Green Supply Chain Management


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Making the Supply chain Green and sustainable

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Green Supply Chain Management

  1. 1. Making the Supply chain Green and sustainable<br />Using GreenSCOR Model and Balanced Scorecard as tools to implement sustainability<br />Team:<br />Rajesh Mantena<br />SatishMudiganti<br />IEM 5813Performance Measurement System<br />1<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />What is Green Supply Chain Management?<br />Green Supply Chain Benefits<br />Introducing the SCOR model<br />Wow Factor – Adding Environmental Performance indicators to the supply chain model and identifying measures to use within a BSC for sustainability<br />Green perspective to the SCOR model<br />Green SCOR - life cycle analysis<br />Balance Scorecard Measures for Sustainability<br />Green SCOR benefits and Challenges<br />References<br />Questions<br />2<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  3. 3. Green SCM leverages the role of the environment in SC value creation<br />Source: Forging New Links, GEMI, 2004<br />3<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  4. 4. Benefits of a Green supply chain<br />Improves Agility – Green SCM help mitigate risks and speed innovations<br />Increases Adaptability- Green supply chain analysis often lead to innovative processes and continuous improvements.<br />Promotes Alignment– Green SCM involves negotiating policies with suppliers and customers, which results in better alignment of business processes and principles<br />4<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  5. 5. Different environmental Pressures that lead to a Green SCM<br />Regulations<br /><ul><li>Directives
  6. 6. Taxes and Fees
  7. 7. Liability</li></ul>Consumer & Ethical Responsibility<br /><ul><li>Quality
  8. 8. Cost</li></ul>Fig:1 Sources of environmental pressures effecting the supply chain<br />5<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />Julie Paquette (2005), Engineering Systems Division, MIT<br />
  9. 9. Environmental operational objectives framework<br />Environmental pressures<br />Environmental operating<br /> models<br />6<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />Table: 1<br />Gregory J., Atlee J., Isaacs J., Kirchain, R., “Sustainability metrics for materials use at the system and operational level,” Materials Systems Laboratory discussion paper, 2004<br />Supply Chain Council, Supply-Chain Operations Reference Model, SCOR Version 7.0, available at, accessed May 28, 2005<br />
  10. 10. Getting closer to the Wow Factor – [SCOR Model]<br />The SCOR (Supply chain operational reference) model<br />7<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />Fig: 2<br />YildirimYilmaz, “Performance measurement in the value chain: manufacturing v. tourism”, <br />International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 2006<br />
  11. 11. How is Performance of a supply chain measured?<br />Performance Attributes developed by SCC<br />Reliability<br />Responsiveness<br />Flexibility<br />Costs<br />Asset Management Efficiency<br />Delivering the correct product, to the current place, at correct time, in the correct quantity, with the correct documentation, to the correct customer.<br />The velocity at which a supply chain provides to the customer.<br />The agility of a supply chain in responding to marketplace changes to gain or maintain competitive advantage<br />The costs associated with operating the supply chain<br />The effectiveness of an organization in managing assets to support demand satisfaction. This includes the management of all assets: fixed and working capital.<br />8<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  12. 12. Metrics Used to Measure Performance Attributes of a Supply Chain <br />9<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  13. 13. Wow Factor<br /> Closing the Gap <br /> by<br />Adding Environmental Performance indicators to the supply chain model and identifying measures to use within a BSC for sustainability<br />10<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  14. 14. Green perspective to the SCOR model<br />PLAN Phase<br />Plan to minimize energy consumption and hazardous material usage<br />Plan the handling and storage of hazardous materials<br />Plan for the disposal of ordinary and hazardous waste<br />Plan compliance of all supply chain activities<br />Processes used to aid environmental decision-making in this phase:<br /><ul><li>Environmental Cost Accounting
  15. 15. Environmental life cycle analysis
  16. 16. Design for environment</li></ul>11<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />Shapiro, K., Stoughton, M., Graff, R., Feng, L., “Health Hospitals: Environmental Improvements through Environmental Accounting,” A Report from Tellus Institute, July 2000, available at, accessed June 1, 2005. <br />
  17. 17. Green perspective to the SCOR model (contd.)<br />SOURCE Phase<br />Select suppliers with positive environmental records<br />Select materials with environmentally friendly content<br />Specify packaging requirements<br />Specify delivery requirements to minimize transportation and handling requirements<br />Processes used to aid environmental decision-making in this phase:<br /><ul><li>Environmental Auditing
  18. 18. Environmental Certification</li></ul>12<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />Energy Star designates product specifications and eligibility criteria for several categories of products, summarized at, accessed June 1, 2005.<br />
  19. 19. Green perspective to the SCOR model (contd.)<br />MAKE Phase<br />Schedule production to minimize energy consumption<br />Manage waste generated during the Make process<br />Manage emissions (air and water) from the Make process<br />Processes used to aid environmental decision-making in this phase:<br /><ul><li>Pollution prevention techniques like substitution, product modification, improved maintenance, and recycling.
  20. 20. Environmental management systems like guidance for employees in environmental health and safety procedures and facilitation of tools for continual improvement of environmental performance.</li></ul>13<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  21. 21. Green perspective to the SCOR model (contd.)<br />DELIVER Phase<br />Minimize use of packaging materials<br />Schedule shipments to minimize fuel consumption<br />Processes used to aid environmental decision-making in this phase:<br /><ul><li>Green Logistics Approach: Considers the impact of procurement, transport, inventory control, and distribution activities to minimized environmental costs.</li></ul>14<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />Matthews, H. Scott, Hendrickson, Chris T., “Economic and Environmental Implications of Online Retailing in the United States,” Joint OECD/ECMT Seminar on the Impact of E-commerce on Transport, Paris, June 6, 2001. <br />
  22. 22. Green perspective to the SCOR model (contd.)<br />RETURN Phase<br />Schedule transportation and aggregate shipments to minimize fuel consumption; prepare returns to prevent spills of hazardous materials (oils, fuels, etc.) from damaged products<br />Processes used to aid environmental decision-making in this phase:<br /><ul><li>Reverse Logistics
  23. 23. Remanufacturing
  24. 24. Recycling</li></ul>15<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />Dale Rogers S., Ronald S. “Goin Backwards: Reverse Logistics Trends and Practices,” Reverse Logistics Executive Council, 1999. <br />
  25. 25. Green SCOR - life cycle analysis<br />16<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />Julie Paquette (2005), Engineering Systems Division, MIT<br />
  26. 26. Sample Green SCOR Process Table (Release Finished Product of a Pharmaceutical Company )Process Element: Released Finished Product to Deliver Process Element Number: M2.6<br />17<br />2. % products meeting specified environmental<br />performance requirements<br />3. % of products with proper environmental labeling (if<br />required)<br />Implement EMS Program<br />Implement hazardous materials “pharmacy” system<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  27. 27. Balance Scorecard Measures for Sustainability<br />18<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  28. 28. Green SCOR Benefits and Challenges<br />Benefits<br />Improved environmental management performance<br />Improved supply chain management performance<br />Improved green supply chain initiatives<br />Challenges<br />Data<br />Cultural<br />Training<br />19<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />
  29. 29. References<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />20<br />Beamon, B., &quot;Designing the Green Supply Chain,&quot; Logistics Information Management, 12/4, (1999): 332-342 <br />US Environmental Protection Agency, “Major Environmental Laws,” 2005,, accessed May 30, 2005. <br />EU, “Directive on the Eco-Design of Energy Using Products,”, 2005, accessed June 1, 2005. <br />The Material Systems Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology has studied this area extensively. Researchers include Erica Fuchs, Michael Johnson, Francisco Veloso. US Food and Drug Administration, 2005,, accessed June 1, 2005. <br />US Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2005,, accessed June 1, 2005. <br />EU, “Directive on the Restriction of Hazardous Substances,” 2003,, accessed June 1, 2005. <br />Walls, Margaret, “The Role of Economics in Extended Producer Responsibility: Making Policy Choices and Setting Policy Goals,” Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 3/11, 2003, available at, accessed May 28, 2005. <br />EU, “Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste,” 1994,, accessed June 1, 2005. More information about Germany’s “Green Dot” Dual System for recycling packaging waste may be found at, accessed June 1, 2005. <br />Toffel, Michael, “The Growing Strategic Importance of End-of-Life Product Management,” California Management Review, 45/3, (2003): 102-129. Environmental Tax Policy Institute,, accessed May 17, 2005. <br />Resources for the Future provides a sampling of references that address environmental taxes as an introduction to this subject area. <br />
  30. 30. References (contd.)<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />21<br />Boyd, James, “Green Money in the Bank: Firm Responses to Environmental Financial Responsibility,” Magagerial and Decision Economics, 18/6 (1997): 491-506. <br />Snir, Eli, &quot;Liability as a Catalyst for Product Stewardship.&quot; Production and Operations Management, 10/2, (2001): 190-207. <br />GreenTech Assets, Inc.,, accessed May 31, 2005. <br />Ashland, Inc.,, accessed May 31, 2005. <br />Boyer, Marcel and Porrini, Donatella, “The Choice of Instruments for Environmental Policy: Liability or Regulation?” An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Environmental Policy: Issues in Institutional Design, Research in Law and Economics, 20 (2002): 1-41. <br />Roberts, J.A., “Green consumers in the 1990s: profile and implications for advertising,” Journal of Business Research, 36/1, (1996): 217-231. <br />Mohr, Lois A., Eroglu, Dogan, Ellen, Pam E., “The development and testing of a measure of skepticism toward environmental claims in marketers communications,” The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 32/1, (1998): 30-56, referenced in Hoffman, Andrew, “Business Decisions and the Environment: Significance, Challenges, and Momentum of an Emerging Research Field,” in G. Brewer and P. Stern (eds.) National Research Council, Decision Making for the Environment: Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities, 2005. <br />Hansen, Nannette, “Organic food sales see health growth,” MSNBC News Online, December, 3, 2004,, accessed May 20, 2005. <br />
  31. 31. Questions….<br />Oklahoma State University - IEM 5813<br />22<br />The more we exploit nature, The more our options are reduced, until we have only one: to fight for survival. ~ Morris K. Udal<br />Questions ? ? <br />