JRT helps them in handling human relations problems in their departments. ON THE JOB TRAINING: On the Job techniques are conducted in the real job settings. On the job methods usually involve training in the total job. These methods are typically conducted by individuals, workers, supervisors. The main advantage is that the trainees learn while actually performing their work, which may minimize the training cost. They also learn in the 32
  33. 33. same physical and social environment in which they will be working once the formal training period is completed. Types of on the job techniques:  Job instruction training  Job rotation  Apprenticeship  Coaching  Vestibule training Job instruction training: Job instruction training (JIT) is received directly on the job and so it is called “on the job training” it is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. The worker learns to master the operation involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his immediate boss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting the training. Usually no special equipment or space is needed, since now employees are trained at the actual job location. Steps of job instruction training:  The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes with an emphasis on the relevance of the training. Since the employee is shown the action that the job requires, the training is transferable to the job.  The employee is allowed to mimic the trainer’s example. Demonstration by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the job is mastered. Repeated demonstrations and practice provide repetition and feedback. Finally the employee performs the job without supervision, although the trainer may visit the employee to see if there are any lingering questions. Advantages:  Easy organized  Realistic  Stimulates high motivation  Speeds up worker’s adjustment  Less costly 33
  34. 34. Disadvantages: The disadvantage of this method is that the assigned instructor may be a poor teacher. The worker may haste for immediate production, so the actual cost may increase. JOB ROTATION: Some trainers move a trainee from job to job. Each worker move normally is preceded by job instruction training. This is a method of training wherein workers rotate through a variety of jobs. Thereby providing them a wide exposure. Trainees are placed in different jobs in different parts of the organization for a specified period of time. They may spend several days or even years in different company locations. In this way they get an overall perspective of the organization. It is used with both blue-collar production workers and white collar managers and it has many organizational benefits. Job rotation creates flexibility, during manpower shortages, workers have the skills to step in and fill open slots. The method also provides new and different work on a systematic basis, giving employees a variety of experiences and challenges. Employees also increase their flexibility and marketability because they can perform a wide array of tasks. Apprenticeship: An apprentice is a worker who is learning a trade but who has not reached the state where he is competent to work without supervision. It is particularly common in the skilled trades. In organization a new worker is “tutored” by an established worker for a long period of time. An apprenticeship lasts from two to five years. Each apprentice is usually given a workbook consisting of reading materials, tests to be taken and practice problem to be solved. This training is used in such trades, crafts and technical fields in which proficiency can be acquired after a relatively long period of time in direct association with the work and under the direct supervision of experts. Training is intense, lengthy and usually on a one to one basis. Increasing national attention is being paid to workforce preparation in the United States. This stems from the growing realization that America's ability to occupy a leading competitive position in the emerging global economy hinges, to a large degree, on assuring that the nation's workforce is second to none. Today, unfortunately, this is not the case. Employers frequently report that significant numbers of young people and adults alike exhibit serious educational deficiencies and are ill-equipped to perform effectively in the workplace. As a consequence, leaders from industry, labor, education, and government are 34
  35. 35. all grappling with how to design educational reforms and education/training strategies that will improve the skills of America's current and future workforce. In the spirit of this reform, one particular training strategy -- apprenticeship -- has captured the interest of many policy makers, educators, and others who are involved in the national reform movement. Its growing appeal comes as no surprise and, perhaps, is long overdue. Experience both in the U.S. and growing abroad has repeatedly demonstrated that apprenticeship is a highly effective strategy for preparing people for work. The bulk of apprenticeship programs offered in the U.S. and its territories are in the building trades and manufacturing industries, but there is significant potential to develop apprenticeship programs in a variety of other industries. The rush to embrace apprenticeship, however, is leading to efforts that could undermine the very pillars of its value. For example, in some instances, apprenticeship is being viewed as a generic concept -- one that can be loosely applied to a variety of learning situations. Likewise, others have coined such terms as "youth apprenticeship" to characterize various school-to-work transition programs. Such thinking, while understandable in an environment that begs for creativity and innovation, may be more harmful than helpful to the cause. What Apprenticeship Is: The Essential Components 1. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that a) combines supervised, structured on-the-job training with related theoretical instruction and b) is sponsored by employers or labor. Management groups that have the ability to hire and train in a work environment. 2. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that prepares people for skilled employment by conducting a training in a bona fide and documented employment settings. The content of training, both on-the-job and related instruction, is defined and dictated by the needs of the industry, which refers to all types of business/workplace settings. The length of training is determined by the needs of the specific occupation within an industry. In the building trades, for example, some apprenticeship programs are as long as five years with up to 240 hours of related instruction per year. 3. Apprenticeship is a training strategy with requirements that are clearly delineated in Federal and State laws and regulations. The National Apprenticeship Act of 1937 (also known as the Fitzgerald Act) and numerous State laws provide the basis 35
  36. 36. for the operation of formal apprenticeship training programs in the U.S.; regulations that implement these laws are in force today. These laws and regulations establish minimum requirements for protecting the welfare of the apprentice such as the length of training, the type and amount of related instruction, supervision of the apprentice, appropriate ratios of apprentices to journeypersons, apprentice selection and recruitment procedures, wage progression, safety, etc. 4. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that by virtue of a legal contract (indenture) leads to a Certificate of Completion and official journeyperson status. These credentials have explicit meaning, recognition and respect in the eyes of Federal and State governments and relevant industries. 5. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that involves tangible and generally sizable investment on the part of the employer or labor/management program sponsor. 6. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that pays wages to its participants at least during the on-the-job training phase of their apprenticeship and that increases these wages throughout the training program in accordance with a predefined wage progression scale. 7. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that involves a written agreement and an implicit social obligation between the program sponsor and the apprentice. The written agreement, which is signed by both the apprentice and the program sponsor and is ratified by government, details the roles and responsibilities of each party. The implicit social obligation gives employers or program sponsors the right to expect to employ the apprentice upon completion of training given the investment in training and gives the apprentice a reasonable right to expect such employment. Labor market conditions should guide the size of training programs to enable each party to maintain his or her side of the obligation. What Apprenticeship Is Not Unless they conform to the essential components described previously, apprenticeship is no cooperative education, vocational education, tech prep, two plus two (three or four), summer or part-time work experiences or any other myriad training strategies that many are promoting as ways to assure adequate workforce preparation. Such strategies undoubtedly have value in their own right, but they are not apprenticeship. What distinguishes apprenticeship from most of these other approaches are such 36
  37. 37. fundamental qualities as training program sponsorship and location, the skills required, the value attached to the credential earned, curricula content that is defined exclusively by the workplace, wage requirements, the written agreement, and the implicit social contract that exists between program sponsors and their participants. No other training strategy provides for this unique combination of characteristics. When a person completes a registered apprenticeship program, he or she is prepared to go to work as a fully trained, competent journeyperson whose skills enable him or her to perform effectively in the workplace. Few, if any, other types of educational programs can make this claim. A Policy Recommendation As the education and training system in this country undergoes its restructuring, how apprenticeship fits in must be considered. Some may argue that the definition of apprenticeship should be boarded to encompass some or all of the previously described alternative training strategies. Unfortunately, this could have the practical effect of seriously undermining a tried and true training strategy -- on that, ironically, exhibits all ten qualities that reformers are striving to achieve in new training designs. Of particular concern is the possibility that an expanded definition could significantly dilute the value and meaning attached to the apprenticeship credential. Today, an apprentice who earns a Certificate of Completion and attains journey worker status from a registered apprenticeship program knows that he or she has acquired industry-defined skills at industry-accepted standards of performance and can reasonably expect to be gainfully employed in his or her occupational area. If alternative training strategies (ones that do not fully conform to the essential components) are also permitted to call themselves "apprenticeship," the apprenticeship credential stands to become devalued. Such a step makes little sense at a time when other credentials -- such as high school diplomas -- have lost much of their meaning. Thus, we conclude that their term "apprenticeship" should be reserved only for those programs that adhere to the eight essential components described previously. Other strategies may seek to adopt designs that conform to all the essential components, in which case they may be called apprenticeship. But to call any other types of programs "apprenticeship" is to do a major disservice to the participants in such programs. Whether intentional or not, the participants may be misled into thinking that completion of these programs will allow them to reap the benefits accorded to graduates of true apprenticeship programs. Clearly, we are on the verge of a major revolution with respect to how America prepares its workforce. As a new national training system emerges in the coming years, 37
  38. 38. considerable thought should be given to the role of true apprenticeship in that new system. One on hand, apprenticeship could be the locomotive that drives this training system. Under this scenario, apprenticeship programs would serve as the principal form of training for preparing the majority of the nation's workforce. Alternatively, apprenticeship may become one of several cars on a train that provides a variety of training options to existing and future workers. This choice requires further study and broader deliberation, but, whatever the outcome, the integrity of the term "apprenticeship" should not be jeopardized or compromised. Coaching: At management levels Coaching of immediate subordinates by their managers is common. A coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy it tends to be less formal than an apprenticeship program. Coaching is almost always handled by the supervisor or manager. It is likely not to be as directive approaches such as nondirective counseling or sensitivity training. If the trainee’s shortcomings are emotional or personal. Coaching will be ineffective if relations between trainee and coach are ambiguous in that the trainee cannot trust the coach. Coaching thrives in a “climate of confidence”, a climate in which subordinates respect the integrity and capability of their superiors. Vestibule training: Vestibule training is a type of instruction often found in production work. A vestibule consists of training equipment that is set up a short distance from the actual production line. Trainees can practice in the vestibule without getting in the way or slowing down the production line. These special training areas are usually used for skilled and semiskilled jobs, particularly those involving technical equipment. Vestibule is small, so relatively few people can be trained at the same time. The method is good for promoting practice a learning principle involving the repetition of behavior. OFF-THE JOB TRAINING: Off the job method are those training and development programs that take place away from the daily pressures of the job and conducted by highly competent outside resource people who often serve as trainers, which is one of the main advantages of this method. The major drawback of this is the transfer problem. Types of off the job training: 38
  39. 39. Lectures consist of meeting in which one small number of those present actually plays an active part. The lecture method is a popular form of instruction in educational institution. The lecturer may be a member of the company or a guest speaker. Before preparing the lecture some points should be considered. • Who is your audience? • What is your audience? • What is the time available? • What is the subject mater? The lecture should be brief and to the point, presenting the theme of the subject in a manner that arouses the interest of the audience from the start. The speaker should be poised, courteous and sincere. The action should be spontaneous. The role of a lecturer is make difficult things simple, not the reverse. Simulation Simulation is an approach that replicates certain essential characteristics of the real world organization so that the trainees can react to it as if it were the real thing and then consequently transfer what has been learned to their job. Simulation training is based on a reproduction of some aspect of job reality. Simulation usually enhance cognitive skills, particularly decision making. A very popular training technique for higher level Jobs in which the employee must process large amounts of information. Simulations have many forms- some use expensive, technical equipment, while others are far less costly. Some simulations need only one participant, others may involve as many as 15-20 people working together as a team. Simulations are a broad based training techniques that can be adapted to suit a company’s need. By using the equipment simulators, workers can practice new behaviors and operate certain complex equipment’s free of danger to themselves. Equipment simulators can range from simple mock-ups to computer based simulations of complete environments. Some of them are utilized to train a single individual and the others are used for team training. Programmed instruction is a training approach which makes the advantages of private tutoring available to large groups of students beings trained in new skills. Programmed instruction is one of the innovations in teaching technology developed in recent years. The methods involves an actual piece of equipment, usually called Teaching machine, of a specially constructed paper booklet. 39
  40. 40.  The participants are active in the training process. In fact they determine their own learning pace.  What is to be learned involves many discrete pieces of material, and the participants get immediate feedback on whether they have learned each piece. The major advantage of programmed instruction is that is reduces the training time. The learning takes place at the students own pace. Participants get immediate feedback. The participants are active learners, there is constant exchange of information between themselves and the programme. Fast learners do not have to wait for slow ones to catch up. Administrative simplicity and increased productivity in training result in lower training cost per student. The biggest disadvantage of this method is the absence of a teacher. The book becomes the teacher. Hence it is absolutely essential that the trainee is highly motivated to continue learning. The material has to be broken down into a logical sequence, since there may be several correct ways to perform the task. This methods does not appear to improve training performance in terms of immediate learning of retention over a time compares with conventional methods. Computer Assisted instruction It is one of the newest developments in instructional methodology. It is a logical extension of programmed instruction and shares many of its benefits. C. A. I. Has the advantage of individual pace instruction and a considerably wider range of application. It requires less time to teach the same amount of information than any conventional method. Trainees also react favorably to this method. The computer is capable of assessing the progress of the trainee and can also adapt to his/her need by virtue of its storage and memory capacities. This method offers advantages of standard presentation of materials to all trainees standard, structured practices, and instant, specific feed back. The major drawback to C. A. I. For most organizations probably is the initial expense. Syndicate Method Working in small group to achieve a particular purpose is described as a syndicate method. The essence of this method is that participants learn from each other and contribute their own experience to the fullest. The syndicate method is designed to provide the participant an environment that would help him to reflect critically on his own work and experience; to update his knowledge of new concepts and techniques with the help of other 40
  41. 41. co-participants; to develop sound judgement through greater insight into human behavior. This method is suitable for training and development students, without any experience. The participants are divided into groups consisting of about eight to ten participants. These groups are called “syndicates”. Each syndicate functions as a team that can represent various functional as well as interest areas. The syndicates are given assignments which have to be finished and a report submitted by a specified date and time. By rotation each member of the syndicate becomes the leader for completing a specific task. Each assignment to a syndicate is given in the form of a “Brief”. This is a carefully prepared document by the faculty. Generally, each syndicate is required to submit a report which is circulated to other syndicates for critical evaluation. The advantages of this method is that it secures a very high level of involvement from the participants. Their own experience is the starting point in this method. It is a process of self business and development for participants. This method also gives the participant a practice in communicating with his colleagues and understanding them. If the syndicate is not structured properly, it should lead to a lot of wastage of time and cause frustration. In the absence of proper pressure on the participants by trainers or participants themselves, some participants might start dragging their feet. Differences of opinion or viewpoint may be ignored to avoid action. Behavior Modeling According to social learning theory, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling. When social learning theory is applied in industrial training programmes, it is commonly referred to as “behavior modeling”. Used behavior modelling to improve the interpersonal and communication skills of supervisors in dealing with their employees. The topic was first introduction by the trainers after which a film was shown to the trainees which depicted a supervisor model effectively handing a situation, followed by a set of three to six learning parts that were shown in the film immediately before and after the model was presented. A group discussion is them held in which the effectiveness of the method is discussed. After this, the practice session starts in which one of the trainee assumes the role of an employee. And then, feedback from the training class is given on the effectiveness of each trainee in demonstrating the desired behavior. At the end of each training session, the trainees are given copies of the learning points and are asked to try and apply them to their jobs during the following week. It has been found that this programme has had desirable effects on learning, behavior and performance criteria. 41
  42. 42. There creation of the behavior may be videotaped so that the trainer and the trainee can review and critique it. When watching the ideal behavior, the trainee also gets to see the negative consequences that befall someone who does not use it as recommended. By observing the positive and negative consequences, the employee receives vicarious reinforcement that encourages the correct behavior. Counselling: It helps the trainees to observe their weaknessed and involves measures to overcome them. It is related to periodic appraisals of ratings. Specifically counselling purports to help the subordinates to do a better job, provides a clear picture of how they are doing, build strong personal relationships and eliminate, of at least minimize anxiety. Understudies System: In this the trainees work directly with individuals whom they are likely to replace. However,it is disappointing as a training because of a likelihood of an imitation of weak as well as strong points of the seniors. Special Project Arrangements; These are likely to be highly effective training systems. In these systems, a task force is built representing varied functions in the company. The special project enable the trainees to achieve knowledge of the subject assigned as well as to learn how to deal with others having varied viewpoints. Some their training methods: Telephone Training Sessions are for individuals or small groups (up to five people). During a Telephone Training Session we will evaluate your specific needs, tailor a session to your needs and provide you with more advanced tips. Register for a session that is convenient for you. Once you schedule a session we will contact you on the date and time specified to complete the training. Distance Learning Sessions are reserved for groups of more than five people up to 18 people. Each session utilized both presentation and live demonstrations. Sessions last approximately 45 minutes to an hour. EVALUATION OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Evaluation means the assessment of value or worth. Evaluation of training is the act of judging whether or not it is worthwhile in terms of set criteria. Evaluation of training and 42
  43. 43. development programmes provides assessment of various methods and techniques, sells training to management, identities the weaknesses of training programmes and helps to accomplish the closest possible correlation between the training and the job. A comprehensive and effective evaluation plan is a critical component of any successful training programmes. It should be structured to generate information of the impact of training on the reactions; on the amount of learning that has taken place; on the trainees’ behaviour; and its contribution to the job/ organization. Therefore, evaluation is a measure of how well training has met the needs of its human resources. To verify programme’s success, HR managers increasingly demand that training and development activities be evaluated systematically. A lack of evaluation may be the most serious flaw in most training and development efforts. There are many reasons for this neglecting activity; firstly, many training directors do not have the proper skills to conduct a rigorous evaluation research. Secondly, some managers are just reluctant to evaluate something which they have already convinced themselves is worthwhile. Thirdly, some of the organizations are involved in training not because it is necessary but simply because their competitors are doing it or the unions are demanding it. Fourthly, as training itself is very expensive, the organizations do not want to spend even a penny on the evaluation. Fifthly, some of the training programmes are very difficult to evaluate because the behaviour taught is itself very complex and ambiguous. 43
  44. 44. 3.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1TITLE OF MY PROJECT: study of training & development at dabur India ltd. In Dabur India Ltd., Alwar. Need based system of importing training is followed. Training is based on the frequency of defects found during the production. Job supervisor is vigilantly watching each and every product. If he find any defect in the product, he instructs the worker to do right way. If no. of worker are doing same mistake, than all of them are taken in a group and provided training spontaneously & the process in reurded. This way only defective based training is provided by the company. 3.2DURATION OF THE PROJECT: My training in Dabur India Ltd. was from 15th may to 30th june 2011 . They were approximately for working days. 3.3 OBJECTIVE The objective of the project is to “study training and development in company.” As we know that training is an important factor for growing because growth is lifeline for the company. The main motto of this project was to know, how company conducts training program. What are the basic requirements during this process? How does the company come to know that some body needs training? After providing them training analysis is required. Analysis makes the management aware of the workers or staffs whosoever had gone through the training. Development is the main objective of any training. If there is no any development, the objective of training is not achieved. So for achieving the objective, development is very much required. The way of analyzing of the training should be carefully developed. Because a good analysis reflects the true figure of the development of trainees. How the company analyses the training is a subject to be learnt. So the ultimate goal of this project is to study the way of providing training as well as the way of measure the development of trainees in Dabur India Ltd. 44
  45. 45. 3.4.TYPES OF RESEARCH: 1. Observation Method 2. Survey Method 3. Questionnaire method 3.5SAMPLE SIZE AND METHOD OF SELECTING SAMPLE Sample unit: 1) working people (including men & women) & housewife 2) college students 3) school students 4) senior citizens 5) Retailer Sample size: 20 1. working people & housewife: 30% 2. college students: 25% 3. school students: 20% 4. senior citizens: 10% 5. Retailer :10% Sampling techniques: Judgmental sampling techniques used. Sampling region: Sampling region will be HAPUR of Uttar Pradesh. Data collection method: 1. Primary data: It will be collected with the help of a self administered questionnaire. 2. Secondary data: it will be collected with the help of books, research papers, magazines, news papers, journals, internet, etc. Research instruments: 45
  46. 46. Questionnaire design: As the questionnaire is self administrated one, the survey will be simple and user friendly. Words used in questionnaire will be readily understandable to all respondent. Also technical jargons will be avoided to ensure that there is no confusion for respondents. 3.6SCOPE OF STUDY: As learning is a human activity and is as natural, as breathing. Despite of the fact that learning is all pervasive in our lives, psychologists do not agree on how learning takes place. How individuals learn is a matter of interest to marketers. They want to teach consumers in their roles as their roles as consumers. They want consumers to learn about their products, product attributes, potential consumers benefit, how to use, maintain or even dispose of the product and new ways of behaving that will satisfy not only the consumer’s needs, but the marketer’s objectives. The scope of my study restricts itself to the analysis of consumer preferences, perception and consumption of Dabur . There are many other brands of available but my study is limited to two major players of leaving behind the others. The scope of my study is also restricts itself to Alwar region only. 3.7LIMITATIONS Training is a costly affair for the management. It needs a handsome amount and long time. So management has to play safe game for the benefits of the company as well as the workers. One wrong decision may enforce the company to fall into deep troubles. So selecting the weak areas of staffs and workers should be done very carefully. For that the management should be conduct a test. For providing an effective training, company requires a knowledgeable trainer. Selecting a particular trainer is again a difficult job. Trainer demands handsome money. Training needs time and cost both. To conclude, it is very clear that training should be provided but not at the loss of the company. It is very costly and time taking affair. But it is most important for the development of the company. So management can’t avoid it at any cost. 46
  47. 47. 4.FACTS ANDFINDINGS The findings are as follows: 1. It was observed that few years back Dabur was present in many hotels like Trident Hilton, Hotel Neelam, Holiday Inn etc. but was discontinued because of improper service provided by the distributor. 2. Credit pay period of many hotels range from 30-45 days where as the distributors maximum credit days are 15 days, this makes the distributors reluctant in supplying to these hotels. 3. The hotels have a policy to withdraw the from the mini bars before one month of expiry {Rajputana Sheraton}, while the company generally takes it back after expiry. 4. Dabur products are available in the market below NCD rates. 5. Half kilo. Slab of covering is inconvenient for use as said in bakeries. 6. Most of the canteens of cinema halls are on lease and 40%of the sale has to be given to the owner. So it leaves a very less margin for the canteen owners. 7. Visi coolers were present were average monthly sale was below Rs. 1500 where as outlets with more potential are lacking Visi coolers. for ex. Hotels like Maya 47
  48. 48. intercontinental and Umaid bhawan asked for visi coolers to place in antique product shop and reception counter respectively. 5. DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION Analysis of responses of staffs Dabur basically provides three types of training to its staffs. These training programs are: i. Skill Enhancement ii. Personality enhancement iii. IT Related 40% 40% 20% IT Related Personality enhancement Skill Enhancement Out of the 20 staffs only 8 underwent the IT related training program. 8 got the training in personality enhancement. And 14 got skill enhancement training. It exhibits that most of 48
  49. 49. them had all the three training program, skill enhancement, personality development and IT related. 65% 35% Before the Training After the Training In the analysis of the training program, the next question was, “when the study material should be provided either before the training or after. Out of 20, 15 trainees opt that study material should be given before the training. And just 5 want the study material to be provided after the training. 50%50% Test Should Be Test Should not be Before any training program should there be any test for the purpose of selection of the trainees. Regarding this out of 20, 10 trainee’s replies in the favour of the test and 10 were against any such test. There is a no difference between both the views. So it is difficult to choose any one. In my opinion, before selecting a trainee there must be a test conducted by the trainer. It will help him to identify better trainees. 49
  50. 50. 10% 15% 55% 20% Poor Fair Average Good The competence of the training program well defined has been assessed on the basis of certain qualities. 5% 25% 70% Fair Average Good On the aspect of gaining of new ideas in the training program, most of them found that, they got new ideas. The no. of staffs that had this type of thought is 15. Out of 20, 15 trainees think that new ideas gaining through the program was average. Just one person thought that, he get poor idea in the training program. Self Development 50
  51. 51. 5% 30% 15% 45% 5% Poor Fair Average Good Outstanding Out of 20%, I thinks that training is poor, 6 thinks training is fair, for 3 training is average, for a training is good and for 1 training is outstanding. Relevant to the current job: 50%50% Not Much Relevant Very Much Relevant The entire training program should be relevant to the job of worker or staffs. In search of this idea in the training program, it was found that out of 20 trainees 10 thinks, that while training program what-ever they got was relevant the current job. Rest 10 thinks that the program is not related of current job. This will be very helpful in the future to perform their job in a better way. Efficient use of time: 51
  52. 52. 5% 25% 20% 40% 15% Poor Fair Average Good Outstanding Efficient use of time in the training program is very much important for every worker or staff, because every one wants to use his/her time efficiently. Maintaining the interest: 20% 25% 40% 15% Fair Average Good Outstanding Maintaining the interest of participants is essential for the success of any program. It was found that no one says that he didn’t have any interest in the training program. Out of 20, 7 trainees say that in the program their interest was good. Rest 13 says that, their interest in training program was normal and they are benefited more. Clarity: 52
  53. 53. 15% 10% 30% 55% Poor Fair Average Good In any program, clarity is an important factor, without it we can’t assume the success of any such program. The clarity of materials and lectures are very important in making the program a successful event. 11, out of 20 trainees say that the program is very good on clarity. Rest 9 says that the training program was average. The training program has mainly been areas rated on three parameters. i. Skill Enhancement ii. Personality Enhancement iii. IT Related All the trainees have rated the training program differently on the basis of all the three parameters. Skill Enhancement: 53
  54. 54. 15% 25% 55% 5% Poor Fair Good Excellent According to the development of skills out of 20 trainees 11 have experienced good and 14 have experienced average (poor, fair, excellent). Personality Enhancement: 5% 25% 60% 10% Poor Fair Good Excellent On the basis of personality enhancement 12, out of 20 trainees rated this training program good and rest 13 rated this program average (poor, fair, excellent). IT development: 54
  55. 55. 15% 20% 45% 20% Poor Fair Good Excellent According to the development in Information technology related areas out of 20, 9 staffs rated this training program good and rest 14 rated average (poor, fair, excellent). Frequency of training program: 15% 50% 30% 5% Every month every three month Every six month once in a year The experienced of the training program is so impressive that all the trainees very much interested in these types of programs. They want more of such types of training programs. So 3, out of 24 trainees want this type of training in every month .On the other hand 10 trainees want such program once in every three month. 6 out of them want to hold such types of program twice in a year. Rest of them wants to hold this once a year. In my opinion it should be twice a year. Duration of training program: 55
  56. 56. 25% 65% 10% 4 hrs 6 hrs 8 hrs The duration of the training program is a big question for the management. All trainees who had attended the training program have different thoughts about that. 2 out of 20 trainees want the duration of these programs to be 8 hours. 13 of them want 6 hours and 2 want the duration to be 4 hours. Skill Enhancement Personality Development Skill Enhancement & Personality Development Skill Enhancement & IT Related Total 45 workers have gone through these training programs. 2 out of them got the skill enhancement training, 4 got personality development, and 6 got skill enhancement & personality development program. Out of 45 workers 8 got skill enhancement & IT related training, 11 got personality development & IT related training and rest 14 got all three, skill enhancement, personality development & IT related training. Improvement Not Improvement can't say To read the development after applying development programs questions are asked to the workers. Responding to the questions 16 out of 45 workers say that they go to improvement 56
  57. 57. after the training program, 15 told that they didn’t get any improvement and rest 14 are not able to say any thing. Before the training After the training In any training program the material plays an important role. So it should be provided. But the question is that, "when should be the materials be given, before the training or after the training.” In the responses of such Question, 30 out of 45 workers say that materials should be given before the training and 15 says that it should be given after the training. Ready to face test Don't ready to face test A good trainee is essential for the successful completion of any training program. A good trainee can be selected by the test. So a test is required for selecting appropriate trainees. Responding this 27 out of 45 workers tell that they don’t want to go through any test and rest 18 want to go through such test process. The evolution of any program is very much require for the future. It can be done by asking the trainees. Skill Enhancement: 57
  58. 58. Good Very good Excelent Responding to skill enhancement programs, 11 out of 45 workers say that the training program was good, 20 say that it ways very good and rest 14 trainees opine that training program was very helpful to enhance their skills and perform their job in batter manner. Personality Enhancement: Good Very good Excelent Responding to the personality development questions there are different views of the trainees, 6 out of 45 workers say that the program was good, 18 say that it was very good and 21 workers say that program was excellent. IT related: Good Very good Excelent 58
  59. 59. Responding to the IT related development questions trainees are very much conscious about their improvement. 10 out of 45 have good experienced regarding IT development, 13 say that program was very good and rest 22 have excellent experienced regarding IT in the training program. 4 Hours 8 Hours 16 Hours 20 Hours The duration is an important factor for the successful completion of any program. It should be according the requirement of the trainees. 2 out of 45 trainees say that duration should be 4 hours, 6 say that duration can be 8 hours. 10 out of them want 16 hours and rest 27 wants 20 hours for the training program. Every month Once in 3 months Once in 6 months Once in every year Due to the changes in business the frequency of these types of training program should be higher. It should be according to the convenience of trainees. 10 out of 45 want this program should be conducted every month, 8 want after every three months but 20 thinks that the gap between two programs should be exceed 6 months. Rest 16 wants the frequency of these programs to be once in a year. 59