Principles of landscape designBy Capt. S.K.BHANDARI
• Landscape design involves functional use ofplants combined with artistic compositionPrinciples of landscape design• Visual or acoustic screens• Framing off-landscape views– Functional use of landscapes:• Microclimate control (e.g. shading, protection from wind)• Creating enclosures (absolute or implied)– Functional uses should be considered first; landscapeviewed as different units with different functions
• Artistic composition derived from physicalproperties of plantsPrinciples of landscape design• Plants can be viewed as mainly horizontal or vertical– Horizontal shapes are less dramatic than vertical shapes– Form:• Tree forms depend on branching patterns• Shrub forms result from growth habits (e.g. upright orcreeping)
• Physical properties of plants important inlandscape designPrinciples of landscape design• Stems, leaves, bark, and buds determine texture of plant– Large or widely separated plant features create effect of coarseness– Texture:– Thick, tight foliage results in finer texture– Simple leaves appear coarser than compound leaves• Distance of view affects texture;farther you stand from plant, thefiner its texture appears
• Physical properties of plants important inlandscape designPrinciples of landscape design• Warm colors: yellows to reds– Bright, inviting and lively– Color:• Cool colors: greens to violets– Restful, receding, not as conspicuous• Foliage most often considered inlandscape design, but flowers,bark and fruit also important
• Unity in landscape designPrinciples of landscape design• Characters that provide unity in landscape design– simplicity– Landscapes need some characteristics to tie togetherdifferent (functional) units and plants within a unit– variety– emphasis– balance– sequence– scale
• Unity in landscape designPrinciples of landscape design• Created with repetition of form, texture, colors, or specificplant species• Must preventmonotony; variety isused to ‘control’repetition– Simplicity (repetition)
• Unity in landscape designPrinciples of landscape design– Variety• Varying forms, textures and shapes to prevent boredom
• Unity in landscape designPrinciples of landscape design– Emphasis• Drawing attention to important features of landscape– Can draw attention to front door of residence by using plants thatoffer variety in color, texture or form near the door
• Unity in landscape designPrinciples of landscape design– Balance• Symmetrical balance = elements on either side of an axisare identical (formal feel)• Asymmetrical balance = unlike elements of equal visualweight on each side of an axis (less formal)– achieved by balancing forms of unequal size (e.g. 1 tree balancedby 3 shrubs)– Color adds visual weight; brightly colored plant may need to bebalanced with several plants of equal size but not brightly colored– Coarse textures are visually heavier than fine textures (more fine-textured plants needed to balance coarse-textured plants)
• Unity in landscape designPrinciples of landscape design– Balance
• Unity in landscape designPrinciples of landscape design– Sequence• Move viewer’s eyes over landscape in orderly fashion– Achieved bygradualprogression ofform, texture orcolor– Any plant thatbreaks gradualprogressionbecomes a pointof emphasis
• Unity in landscape designPrinciples of landscape design– Scale• Relative scale or proportion of landscape affects viewer’smood– Most landscapesshould beproportional tohuman height orheight ofstructure
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