Sports NutritionPresentation Transcript
1. Suprvised by: RD , Haifa Al- SuleiteenSamar Ali AlDhamadiSports Nutrition
2. Co...
Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 –
527.
10. The Phospagen System ...
16. Can result in:Loss of muscle mass.Menstrual dysfunction.Loss of or failure to gain bone
density.Increased risk of fati...
Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic
Performance, Journal of The Amer...
and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number
3; 509 – 527.
35. Ergogeni...
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  1. 1. Sports NutritionPresentation Transcript 1. Suprvised by: RD , Haifa Al- SuleiteenSamar Ali AlDhamadiSports Nutrition 2. ContentsSports Nutrition Lecture containing general information about sports nutrition for Health Professionals, Athletes and the public. Enjoy !1 INTRODUCTION(History & ENERGY METABOLISM)2DAILY REQIURMENTS NUTRITION; BEFORE, DURING & AFTER34DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS 3. History 532 - 516 B.C [2]Greeks and Romans started the Olympic games, the athletes had their own special regimen for great performance which included diet and nutrition.9 kg (20 pounds) of meat.9 kg (20 pounds) of bread.Alcohol was commonly drunk as an Ergogenic aid.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 4. Sports Nutrition [1]Sports Nutrition requires an understanding of both exercise physiology and nutrition. Proper nutrition [supports] training and can improve performance, whereas improper nutrition can be detrimental to performance. Similarly, can be detrimental to both short-term and long-term health.[1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006. 5. ENERGY METABOLISM 6. Energy Metabolism [1]StorageEnergyTransfer Energy is stored in the body in the form of CP,CHO (blood glucose, liver, muscle glycogen) Fat (serum FFA and TG, muscle triglycerides, adipose tissue) Protein (muscle).CHO, fat, Protein supply energy, with fats and CHO being primary source. 3 systems to transfer stored energy to form ATP [1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006. 7. Energy Metabolism [2]Energy expenditure =Energy intake ►Energy balancePhosphagenEnergy Systems used during exercise for muscular work GlycolyticOxidativeAerobicAnaerobic[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 8. All system work simultaneously, but one system may predominate.ATP-CP provides rapid energy, anaerobic, secondsGlycolysis uses only glucose, anaerobic, high intensity activity 1-3 min Aerobic uses CHO, Fat, protein, longer periodsEnergy Metabolism[1][1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006. 9. The Phospagen System [2]UsedEnergyAmount Events lasting no longer than a few seconds and of high intensity. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) andcreatine phosphate provide the readilyavailable energy present within the muscle. The amount of ATP present in skeletal muscles (5 mmol/kg wet weight) is not sufficient to provide a continuous supply of energy, especially at high exercise intensities.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic
  2. 2. Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 10. The Phospagen System [2]ReservePrimaryCreatine phosphate is an ATP reserve inmuscle that can be readily converted tosustain activity for 3 to 5 minutes. The amount of creatine phosphateavailable in skeletal muscle is 4 times greaterthan ATP, and therefore, is the primary fuelused for high intensity, short duration activitiessuch as the clean and jerk in weight lifting, orfast break in basketball. [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 11. The Anaerobic Glycolytic Pathway [2]Uses muscle glycogen and glucose that are rapidly metabolized anaerobically through the glycolytic cascade.This pathway supports events lasting 60 to 180 seconds. Approximately 25% to 35% of total muscle glycogen stores are used during a single 30- second sprint or resistance exercise bout.Neither the phosphagen nor the glycolytic pathway can sustain the rapid provision of energy to allow muscles to contract at a very high rate for events lasting greater than 2 to 3 minutes. [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 12. The oxidative pathway fuels events lasting longer than 2 to 3 minutes.The major substrates include muscle and liver glycogen, intramuscular, blood, and adipose tissue triglycerides, and negligible amounts of amino acids from muscle, blood, liver, and the gut. Examples of events for which the major fuel pathway is the oxidative pathway include a 1,500-meter run, marathon, halfmarathon, and endurance cycling or 500 meter swimming events.The Oxidative Pathway [2][2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 13. As oxygen becomes more available to the working muscle, the body uses more of the aerobic (oxidative) pathways and less of the anaerobic (phosphagen and glycolytic) pathways. Only the aerobic pathway can produce large amounts of ATP over time via the Kreb’s cycle and the electron transport system. The Oxidative Pathway [2]The greater dependence upon aerobic pathways does not occur abruptly, nor is one pathway ever relied on exclusively.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 14. The Oxidative Pathway [2]Primarily aerobiccrossover5. Sex6. FitnessLevel of theindividual7. Prior nutrient intake8. Energystores1.The intensity2.Duration3. Frequency4.Type of activityAnaerobic pathwaysDetermine when the crossover from primarily aerobic to anaerobic pathways occurs.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 15. Athletes need to consume adequate energy during periods of high-intensity and/or long-duration training to:body weight and healthMaintaintraining effectsMaximizeEnergy ? Why ? [2][2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.
  3. 3. 16. Can result in:Loss of muscle mass.Menstrual dysfunction.Loss of or failure to gain bone density.Increased risk of fatigue, injury, and illness.Prolonged recovery process.Low Energy Intakes [2][2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 17. DAILY REQIURMENTS 18. Carbohydrate [2]CarbohydratesMaintain blood glucose levels during exercise.Replace muscle glycogen.The amount requiredDepends upon:The athlete’s total daily energy expenditure. Type of sport. Sex, and environmental conditions.RecommendationsAthletes 6 to 10 g/kg(2.7 to 4.5 g/lb) body weight per day[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 19. Protein [2]Recommended protein intakesCan generally be met through diet alone, without the use of protein or amino acid supplements.Energy intake Sufficient to maintain body weight is necessary for optimal protein use and performance.RecommendationsEndurance and strengthtrained athletes 1.2 to 1.7 g/kg(0.5 to 0.8 g/lb) body weight per day.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 20. Fat [2]20 % Consuming 20% of energy from fat does not benefit performance.Fat Source of energy, Fat-soluble vitamins, Essential fatty acids.High-fatHigh-fat diets are not recommended for athletes.Recommendations20% to 35%of total energy intake.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 21. NUTRITION; BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER 22. Dehydration [2]Dehydration450 - 675 mLfor every pound (0.5 kg) of body weight lost during exercise.16 - 24 oz (water deficit in excess of 2% to 3% body mass) decreases exercise performancePrevent dehydration from occurring during exercise and individuals should not drink in excess of sweating rate.AfterThe goal of drinking [2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 23. Hydration [1]Every 15 min during2 hours Before15 min Before After activity2-3 cups1-2 cups½-1 cupAt least 2 cups for each pound of body weight lose[1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006. 24. Nutrition [2]AfterBeforeDuring[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 25. Before [2]BeforeMeal or snack should provide sufficient fluid to maintain hydration. ↓Fat and fiber to facilitate gastric emptying and minimize gastrointestinal distress. ↑Carbohydrate to maximize maintenance of blood glucose. Moderate in protein. Composed of familiar foods. Well tolerated by the athlete.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association,
  4. 4. Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 26. Carbohydrate Before [1]12123434-4.5G/kg Body wtTime Prior[1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006. 27. Why ?Replace fluid losses.Provide carbohydrates for maintenance of blood glucose levels. During [2]CHO(approximately 30 to 60 g per hour)Important for endurance events lasting longer than an hour when an athlete has not consumed adequate food or fluid before exercise, orif an athlete is exercising in an extreme environment (eg, heat, cold, or high altitude).[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 28. After [2] Why? Provide adequate fluids, electrolytes, energy, and carbohydrates ->Replace muscle glycogen and ensure rapid recovery. Carbohydrate:1.0 - 1.5 g/kg (0.5 - 0.7 g/lb) body weight.During the 1st 30 minutes. Again every 2 hours for 4 to 6 hours. Replace glycogen stores. Protein:Provide amino acids for building and repair of muscle tissue.After[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 29. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS 30. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements [2] Dieting, habitually eliminating foods. Ill or recovering from injury. Specific micronutrient deficiencyConsuming adequate energy from a variety of foods to maintain body weightNoMaySingleUnSpecific medicalor nutritional reason (eg, iron supplements to correct iron deficiency anemia)Folic acid for women of childbearing potential, should be followed[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 31. Efficacy Not to useGain attentionClaimedBanned, or illegalInsufficientDIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS [2]May claimedNotDangerousClaimed[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 32. Ergogenic Aids [3]?Any training technique, mechanical device, nutritional practice,pharmacological method, or psychological technique that can improve exercise performancecapacity and/or enhance training adaptations[3] Kreider R. , Wilborn C., Taylor L. (2010) Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7:7: 1-3. 33. [2][2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 34. Ergogenic Aids that May Perform as Claimed, but for which there Is Insufficient Evidence [2]ColostrumsGlutamineClaimed as health &Performance enhancersBeta hydroxymethylbutyrateRibose[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition
  5. 5. and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 35. Ergogenic Aids that Do Not Perform as Claimed [2]The majority of ergogenic aids currently on the market are in this category includes:Amino acids.Bee pollen.Branched chain amino acids.Carnitine.Chromium picolinate.Cordyceps.Coenzyme Q10.Conjugated linoleic acid.Cytochrome C.Dihydroxyacetone.Gamma oryzanol.Ginseng.Inosine.Medium chain triglycerides.Pyruvate.Oxygenated water.Vanadium.It is possible for any of these compounds to eventually move from this to another category subsequent to appropriate scientific inquiry and evaluation.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 36. Ergogenic Aids that Are Dangerous, Banned, or Illegal [2] The ergogenic aids in this category should not be used and are banned.ExamplesAndrostenedione.Dehydroepiandrosterone.19norandrostenedione.19-norandrostenediol.Other anabolic, androgenic steroids,Tribulisterrestris.Ephedra.Strychnine.Human growth hormone.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527. 37. References :[1] Dunford M. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, American Dietetic Association: 2006.[2] American Dietetic Association Report. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Journal of The American Dietetic Association . 2009 Volume 109 Number 3; 509 – 527.[3]Kreider R. , Wilborn C., Taylor L. (2010) Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7:7: 1-3. 38. Thank You!Intern Clinical Dietitian: Samar Ali AlDhamadi

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