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Garden garden activities

Garden garden activities



You have a garden - how to keep it going - what to plant and when to plant. month wise activites. The book was written for the Doon gardening Society but it will be useful for every gardener

You have a garden - how to keep it going - what to plant and when to plant. month wise activites. The book was written for the Doon gardening Society but it will be useful for every gardener



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    Garden garden activities Garden garden activities Document Transcript

    • P a g e | 1Edited by: ASFIChttp://www.doongardeningsociety.yolasite.com
    • P a g e | 2Ser No Subject Page1 Climate Data of Dun Valley 3GARDEN ACTIVITIES2 January 43 February 94 March 135 April 166 May 197 June 218 July 239 August 2510 September 2811 October 3312 November 3513 December 3814 Lawns - fertiliser application 3915 Plant propagation methods 4316 Chrysanthemums for the Home Garden 5017 Climbers and creepers 6618 Roses – The Queen of Flowers 7419 Insects pests diseases and control 8620 Common gardening mistakes 11321 Compost the ideal plant food 11522 Conversion chart 12123 NPK contents of various manures andfertlisers12424 Know your soil – Jar Test 12525 Liquid Organic Fertiliser 12826 Doon gardening society – By Laws 13227 Doon Gardening Society MembershipApplication Form136
    • P a g e | 3Climate Data of Dun Valley for all the months is as under on the basis of mean oflast 25 years.Month RainfallRelativeHumidityTemperature(mm) (%) Max Min Ave.January 46.9 91 19.3 3.6 10.9February 54.9 83 22.4 5.6 13.3March 52.4 69 26.2 9.1 17.5April 21.2 53 32 13.3 22.7May 54.2 49 35.3 16.8 25.4June 230.2 65 34.4 29.4 27.1July 630.7 86 30.5 22.6 25.1August 627.4 89 29.7 22.3 25.3TIPE - WHEN PLANTING FOR THE FIRST TIME1. Dig holes or beds wide, not deep2. Lightly amend heavy clay or sandy soils with organic matter.3. Gently remove plants from containers, keeping the root ball intact.4. Loosen potting soil and roots around the bottom and edges of theroot ball.5. Plant level with surrounding soil, spreading roots outward.6. Fill the lightly amended native soil around roots.7. Apply water to settle the soil around the roots.8. Cover the area with leaf or bark mulch 2-4 cm thick. Ensure tokeep the plant’s stem/trunk uncovered.9. Water sufficiently.
    • P a g e | 4GARDEN ACTIVITIESJANUARYFRUITS: A month of frosts and chilly weather. Great care has tobe taken for the protection of young saplings of fruit trees likelitchi, mango, papya, chikoo, custard apple etc. by covering themwith a thick thatch of hay and their basins should be watered.Pruning of peach, plum, pear trees and grape vine should bedone.After pruning the plants should be sprayed with Rogor,Fenvelrate, Cyphermitherin or CCP 20 as applicable to protectthem from hibernating insects.Cuttings of deciduous fruit plants (plants which shed their leavesin winter) should be placed in prepared small beds in sunny placeand kept moist with frequent watering.GRAPES: Both plants and cutting can be planted.MANGO: The treatment for mealy-bug should be undertaken. Thelower trunk of the trees should be sprayed with CPP (1:20) orPhorate and then covered with a PVC film and tied firmly at thetop and the bottom. This PVC films width should be 3 to 4 feetand should be buried at-least 6 to 7 inches in the earth. SprayDevicol or Nuvan as soon as you notice any mealy-bug activity.Cut all branches or twigs which are touching the building.
    • P a g e | 5VEGETABLES: Seedlings of Spring Onions should be transplantedin well prepared beds in rows 6-9 inches apart at a distance of 4-6 inches from plant to plant and irrigation withheld for one weekat-least for better root formation.Seedlings of Chilies, Capsicum and Tomatoes sown in Octobershould be transplanted. Spring Potatoes should be sown in wellmanure beds. Cut pieces of large size potatoes bearing 1 to 2buds should be used.BORIC ACID AS – PEST CONTROLBoric (Boric Acid) the innocent white powder comes in an odorless colorless powder form,which can be dissolved in water. It is used in the household as an antiseptic.It is also an excellent product for the control of pests like cockroaches, and small ants.When an insect consumes boric acid, it poisons the stomach and affects the insect’smetabolism. The powder is also abrasive, further affecting the exoskeleton of the insect.How to use it:To make your own boric acid ant traps, mix about 1 teaspoon boric acid, with 10 teaspoonssugar and 2 cups of water. Next, spread the mixture on cardboard or dip cotton balls in it tillthey absorb the liquid. Place these near the source from where the ants and cockroachesenter your house. The ants and the cockroaches will take it to their hives/resting place.Here the others ants and cockroaches will also eat it. The whole colony will be destroyed inabout a week’s time.Place these regularly for a week or two and you will observe that they no longer return toyour home.
    • P a g e | 6Winter vegetables like Radish, Turnip, Carrot, Beat Root, Brinjals,Dwarf Beans, Peas, Spinach, Soya, Salad etc. should be sown tomaintain supplies till April.Apply manure to all fruit trees, ornamental plants and the winterannuals already planted.TIPS - Rhizomes1. Plant rhizomes shallow.2. Tops of iris rhizomes should remain partlyshowing above the soil, with no mulch.
    • P a g e | 7FLOWERS ROSES: If roses are pruned in September the flush offlowers will last till end December.Thereafter, two maintenance feeds of 25 gm of fertiliser (rosemixture) should be applied one each in the first week of January.CHRYSANTHEMUMS: After the plants have flowered in October toDecember/January, the branches of the plants should be cutdown to 6 to 9 inches. These plants are called Stools (MotherPlants) and should be allowed to rest for about two months tillmid February, when suckers start emerging from the motherplants.INDOOR PLANTS: These plants must be exposed to the sun andmanure applied.SHRUBS: Plant cuttings of various shrubs like Chandni,Bougainvillea and Rat Ki Rani etc.HEDGES: Old damaged hedges should be repaired by plantingcuttings of these hedge plants in gaps 6 inches apart crosswiseand watered regularly.LAWNS: Sprinkle water on the grass early in the morning as thisprevents the dew or frost to damage the grass. In the third week
    • P a g e | 8of January apply Urea or CAN and flood the same immediately.During the last week of January mow the lawn.FOOD PRESERVATION: Sarson, Amla, Guva, Turnip, Cauliflower,Carrot, Kenew, Gulgul, Orange, Mausaumi and Peas are availableat the cheapest rates and in abundance. These can all bepreserved now.TIPS - Hanging Basket1. Fill basket with prepared potting soil.2. Leave a small amount of space at the top to allow for easierwatering.3. Make holes in potting soil for new plants.4. Prepare plants by loosening any tangled roots.5. Plant in potting soil, allowing cascading plants to hang over potrim.6. Tuck plants into sides of hanging baskets made of sphagnummoss.7. If slow-release plant food is used, sprinkle a small amount overthe top of potting soil.8. Water to settle soil around plant roots.NOTE: Soil-moistening crystals may be included in the potting mix toretain moisture for longer periods between watering.Happiness Garden"Count the garden by the flowers, never by theleaves that fall. Count your life with smiles andnot the tears that roll."
    • P a g e | 9FEBRUARYFRUITS: Young seedlings of Litchi, Mango, Chikoo, Papaya etcshould be kept covered with rough thatches keeping south westside open to allow sun and air to protect them from frost and coldwinds.On frosty nights light irrigation may be given to the young fruitsaplings.Manure should be applied to all fruit trees according to the ageand size of the plants followed by watering.All fruit plants specially those of Peach, Plum, Pear and all Citrusfruit trees should be planted in the previously dug pits beforeflowering sets in. In case of evergreen plants protect them fromfrost by covering with a thatch.GRAPES: Grape vines should be pruned by cutting back lastyears shoots, leaving 2-3 buds for new growth of fruit bearingshoots. Soil around the roots of the vine should be dug 9-10inches deep and left exposed to weather for a week or more andall fibrous hair-like roots should be removed, after which compostmixed with CAN should be applied and covered with the soil,followed by light irrigation.VEGETABLES: Seedlings of Chilies, Capsicum, Tomato andBrinjals sown in October should be transplanted in beds if notdone in January.
    • P a g e | 10Well manure beds should be made for sowing early crop ofsummer vegetables like Khira, Kerala, Chapan Kadu, Loki, andKakri etc. at the end of the month for early supply of thesevegetables.Hoeing should be done to the crop of Potato and Spring Onion.FLOWERS ROSES: Same as in January.TIPS - Cuttings1. Prepare garden soil or pots of potting soil, andmoisten before planting.2. Stick rooted or uprooted cuttings into the moistsoil. Cover the soil surface with mulch to keepsoil moist and cool3. Keep moist, not wet, for several weeks untilcuttings root into new soil.NOTE: Some annual cuttings root readily from stemcuttings stuck in moist potting soil. Some annuals,including coleus and tomatoes, root readily fromstem cuttings in water.
    • P a g e | 11SUMMER SEASON FLOWERS: Seeds of early summer floweringannuals may be sown in the last week of this month to raiseseedlings of Portulaca, Amaranthus, Coleus, Kochia, Celosia,Zinnia, Gallardia, Golden-rod etc. Bulbs of Football Lilly,Caladium, and Amaryllis may be planted.FOLIAGE PLANTS: There is little growth in foliage plants.Watering should be done with a gap of 7-8 days and excesswatering should be avoided. Varieties of foliage plants likeCrotons, Money Plant, and Philodendron should be protected fromfrost and cold winds.INDOOR PLANTS: Transplanting can be done from the last weekof February. Liquid manure may be given to all the plantsincluding palms.
    • P a g e | 12SHRUBS: Cuttings of ornamental shrubs, Bougainvillea, Climbersand Hedge Plants may be planted if not done already, withoutany delay in well manure beds and kept moist with frequent lightirrigation.HEDGES: Old damaged hedges should be renovated by plantingcuttings of these very hedges in the gaps 6 inches apart cross-wise and irrigated frequently.LAWNS: Since the nights are still cool, give another dose of Ureaor CAN to the lawn preferably in the first week of this month.Keep on mowing the lawn as soon as it is thick and tall enough.Patchy lawns should be renovated by digging them up andmanure added before planting fresh runners in the last week ofthe month and frequently watered.FOOD PRESERVATION: Sarson, Alma, Guava, Turnip, Carrot,Cauliflower, Kinnow, Orange, Gulgul, Mausamui, Peas, Lemon,China Orange are available and can be all preserved.Watering1. Once established, these plants are usually droughthardy and rarely need heavy watering.2. Too much water can cause foliage problems or rootdiseases.3. Water only occasionally, when they have begun todry out.4. Water slowly and deeply, not frequently.5. When possible, water in the morning to keep foliagefrom remaining wet for too long.
    • P a g e | 13MARCHFRUITS: With the change of weather all thatch covers over theyoung plants must be removed. Land around them should be dugup after adding manure and irrigated after making deep basins.Lime washing of lower 3 feet of the main trunks of the Litchi andMango trees should be done to protect them from sunburn, attackof insects and fungal pests.Mango trees on flowering should be sprayed with Malathion tocontrol the mango hopper pests. Peach and almond tress shouldbe sprayed with Roger or CPP 20 or Fenvelrate and Nicotinesulphate or Malathion as soon as the fruit have set and are of peagrain size.VEGETABLES Small beds and shallow pits should be made andmanure added in the soil for sowing seeds of summer vegetableslike Bhindi, Beans, Khera, Louki, Pumpkins etc. Bhimdi, Chilies,Capsicum, tomato, brinjal and beans may be sown in flat bedsand the rest in shallow pits.Spring Onions and Garlic beds should be hoed after spreadingmanure and irrigated immediately.
    • P a g e | 14Ginger, Haldi, Arbi and Zimikind, should be covered with thicklayer of dry leaves about 6 inches deep to protect the tubers fromheat and to preserve moisture air in the soil.FLOWERSROSES: No change.Portulaca, Amaranthus, Coleus, Kochia, Celosia, Zinnia,Gamphorena, Gallardia, Golden-rod etc. should be planted if notalready done.Bulbs of Football Lilly, Caladium, Amartllis may be planted.CHRYASANTHEMUMS: A small sucker is planted in 3 inch pot inthe first week of March or it is planted in rich soil in 9 inch to 10inch pot or in a well-manure bed at a distance of 18 inches.LAWN: Give sterameal to grass, 1 kg sterameal for a lawn of12x12 feet size. Again be on the lookout for weeds. Digging barepatches, adding manure and planting fresh runners of the grass
    • P a g e | 15should be undertaken to renovate the patchy lawn. These shouldbe kept wet by frequent watering.INDOOR PLANTS: Manure and put them in shady place. Giveliquid manure in the first week of March.FOOD PRESERVATION Cauliflower, Tomato, Turnip, Carrot, Peas,Oranges, Papaya, Ginger and Lemon are all available and can bepreserved.GENERAL Planting of new trees, climbers, shrubs and hedges maybe completed in the first fortnight. Seeds of the hedges and treescan be sown now. Seed collection of flowering annuals may bedone. Care should be taken that seeds are properly dried andlabeled.Seeds of the summer glowering annuals should be sown in thenursery during the second fortnight of the month.FertilisationMost plants need a regular "diet" of all-purpose plant food, eitherspecialty (labeled for your specific plant type) or a generic N-P-K(nitrogen - phosphorus – potassium).1. Fertilise early in the plants growing cycle - spring forsummer plants, fall for winter plants.2. For leafy plants, use a fertilizer with a higher nitrogencontent (first number).3. For flowering or fruiting plants, use a fertiliser higher inphosphorous content (middle number).
    • P a g e | 16APRILFRUITS: All litchis, mango and other fruit trees should beprovided with deep basins for irrigation during the hot summers.These basins should be filled with dry leaves after leaving amound of soil around the trunk of the trees. Lime washing of thetrunk up-to three feet from the ground should be applied to allthe fruit trees to protect them from sunburn and attack of insectsand fungal pests.Mango trees in flowers should be sprayed with Malathion tocontrol mango hopper pests.Seeds from selected papaya fruits should be sown in small 4 inchpots after rubbing them with dry ashes to remove the mucilage toinduce quicker germination. Seedlings would be ready fortransplantation in August-September and will start fruiting in thecoming winter.VEGETABLES: Clear the winter vegetable beds and prepare themfor the next season.Seedling of Chilies, Capsicum, Brinjal and tomato should betransplanted in small manageable beds if not already done.Ginger and Haldi should be sown on ridges 2-3 inches dependcovered with 9-8 inches deep layer of dry leaves to protect themfrom the heat and preserve moisture in the soil.
    • P a g e | 17Seeds of all summer vegetables like Bhindi, Beans, Khera, Louki,Torai should be sown in small manageable plots with adequateand assured water supply.Spring crop of Onions should be hoed after irrigation and greenstems trampled down with feet to induce larger bulbs.FLOWERS: Winter season flowers which have stopped floweringshould be cleaned and the beds should be prepared for summerseason.Seedlings of summer flowers like Portulaca, Amaranthus, Dahlia,Sunflowe, Cineria, Gompherena etc. should be transplanted. Thisis the best time for flowering Cannas.
    • P a g e | 18Seed collection of the late winter flowers can be done. Damagedareas in the Shrubs can be filled up.CHRYASANTHEMUMS: The plants should be transplanted from the3 inch pots to the 9 or 10 inch pots.FOLIAGE PLANTS: In the foliage plants the growth will beresumed. Therefore, these should be kept in the shade to avoiddirect sun. Propagation by seed, division, and cutting can be donein the first fortnight.LAWNS: Give another dose of sterameal with neemkhali. For alawn 12x12 feet one kg each should be applied.SEED COLLECTION: Continue seed collection as in March.INDOOR PLANTS: Save them from direct sun.FOOD PRESERVATION: China Orange, Mangoes, Jackfruit andPumpkins are available and can be preserved.
    • P a g e | 19MAYFRUITS: Deep basins dug around Litchi and Mango trees shouldbe watered and covered with dry leaves to make mulch. Limewashing applied to the lower part of the trunk up-to 3 feet toavoid splitting of the trunk bark by sunburn and safeguard themagainst insect and fungal attack.VEGETABLES: Transplanting of seedlings of Chilies, Capsicum,Brinjals, Tomatoes, Ginger, Turmeric, Arvi and Zimikund shouldbe planted and covered with 4-6 inches of thick layer of dryleaves to conserve moisture and protect them from the heat.Land should be prepared for sowing Soya Bean in June andmanure applied to the soil.Prepare land for sowing rainy season vegetables like Pusa SawniBhindi, Karela, Louki, Cowpeas, Beans and Chachinda etc. Earlysummer vegetables like Karela, Khira, Louki and Torai etc. shouldbe trained on wooden supports.Garlic sown in October should be dug out, tied with strings andhung. Spring Onion crop should be irrigated, hoed and trampledupon by feet to retard excessive leafy growth and to induce largeand firm bulbs on onions.
    • P a g e | 20FLOWERS SUMMER FLOWERING ANNUALS: Transplanting ofPortulaca, Amaranthus, Coleus, Kochia, Gompherena andSunflower etc. should be done early.Seeds of Balsam, Zinnia, Petunia, Carnation etc. may be sown inflower pots to raise seedlings of these rainy season flowers.CHRYASANTHEMUMS:Suckers planted in beds or 9-10 inch pots, should be now about6-8 inch tall, their top 1 inch should be cut off with a pair ofscissors.BULBS: Tuberose, Lilly and Cannas bulbs should be planted now.LAWNS: Regular watering is must. In case you wish to have anew lawn, than start digging the lawn up to one foot deep duringthe last week of the month.INDOOR PLANTS: Save them from direct sun. Mulching with grassor dry leaves or moss-grass can be done to retain moisture.
    • P a g e | 21JUNEFRUITS: Pits of 3 X 3 feet should be dug for planting fruit trees ofLitchi, Mango, and Citrus etc. next month. These pits should befilled up with farmyard manure mixed with top 9" of the soil fromthese very pits.VEGETABLES: Land should be prepared for sowing seeds of SoyaBeans with the advent pre-monsoon showers. Planting of Ginger,Haldi, Arvi etc. should be completed without any further delay ifnot done already. Seeds of rainy season vegetables should besown taking advantage of the pre-monsoon showers. Maize isalso planted during this month.Supports should be provided to the creepers already growing inyour garden. Transplanting of seedlings of Chilies, Capsicum,Brinjals etc. should be done if not done so far.FLOWERS Seedlings of rainy flowers should be planted as theseedlings are ready.CHRYASANTHEMUMS:Cut the tip ends again. If stakes are required use bamboo slits toenable the plants stand upright.PREPERATION OF SOIL MIXTURE FOR POTS: Prepare mixture of 2parts garden soil, 2 parts well rotten cow dung manure and 1 partsand. Take 10 pots of above soil mixture; add ten teaspoons of
    • P a g e | 22slaked lime/marble powder and ten teaspoons of charcoalgranules.Mix well and fill your pots, after covering properly the bottomhole of the pot with crocks i.e. broken pieces of pots. This willensure good drainage and prevent water logging.Now to each pot add one level teaspoon of Agromin and onetablespoon of Single Superphosphate. Mix well and water andturn the soil. The pots are now ready to receive the plants inJuly/August.LAWNS: The soil which was dug up in the last week of May shouldbe turned inside and outside 2-3 times so that the roots of weedsand any other ant-holes etc. are exposed to the sun anddestroyed by the heat. Keep the earth exposed for about two tothree weeks. Then sprinkle some sand on the topsoil along withsome slaked lime. Let the earth dry out and then level the groundfor planting of the grass.FOOD PRESERVATION: Mangoes, Peaches, Bael, Litchi, Phalsa,Plum, Cherry, Karonda, Jackfruit and Petha are available and canbe preserved.TIPS - Transplanting to Another PotMost tropical or other "indoors" or patio plants kept in potsneed transplanting from time to time.1. When their roots get too tight ("potbound").2. When they get top heavy and need larger pots.3. When spreading plants get too thick and need dividing.4. Remove old, faded, diseased, or cluttered leaves andstems.5. Carefully remove from container.6. Loosen old potting soil and tangled roots.7. Plant in slightly larger pot (if needed) with a little extraspace for mulch and water.8. Lightly fertilise.9. Mulch surface of potting soil to prevent crusting afterwatering.
    • P a g e | 23JULYFRUITS: Top priority should be to drain off the rainwater duringthe rainy season to avoid water logging.Dry leaves ad turfs of Litchi trees after plucking of the fruit shouldbe filled in the basins around the trees and covered with a thicklayer of earth (2-3 feet).For planting of Litchi, Mango, Guava, Citrus and other fruitsaplings, the previously dug pits should be utilised and afterplanting raised basins should be made.VEGETABLES: Sowing of rainy season vegetables like Bhindi,Kerala, Khira, Louki, Prtha, Pumpkins, Cowpea, Soya, Lobia andAsparagus bean should be sown if not already done.Ginger, Haldi, Arvi etc. should be earthed up as soon as theyoung shoots come up and are 6-8 inches high. Hoeing, weedingand general cleaning of vegetable beds should be done at regularintervals.FLOWERS: Rainy season flowers like Zinnia, Balsam, Coleus,Kochia, Dahlia, Sunflower, etc. should be transplantedimmediately. Cutting of hedge plants, ornamental bushes andcreepers may be planted after the rains set in fully.
    • P a g e | 24CHRYASANTHEMUMS: In the first week of July 4 inch long tipcuttings should be taken from the top branches of stock plantsand planted in previously sterlised sand.LAWNS: New lawns may be laid out after digging and leveling andrunners of the grass of your choice should be planted closely.SUCCULENTS AND CACTUS: Keep them away from the rains.FOOD PRESERVATION: Mangoes, Peaches, Bael, Litchi, Phalsa,Plum, Cherry, Karonda, Jackfruit and Beat are available and canbe preserved.TIPS - Flats with Dividers1. Prepare soil by digging deeply and adding organicamendments as needed.2. Carefully remove individual plant containers from the flat, orseparate plants whose roots have grown together; cut as fewas possible to separate.3. Gently remove plants from containers; tear or cut side whereroots grow out of drainage holes. Plant in prepared soil levelwith the soil around the plan4. Cover the soil with mulch to protect from sun and packingrain.5. Water deeply to settle soil around roots.
    • P a g e | 25AUGUSTFRUITS: Top priority should be to drain off the rainwater duringthe rainy season to avoid water logging. Sapling of Litchi, Mango,Guava, Citrus and other fruit saplings, should in their permanentsites in the previously dug pits and filled with manures and topsoil from the pits.A little Phorate should be added to eradicate attack of white antsand other pests.VEGETABLES: Ginger, Haldi, Arvi etc. should be earthed up afterremoving weeds growing in these. Sweet potato are grown fromsprouts produced from the tubers and from cuttings and shouldbe planted on high ridges. Celery is sown in July/August. It ishighly nutritive.
    • P a g e | 26FLOWERS: Early sowing of flower seeds like Salvia, Aster, Phlox,Petunia and Marigold can be done. Early variety of Gladiola maybe put in beds. Hoeing, weeding and general cleaning can bedone of all the flower beds regularly.CHRYASANTHEMUMS: Each rooted cutting can be potted straightinto 9 or 10 inches pots in the first week of August. Keep the potin full shade for 7 days and then in partial shade for another 7days.Thereafter keep it in a sunny location. Protect these from heavyrains.SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING: Dissolve two teaspoons each of Ureaand Potash in 10 Liters of water. Add two cups of this to each Pot.Thereafter water the plant. This application should be continuedtill end of September, once in 15 days.PEST PROTECTION: Spray either of the following mixture till theflowers bloom every fortnight. To WATER 10 Liters add 10 LitersMETACID and10 ml NUVAN OR10 ml METASYSTOX and10 LitersDIMECRON .POINTS FOR SMALL FLOWERED PLANTS: When the plant is 5-6inches tall pinch the top 1/2 inch to encourage branches. Whenthe branches are about 3 inch long again pinch. Continue theprocess till end of September to obtain a large head of flowers. Acage of three to four split bamboo canes should be provided tillthe middle of August.SPECIAL POINTS FOR LARGE FLOWERED PLANTS: These typesare grown to take 1-4 flowers per plant. By middle of August,provide 2-3 feet long split bamboo stakes as it grows.
    • P a g e | 27In the beginning of September lateral branches will appear in leafaxils, remove them as soon as hand able by turning to one side.It is easy because the branch is brittle in the beginning. At theend of each branch, 3 flower buds will appear. Keep the healthyone and remove the others when easy to handle.INDOOR PLANTS: Put out all the indoor plants in the rain (waterlogging should be avoided).HEDGES: Cutting of hedge plants, climbers and other ornamentalplant should be planted, also seeds of quick growing hedges likeJainter, Aliar or Inga Dulcis, may be sown for making hedges.LAWNS: New lawns may be laid out after digging and leveling andrunners of the grass of your choice should be planted closely.FOOD PRESERVATION: Jamun, Plum, Karonda, Apple, Mangoes,Lemon,Grapes and Peaches.Cuttings1. Prepare garden soil or pots of potting soil, and moisten beforeplanting.2. Stick rooted or uprooted cuttings into the moist soil. Cover thesoil surface with mulch to keep soil moist and cool3. Keep moist, not wet, for several weeks until cuttings root intonew soil.
    • P a g e | 28SEPTEMBERFRUITS: Sapling of Litchi, Mango, Guava, Citrus and other fruitsaplings, should be planted in their permanent sites immediatelyif not done so.Basins around the Litchi and Mango trees, filled up earlier, shouldbe made by digging in the decayed leaves etc. and a mixture ofchemical manure (NPK) should be added in the still lightly moistsoil and mixed properly. All the dead, dry, damaged or out ofplace and diseased branches of all the fruit trees should beremoved and to give proper shape and ventilation and sunlight tothem.VEGETABLES: Land should be prepared after adding manure forsowing whole tubers of potatoes for early winter crop. Ginger,Haldi, Arvi etc. should be earthed up after removing weedsgrowing in these.
    • P a g e | 29Seeds of early dwarf Peas, French Beans, Radish, Turnip, BeetRoot, Methi, Palak, Dhania and bulbs of Onion and Garlicsegments may be sown towards the end of the month for earlysupply of these.Seedlings of Cauliflower, Cabbage, Tomato, Brinjals and Lettuceshould be transplanted for early supply. Celery is sown inJuly/August. It is highly nutritive. Sprouting Broccoli, Brusselssprouts, Parsley and Leak should be sown by end September.These vegetables are a rich source of Vitamin A, B1, B2 and C.
    • P a g e | 30FLOWERS: Aster, Antirrhinum, Carnation, Phlox, Dahlia, Gerbera,Holy Hock, Larkspur,Linaria, Lupines, Marigold, Pansy, Poppy,
    • P a g e | 31Salvia, Stock, Sweet Peas, Cosmos, Sweet William and Verbenashould be sown in small beds for raising their seedlings.CHRYASANTHEMUMS: Same as in August.ROSES: It has been observed that in Northern India, new growthbegins by middle of September. At that time sap begins to rise.Therefore, the right time for pruning is third week of September.PRUNING HINTS: The following steps should be the guiding factorfor a good prune: 1. Remove all dead and dry stems and dryportion of partly healthy stems. 2. Cut off weak thin twigs. 3. Cutof branches growing inwards, i.e. towards the centre of the bush.The center will open up. 4. Select five to six healthy canes forretention and remove all the others. 5. Shorten the remainingcanes to 15-18 inches above the scion. While pruning the canes,the cut should be made 1/2 inch above the outward looking eye.6.After pruning, the practice of drenching all branches and cutends with spray of mixture of a contact and systemic insecticidein the following proportion should be undertaken: To 10 LitersWATER add 10 Liters METACID and 10 ml NUVAN , OR 10 mlMETASYSTOX and10 Liters DIMECRON. The effect lasts for 2-3weeks after spraying.After the pruning an application of cow-dung 50 gm, NPK mixture2 heaped tablespoons and Agromin 1 heaped tablespoon shouldbe given to each plant.HEDGES: Cutting of hedge plants, climbers and other ornamentalplant should be immediately planted, if not done so.LAWNS: New lawns may be laid out immediately without anyfurther delay. Weeding should be carried out effectively.
    • P a g e | 32FOOD PRESERVATION: Jamun, Plum, Karonda, Apple, Mangoes,Lemon, Grapes and Peaches are available.Seeds1. Prepare seedbed, adding any amendments (ifneeded), or fill pots or flats with potting soil.2. Sow small seed directly onto soil surface, and rakelightly to make sure seed are in direct contact withsoil.3. Large seed should be buried two or three times theirdiameter.4. Lightly cover the seeded area with mulch to reducesoil compaction in sun and rain.5. Water shallow seed lightly and frequently until theysprout.6. Water deeper seeds slowly and deeply, but do notkeep wet or they can rot.7. When seeds sprout, encourage deep roots bygradually reducing watering frequency and increasingthe amount, to get it down deep around and belowroots while letting soil surface dry between soakings.NOTE: Most seeds require warm (room temperature orhigher) temperatures to germinate.When seedlings emerge, thin extras to allow full light aroundseedlings; some may be transplanted to larger pots or thegarden. When transplanting, hold small plants by leaves toavoid damage to tender stems.
    • P a g e | 33OCTOBERFRUITS: Manure mixture of NPK in the ratio of 1:2:1 should beapplied and dug in the basins when the soil is moist. Basinsaround Litchi and Mango trees should be remade and manureshould be applied in adequate quantity.All dead, dry and out of place branches of Litchi, Mango andGuava trees should be removed to allow full sunshine and air togive proper shape to these.VEGETABLES: After cleaning up the garden of all weeds andgrasses, land should be dug and exposed to the sun for 2-3 days.Manure applied to the beds for sowing winter vegetables viz.Peas, Beans, Radish, Turnip, Beet Root, Methi, Palak,Dhania,Brinjals, Cabbage, Cauliflowers, Knol Kol, and Lettuce etc.Bulbs of Onion and Garlic Cloves should be planted preferably onwell manure ridges. Seedlings of Cauliflower, Cabbage, KnollKole, Brinjala, and Tomato should be transplanted in well manurebeds or ridges.Seeds of Chilies, Capsicum and Tomato may also be sown to betransplanted in January for fruiting in April.Ginger and Turmeric ridges should be earthed up heavily afterremoving weeds etc. Whole potato tubers 1/2 inch diameterapproximately should be planted preferably on well manureridges.
    • P a g e | 34FLOWERS: Transplant all the ready seedlings. For late floweringsow Aster, Antirrhinum, Carnation, Phlox, Dahlia, Gerbera, HolyHock, Larkspur, Linaria, Lupines, Marigold, Pansy, Poppy, Salvia,Stock, Sweet Peas, Cosmos, Sweet William and Verbena.Seeds of Sweet Peas should be sown in well manure and deeplydug trenches or beds and young seedlings on sprouting may becovered with wire netting or thorny bushes to protect them fromdamage by birds.Put in the Hedges and the Evergreen Dahlia Cuttings. Multicoloured Gladiolus, Narcissus and Iris bulbs can be planted.ROSES: Roses dug out of ground with earth ball should beplanted after mid October.LAWNS: Give Urea or CAN to grass and immediately flood it.
    • P a g e | 35NOVEMBERFRUITS: Young fruit saplings of Litchi, Mango, Papaya, Chikoo etcshould be protected from frost and cold by covering these withrough thatches keeping the south-west side open to allow air andsunshine.Pruning of Peach, Plum and Pear trees should be done as soon asall their leaves shed.Manure should be applied to all the fruit trees after making widebasins.A mixture of NPK in the ratio of 1:2:1 should be applied as perthe age chart followed by watering.After pruning, these trees should be sprayed with Malathion toprotect them from the hibernating of pests.VEGETABLES: Winter vegetables viz. Peas, Beans, Radish, Turnip,Beet Root, Methi, Palak, Dhania, Brinjals, Cabbage, Cauliflowers,Knoll Kole, and Lettuce etc. should be sown in small beds atintervals of 15 days to ensure uninterrupted supply of these.Transplanting of seedlings sown earlier can be done. Bulbs ofOnion and Garlic Cloves should be planted without further delay.Seeds of Onion should be sown in small raised beds in thenursery to raise seedlings of main spring crop of dry bulbs.
    • P a g e | 36Ginger and Turmeric may be dug out after their leaves have driedup.These should then be washed and dried up for storing in a wellaired store. Seedling of late Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knoll Kole andLettuce should be transplanted on well-manure ridges or flatbeds.FLOWERS: Seedling can be transplanted. Narcissus and Gladiolusbulbs can be grown in this month.Transplant all the ready seedlings. For late flowering sow Aster,Antirrhinum, Carnation, Phlox, Dahlia, Gerbera, Holy Hock,Larkspur, Linaria, Lupines, Marigold, Pansy, Poppy, Salvia, Stock,Sweet Peas, Cosmos, Sweet William and Verbena.Sweet Peas and plants already planted should be given supportafter pinching their upper parts to induce side shoots and preventtheir growing too tall.ROSES: Roses dug out of ground with earth ball should beplanted from the first week of November to end January. Whileplanting a rose the bud should be kept 3-4 inches above theground level and the un-sprouted side of the bud should be keptpointed towards the east/south.Roses do well in any type of garden soil, sandy or clay, but notchalky provided it is well drained. There should not be any waterlogging in rose beds.An ideal pit for planting roses should be 1.5 feet in diameter and1.5 feet deep. The soil dug out of the pit for planting roses should
    • P a g e | 37be mixed with a tasla of well rotten cow-dung manure and 250gm of bone meal.About 50 Gm of 10 % Phorate should also be added to the soil.After mixing, the pit should be filled with the mixture and theremaining soil should be piled up on the pit.Then after making a circular ridge the pit should be watered. Thedepression caused by sinking of soil should be filled up. If this isdone 2-3 times, it will ensure that the soil will not sink any more.The pit is then ready to receive the plant.Planting Distance:H.T. AND F.B. ROSES 3 - 3.5 feetMiniature and Polyantha roses 2.5 feet Climbers and shrub roses6 feetContainer grow roses can be planted anytime of the year. Eventhen, the 2 very hot months of May and June should be avoided.LAWNS: Give stearmeal to your lawn.FOOD PRESERVATION: Cauliflower, Tomato, Turnip, Carrots,Sarson, Amla, Gauva, Ginger and Apple are available.
    • P a g e | 38DECEMBERFRUITS: This is the hibernating month and the trees should notbe disturbed.VEGETABLES: Seeds of Onion, Lettuce and Tomato should betransplanted.FLOWERS CHRYASANTHEMUMS: Cut off the stem after floweringand set aside the plants. Protect them from water logging andfrost.INDOOR PLANTS: No manure and transplanting required.LAWNS: Give Urea mixed with Neem Cake and water it.FOOD PRESERVATION: Peas, Oranges, Mosumai, Sarson, Amla,Gauva and Ginger are available.
    • P a g e | 39LAWNS - FERTILISER APPLICATION:Early fall is the most important time of year to fertilize your lawn.Early in the morning when the dew is heavy. The dew meansyoull leave tracks walking across the lawn and itll be easier tosee where youve been. Also, there is less wind and the fertilizeris less likely to blow around.Early fall is the most important time of year to fertilize your lawn.Think of the early fall lawn feeding as the big dinner. Spring isbreakfast for the lawn and late spring is a light mid-morningsnack. Lunch is usually eaten in late summer.N-P-KNitrogen: (N) Boosts growth and green color of turfPhosphorous: (P) Feeds grass seedlings and turf rootdevelopmentPotassium: (K) Strengthens a lawns resistance to drought anddiseaseN (nitrogen): Nitrogen produces "green and growth" in your lawn.This is the major ingredient in most grass fertilizers, but applyingto much nitrogen can burn your lawn. Fertilizers containing slow-release nitrogen can prevent this hazard, but your lawn will takemore time to "green up."
    • P a g e | 40P (phosphorous/phosphate): This chemical builds strong rootsand promotes disease resistance. This is helpful for lawnssusceptible to diseases.K (potassium/potash): Potassium promotes overall plant strengthand promotes drought resistance.The rates are based on a 3-1-2 (N-P-K) maintenance ratio.The recommended rate is 2.25 kg of actual nitrogen per 1,000square feet for the growing season. Let’s suppose you wanted touse urea (46 percent strength nitrogen) as the fertilizer material.It is easy to calculate the amount of urea needed to supply a totalof 2.25 kg of actual nitrogen by using the formula:(2.25 ÷ 46) x 100 = 4.89 kg (5 kg rounded off) urea.The recommended rate is 1 kg of actual phosphate per 1,000square feet for the growing season. Let’s suppose you wanted touse SSP (16 percent strength P2O5) as the fertilizer material. Itis easy to calculate the amount of urea needed to supply a totalof 1 kg of actual phosphate by using the formula:(1 ÷ 16) x 100 = 6.25 kg (7 kg rounded off) SSP.The recommended rate is 2 kg of actual potash per 1,000 squarefeet for the growing season. Let’s suppose you wanted to useK2O (60 percent strength K2O) as the fertilizer material. It iseasy to calculate the amount of urea needed to supply a total of 2kg of actual phosphate by using the formula:(2 ÷ 60) x 100 = 3.33 kg (4 kg rounded off) K2O.
    • P a g e | 41Therefore, nearly 5 kg urea (46 percent strength nitrogen), 7 kgSuperphosphate (16 percent P2O5) and 4 kg Potash (60 percentK2O) will be needed to supply the required per 1,000 square feetof lawn area for the entire growing season.This 5 +7+4 = 16 kg of total fertilizer should be split into sixequal applications as suggested below:Apr. 1, May 1, June 1, July 1, Aug. 1 and Sept. 1Note: Per application you will need:Urea – 800 gmSuperhhosphate – 1000 gmPotash – 700 gmNote: After the application spray water on the grass as thiswill help the soil absorb the nutrients. Watering in thefertilizer washes the nutrients into the soil where lawnroots can use them and where they won’t be washed awayby a heavy rain. Watering also gets the fertilizer off theleaves which may cause burning. A dry lawn is more likelyto burn than a wet one.Fertiliser application method:Applying dry fertilizers evenly by hand is a bit difficult. The bestway is to use a fertilizer broadcasting drum or spreader. If youhave no other option, apply the fertilizer very carefully and onlyon small lawns. Wear gloves and walk backwards across the lawnas you throw the fertilizer as evenly as possible with a sweepingmotion.Sweep up any fertilizer that spills.Spread fertilizer over the edges of the lawn first.
    • P a g e | 42Move at your normal walking speed. Then move back and forthbetween the edges. To avoid missing strips, make sure to overlapthe path of the wheels when using a drop spreader. You shouldhave a little overlap at the edges of broadcast spreaders.Then broadcast the fertilizers while walking up and down the lawnas shown in the following figures:Sod/LawnsSod can be laid nearly any time the soil is workable.1. Purchase healthy sod, timing delivery for when it is time to plant(avoid leaving stacked in hot sun).2. Prepare soil by removing stones, sticks, and other obstructions.3. Lightly rake or till soil surface.4. Lay sod.5. Solid sod should be laid in alternating rows to reduce long seamsbetween rows.6. "Checkerboard" pieces of sod should be planted, not simply laid ontop of the ground; or fill between with fresh soil.7. Roll freshly-laid sod with a rented roller, or walk on it, to ensure solidcontact with soil underneath.8. Water deeply, and keep moist, not wet, until sod begins to root intosoil underneath.
    • P a g e | 43PLANT PROPAGATION METHODSPlants can be propagated by two methods, namely - sexual andasexual.Sexual Propagation: Seed formation takes place only afterpollination. After fertilization, seeds are formed. Seeds whensown give rise to new plants. Some bisexual flowers are selfsterile, that is, pollens from a flower, when deposited on thefemale part of the same flower will fail to fertilize it. In somebisexual flowers like Salvia, pollens and female parts from thesame flower mature at different time to prevent self- pollination.For artificial pollination for cross breeding purpose pollens from amature flower are collected and deposited on the receptivestigma (female organ) of another flower. This process can giverise to hybrid plants.Asexual Propagation: This process is also called as vegetativepropagation. Stem cuttings, root cuttings, leaf cuttings, rootdivision, layering, grafting and budding are all vegetativemethods of propagation.
    • P a g e | 44Stem Cuttings: Herbaceous stem cuttings of plants like Dahlia,Mint, Portulaca etc. easily root. They do not need any specialtreatment. In herbaeceous plants tender, growing and leafysections make better plants. Semi-hard cuttings like Schefflera,Aralia, Philodendrons, Hibiscus can be easily rooted. Hardwoodcuttings of Bougainvillea, Ixora etc. can be rooted with goodamount of success if root promoting hormones are used. Thesehormones - normally available in powder form - are applied onthe lower end of the cutting.Roots are formed in greater number on nodes. So, when plantinga stem cutting, at least two to three nodes should be inserted inthe planting medium. In hardwood cuttings particularly, to reducedrying through transpiration, some of the leaves should beremoved. In semi-hard and hardwood cuttings survival rate willbe much higher if cuttings are taken with a heel.Cuttings will strike roots faster in a porous and well aeratedmedium, which drains out water quickly but retains moisture forlonger periods. Sand, brick / charcoal pieces, rice husk, peatmoss or vermiculite can be used to make soil porous. Newlyplanted cutting must not be kept in complete shade. If kept insemi-shady locations, warmth of sunlight will encourages faster
    • P a g e | 45rooting. Watering should be done with a sprinkler attached to ahose or to a watering can.Root Cuttings: Some plants like Breadfruit, Curry patta, WhitePoinsettia and some Jasmines and Ixora can be propagated withroot cuttings. Roots of such plants if cut at the plant end and thecut tip of the root if exposed to air will start growing in to a newplant.Leaf Cuttings : Entire leaves removed from many succulentsand kept in moist sandy medium will sprout plantlets. Echeveria,Kalanchoe, and Sedum are such plants. Herbaceous plants likeAfrican violets, Begonia Rex, Peperomia also can be propagatedthrough leaf cutting. Sansevieria, Gasteria and Drimiopsis alsocan be propagated through entire leaf or by planting leafsections.
    • P a g e | 46Root Division: Bamboo, Asparagus and Gerbera plants grow inclumps. These clumps can be divided into sections, with eachsection having some roots. The sections are then planted asseparate plants.Air Layering: Plants which can not be propagated with any ofthe above mentioned methods may respond to layering. Layeringactually is a type of stem cutting only. But the difference betweenthe two is that in normal stem cutting the stems are cut awayfrom the mother plant and then they are forced to root. Inlayering, first the roots are formed on a stem of a mother plantand only after that the stem is cut off and is planted as a newplant. Plants grown from layering will fruit earlier than the onesgrown from seeds. Mature or semi-mature branches are selectedfor layering, depending upon the species. A ring of bark, about 1to 2 cm wide is taken out just below a node. For faster andprofuse rooting to take place, rooting hormones may be applied
    • P a g e | 47on the place from where the bark has been removed. Wetsphagnum moss in a shape of a ball is applied all around the cutand its upper portion. The ball of moss is then is covered with apiece of transparent polythene sheet. Using a string, the poly-sheet is tied firmly on to the moss ball. Keep the strings a littleloose on the upper end to facilitate occasional watering, to keepthe moss wet all the time. When a large number of roots areformed, the rooted branch is cut away from the plant. Afterremoval of the poly-sheet, the branch is planted in soil. Placesuch newly planted branches in semi-shaded place. If the rootedbranch has fewer roots, then it is advisable to cut the branchgradually from the main plant to prevent the shock.Stooping: Stooping is a type of air layering only. In this methodthe branch from which the ring of bark has been removed, is bentdown and the portion of the stem from where the bark wasremoved is inserted in the ground. A stone is kept on the soil toprevent the branch from springing out of soil. After the roots areformed, the branch is cut off from the plant end. The newlyrooted branch then is replanted.
    • P a g e | 48Grafting: Mango, Chikoo and Golden Champa are availablemostly as grafted plants. These days even Cashew, Jackfruit andJamun plants are being successfully being grafted. Decorativeplants such as hybrid red Mussaenda and catus plants too areavailable as grafts. "Stock" is a rooted plant upon which a branchof a desired variety of the plant is grafted. The branch, which isbeing grafted, is called as "scion". Grafting is done on a stockplant, which has a very strong root system. Chikoo plant isalways grafted on a sapling of Rayan (also called as Khirni) tree.Following are some important methods of grafting: Wedge grafting Side grafting Veneer grafting Approach grafting (inarching Butt grafting (used for grafting cacti plants)
    • P a g e | 49Budding: Budding, actually, is a type of grafting only. However,in budding, the scion is in a section of shield-shaped skin alongwith an eye (lateral auxiliary bud, not a flower bud). On the stocka "T" shaped cut is given. The skin is opened and the bud isinserted inside the skin. After this, the cut is covered by windinga strip of polythene sheet, keeping only the bud exposed. Thegrowing tip of the stock then is severed. Growth of the graftedbud starts within 15 days. Rose, Bougainvillea, limes and othercitrus plants, Hibiscus, Beer can be budded.
    • P a g e | 50Chrysanthemums for the Home GardenChrysanthemums or “mums” are one of the most popular fallperennials for the garden. Numerous varieties are available todayand can be selected to bloom from late summer through theentire fall. The genus Chrysanthemum belongs to the daisy familyand consist of over 200 species including annuals, perennials andsmall shrubs. Native to the Far East, chrysanthemums became apart of India’s floriculture in the late 1800 when they were firstintroduced. By the early 1900, hardier varieties were being grownand with the introduction of the Korean hybrids, mums becamequite popular as a garden plant. These Korean hybrids becamethe breeding stock for most all hardy chrysanthemum presenttoday.Garden mums are vigorous clump-type plants with strong,upright or sprawling stems which can often become woody; theleaves are slightly aromatic. Many new varieties ofchrysanthemums are being developed each year which differgreatly from their common ancestors in color, size and form. Mostare quite easy to grow in the garden, however, some are hardyonly in mild climates and freeze out when planted beyond theirzone of winter tolerance.In general, chrysanthemums are short-day plants meaning thatthe flowering response is triggered by the shortening days of latesummer. The requirement for short days to induce flowering caneither occur naturally outdoors in late summer or can becontrolled in a greenhouse by excluding light for 9 to 13 hourseach day and for an extended period of 8 to 12 or more weeksdepending upon the variety or mum type. This technique allowsgrowers to produce flowering mums and make them available anytime of year.
    • P a g e | 51There are many places where hardy chrysanthemums can beenjoyed in the garden. Because of their shallow rooting habit,plants can be dug with a spading fork and easily moved to newlocations. This has a particular advantage because mums can begrown for most of the season in a sunny location, then after theyhave developed flower buds, moved to partially shaded borderareas where they will come into full bloom. In cooler locations likethis, the flowers are more apt to last for a longer periodcompared to full sun areas.In the fall, garden centers are selling potted mums which can betransplanted to the garden to fill in bare spots in the flower bed.Mums also lend themselves well to containers and hangingbaskets. This is one of the most popular ways to enjoy mumssince these containers and basket can be moved to any sunnylocation around the landscape.Although slightly more intensive in care, cascade mums presentthe opportunity to create a spectacular floral display. Cascadesmake up a group of mums which have a weeping or trailing habit.These plants can be trained to grow over wire supports, up ordown fences or walls and generate a tremendous number of
    • P a g e | 52blooms from a single plant.Planting LocationChrysanthemums require well-drained soil and full sunlight togrow and successfully bloom. This means generally 6 hours ofsunlight or more each day during the summer period. Plantsgrown with less light will become weak, spindly and produce fewflowers. Avoid locations which are exposed to street or porchlights as this will interfere with the flowering light response toshortened days. The best location is a southern or southeasternexposure preferably against a foundation or wall where additionalprotection is given from frost. Improve the drainage beforeplanting by elevating the bed with a good mix of garden loam andcompost.Soil Preparation and PlantingAny garden soil which is good for growing vegetables will besatisfactory for growing mums. If particularly high in clay,additions of organic matter including peat, composted leaves,rotted manure or straw will improve the drainage and aeration.While working the planting bed, collect enough soil for a soil testand follow the recommendation for amounts of fertilizer to beadded. Containerized plants should be planted at the same depthat which they were grown. Do not bury the root ball. This willpromote a lack of root aeration and root rot caused by fungalpathogens. Chrysanthemums are shallow rooted and do best ifplanted high. This means that frequent watering may benecessary during times of high heat and little rainfall. Spaceplants generally about 18 inches apart. Spreading varieties mayrequire larger spacing.
    • P a g e | 53PinchingTo generate a plant full of flowers and control growth,chrysanthemum require some pinching of the tips. Thisencourages branching and more compact growth. It also willstimulate more flowers to be produced. Pinching is done byremoval of about an inch of the tip of each branch or shoot. Thisis snapped out with the thumb and index finger. The first pinchshould be done when the plant is 6 to 8 inches tall and repeatedwhen new branches become 6 inches tall. A third pinch may benecessary on fast-growing varieties. If plant are not properlypinched, they will become tall, leggy, easily blown over by windsand have few flowers.The most important thing to keep in mind when pinching thegrowth back is the timing of the last pinch. For early floweringvarieties which bloom in mid-September, the last pinch should bearound the middle of June. Varieties which flower in the early partof October should be given a last pinch on July 1. Later floweringvarieties should be pinched for the last time no later than July 15.Overall, about 3 months is required between the last pinch andbloom. This is a general rule which can guide you in controllingthe growth and stimulating more bloom production.FertilizationMost mums will require fertilization several time during the springand summer to stimulate good growth, produce thick stems andmaintain a healthy green color. Chrysanthemums are not heavyfeeders like vegetables so, it is best to use a dilute fertilizerapplied several times prior to bud set. Nitrogen has the greatesteffect on flower production and general growth. If too much isapplied, vegetative growth will be hard to control, fewer flowerswill be produced and overall, flowering will occur later in the
    • P a g e | 54season. Before planting a bed in the spring, about 4 pounds of 5-10-5 per 100 square feet can be worked into the soil to a depthof 6 inches. This gives about one-quarter pound of nitrogen per100 square feet and should be enough fertilizer for the season ifabundant organic matter is present. A second application aroundAugust 1 may be beneficial especially on poorer soils. Apply about2 tablespoons of 10-6-4 or 4 tablespoons of 5-10-5 fertilizerspread over a 2 foot circle at the base of individual plants.Alternatively, broadcast about 2 pounds of 5-10-5 per 100 squarefeet. No more than about a tenth of a pound of nitrogen shouldbe applied at this time.General Care and MaintenanceDuring the early part of the summer, a layer of mulch materialshould be applied to the soil after it has warmed up as this hasdefinite advantages to conserving and regulating moisture tothese shallow-rooted plants. Besides the benefits of watercontrol, mulch protects the bed from erosion, compaction andretards weed seed germination. Use a 2 to 3-inch layer of coarsepeat, leaf mold, compost, nut hulls or lawn clippings mixed withleaves. Mulches composed of chipped wood, sawdust and strawmay consume nitrogen fertilizer and rob the root system. If youuse these materials as mulch, double the fertilizer applied to thebed.If you cannot control the growth of the plants to the point thatthey have become tall and begin to drop over, then some supportmay be necessary in the form of wire frames or upright stakes.Wire peony or tomato frames work well and should be put inplace before they are needed, otherwise these will be moredifficult to position without damaging the plant.
    • P a g e | 55After the plants have flowered, the stems should be cut off closeto the ground. Leaf, flower and stem debris should be collectedand composted provided they are not disease or insect infested.If that is the case, the materials should be composted separatelyand not used for mulching or soil improvement around the plants.Disease or insect infested materials can be buried and left out ofthe garden.Often chrysanthemums listed in catalogs are noted as beingwinter hardy meaning that the plants will over winter and growthe following season. The term “hardy” has been used sometimesinappropriately and gardeners should be cautious about believingthat all mums are winter hardy when stated so. The fact is thatmany mums are not reliably hardy depending upon the climateconditions presented and even the most hardy varieties may notmake it through a severe winter of subzero temperatures.Many mum selections will survive the winter if the plantsgradually become frozen and remain that way until spring. Deepsnow cover will assist this and protect the frozen soil if it remainsintact throughout the winter. Unfortunately, that is notcharacteristic of the conditions in the St. Louis area and plantsmust be able to stand the freezing/thawing fluctuations whichtypify our climate.The best defense against adverse weather conditions is to providegood drainage so that water does not accumulate around theplants and promote ice formation. After the first frost, mound afew shovels of soil forming an 8-inch layer around the base ofeach plant. Cut the branches back to 10 inches above the soil lineand apply a 2 to 4-inch mulch layer as soon as the soil surfacefreezes. This means loosely layering evergreen branches, straw,or other lofty materials around the plants. Avoid using materials
    • P a g e | 56like leaves or peat moss which will pack down and retardemergence of leafy shoots in the spring. After the last danger offrost has past, this mulch and soil can be removed. If leafygrowth has already started and the possibility of frost is stillpresent, apply another layer of loose mulch to protect the growth.As an alternative to over wintering plants in the bed, they can bedug and placed into cold frames to better ensure survival. Thismean a little more work, but for those varieties which are moretender, it is often the only way to keep plants from one year toanother.Of the numerous cultivars available for home gardeners, a selectgroup of garden mums can be recommended having withstoodthe test of time at gardens in Chandigarh, Dehra Dun andBanglore.Cultivar Color TypeDebonair intense lavender decorativeStargazer dark lavender daisyTinkerbell intense purple pompomPatriot white pompomMinngopher intense red decorativeAllure yellow daisyRuby Mound crimson red pompomTriumphdark brown center,golden petalsdecorativeRoll Call orange bronze decorativeWhite Stardom pure white daisyPancho orange bronze pompomWest Point yellow pompomJohnny Appleseed orange bronze pompomFlaming Sun orange bronze decorative
    • P a g e | 57
    • P a g e | 58Some types of mums and their description is appended below:Type Description1. Irregular Incurve Largest of mum varieties. Rather loose,informal appearance, with lower petalsdrooping. Needs to be staked. Largeblooms. Mid season - Oct.2. Reflex Large durable flower. Needs to bestaked. Large to medium-large blooms.Early season - Sept., Oct.3. Regular Incurve Football mum, a compact flower with 3-5flowers/plant. Needs to be staked. Largeto medium-large blooms. Mid season -Oct.4. Decorative A flattened full bloom. A good cut flowerand garden mum. May need support.Large to medium-large blooms. Early andmid season - Sept., Oct.5. Intermediate Incurve Incurving but loose flower form, mayneed support. Large to medium-largeblooms. Early and mid season - Sept.,Oct.6. Pompon Mass of small blooms. Small miniaturebutton to large ball shaped flower. Goodfor cut flowers. Medium-large to smallblooms. Mid season - Oct.7. Single Daisy-like spray, small flower or a fewlarger blooms. Mid season - Oct.8. Anemone Single-like but more pronounced center.May need support. Large blooms or smallflowers. Mid season - Oct.9. Spoon A daisy-like flower with spoon-like endsto florets. Interesting form. Large bloomsor small flowers. Mid season - Oct.10. Quill Tubular florets like spoon but notflattened on the ends. Large blooms orsmall flowers. Mid season - Oct.11. Spider Fuji mum - the most exotic, with thinthread-like florets, tubular ends arecoiled. Large blooms. Mid season - Oct.12. Brush or Thistle Unusual, broom-shaped flower. Does notopen flat, excellent filler forarrangements. Medium-large blooms.Mid season - Oct .
    • P a g e | 59PropagationThere are several way to increase the number of plants that youare growing without buying new ones; division of whole plants,stem cuttings and planting seed.DivisionTypically, mums grown for two years can be divided by splittingthe root system of an old plant into two or more separate plants.This is best done in the spring after the new growth is about 6 to8 inches tall. Simply dig up the plant and examine the rootsystem identifying the new underground shoots that come off theold plant. Remove each rosette consisting of the leafy growth anda root system. Plant these back into the garden taking care not tobury the division too far down into the soil.CuttingsPerhaps the best way to propagate new plants is by taking stemcuttings. These are preferred to divisions because they often willgrow more vigorously and have less diseases. In the spring, whenplants have reached a height of 8 to 10 inches, make stemcuttings by removing leafy tips that are 3 to 4 inches long.Remove the basal leaves to give about 1 to 2 inches of clear stemand plant this into a soil mix of one part peat moss and one partsand, perlite or vermiculite. This can be done directly in thegarden or in a suitable container with good drainage. The cuttingshould become rooted in about 2 to 3 weeks. The most criticalfactor is moisture control. While these cutting are forming roots,they need to be watered daily. It is often helpful to make a coverout of plastic to prevent complete wilting. Plants should not beplaced in intense sunlight, however, should receive some suneach day, preferably in the early morning. If a plastic cover isused, care should be taken that the inside temperature does notreach more than 75 degrees.
    • P a g e | 60SeedsSeed is rarely used to propagate new mum plants. This isbecause few mum varieties will actually set seed and the seedthat is produced generates plants inferior to named varietiesotherwise propagated by cuttings or divisions. On the other hand,seed produced by hand-pollination is an important method ofobtaining new varieties. Primarily, because is much easier togenerate new plants from cuttings, seed propagation offers noreal advantage to the average home gardener.Selected CultivarsThere are hundreds of excellent chrysanthemum varieties and theprocess of selection can be challenging. Often you will hear thewords “garden mum” or “florist mum”. These terms are used totalk about hardiness. Generally, garden mums are hardy in theareas sold. However, florist mums are not and are produced foruse as a flowering indoor pot plant. Without extra protection,they will be difficult to over winter outdoors. If you want to give aflowering mum and want to plant it outside when the flowers arepast, then choose a garden mum.How to Grow a Cascade MumCascade mums are a type of chrysanthemum which trails outwardor lays over as it grows. These plants are typically grown with theuse of some kind of support like wire or fence to keep the plantsgrowing in a certain direction. To grow a cascade mum you musttake some special care in order to maximize the bloomproduction; the results can be spectacular and very creative.The first step in growing a cascade mum is to propagate stemcuttings taken from container stock plants which have beengrown indoors under constant light through the fall and winter.The light need only be a 60 watt bulb, however, this will keep
    • P a g e | 61these stock plants from initiating flower buds. It is important tokeep the plant in a vegetative state so that good stem cuttingscan be collected.Around the first part of February, snip off 3 to 4-inch long tips ofthe stems from the stock plants and insert 1 to 2 inches of thestem into a rooting soil mix of 50 percent sand and 50 percentpeat. Keep the cutting continuously moist for about 2 to 3 weeksuntil the rooting has completed. A plastic cover over the rootingcontainer may prevent the cutting from drying out. Transfer therooted cuttings to 4-inch pots and hold under continuous light for6 more weeks and fertilize on a regular schedule with a solublehousehold fertilizer. At this time the cuttings should be about 10to 14 inches tall. Transplant 2 or 3 cuttings to a 10-inch finishingpot with a good houseplant mix of peat and perlite.Immediately give a soft pinch by removing 2 inches of theterminal growth. Keep under light until about the 15th of April.This is the point in the season that the days are long enough tokeep the plants from setting bud.As one suggestion, construct a wire frame 5 feet long andposition the mum containers close to the base. Begin to fastenthe terminal growth to the wire by securing loosely with twistties. As the plants grow and for every 4 inches of growthproduced, pinch the terminal buds by removing about 2 inches ofthe stem. Repeat this at intervals where new growth has reached4 inches and reestablish the terminal shoot by selecting and tyingup laterals to the frame.When the frame has become filled, begin to shear the plants byremoving all terminal growth and leaving 2 to 3 leaf nodes oneach terminal. Stop shearing around July 15th so that the plant
    • P a g e | 62will begin to set buds. It takes about 90 more days until theplants will begin to bloom. This means approximately mid-October depending upon the cultivar selection.Bud set is controlled by day length. As the days become shorterin the later part of the summer, the flower buds will be initiated.Any light source like street lamps or porch lights will interferewith this flowering response so plants must be kept isolated fromthese and any other light source during the night.Once the flowers have been produced, plants can be transplantedinto the garden or cut back to be held as stock plants for the nextyear. Most cascade mums are hardy and can withstand averagelow temperature in our area.Some of the best cascade mums to grow include:Bronze Charm - bronze single typeYellow, White or Pink Daphne - single typeFirechief - red single typeMegumi - bright yellow anemone typeDiseasesA number of diseases plague chrysanthemums. Avoidingovercrowded and shaded conditions will help in reducing theincidence of disease because under such conditions, moisture islikely to remain on the leaves providing good conditions fordiseases to get started.Septoria Leaf SpotThis leaf spot disease is caused by a fungus which attacks leavesand produces brown to black spots. The disease will begin on thelower leaves and move its way upward until perhaps half of theleaves become brown and wilted. The fungus overwinters in
    • P a g e | 63debris on the soil surface. Spores produced from infested debrissplash onto new foliage in the spring and initiate new infections.The best way to control the disease is to avoid the initialinfections by cleaning up infested debris from around the base ofthe plant. If the disease shows up on the leaves, a fungicide canbe used to avoid continued infections. Fungicides labelled for leafspot control include benomyl (Benlate), chlorothalonil (Daconil),zineb, maneb or mancozeb. No cultivars are resistant to thisdisease.Powdery MildewThe same fungus which causes powdery mildew on roses, phloxand zinnias can become established on cluysanthemums. Thebest conditions for powdery mildew development are moderate tocool temperatures and high relative humidity, but not freemoisture on leaves. Typically this disease is more prevalentduring the early to late fall when air temperatures at night arerelatively cool. The only way to control powdery mildew is to usea fungicide sprayed every 7 to 10 days. Sulfur, benomyl(Benlate), dinitro phenyl crotonate (Karathane), triademefon(Bayleton) or triflorine (Funginex) are labelled for control ofpowdery mildew of chrysanthemum.Virus DiseasesVirus diseases like mosaic and stunt or virus-like diseases such asaster yellows are occasionally a problem on chrysanthemums.These diseases are typically transmitted by insects and vary intheir occurrence each year according to the insect survival rateafter winter. They may cause plants to be severely stunted withdistorted leaves or have mottled and yellowed leaves with noapparent reduction in growth. Aster yellows is caused by anorganism called a mycoplasma which resembles bacteria, butbehaves much like a virus in symptom development. There is
    • P a g e | 64little you can do to prevent these diseases and other virusdisease in the garden. The best approach to this is to rogue outinfected plants as soon as they are discovered and control insectswhich transmit the viruses; particularly aphids and leafhoppers.InsectsAphidsThese are soft-bodied insects that range in color from green toblack and about one-eighth inch long at the largest. Aphids feedby sucking out plant juices from cells. Most feeding activity willtake place from the underside of the leaves and buds. Undersevere infestations, aphid feeding will cause tissues to becomeyellowed. The only way to effectively control aphids is withinsecticides. Suitable materials include malathion, diazinon andinsecticidal soap which when use properly and sprayed to provideuniform coverage can be quite effective.CaterpillarsA couple different types of caterpillars may chew holes in theleaves or feed on the buds. Generally, these pests will cause littlelasting damage and therefore should be tolerated unless the plantshows more than 50% loss of tissue. Caterpillars can otherwisebe controlled by using an insecticide like those mentioned foraphid control. In addition, carbaryl (Sevin) should be added tothe list as well as one biological insecticide called Bacillusthuringinesis (Dipel, Thuricide, Bactur). Insecticidal soaps are noteffective against caterpillars.LeafhoppersThese small, wedge-shaped insects are always found on theunderside of leaves where they feed by sucking plant juices out ofcells. Typically, they are green in color and fly or run sidewayswhen disturbed. Heavy feeding will cause leaves to become
    • P a g e | 65mottled, curled and withered. The same insecticides as thoserecommended for aphids plus carbaryl (Sevin) will controlleathoppers.LeafminersLeafminers spend most of their pest life inside leaves burrowingbetween the upper and lower cell layers. Light-colored,serpentine mines can be easily distinguished. Heavily infestedleaves may curl and wither. Insecticides sprayed over the surfaceare not likely to control the feeding of leafminers in the leaves,however, malathion and diazinon can be used to control egg-laying adults.Plant BugsPlant bugs do not typically cause real problem onchrysanthemums, but can be found feeding on sap by puncturingtissues with their mouth parts. These insects are about one-quarter of an inch long, brown or green in color with some blackmarking on the back. If necessary, plant bugs can be controlledby use of malathion, diazinon or carbaryl.Spider MitesWhen conditions become hot and dry, spider mites can be apersistent problem on chrysanthemums. These are related, butnot true insects which feed on the underside of leaves by raspingand rupturing cells with their mouth parts. The plant sap whichleaks out is then lapped up. Heavy feeding will cause the leavesto become bronzed and dry looking. They are difficult to observewith the naked eye and therefore, often avoid detection until thedamage is already done. Insecticidal soaps as well as thosepesticides which control aphids can be effective against spidermites. Carbaryl (Sevin) will not control mites.
    • P a g e | 66Climbers and creepersBotanically, plants, which have special structure to climb onsupports, are defined as climber. Climbers are very importantornamental plants and the beauty of any garden can be greatlyincreased by carefully selecting and planting them in a suitableplace.The growth habit and mass of colour give charming appearance.Climbers are very commonly used on arches and pergolas but incities their utility enhanced for the purpose of screening thepremises from adjacent houses and maintaining privacy.Bare walls can be most effectively decorated by growing colourfulclimbers on it. Fences and trellis also provide scope for thebeautiful climbers to grow and display. It is often felt that amongthe various types of ornamental plants least interest is taken onclimbers and only few species or varieties are found growing in alocality.Even a good amateur gardener seldom knows more than a dozenclimbers as information regarding a large number of these plantsis not readily available. Attempts have been made to includedescription of plants of horticultural interest and their utility andpractical hits on cultivation of a large number of climbers suitablefor tropical gardens.Another type of climbing plants grows spirally around anotherplant or support and do not possess tendrils, rootlets, shoots or
    • P a g e | 67thorn. These are known as twiners e.g., Echites, Chonemorpha,Clerodendron.Creepers cannot grow vertically on their own e.g., Morning Glory.All these types of plants are commonly known as climbers. Mostof the flowering climbers require full sun for growth andflowering; few climbers, however, grow well in shade and flowere.g., Thunbergia grandiflora, Clerodendron splendens,Jacquemontia violacea, Asparagus racemosus, Scindapsus,Philodendrons, Monstera deliciosa, Syngonium, Cissus discolorare grown for beautiful foliage in shade or partial shade.Scindapsus (Pothos) are the most popular climber in shade andwhen grown on tree trunk, the leaves grow large with veryattractive shades of green and yellow. Philodendrons are alsogrown on tree trunks in shady places. Ficus repens (Indian ivy) is
    • P a g e | 68the most popular and widely grown plant for covering bare wallsor pedestrals. No support is needed as the roots from the nodegrip the walls.Climbers which grow quickly and cover the space thickly aremostly used for this purpose. Railway creeper (Ipomoeapalmata), Antigonon and Vernonia are commonly selected.Vermonia has neat growth but the flowers are not showy. Someheavy climbers with colourful bloom can be recommended. Theseare Clerodendron splendens, Derris scandens, Thumbergia,Adenocalymna calycina, Passiflora, Bignonia gracilis,Rhyncospermum, Bougainvillea, Ficus stipulata is also an idealclimber for screening shady place.
    • P a g e | 69Ideal climbers for pergolaQuisqualis, Banisteria laurifolia, Derris scandens, Clerodendronsplendens, Petrea volubilis, Pyrostegia venusta, Bougainvillea.Annual climberImportant annual climbers are sweet pea and heavenly bluemorning glory (Ipomoea coerulea), Mina lobata with yellow andorange red spikes and Quamoclit vulgaris with white, pink andred flowers are also popular annual climbers.Climbers for pot cultureFor growing climbers in pots, light climbers or those withbushy growth should be selected. Climbers should be planted inlarge pots (20-30cm) and given suitable support to allow theplant to grow. Among the perennial climbers Clematis flammula,Bignonia purpurea, should be selected for pot cultivation.Bougainvilleas in pots are usually treated as shrubs.
    • P a g e | 70SoilLoamy soil with good drainage suits well to most of the climbers.Decayed cow or stable manure or leaf mould should beincorporated in the soil of the pit about 50cm in depth anddiameter in case of large and heavy climbers. For light climber,the pit may be 30cm deep and 25 cm in diameter. Bone meal andleaf mould show very good result if cow-manure is not available.Distance of planting depends on the species or variety and thepurpose for which the climbers are used.Quick growing heavy climbers are planted at a distance of 3m forscreening, while light climbers for the same purpose may begrown at 1m. To cover fences or walls closer planting isrecommended. Vernonia and ficus repens are planted at adistance of 15-30cm.As the climbers do not grow erect without support, main stemand the branches should be tied up with the support. This helpsto grow and cover the space quickly. Like other perennial plantsplanting of climbers can be done any time of the year earlymonsoon is the best. Manuring encourages growth and floweringof climbers. Bone meal or hoof and horn once or twice in themonsoon will be beneficial to the plants.Selection of ClimbersThere are different situations in the garden like sunny, partialshade and different structures according to which suitable typecan be selected from an available wide choice. The climbers fordifferent situation are as follows:For sunny situation:Phyrostegia venusta, Quisqualis indica, Antigonon leptopus,Adenocalymma alliaceum, Bougainvillea sp., Campsis grandifloraetc.
    • P a g e | 71For Partial shade:Clerodendron splendens, Petrea volubilis, Lonicera japonica,Trachalospermum jasminoides.Heavy climbers:These climbers produce luxuriant vegetative growth and growvery vigorously. They cover large area and are suitable forcovering bigger area e.g. Antigonon leptopus, Bignonia magnifica,Beaumontia grandiflora, Bougainvillea sp., Hiptage benghalensis,Quisqualis indica, Wisteria sinensis Pyrostegia venusta,Clerodendron splendens.Light climbers:These climbers make sparse vegetative growth and remain lightin spread. These climbers are suitable for limited spaces e.g.Lonicera japonica, Trachelospermum jasmenoides, Clitoriaternatea.Climbers for fragrant flowers:Jasminum grandiflorum, L. officinale, Trachelospermumjasminoides, hiptage benghalensis, Clematic penniculata.Climbers for pots:Bougainvillea, Clitoria ternatea.Climbers for hedge:Clerodendron inerme and Bougaivillea.Climbers for indoor decoration:Shade loving climbers like Pothos, Monstera deliciosa,Philodendron sp., Asparagus sp., etc can be grown in pots andcan be kept indoor also.Climbers for screening:Vernonia elegnaefolia, Pyrostegia venusta.
    • P a g e | 72Annual climbers:There are climbers, which are seasonal in nature and can begrown temporarily. E.g. sweet pea, trailing nasturtium. There arewoody climbers, which can also be grown as annual like Ipomeaslobata, Clitoria ternatea.Clematis flammula (Ranunculaceae)A slender low-growing climber. Leaves usually bipinnate darkgreen, often trifoliate; leaflets narrowly lanceolate entire,glabrous 1.3 to 3.2 cm long. Flowers very fragrant, small 1.9 to2.5 cm across pure white in loose panicle up to 20-30cm long,Sepals 4-linear oblong.Clematis flammula has less growth but flowers heavily on largepanicles in the early rains. It is ideal for small gardens on lowwalls or wire nettings. It likes porous soil and partial shade.Propagation by layering.Ipomoea palmata, Railway creeperA perennial vigorous climber. Leaves 5.0 to 7.6cm in diameter,cut nearly to the base 5 to 7 lobes, entire, elliptic or lanceolate.Flowers purple, 5.0 to 6.3cm across often 3 flowered cyme.Corolla campanulate, colour deeper in the throat.Ipomoea purpurea, Common morning gloryIt is also a quick-growing climber. Leaves entire, ovatecordate,7.6 to 12.7cm long pubsecent on both surfaces. Flowers largefunnel shaped few on auxiliary peduncles, about 6.3 to 7.6cmacross, white, pale blue or purple.Passiflora coerulea (Passifloraceae)A vigorous climber. Stipule leafy, cordate, toothed. Leavesdivided nearly to the petiole into 5 lanceolate or lance-ellipticsegments 10.2 to 16.2cm across. Flowers solitary, large 7.6cmacross, auxiliary. Bracts large ovate-cordate about 2.5cm inlength. Petals 5 oblong-obtuse, pale pink in colour. Corona 5.0cm
    • P a g e | 73across, outer filaments blue at top, white in the middle andpurple at base.Passiflora deulisWoody, strong and spreading climber. Stem angular slightlydowny or glabrous. Tendrils auxiliary, long simple. Leavesalternate large. 10.2 to 12.7cm long and wide deeply 3 lobed.Lobes ovate, glandular, toothed. Flowers solitary terminal orauxiliary, 3 leafy bracts, 5 lobed greenish with short crown. Petals5 about 2cm long, oblong white often tinted with purple. Coronain several rows white in the upper half violet or purple below.Fruit globular, oblong, thickly purple dotted.Pyrostegia purpureaAn evergreen climber. Leaves compound, leaflets 3 ovate toovate-oblong about 5.0 to 7.6cm long mostly toothed brightgreen above paler beneath. Flowers 4 to 10 rosy purple inauxiliary cyme. Corolla funnel shaped about 5.0cm long, lobes 5spreading about 6cm across.This ideal climber produces flowers in large bunches 6 to 8 timesa year in the summer and rains and rains and should be grown ontrellis or low walls. Propagated from layers.Thunbergia laurifoliaA shrubby climber. Stem terets, smooth except when young.Leaves opposite, ovate, oblong – lanceolate rounded at the base,entire or slightly toothed 15 cm long about 6.3cm wide. Flowersborne in auxiliary or terminal raceme. Corolla tube cylindrical,swelling above, cuneal-shaped with spreading large 5 lobed limbabout 6.3cm across pale blue, white or yellow in the throat.
    • P a g e | 74Roses – The Queen of FlowersThe Rose, belong to the shrub family and is called the queen offlowers and is known for their beauty and fragrance. Thisflowering shrub is mainly valued for their beautiful colour flowersand fragrance. It has about 150 species. Many thousands ofcultivars have been developed from these species through crossbreeding, selection and hybridization and they vary widely fromminiatures under 30 cm tall to climbing types that climb up to 15meter high.Many writers, artists, and composers have always praised therose and have rightly called it the flowers of love. It was theGreek poet Sappho who coined the title Queen to the flower over2500 years ago. In the early Roman culture, Roses were a part ofupper class life. The decorations for parties, weddings, funerals,festivals and on statues and monuments, chariots and shieldswere adorned with roses. People would bathe in rose water, wearrose garlands, make confections and wine with rose petals. Evenmedications were prepared from rose petals, fruits (hips) andseeds.The cultivars are mainly covered under the heading of Old Gardenroses and the Modern roses. In a garden, roses can be planted asborders, hedges, backgrounds, and specimen plants. They can beplanted not only in the open ground but in pots and raised bedson your verandah, terrace or balcony.PlantingRoses grow best in soil with a pH 6.5 (slightly acidic) and 7.0.The soil structure should be such that it remains moist for mostpart of the day and at the same time it should be well-drained.Avoid planting the rose shrub in excessively sandy or clayey soils.Sand should be added if the soil is extremely moist/ clayey. Add
    • P a g e | 75peat moss, dead leaves or some other organic sources to the soilbefore planting the rose. The soil should be prepared atleast a month in advance of the planting.The best time to plant bare root roses is in January or Februaryup to March. October end. November planting can also besuccessful if your area does not have severe winters. Potted rosesthat it can be planted at almost any time. Before planting, pottedplants can be placed outdoors and watered for some time tomake the roots and canes moist. Potted roses need to be prunedwhen planted. In order to restore the bare root plant, it should beplaced in a bucket of water for 1 2-24 hours before planting.LocationRoses flower best in sunny locations. Most types need at least 6hours of direct sunshine daily, preferably in the morning forflowering and growth. Try to select a planting location that is notshaded by buildings, trees etc.Dig a trench of 40 cm deep and 50 cm wide with one sideslanted. Soak the area where you intend plant the rose to makethe soil more manageable. Small roses need a hole not muchmore than 40 cm across. Shrub roses need holes about 90to 100cm across. Climbers planted along a wall may need holes whichare a little bigger than this. Before planting a bare root plant trimoff any long or damaged roots. Place the juncture of roots andstem just below the soil surface. If there is a bud union, it shouldbe about 2.5 cm above the soil. Fill the hole with soil and press itfirmly down. Water thoroughly after planting.If using a granulated fertiliser:Scatter a small amount of all-purpose fertilizer lightly underplants from the stem to beyond the outer spread of branchesor foliage.Water slowly and deeply.NOTE: Never over fertilise if you see lots of weak, leafygrowth and few flowers.
    • P a g e | 76PropagationPropagation can be done from cuttings, by budding.BuddingMake a 2.5 cm long T shaped cut in bark of under stock, an inchor two above soil level. For bud wood, choose a stem that hasjust flowered. Slice under bud to get a 2.5 cm bark with bud in it.Peel back under stock bark at T cut, insert bud shield. Bud shouldbe at least 0.5 cm below top of T. Firmly tie bud in place withsoft cotton thread (used by the plumbers).Strip wrapping bothabove and below it but leaving bud exposed. When bud sends outa strong new shoot the next spring, cut of under stock growthabout 1 inch above the shoot. If the bud is plump and green,your new rose bush is born.Cuttingsyou can start cuttings after the first bloom. Cuttings should be 15to 20 cmLong. Cut a newly flowered stem below a leaf, remove lowerleaves and plant in sandy potting mix. Remember that thecuttings should not be allowed to dry out. Keep it moist/humid bycovering it with a plastic bag. The bag should be removed oncethe new growth emerges.Caring for the rosesPruningPruning involves removing any damaged, diseased or dead woodof a rose bush to improve the appearance, stimulate growth andcontrol pests and diseases. Improper/heavy pruning can affectblooming. The how and when of pruning roses is determined bythe type of rose. Here we are given few basic steps to prune yourrose plant.
    • P a g e | 77Plants are ready to be pruned, when the bush becomes leafless orwith a few leaves during the dormant season. Use a sharp knifeor pruning shears and remember one thing to cut approximately1 cm above an outward facing bud. Remove all old, damaged anddiseased canes. Take out stems that cross through the centre andthin out the center of the plant. Where canes cross and rubagainst each other prune out the less healthy cane. Shorten theremaining healthy growth by 1/3rd of its length. Apply a borduixmixture paste to the cuts in order to avoid damage by insects anddiseases.FertilistionAlthough some roses may flourish without fertilization, they neednutrients for peak performance. So it is usually necessary toapply fertilizer.The three basic nutrients for healthy growth are Nitrogen,Phosphorous, and Potassium. Do not fertilize newly planted rosesuntil after the first bloom. If you want to avoid using chemicalfertilisers you can try these organic alternatives: bone meal,compost, fish emulsion, manure, and seaweed or soybean meal.Apply fertiliserhen you see new emerging growth. Fertiliseasecond time when the first flower buds set in. Apply a finalfertilizer after two months.WateringThe amount and frequency of application will depend on soil type,bush size, and the rainfall in your area. When watering roses, besure to soak the soil well; they need more than just light spraysof water. Washing the leaves every week or so will make theplants healthy. This will also wash away some insect pests. Someother tips include watering in the morning, avoid letting the watercome into contact with the leaves and blooms, and providingmulch so that the soil retains its moisture. The uses of mulch
    • P a g e | 78around roses help to retain soil moisture and help retard weedgrowth.Diseases and Pest ControlThe rose plants are mainly affected by three types of diseases -Black-spot, Powdery and Rust. For black spot you shouldthoroughly clean up debris at pruning time, then apply theBorduixmixture to the cuts. Resistance varies from one rosevariety to the next for powdery mildew. Garden sanitation is bestfor rust and can be controlled with foliage sprays.The pests that usually attack the roses are - Aphids, Thrips,Beetles, Borers, Rose midge, caterpillars, Worms and Mites.
    • P a g e | 79Natural enemies like lady bugs help keep aphids in check. Theyeffect growth and can deform leaves. Hand picking is the safestcontrol for Beetles, Caterpillars and worms and Borers. To controlmites spraying water is the simplest remedial measure. Use anozzle that produces fine spray, thoroughly wash off theundersides of the leaves. Repeat this method at least three times.Thrips deform flower petals. To control thrips use chemical sprayplants always from above, making certain to cover all the leaves.Types of RosesHybridHybrid roses dominate modern rose gardens and have long,pointed buds. They grow up to 100 to 150 cmtall and producesemi double to double flowers, repeatedly during the season.Examples are Paradise, Peace, Polarstern, Pristine etc.Climbing RosesTall plants generally grow from 2 to 6 meter high. They aregrown on walls & fences, trellises. Climber flowers are large withonly a few per cluster. They require very little pruning, and nearlyall are repeat bloomers viz Blaze, Don Juan, Dortmund, ClimbingIceberg etcMiniature RosesThese rose plants grow up to 60 cmor less in height with smallblooms. Colour range includes all the shades found in modernhybrid teas, in flowers that range from informal to hybrid teastyle. Miniatures are grown on their own root. Some of theMiniatures are Rainbows End, Red Beauty, Rise N Shine. Thereare certain types of climbing miniatures derived from crosses ofminiatures with climbing roses.
    • P a g e | 80Shrub RoseShrub roses are hardy, have a tolerance to less than optimumgrowing conditions, and needs only low maintenance. Flower sizevaries from small to large, can be single or double. This plantmay be 2to 3 meter tall and bloom all season long. You can usethem as borders, hedges etc. Some of the common varieties are -Bonica,Frau Dogmar Hartopp, Abraham Darby, Golden Wings etc.FloribundasFloribundas are bushy plants that grow from 60 to 120 cm high.Individual flowers may be single or double and are borne inclusters. Good for borders or containers, floribundas provide analmost constant show of color - Impatient, Angel Face, IvoryFashionGrandiflorasThese are tall elegant plants 5 to 8 feet high. Grandiflorars bloomrepeatedly during the season. This type has been derived fromcrosses between Hybrid and Floribundas. Medium to large flowersusually comes in small clusters - Aquarius, Gold Medal, PinkParfait etc.Standard or Tree RosesTree roses or standard roses are small plants from 60o 90 cmhigh. This is a bush rose budded on to a under stock stem toproduce a rose tree. The standard tree rose has full-sized flowers.Many popular rose varieties are available in tree form.
    • P a g e | 81Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionStandard or Tree RosesRosa Blaze Climber Blaze, FlamingFuryRed An everlasting freeflowering plant.Grows from12 to 15 feet. Doubleflowers with 25 petals.Light fragrance. Shinyleathery dark green leaves.Rosa RoyalSunsetClimber Royal Sunset Deepapricot,yellowpinkblend,orangeblendPlant grows from 8 to 10feet. Dark glossy greenleaves. Strong fragrance.Rosa Macha Climber Handel,HaendelCreamywhite androse-pinkTall plant grows from 12 to15 feet. Flowers with 25petals. Colour is creamypink, with petal borderedin bright rose pink. Doubleblooms. Light fragrance.Dark bronzed greenleaves.Miniature RosesMiniature-pinkCupcake FrostingpinkLong lasting, freeflowering, bushy plant.Well-shaped blooms withsweet fragrance. Glossyleaves.Rosa BeautySecretMiniature-redBeauty Secret Cherry redbudsBushy habit plant. Lovelysmall flowers with 20petals. Long pointed budsopen to semi doubleblossoms. Strong fruityfragrance. Dark greenfoliage.Rosa Yellow Doll Miniature-yellowYellow Doll LightYellowSpreading habit flowerwith 50 petals. Double,fairly large blooms.Flowers are moderatelyfragrant.
    • P a g e | 82Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionMulticolour RosesRosa Burway Hybrid Tea Broadway PinkYellowblendTall upright habit plantgrows from 4 feet. Darkgreen leathery leaves.Large double blooms with35 petals of pink andyellow, with pink tonesintense at edges. Spicyfragrance.Rosa Peace Hybrid /ClimberPeace, Beke,Fredsrosen,Gioia, Mme AMeilland, MmeAntoine MeillandYellow andPink blendBushy habit plant ofmedium height grows from5 to 6 feet. Large doubleblossoms with pink rimmedyellow petals. Dark greenglossy leaves. Diseaseresistant and makes goodcut flowers.Rosa Aromiclea Hybrid Tea Voodoo Orange,Yellow andPink blendTall, bushy upright plantwith plenty of dark bronzegreen, glossy foliage.Richly fragrant blossomsthat soften to yellow andpeach shades, then finallyfade to pink. Good cutflower.Red RosesRosa Macdub Bright red Dublin Bay,Grand HotelBright Red A bright red climbing Rosewith small clusters of 25petals. Semi double cutflowers grows from 8 to 12feet. Good diseaseresistant foliage, needs fullsun. Flowers aremoderately fragrant.Rosa Jacdew Floribunda Impatient OrangeRedUpright bushy plant withsemi double blooms incluster. 25 petals with lightfragrance. Good cutflowers, grows to 4 feetand has good diseaseresistance.Rosa Oklahoma Hybrid Tea/ClimberOklahoma,Almost BlackRed/Black,Red/PurpleVery large, long lastingflower with 48 petals.Intensely fragrant rose.Plant is a vigorous grower.Grows to 4 feet.
    • P a g e | 83Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionPink RosesRosa Bridal Pink Hybrid Tea Rosa BridalPinkPinkblendedwithcreamBridal pink, the uprightbushy fragrant rose flowerlooks like a painters brushspattered darker pink onthe bloom. It needs verylittle care. Bridal pinkis long lasting andgenerally grows from 3 to5 feet high.RosaMeldomonacShrub roses Bonica, RedBonicaSoft pink Bonica, an ever blooming,dense, spreading habitflower. It is an easy togrow shrub which coverthemselves with largeclusters of smallish fullydouble flowers having alight fragrance. This bushyplant grows from 3 to 5feet.Rosa Bucbi ShrubRosesCarefree beauty StrongPinkAn upright, bushy shrubwith rich pink flowershaving light scent. Itgenerally grows from 2 to5 feet. Long buds in smallclusters which open intosemi double blooms. Itblooms repeatedly all yearlong. Glossy, dark greenfoliage. This delight yourgarden throughout thegrowing season .White RosesRosa Jacare Floribunda Class Act, FirstClass, WhiteMagicWhite tocreamMedium height plant growsfrom 2 to 2.5 feet. Gooddisease resistance. Darkgreen leaves. Moderatelydouble flowers with fruityfragrance.Rosa Jacven Floribunda Evening Star PureWhiteMedium size, lightlyfragrant flowers comes insmall clusters. Flower.Plant grows from 2.5 feetto 4. Good diseaseresistance. Healthy foliage.
    • P a g e | 84Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionRosa Lenip Hybrid Tea Pascali, BlanchePascaWarmwhiteTall upright bushy plantwith dark green foliage.Vigorous, good resistancegrows up to 3 to 4 feet.Large flowers with 30petals. Long lasting cutflower.Orange RosesRosa Harroony Floribunda Amber Queen,HarmonyGoldenyellowLarge, semi-gloss, fullydouble magnificentflowers. Good as cutflowers, they have a strongspicy sweet fragrance.The plant is bushy andneeds full sun. Generallygrows from 3 to 3.5 feet,spreading habit, has gooddisease resistance anddark green bronze tintedfoliage.Rosa Korgane Hybrid Tea Las Vegas Orange-gold blendUpright bushy habit plantgrows medium height of3.5 feet. Medium sizedflowers with 26 petals withgolden yellow petal backs.Shapely pointed buds,strong fragrance andglossy foliage.Rosa Arocad Hybrid Tea Brandy Bronze-apricotLarge broad 28 petalflower with mild fragrance.Semi glossy, dark greenfoliage. Plant is mediumtall, vigorous bush. Gooddisease resistance needsgood soil.Yellow RosesSummer Love Hybrid tea/climberSummerSunshineDeepYellowUpright spreading plantreaches height from 3 to3.5 feet. Very large flowerswith 25 petals. Lightlyfragrant. Glossy greenleaves have a bronzy tintRosa Tanolg Hybrid Tea Oregold MissHarp, SilhouetteSaffron-yellowUpright medium bushyplant grows from 3 to 4feet. Lightly scented largeoval flowers with 40 petals.Dark glossy leaves.
    • P a g e | 85Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionRosa New Day Hybrid Tea New DayMabellaSoftYellowUpright, bushy fairlythorny plant of height 4feet. Leathery gray-greenfoliage. Large double highcentered blooms. Taperedbuds. Spicy fragranceLavender RosesRosa Angel Face Floribunda/ climberAngel Face RosylavenderedgedwithcrimsonLow, upright, spreadingplant flowers heavily.Grows from 3 to 3.5 feet.Flowers with 30 petalsblooms in clusters. Gooddisease resistance withstrong fragrance. Goodcut flower. Glossy leaves.Rosa JacumFloribunda Intrigue Purple-redUpright bush of mediumheight from 2 to 3 feet.Powerful citrusy fragrance.Large attractive flowers,purple red in colour of 25petals each. Good foliage.Rosa Wezip Hybrid Tea/climberParadise,Passion,Burning SkyMediumlavenderwith rubyedgingUpright bushy mediumplant of height 3 feet.Double blooms.Flowers with 28 petals.Fruity fragrance. Greenfoliage; doespoorly in cold, wetconditions; needs full sun.TIPS - PruningThere is usually no real need to prune most grasses at all except tokeep them neat and attractive.1. Cut ornamental grasses either in the fall to keep them neatthrough the winter, or in late winter before new growth comesout to avoid damaging it for the entire season.2. Never burn ornamental grasses to remove old growth; this oftenkills the center crown and can be dangerous as well.3. Cut back old foliage to help make handling easier (watch forwasp nests)4. Use a saw or sharpened shovel to cut into and divide the centerof the clump through the roots.5. Dig underneath the portion to be removed.6. Remove and replant as soon as possible.
    • P a g e | 86INSECTS PESTS DISEASES AND CONTROLPesticides IntroductionTerminology and DefinitionsPests Organisms such as insects, rodents, nematodes, fungi, weeds, birds, bacteria, viruses, etc., whichdamage the crops and reduce yield. Pests are injurious to human health and/or farmers economic efforts.Pesticides Chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that are used for killing. repelling, mitigating or reducingpest damage.Herbicides Substances used for inhibiting growth of plants, plant parts, or to kill/destroy the plants.Defoliants Substances that initiate leaves to fall.Desiccants Substances that cause plant tissue to dry up.Fungicides Substances that prevent, destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi in crop plants.Insecticides Substances that prevent, inhibit, destroy, kill insects (belonging to ClassRodenticides Substances that prevent, inhibit, destroy, kill rodents (Class Mammalia,Miticides/Acaricldes Substances that prevent, inhibit, destroy, kill or mitigate mites (Nematicides Chemicals that prevent, repel, inhibit or destroy members of the ClassMolluscicides Prevent, repel, inhibit or destroy members of the Phylum Mollusca suchas snails.Formulation The form in which a pesticide is sold for use.Active ingredient (a.i) is a part of a pesticide formulation which is the actual toxicant sometimes referredto as "technical grade" or "basic pesticide"Inert ingredients Substances, other than the active ingredient, which constitute a pesticide formulation.Classification of PesticidesPesticides may be classified according to:a) the target pest species.b) their chemical constitutionc) their site of actionSystemic poisons and Contact poisonsThese poisons enter the body directly through the cuticle by contact with the treated surface of the foliage,stem, etc. These poisons act on the nervous system of the pest. These may also be applied directly on tothe body of the pest as a spray or dust. Examples: benzene hexachloride. dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane, endrin, quinalphos, carbamates, etc. Some of the known pesticides derived from plants also havecontact action.Examples: pyrethrum, rotenone, sabadilla. nicotine, etc.Stomach poisonsStomach poisons enter the body of the pest through the mouth during feeding into the digestive tract fromwhere these are absorbed into the systems. Stomach poisons are more effective against chewing insectsand useful in controlling insects with siphoning or sponging types of mouth parts (housefly for an example).Examples: dieldrin, sulfur, lead arsenate, etc.Classification based on site of actionBy segmenting insecticides/acaricides and fungicides separately, insecticides/ acaricides can be classifiedon the basis of their routes of entry into the body system of the target pest.A. For spraying after mixing with water/oili) Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)ii) Wettable powders (WP or WDP)
    • P a g e | 87iii) Ultra low volume concentrates (ULV)B. For dry application directly from the containeri) Dusts (D)ii) Granules (G)iii) Encapsulated granulesC. For application as a gas or vapori) Fumigantsii) Smoke generators or tablets that vaporizeiii) Aerosols and pressurized spraysD. Other formulationsi) Seed protectants (dry or liquid)ii) Baits for rodents, slugs, flies, cockroaches, etc.These are concentrated solutions of the technical grade material containing an emulsifier to help theconcentrate mix readily with water for spraying. The emulsifier is a detergent that causes the suspension ofmicroscopically small oil droplets in water, to form an emulsion. When an emulsifiable concentrate is addedto water and agitated (i.e., stirred vigorously), the emulsifier causes the oil to disperse uniformly throughoutthe carrier (i.e., water) producing an opaque liquid. Liquid formulations are easy to transport and store, andrequire little agitation in the tank. However, care must be exercised in handling the toxic concentrates.Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)Type of FormulationsFormulations contain the a.i. in a definite concentration together with other materials such as inertcarriers, emulsifiers, wetting agents, solvents, thickeners, encapsulants, etc. According to the intendedmode of application, the common formulations can be grouped as follows:They have unsuitable physical characteristics. They are generally waxy or lumpy solids or viscous liquids.In this form, they are difficult to apply.They have high purity levels and hence the required dose is difficult to disperse. The quantity involved isvery small to be evenly and effectively dispersed over a specified area.The toxicity of the a.i. is much higher compared to the formulations. Thus, application of a.i. is not onlyhazardous but also needs specialized training and knowledge in handling.The a.i. does not have the ideal physiochemical characteristics which the formulations have.Pesticides are first manufactured as technical grade (active ingredient or a.i). In this form, they areunsuitable for direct use because of the following reasons:Pesticides nomenclaturePesticides usually have three different names.i) Chemical name or the name of the active ingredient in pure form,ii) Common name, andiii) Trade name/brand name or proprietary name.
    • P a g e | 88APHIDSAphids Aphids Aphids AphidsAphids are small, soft-bodied insects with long, slender mouth parts that they use to pierce stems, leaves,and other tender plant parts and suck out plant fluids. Almost every plant has one or more aphid speciesthat occasionally feeds on it.IDENTIFICATIONAphids may be green, yellow, brown, red, or black depending on the species and the plants they feed on. Afew species appear waxy or woolly due to the secretion of a waxy white or gray substance over their bodysurface. Generally adult aphids are wingless, but most species also occur in winged forms, especially whenpopulations are high or during spring and fall. Although they may be found singly, aphids often feed indense groups on leaves or stems.LIFE CYCLEAphids have many generations a year. Most aphids in mild climate reproduce asexually throughout most orall of the year with adult females giving birth to live offspring (often as many as 12 per day) without mating.Young aphids are called nymphs. They molt, shedding their skins about four times before becoming adults.There is no pupal stage. Some species mate and produce eggs in fall or winter, which provides them amore hardy stage to survive harsh weather. In some cases, these eggs are laid on an alternative host,usually a perennial plant, for winter survival.When the weather is warm, many species of aphids can develop from newborn nymph to reproducing adultin 7 to 8 days. Because each adult aphid can produce up to 80 offspring in a matter of a week, aphidpopulations can increase with great speed.DAMAGELow to moderate numbers of leaf-feeding aphids are usually not damaging in gardens or on trees.However, large populations cause curling, yellowing, and distortion of leaves and stunting of shoots; they
    • P a g e | 89can also produce large quantities of a sticky exudate known as honeydew, which often turns black with thegrowth of a sooty mold fungus. Some aphid species inject a toxin into plants, which further distorts growth.A few species cause gall formations.Aphids may transmit viruses from plant to plant on certain vegetable and ornamental plants. Squashes,cucumbers, pumpkins, melons, beans, potatoes, lettuces, beets, chards, and bok choy are crops that oftenhave aphid-transmitted viruses associated with them. The viruses cause mottling, yellowing, or curling ofleaves and stunting of plant growth. Although losses can be great, they are difficult to prevent through thecontrol of aphids because infection occurs even when aphid numbers are very low: it only takes a fewminutes for the aphid to transmit the virus while it takes a much longer time to kill the aphid with aninsecticide.A few aphid species attack parts of plants other than leaves and shoots. The lettuce root aphid is a soildweller that attacks lettuce roots during most of its cycle, causing lettuce plants to wilt and occasionally dieif populations are high. The lettuce root aphid overwinters as eggs on poplar trees, where it produces leafgalls in spring and summer. The woolly apple aphid infests woody parts of apple roots and limbs, often nearpruning wounds, and can cause overall tree decline if roots are infested for several years.MANAGEMENTAlthough aphids seldom kill a mature plant, the damage and unsightly honeydew they generate sometimeswarrant control.CHEMICAL CONTROLInsecticidal soap, neem oil, provides temporary control if applied to thoroughly cover infested foliage. Toget thorough coverage, spray these materials with a high volume of water and target the underside ofleaves as well as the top. Soaps, neem oil, only kill aphids present on the day they are sprayed, soapplications may need to be repeated.Many other insecticides are available to control aphids in the home garden and landscape,including foliar-applied formulations of malathion, permethrin and acephate (nonfood crops only).Acephate has systemic activity, which means it moves through leaves, thus it can be effectivewhere aphids are hidden beneath curling foliage. The soil-applied systemic pesticide Acephate issometimes applied in roses for aphid control, but it is a highly toxic material to people. Use 1 partAcephate in 1 liter water.When considering application of pesticides for aphid control, remember that moderate populations of manyaphids attacking leaves of fruit trees or ornamental trees and shrubs do not cause long-term damage. Lowpopulations can be tolerated in most situations and aphids will often disappear when natural enemies or hottemperatures arrive. Often a forceful spray of water or water-soap solution, even on large street trees,when applied with appropriate equipment, will provide sufficient control.
    • P a g e | 90MITESMite Eggs Mite Red Mite Foliage Damage Mite ColonyThese small creatures can normally not be seen by the naked eyes. It is only after the damage occurs thatwe observe that the cause is mites.IDENTIFICATIONThere are over 20 different types of mites but the common ones are cyclamen and broad mites. Thesemites are about one-fourth the size of spider mites and cant be seen without a microscope or a 20Xmagnifier. Adult cyclamen mites can be translucent white, pinkish orange, or pale yellow. Broad mites areoften translucent, yellowish, or greenish, and female broad mites have a white stripe down the center oftheir back. Broad mites have a tapered body that is widest between their second pair of legs and morenarrow toward the rear. Cyclamen mites have sides that are more nearly parallel, not sharply tapered.LIFE CYCLEThe mites, such as the two-spotted spider mite, lay as many as 100 to 200 eggs on the undersides ofleaves on one of approximately 180 host plants. Host plants include field crops, ornamental plants, weedsor house plants. The eggs take up to 20 days to hatch, although they may hatch in just a few days if theweather cooperates. Cool-weather spider mites often spend the entire winter in the egg stage whileattached to the host plant. The eggs begin hatching in the spring. The mite eggs hatch into tiny larvae withrounded bodies and three pairs of legs, a stage they stay in for several days while they rest and feed. Next,they molt into a nymph with four pairs of legs, resting and feeding before molting into a second nymphstage. Within a few days, the second-stage nymphs became adults. The entire process from egg hatchingto adult stage takes between 7 and 14 days. Adult spider mites sport four pairs of legs extending off asingle, oval body. Female spider mites have rounded abdomens while males have pointed abdomens.Some mites, such as the clover mite, only live for a few weeks as long as weather conditions stay in theirfavor. Female two-spotted mites often live longer, spending the winter in a protected spot.
    • P a g e | 91DAMAGECyclamen and broad mites infest many hosts such as begonia, dahlia, geranium, gerbera, and verbena.Infested leaves become cupped, curled, dwarfed, and thickened. Leaves or flowers may becomediscolored, bronzed, or stiff. Infested buds discolor, deform, or drop. Internodes may be short, giving plantsa stunted or tufted appearance. When they feed on the sap of houseplants, spider mites cause damage bybiting into them. Spider mite infestation causes light speckles to appear on leaves. Heavy infestations canstunt and even kill houseplants,MANAGEMENTEarly detection of spider mites, before damage is noticed, is important. The tiny spider mites can bedetected by taking a piece of white paper or cardboard and striking some plant foliage on it. The mites canbe seen walking slowly on the paper. If 10 or more mites per sample are common, controls may be needed.Syringing Since rainy weather seems to knock off spider mites, using a forceful jet of water from a hose(syringing) can perform the same task. A regular syringing can keep spider mites under control on mostornamental plants in the landscape. This technique also helps conserve natural predators.Chemical Control - "Soft Pesticides". Most spider mites can be controlled with insecticidal oils and soaps.The oils, both horticultural oil and dormant oil, can be used. Horticultural oils can be used on perennial andwoody ornamentals during the summer at the 1 to 2 percent rate. Higher rates of horticultural oil (3 to 4percent) or dormant oil are useful for killing mite eggs and dormant adults in the fall and spring. Theinsecticidal soaps are useful in the warm season. Remember that mites are very tiny and soaps andoils work by contact only. Therefore, thorough coverage of the plant is necessary for good control.There are few products available to the gardener - Dicofol , Acephate), dimethoate , chlorpyriphosand malathion.Broad and cyclamen mites are difficult to control with pesticides because they are protected from sprays bytheir habit of feeding in buds or within distorted tissue. Regularly inspect plants and disinfest or dispose ofinfested plants. Establish new plantings from mite-free stock and never plant new plants near infested ones.Horticultural oils, available at many garden supply stores, are the most effective spray against mites.Insecticides are also effective. If your plant is severely infested with spider mites use of Dicofol ,Acephate), dimethoate , chlorpyriphos and malathion can control them. Spray 1 ml of the pesticidein 1 liter of water for 15-20 days with a gap of 3-4 days..
    • P a g e | 92CATERPILLARSCaterpillar Eggs Caterpillar Common Caterpillar Red Caterpillar MothMost flowers are susceptible to damage from caterpillars of one or more species. Caterpillars are theimmature or larval stage of moths and butterflies. Only the larval stage chews plants. Although adultsconsume only liquids, such as nectar and water, they are important because they choose which plants tolay eggs on. Larvae have three pairs of legs on the thorax (the area immediately behind the head) and leglike appendages on some, but not all, segments of the abdomen.LIFE CYCLEMoths and butterflies have complete metamorphosis and develop through four life stages. Adults haveprominent, delicate wings covered with tiny scales that rub off and appear powdery when touched. Aftermating, the female moth or butterfly lays her eggs singly or in a mass on or near the host plant or nearbysoil. Eggs usually hatch in several days. The emerging larvae move singly or in groups to feeding sites onthe plant.Most caterpillars eat voraciously and grow rapidly. Some feed almost continuously. Others, such ascutworm larvae, hide in the soil during the day, emerging to feed at night. Caterpillars shed their old skinsabout five times before entering a nonactive pupal stage. Some species pupate in silken cocoons, andmost species pupate in a characteristic location, such as on the host plant or in litter beneath the plant.The adult moth or butterfly emerges from the pupal case after several days to several months, dependingon the species and season. Some common caterpillars have only one generation per year outdoors; otherspecies have several generations each year and can cause damage throughout the growing season.DAMAGECaterpillars chew irregular holes in foliage or blossoms or entirely consume seedlings, young shoots, buds,leaves, or flowers. Some caterpillars fold or roll leaves together with silk to form shelters. Caterpillar feedingcan kill or retard the growth of young plants.
    • P a g e | 93MANAGEMENTHandpick. Eliminate nearby weeds, which may host caterpillars. Provide proper cultural care to allow olderplants to outgrow and replace any damaged tissue after infestations are controlled.Uses systemic products such as Acephate (1 ml in 1 liter water) spray, which easily eliminate anycaterpillar that is feeding on ornamental plants. When heavily infested shrubs were sprayed with asolution of Imadaclorprid or use Permethrin. These applications should be made at about 10 to 14day intervals to effectively kill the different generations of caterpillars that are probably present.The effect of Imadaclorprid spray 0.050 ml in 1 liter of water last for 6 months.LEAFHOPPERSLeafhopper Eggs Leafhopper Nymphs Leafhopper Adult Leafhopper DamageRose LeafsLeafhoppers feed on several flower hosts such as aster, chrysanthemum, dahlia, and nasturtium. Mostadult leafhoppers are slender and less than or about equal to 1/4-inch long. Some species are brightlycolored, while others blend with their host plant. Leafhoppers are active insects; they crawl rapidlysideways or readily jump when disturbed. Adults and nymphs and their pale cast skins are usually found onthe underside of leaves.IDENTIFICATIONLeafhoppers may sometimes be confused with aphids or lygus bugs. Look for leafhoppers or their castskins on the undersides of affected leaves. Look at their actions; they are faster than aphids and runsideways and jump. Lygus bug nymphs are light green and also move much faster than aphids. They canbe identified by their red-tipped antennae. Aphids can be distinguished by two tubelike structures, calledcornicles, protruding from the hind end.LIFE CYCLEFemales insert tiny eggs in tender plant tissue, causing pimplelike injuries. Wingless nymphs emerge andmolt four or five times before maturing in about 2 to 7 weeks. Leafhoppers overwinter as eggs on twigs oras adults in protected places such as bark crevices. In cold-winter climates, leafhoppers may die duringwinter and in spring migrate back in from warmer regions. Most species have two or more generations eachyear.
    • P a g e | 94DAMAGELeafhopper feeding causes leaves to appear stippled, pale, or brown, and shoots may curl and die. Certainspecies secrete honeydew on which foliage-blackening sooty mold grows. Foliage can distort, discolor, andsometimes die. Some species vector pathogens. The aster leafhopper and other species vector the asteryellows phytoplasma, which infects many flower crops.MANAGEMENTBecause of their mobility, leafhoppers are difficult to control. Fortunately, control is rarely needed.Remove alternate hosts to reduce populations. Insecticidal soap or other insecticides applied whennymphs are small may be used if necessary to reduce populations but will not reduce virustransmission significantly. For heavy infestation use BIFEN 0.50 ml in 1 liter water. Spray every 15days. The effect will last for 6 months
    • P a g e | 95LEAFMINERSLeafminer Pupua Leafminer Larva Leafminer Nymphs Leafminer MinesLeafminers attack many different flower hosts, including aster, begonia, dahlia, impatiens, lily, marigold,petunia, and verbena. Adult are small, active, black and yellow flies. The most important species are theserpentine leafminer and the pea leafminer. Larvae are yellow cylindrical maggots.IDENTIFICATIONThe adult is a small, shiny black, clear-winged fly about 2.2 to 2.7 mm long. Head entirely black;mesonotum shining black; pleura and legs entirely black; squamae and fringe silvery white; halteresvariegated, primarily white, but knob with a conspicuous black area above; wing length about 2.2 to 2.7mm. Larvae are yellowish white, about 3 mm long, and make blotch-like tunnels within leaves where theselarvae are readily visible as they feed.LIFE CYCLEIn warm weather, leafminers may be more active. The life cycle is only 2 weeks long. Eggs are inserted intoleaves and larvae feed between leaf surfaces, creating a "mine." At high population levels, entire leavesmay be covered with mines. Mature larvae leave the mines, dropping to the ground to pupate. There canbe five to ten generations per year. Development continues all year, the population moving from one host toanother as new host plants become available each season.
    • P a g e | 96DAMAGEAdult female leafminers puncture leaves and sometimes petals to feed on exuding sap. These punctureseventually turn white, giving foliage a stippled or speckled appearance. Larvae make a winding tunnel(mine) or sometimes a blotch between the lower and upper leaf surface. The mine becomes longer andwider as the larva grows. Mining usually has little impact on plant growth and rarely kills plants. Unusuallyheavy damage can slow plant growth and may cause infested leaves to drop.MANAGEMENTProvide proper care, especially irrigation to keep plants vigorous. Clip off and remove older infested leaves.Plant resistant species or varieties. Leafminers are often kept under good control by natural parasites.Insecticides are not very effective for leafminer control. For heavy infestation spray 1 ml Cyphermithrinin 1 liter water or Biflex 0.50 ml in in liter water every 15 days till eradicated.MEALYBUGSMealybug Eggs Mealybug Nymphs Mealybug Adult Mealybug DanmageMost adult female mealybugs are wingless, soft-bodied, grayish insects about 0.05 to 0.2 inch long. Theyare usually elongate and segmented, and may have wax filaments radiating from the body, especially at thetail. Most females can move slowly and are covered with whitish, mealy or cottony wax. There are severaldifferent speciesIDENTIFICATIONThe ground mealybug is white and 2.4 to 3.9 millimeters long. It resembles a springtail, but moves muchmore slowly and cannot jump. The ground mealybug has slender waxy filaments that form a sort of nettingover some individuals. The ground mealybug also secretes a small amount of wax, which can give the soila somewhat bluish appearance when the mealybugs are abundant. Pritchard’s mealybug is snow white and1.6 to 2.1 millimeters long and oval. It has small to non-existent eyes.LIFE CYCLEMost female mealybugs lay tiny yellow eggs intermixed with white wax in a mass called an ovisac.Mealybug nymphs are oblong, whitish, yellowish, or reddish and may or may not be covered with waxyfilaments. Most species feed on branches, twigs, or leaves. Depending on the species, host, and climate,they may overwinter only as eggs or as females, or as all stages. Most mealybugs have severalgenerations a year.
    • P a g e | 97DAMAGEMealybugs tend to congregate in large numbers, forming white, cottony masses on plants. High populationsslow plant growth and cause premature leaf or fruit drop and twig dieback. Honeydew production and blacksooty mold are the primary damage caused by most mealybugs.MANAGEMENTProvide proper cultural control so that plants are vigorous and can tolerate moderate mealybug feedingwithout being damaged. Naturally occurring predators and parasites provide good control of manymealybug species. Chemical control using systemic insecticides like Acephate (1 ml in 1 liter water)or Biflex (0.50 ml in 1 liter water) to be sprayed on the leaves, stem and the soil.NEMATODESNematodes Nematodes Damge (LeftOnion – Right Bulb)Nematode Root Damage Nematode LeafDamage Above GroundNematodes are microscopic, eel-like roundworms. The most troublesome species in the garden are thosethat live and feed within plant roots most of their lives and those that live freely in the soil and feed on plantroots.Although there are many different species of root-feeding nematodes, the most damaging ones to gardensare the root knot nematodes. Root knot nematodes attack a wide range of plants, including many commonvegetables, fruit trees, and ornamentals. They are difficult to control, and they can spread easily fromgarden to garden in soil on tools and boots or on infested plants.
    • P a g e | 98IDENTIFICATIONSince you can not see nematode damage directly (without using a shovel!), you need to rely on visiblesymptoms including wilting during the warmest period of the day, chlorosis, stunted growth, and generallack of vigor. Ornamentals may have branch tip dieback and lose their leaves earlier than normal. And ifyou have a large enough area, you may also note that damage is uneven, with affected plants amonghealthy ones due to uneven distribution of nematodes.In general, nematodes dont kill plants (they wouldnt have survived as long as they have if they did). Butthey reduce the vigor of the plant and make it more likely to be harmed by other factors. And because thesymptoms are the same ones you see for "traditional" problems, a good rule of thumb is to analyze generalfactors such as irrigation, nutrients, and visible symptoms of disease before suspecting nematodes (unlessyou know theres a history of nematodes in your soil.LIFE CYCLEPlant-feeding nematodes go through 6 stages—an egg stage, 4 immature stages, and an adult stage.Many species can develop from egg to egg-laying adult in as little as 21 to 28 days during warm summermonths. Immature stages and adult males are long, slender worms. Mature adult females of some speciessuch as root knot nematode change to a swollen, pearlike shape, whereas females of other species suchas lesion nematode remain slender worms. Nematodes are too small to be seen without a microscope.DAMAGERoot knot nematodes usually cause distinctive swellings, called galls, on the roots of affected plants.Infestations of these nematodes are fairly easy to recognize; dig up a few plants with symptoms (seebelow), wash or gently tap the soil from the roots, and examine the roots for galls. The nematodes feed anddevelop within the galls, which can grow as large as 1 inch in diameter on some plants but usually are
    • P a g e | 99much smaller.The formation of these galls damages the water- and nutrient-conducting abilities of the roots. Galls cancrack or split open, especially on the roots of vegetable plants, allowing the entry of soil-borne, disease-causing microorganisms. Root knot nematode galls are true swellings and can’t be rubbed off the roots ascan the beneficial, nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of legumes. Root knot nematodes can feed on theroots of grasses and certain legumes without causing galling.Aboveground symptoms of a root knot nematode infestation include wilting during the hottest part of theday even with adequate soil moisture, loss of vigor, yellowing leaves, and other symptoms similar to a lackof water or nutrients. Infested vegetable plants grow more slowly than neighboring, healthy plants,beginning in early to midseason. Plants produce fewer and smaller leaves and fruits, and ones heavilyinfested early in the season can die.Although nematodes can kill annual plants, they rarely kill woody plants. Nematode injury to woody plantsusually is less obvious and often more difficult to diagnose. Infested fruit and nut trees can have reducedgrowth and yields. Woody landscape plants that are heavily infested can have reduced growth and branchtip dieback and can defoliate earlier than normal.MANAGEMENTManagement of nematodes is difficult. The most reliable practices are preventive, including sanitation andchoice of plant varieties. You can reduce existing infestations through fallowing, crop rotation, and soilsolarization. However, these methods reduce nematodes primarily in the top foot or so of the soil, so theyare effective only for about a year. They are suitable primarily for annual plants or to help young woodyplants establish. Once nematodes infest an area or crop, try to minimize damage by adjusting plantingdates to cooler times of the season when nematodes are less active. Try to provide optimal conditions forplant growth including sufficient irrigation and soil amendments to make plants more tolerant to nematodeinfestation. Chemical treatment is carried out by applying 0.50 ml of Biflex in 1 liter of water in thesoil after digging it. This lasts for 6 months.SCALEScale Eggs Scale Adult Scale Colony Scale Damage OrangeLeaf CurlScale insects can be serious pests on trees, shrubs, and other perennials. The impact of infestationsdepends on the scale species, the plant species and cultivar, environmental factors, and natural enemies.Populations of some scales can increase dramatically within a few months, such as when honeydew-seeking ants or dusty conditions interfere with scale natural enemies. Plants are not harmed by a fewscales, and even high populations of certain species apparently do not damage plants. Soft scales andsome other species excrete honeydew, a sweet, sticky liquid produced by insects that ingest largequantities of plant sap. Sticky honeydew and the blackish sooty mold growing on honeydew can botherpeople even when scale populations are not harming plants.
    • P a g e | 100IDENTIFICATIONScales are unusual looking and many people do not at first recognize them as insects. Adult female scalesand most immatures (nymphs) are immobile, wingless, and lack a separate head or other recognizablebody parts. Immature scales and adult females have a characteristic round or oval to elongate andflattened or humped appearance. Immature males are often a different color and shape than females,especially in later nymphal stages (instars). Adult male scales are tiny, delicate insects with one pair ofwings. Adult males are rarely seen, do not feed, and live only a few hours.LIFE CYCLEFemales of many scale species reproduce without mating (there are no males). At maturity, adult femalesproduce eggs that are usually hidden under her body or cover. Eggs hatch into tiny crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs), which are yellow to orangish in most species. Crawlers walk over the plant surface, areblown by wind to other plants, or can be inadvertently moved by people or birds. They settle down andbegin feeding within a day or two after emergence.Settled nymphs may spend their entire life in the same spot without moving as they mature into adults.Nymphs of other species can move slowly but rarely do, such as when species that feed on deciduoushosts move from foliage to bark in the fall before leaves drop. For species with multiple generations, allscale life stages may be present throughout the year in areas with mild winters.Armored Scales. Most armored scales have several generations a year. Armored scales overwinterprimarily as first-instar nymphs and adult females. Except for crawlers and adult males, armored scalesspend their entire life feeding at the same spot. Settled armored scales lose their legs, molt, and form theircharacteristic covers, which they gradually enlarge as they grow.Soft Scales. Most soft scales have one generation each year and overwinter as second-instar nymphs.The multi-generational brown soft scale is an important exception Brown soft scale females and nymphs ofvarious size can be present throughout the year. Most immature soft scales retain their barely visible legsand antennae after settling and are able to move, although slowly. At maturity, females of certain softscales, the woolly sac scales (Margarodidae), and some other species produce distinct external cottony orwax-covered egg masses.
    • P a g e | 101DAMAGEWhen plants are heavily infested with scales, leaves may look wilted, turn yellow, and drop prematurely.Scales sometimes curl leaves or cause deformed blemishes or discolored halos in fruit, leaves, or twigs.Bark infested with armored scales may crack and exude gum. Certain armored scales also feed on fruit, butthis damage is often just aesthetic. Soft scales infest leaves and twigs but rarely feed on fruit. A majorconcern with soft scales is their excretion of abundant honeydew, which contaminates fruit, leaves, andsurfaces beneath plants. Honeydew encourages the growth of black sooty mold and attracts ants, which inturn protect scales from natural enemies.MANAGEMENTScales are often well controlled by beneficial predators and parasites, except when these natural enemiesare disrupted by ants, dust, or application of persistent broad-spectrum insecticides. Preserving(conserving) the populations of parasites and predators (such as by controlling pest-tending ants) may beenough to bring about gradual control of scales as natural enemies become more abundant. If scalesbecome too numerous, a well-timed and thorough spray using horticultural (narrow-range) oil applied eitherduring the dormant season or soon after scale crawlers are active in late winter to early summer shouldprovide good control. Complete spray coverage of infested plants (such as the underside of leaves) isneeded to obtain good control. Thorough spray coverage is especially critical when treating armored scalesand oak pit scales, as these scales are generally less susceptible to pesticides than soft scales.In case of severe infetstaion Chemical Control should be applied. Application of 0.50 ml Biflex orImidacloprid in 1 liter water is very effective and lasts for 6 months. This can be used as a foliarspray or as a soil application.THRIPSThrips Eggs Thrips Larva Thrips Nymphs Thrips Rose BudDamageThrips, are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings. They feed by puncturing their host and sucking out thecell contents. Certain thrips species are beneficial predators that feed only on mites and other insects.Beneficial species include black hunter thrips and the sixspotted thrips. Pest species (often in the familyThripidae) are plant feeders that scar leaf, flower, or fruit surfaces or distort plant parts. Other species ofthrips feed on fungal spores and pollen and are innocuous.IDENTIFICATIONMost adult thrips are slender, minute (less than 1/20 inch long), and have long fringes on the margins ofboth pairs of their long, narrow wings. Immatures (called larvae or nymphs) are similarly shaped with along, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in color from translucent white or yellowish to darkbrown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage. A few species are more brightly colored, suchas the distinctive reddish orange abdomen of larvae of the predatory thrips.In many species, thrips feed within buds and furled leaves or in other enclosed parts of the plant. Theirdamage is often observed before the thrips are seen. Discolored or distorted plant tissue or black specks of
    • P a g e | 102feces around stippled leaf surfaces are clues that thrips are or were present. However, some abioticdisorders, pathogens, and certain other invertebrates can cause damage resembling that of thrips. Forexample, lace bugs, plant bugs, and mites also stipple foliage, and lace bugs and certain plant bugsproduce dark, watery fecal specks. Look carefully for the insects themselves to be certain that pest thripsare present and the cause of damage before taking control action.Thrips are poor fliers but can readily spread long distances by floating with the wind or being transported oninfested plants.LIFE CYCLEThe thrips life cycle includes the egg, two actively feeding larval (nymphal) stages, nonfeeding prepupal(propupal) and pupal stages, and the adult. Thrips have a metamorphosis that is intermediate betweencomplete and gradual. Last-instar larvae change greatly in appearance, and they are often called pupaeeven though thrips do not have a true pupal stage.Thrips eggs are elongate, cylindrical to kidney-shaped, and relatively large in relation to the female.Females of most plant-feeding species insert their tiny eggs into plants, commonly into leaves or budswhere larvae feed. The pale prepupae and pupae of most species drop to the soil or leaf litter or lodgewithin plant crevices. Greenhouse thrips pupate openly on lower leaf surfaces while pupae (and eggs) ofsome gall-making species, such as Cuban laurel thrips, occur on leaf surfaces but are enclosed withindistorted plant tissue. Thrips have several generations (up to eight or more) a year. The life cycle from eggto adult may be completed in as short a time as 2 weeks when the weather is warm.
    • P a g e | 103DAMAGEThrips prefer to feed in rapidly growing tissue. Feeding by thrips typically causes tiny scars on leaves andfruit, called stippling, and can stunt growth. Damaged leaves may become papery and distorted. Infestedterminals may discolor, become rolled, and drop leaves prematurely. Petals may exhibit “color break,”which is pale or dark discoloring of petal tissue that was killed by thrips feeding before buds opened. Thripscause silvery to brownish, scabby scarring on the avocado and citrus fruit surface, but this cosmeticdamage does not harm the internal fruit quality. Feces may remain on leaves or fruit long after thrips haveleft. Where thrips lay eggs on grapes, dark scars surrounded by lighter “halos” may be found on the fruit.Thrips feeding on raspberries, apples, and nectarines can deform or scar developing fruit; sugar pea podsmay be scarred or deformed. Citrus thrips feeding severely distorts blueberry shoot tips and foliage,reducing fruit yield.In comparison with woody shrubs and trees in landscapes, herbaceous ornamentals and certain fruit andvegetable crops are generally more susceptible to serious injury from thrips’ feeding and thrips-vectoredviruses, especially when plants are young. Thrips feeding on woody plants can damage fruit and verynoticeably affect plants’ cosmetic appearance. But thrips rarely kill or threaten the survival of woody plantsunless the thrips populations are very high and cause serious feeding damage resulting in premature leafdrop or stem dieback.MANAGEMENTHealthy woody plants usually tolerate thrips damage; however, high infestations on certain herbaceousornamentals and developing fruits or vegetables may justify control. If control is necessary, use anintegrated program of control strategies that combines the use of good cultural practices and conservationof natural enemies with the use of least-toxic insecticides, such as narrow-range oils. In case of heavyinfestation uses of chemical insecticides become necessary. Spray CPP, Cypermithrin or Acephate 1 mlin 1 liter water every 15 days till eradicated. Use of Biflerx or Imidacloprid 0.50 ml in in liter waterwill last for 6 months.STINK BUGSStink Bug Laying Eggs Stink Bug Nymphs Stink Bug Adult Brown Stink Bug Adult GreenThe Stink Bug is also known as a shield bug because of the shield-like shape of its body. It also gets itsname from the pungent odor it emits when squashed, jostled, cornered, scared or injured. In large groups,stink bugs are considered agricultural pests because they suck juices from their host plants and causedamage to crops.The four species of stink bugs are considered to be beneficial instead of pests:The Anchor Bug preys upon the Mexican bean beetle, Japanese beetle and other insects; the Two SpottedStink Bug preys upon Colorado beetle larvae; the Spined Soldier bug feeds on caterpillars and other slowmoving arthropods; the Arboreal Stink Bug patrols tree trunks for ants and insects.IDENTIFICATIONTrue Stinkbugs usually have thickened forewings with membranous tips. When they rest, the dissimilarparts of their folded wings overlap. Most stink bugs can be recognised by the characteristic triangle or X-
    • P a g e | 104shape on the back formed by their folded wings. True bugs have sucking mouthparts, which on plant-feeding species point downward, perpendicular to the plane of the insects bodyLIFE CYCLEAdult Brown Stink Bugs mate in early spring and females lay a mass of eggs weekly under the leaves ofthe host plant. She can lay up to 400 eggs in her lifetime. Eggs are light yellow to yellowish red. Nymphsare tick-like in appearance. They go through five nymphal instars before becoming adults and have redeyes and an abdomen that changes color during each of the instars.Stink bugs hibernate during cold winter months and will emerge in the spring as temperatures rise. Adultsmate in the spring and females will lay eggs on plants. These eggs will be laid in groups and are not plantspecific.Young will go through 5 stages to reach adulthood and this will occur in about three months.DAMAGEAs a pest, the Brown Stink Bug will attack apples, cherries, raspberries, peaches, figs, mulberries, citrusfruits and persimmons. Feeding on fruit trees causes "cat facing" which will damage the fruit. They havealso been found on ornamental plants, weeds, soybeans and green beans. The Brown Stink Bug will overwinter in homes entering through small openings in windows and door frames, under roof shingles, in crawlspaces and attics.MANAGEMENTChemical control – spray Cypermithrin or Deltamethrin, 1 ml in 1 liter water.Experts say that the best stink bug control is prevention. Those worried about stink bug infestation can startby keeping the yard clean of any unnecessary plants. Weeds and overgrown bushes should be taken careso stink bugs will not have any place to feed or lay eggs.
    • P a g e | 105To prevent a stink bug invasion, all holes, cracks and crevices around house should be tightly sealed withcalk. The bugs are also known for using the attic and air conditioner to get inside the house. During fall,before they migrate inside the house, it is best to treat the exterior and attic of the house with multi-purposeinsecticide such as Biflex 0.50 ml in 1 liter water.. Window a/c unit should be removed and the windowsseal properly.Two popular pest control options: Permethrin is a pest repellant that paralyzes the nervous system of manyinsects and kills all stages of the insect’s growth. Imdeachlorprid 0.50 ml in 1 liter water. This will keep thestinkbugs away for 6 months.WEEVILSWeevil Eggs Weevil Pupa (above) &Larva BelowWeevil Adult Weevil Citrus DamageWeevils feed on many flower hosts, including aster, begonia, carnation, chrysanthemum, dahlia, geranium,impatiens, lily, primrose, and vinca. Weevils are inconspicuous. Larvae are whitish or green grubs and livein soil. Adults are dull gray, blackish, or brown and feed at night, hiding in litter during the day. The head ofadult weevils is elongated into a snout and their antennae are elbowed and clubbed. Adults do not fly.IDENTIFICATIONThere are more than 1,000 species of weevils or snout beetles in California. The most common pest weevilspecies in California is the black vine weevil,.Other important species include the cribrate weevil, , fullerrose beetle, obscure root weevil, strawberry root weevil, vegetable weevil, and the woods weevil.The adultweevils have a snout and are about one-fourth inch long. They vary from reddish-brown to gray to almostblack in color. A distinguishing feature is the presence of two spurs on the front femur of each leg. Theadult weevil is usually dull in color and herbivorous, characterized by a prolongation of the anterior part ofthe head into a rostrum (a beaklike extension). The apex of the rostrum contains the biting mouthparts, andtwo clubbed antennae are attached in depressions at each side. The oval body is covered with a rough,hard integument, and a single median suture traverses the lower part of the head. Weevils exhibit completemetamorphosis; the larvae are white, semicircular, fleshy grubs with vestigial legs, strong jaws, andrudimentary eyes; they feed entirely on plant life, causing much damage to crops. The adults usuallyhibernate for most of the winter.LIFE CYCLEAdult weevils spend the winter in ground trash near old cotton fields. Each female can lay up to 200 eggs (layingeach egg in a separate cotton square or boll). The entire life cycle of egg to adult can be completed in 3 weeks orless. There are multiple (5 or more) generations per year.Females can produce eggs without mating, commonly laying them on or into soil near host plants. Thefemale adults must feed for about a month before laying eggs. The larvae develop in soil through 6 instarsover a period of 2 to 8 months. They are whitish grubs with a brown head and commonly have a C-shapedposture.
    • P a g e | 106Black vine weevil overwinters primarily as a late-instar larva. A few individuals of this and other species canoverwinter as adults. Weevils overwintering as late instars form pupae in spring. Adults emerge from thesoil about 2 weeks after pupation and begin feeding during the night.DAMAGEAdult weevils chew foliage, causing characteristic notching on leaf edges. The serious damage is causedby larvae. Young larvae chew the outer surface of young roots. More mature larvae chew older roots andbasal stems, girdling plants near the soil surface and causing decline in mature plants and death in youngplants.MANAGEMENTDestroy adults to prevent more serious damage. Grow species or cultivars that are less susceptible toweevil damage, and avoid replanting susceptible crops at infested sites. Grow older plants that are morelikely to be infested away from younger plants susceptible to weevils. Provide cultural care to keep plantsvigorous and better able to tolerate damage. Check roots before planting to make sure they are free fromlarvae. Trim branches that provide a bridge to other plants or the ground and apply a 6-inch band of stickymaterial to trunks to prevent flightless beetles from feeding on foliage. Application of Cypermithrin orDeltamithrin or CPP 1ml in 1liter water spray applied to leaves can control adults.WHITEFLIESWhite Flies Eggs White Flies Pupa White Flies Larva White Flies ColonyThe silverleaf whitefly is slightly smaller (about 0.96 mm in the female and 0.82 mm in the male) andslightly yellower than most other whitefly pests of flowers. The head is broad at the antennae and narrowtowards the mouth parts. The wings are held roof-like at about a 45° angle, whereas other whitefliesusually hold the wings nearly flat over the body. Hence, the silverleaf whitefly appears more slender thanother common whiteflies.Whiteflies are tiny, sap-sucking insects that are frequently abundant in vegetable and ornamental plantings.They excrete sticky honeydew and cause yellowing or death of leaves. Outbreaks often occur when thenatural biological control is disrupted. Management is difficult.IDENTIFICATIONWhiteflies usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. They derive their name from the mealy,white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny insects with yellowish bodies and whitishwings. Although adults of some species have distinctive wing markings, many species are most readilydistinguished in the last nymphal (immature) stage, which is wingless.LIFE CYCLEwhiteflies that were undoubtedly silverleaf whiteflies. Developmental times from egg deposition to adultemergence appears to be primarily controlled by temperature, humidity, and host plant. These times willvary from 16 to 38 days depending on these factors. The number of eggs laid by each female over herlifetime varies considerably, but appears to be around 80 to 100. “Crawlers” hatch from the eggs and crawlabout until they insert threadlike mouthparts into the underside of the leaf to feed. They tuck their legs and
    • P a g e | 107antennae underneath and settle down closely to the leaf surface.Crawlers molt into scale like nymphs that also suck out sap. Nymphs molt a second and third time. Thefourth stage eventually becomes a non-feeding pupa. The adult whitefly develops within the pupa. Adultsemerge from the pupa through a T-shaped slit about a month from the time the egg was laid. Females liveabout two weeksThe eggs are inserted on end in the undersides of new leaves. The eggs are whitish to light beige with theapex tending to be slightly darker.Nymphs: The nymphal stages appear glassy to opaque yellowish and may or may not have dorsal spines,depending on leaf characteristics. The body is flattened and scale-like with the margin relatively near theleaf surface. There is not a marginal palisade of waxy spines.Pupae: The pupa or fourth nymphal instar will be somewhat darker beigeish-yellow and opaque and 0.6 to0.8 mm long. Pupae are relatively more plump compared to previous nymphal stages. The apex of anteriorand caudal spiracular furrows have smalls amount of white wax deposits. The caudal setae are prominent,and the caudal end is somewhat acute. Dorsal spines are present when the host leaf is hairy and absentwhen the host leaf is smooth.DAMAGEDirect damage is caused by the removal of sap, and indirect damage as a disease vector. The silverleafwhitefly is a vector for several important virus diseases of lettuce and melons in the southwestern UnitedStates. Both the adult and nymphal stages contribute to direct damage. Chlorotic spots sometimes appearat the feeding sites on leaves, and heavy infestations cause leaves of cucurbits and stems of poinsettias toblanch and wilt. The excretion of honeydew and the subsequent development of sooty mold fungi also
    • P a g e | 108reduces the appearance, photosynthesis, and other physiological functions of the plant. Even though thesilverleaf whitefly is considered an economic pest, economic thresholds have not been generated for thispest on ornamental plants.Whiteflies suck phloem sap. Large populations can cause leaves to turn yellow, appear dry, or fall offplants. Like aphids, whiteflies excrete honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold.The honeydew attracts ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control whitefliesand other pests.Feeding by the immature silverleaf whitefly can cause plant distortion, discoloration, or silvering of leavesand may cause serious losses in some vegetable crops. Some whiteflies transmit viruses to certainvegetable crops. With the notable exception of the citrus whitefly, whiteflies are not normally a problem infruit trees, but several whiteflies can be problems on ornamental trees . Low levels of whiteflies are notusually damaging. Adults by themselves will not cause significant damage unless they are transmitting aplant pathogen. Generally, plant losses do not occur unless there is a significant population of whiteflynymphs.MANAGEMENTControl of silverleaf whiteflies is difficult because the eggs and older immature forms are resistant to many aerosoland insecticide sprays (in addition, the adults are extremely resistant to dry pesticide residue). For good control, thepesticide mixture must be directed to the lower leaf surface where all stages of the whiteflies naturally occur. Onemust make regular applications of pesticides to control crawlers and second stage nymphs until the last of a wholegeneration of immature whiteflies has hatched. However, some of the pyrethroid pesticides are somewhat moreeffective and need not be applied as often.The best strategy is to prevent problems from developing in your garden to the extent possible. In manysituations, natural enemies will provide adequate control of whiteflies; outbreaks may occur if naturalenemies that provide biological control of whiteflies are disrupted by insecticide applications, dustyconditions, or interference by ants. Avoid or remove plants that repeatedly host high populations ofwhiteflies. In gardens, whitefly populations in the early stages of population development can be held downby a vigilant program of removing infested leaves, vacuuming adults, or hosing down (syringing) with watersprays. Aluminum foil or reflective mulches can repel whiteflies from vegetable gardens and sticky trapscan be used to monitor or, at high levels, reduce whitefly numbers. If you choose to use insecticides,insecticidal soaps or oils such as neem oil may reduce but not eliminate populations. Chemical insecticideslike Biflex and Imidachlorprid spray 0.50 ml in 1 liter water will control it for 6 months.POWDERY MILDEWPowdery Mildew RoseDamagePowdery Mildew SquashDamagePowdery MildewOrnimental DamagePowdery MildewDamagePowdery mildew is a common disease on many types of plants and is prevalent under the diverseconditions found in many areas India. Different powdery mildew fungi cause disease on different plants.
    • P a g e | 109These fungi tend to infect either plants in the same family or only one species of plant.IDENTIFICATION AND DAMAGEYou can recognize this disease by the white, powdery spore growth that forms on leaf surfaces and shootsand sometimes on flowers and fruits. Powdery mildews may infect new or old foliage. This disease can beserious on woody species such as rose, crape myrtle, and sycamore where it attacks new growth includingbuds, shoots, flowers, and leaves. New growth may be dwarfed, distorted, and covered with a white,powdery growth. Infected leaves generally free moisture.Wind carries powdery mildew spores to new hosts. Although relative humidity requirements for germinationvary, all powdery mildew species can germinate and infect in the absence of free water. In fact, water onplant surfaces for extended periods inhibits germination and kills the spores of most powdery mildew fungi.Moderate temperatures of 60° to 80°F and shady conditions generally are the most favorable for powderymildew development. Powdery mildew spores and mycelium are sensitive to extreme heat and sunlight,and leaf temperatures above 95°F may kill the fungus. die and drop from the plant earlier than healthyleaves.LIFE CYCLEAll powdery mildew fungi require living plant tissue to grow. On perennial hosts such as roses, powderymildew survives from one season to the next as vegetative strands in buds or as spherical fruiting bodies,called chasmothecia, on the bark of branches and stems.Most powdery mildew fungi grow as thin layers of mycelium on the surface of the affected plant parts.Spores, which you can see with a hand lens, are part of the white, powdery appearance of this fungi andare produced in chains on upper or lower leaf surfaces or on flowers, fruits, or herbaceous stems. Incontrast, downy mildew, another fungal disease that produces visible powdery growth, has spores thatgrow on branched stalks and look like tiny trees.MANAGEMENTThe best method of control is prevention. Avoiding the most susceptible cultivars, placing plants in full sun,and following good cultural practices will adequately control powdery mildew in many situations. Someornamentals do require protection with fungicide sprays if mildew conditions are more favorable, especially
    • P a g e | 110susceptible varieties of rose.Fungicide ApplicationsIn some situations, especially when growing roses, you may need to use fungicides, which function asprotectants, eradicants, or both. A protectant fungicide prevents new infections from occurring, whereas aneradicant can kill an existing infection. Apply protectant fungicides to highly susceptible plants before thedisease appears. Use eradicants at the earliest signs of the disease. Once mildew growth is extensive,controlling the situation with any fungicide becomes more difficult.Fungicides. Several least-toxic fungicides are available, including horticultural oils, neem oil, jojoba oil,sulfur, potassium bicarbonate, and the biological fungicide Serenade. With the exception of the oils, thesematerials are primarily preventive, although potassium bicarbonate has some eradicant activity. Oils workbest as eradicants but also have some protectant activity.Oils. To eradicate mild to heavy powdery mildew infections, use a horticultural oil such as JMS Stylet Oil,Saf-T-Side Spray Oil, Sunspray Ultra-Fine Spray Oil, or one of the plant-based oils such as neem oil orjojoba oil. Be careful, however, never to apply an oil spray within 2 weeks of a sulfur spray, or it may injureplants. Also, you never should apply oils when temperatures are above 90°F or to water-stressed plants.Some plants may be more sensitive than others, and the interval required between sulfur and oil spraysmay need to be even longer.Sulfur products have been used to manage powdery mildew for centuries but are effective only whenapplied before the disease appears. The best sulfur products to use for powdery mildew control in gardensare wettable sulfurs that are specially formulated with surfactants similar to those in dishwashing detergent(e.g., Safer Garden Fungicide). However, you shouldn’t use dishwashing detergent with sulfur. Additionally,sulfur can damage some ornamental cultivars. To avoid injuring any plant, do not apply sulfur when thetemperature is near or higher than 90°F, and do not apply it within 2 weeks of an oil spray. Other sulfurproducts, such as liquid lime sulfur or sulfur dust, are much more difficult to use, irritate skin and eyes, andare limited in the types plants you safely can use them on.Biological fungicides are commercially available beneficial microorganisms formulated into a product that,when sprayed on the plant, destroys fungal pathogens. These products have some effect in killing thepowdery mildew organism but are not as effective as the oils or sulfur in controlling it.How to Use. Apply protectant fungicides to susceptible plants before or in the earliest stages of diseasedevelopment. Once mildew growth is mild to moderate, it generally is too late for effective control withprotectant fungicides. These are effective only on contact, so applications must thoroughly cover allsusceptible plant parts. As plants grow and produce new tissue, additional applications may be necessaryat 7- to 10-day intervals as long as conditions favor disease growth.If mild to moderate powdery mildew is present, you can use horticultural and plant-based oils such as neemor jojoba oil.
    • P a g e | 111DOWNEY MILDEWDowney MildewDamageDowney Mildew SpotsDamageDowney Mildew BelowLeaf DamagePowdery MildewDamageDowny mildews have gained a strong foothold in the horticultural industry. They are currentlycausing serious losses in many floricultural crops including rose, cut and bedding plant, pansy, viola,alyssum, salvia, and rosemary. Despite the sound-alike name of the powdery mildews, the two groups offungi have little in common, attacking different plants, under very different conditions. Downy mildewdiseases thrive when the weather conditions are wet and cool. Most of the fungi that cause these diseasesare host specific, attacking only one kind of plant. The fungus that causes downy mildew on roses cannotcause the disease on snapdragons and visa versa. The fungus that causes downy mildew on violas causesthe same disease on pansies as the two plants are very closely related. Some of the downy mildews aremore aggressive than others. For example, downy mildew on snapdragons appears to spread much fasterand cause more serious losses quickly than the downy mildew on pansy and viola. Since the fungus growswithin the plant tissues and not on the surface it can escapenotice until the conditions are ideal for sporulation. At this time, the fruiting structures of the fungus emergefrom the undersides of leaves and create the grayish-colored, downy coating. On some plants, this may bethe first indication that they are infected with a downy mildew fungus. In other plants, distortion of newleaves, downward curling and overall stunting occur which can mimic aphid damage. In contrast, rosesdevelop reddish-black spots on leaves, petals, and stems, well in advance of sporulation.LIFE CYCLESome downy mildew diseases are known to start from contaminated seed (sunflowers) but most have notbeen proven to be seed-borne as yet (snapdragon). In addition, there are many weed hosts of certaindowny mildew fungi which attack cultivated crops and some epidemics start on weeds around theproduction area. Rose downy mildew sometimes starts on bare-rooted, apparently healthy stock. Rosecanes infected with the fungus may not be obvious and symptoms may appear only when environmentalconditions are ideal. Since exposure of spores to 80 F for 24 hours kills them, a heat treatment of canes,seeds or other propagation stock, might be effective. Killing the pathogen within the plant would be moredifficult and the temperatures needed might damage the plant as well.ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNSDowny mildew is most severe when nights are cool and days are warmer with high relative humidities.Humidity management is sometimes possible and always desirable when growing plants in a greenhouse.It is critical to keep the relative humidity below 85% to decrease sporulation on infected plants and stopgermination of spores on healthy plants.This can be done in greenhouses by venting and raising the temperature at key times during the day,especially at sunset when the greenhouse air is warm and moisture laden and the outside air is cool anddrier. Venting followed by heating will fill the greenhouse with warmer, drier air. Fans can speed leaf dryingbut also spread downy mildew spores. Other methods (perhaps fungicides or removing infected plants)should be used in combination with fans to minimize disease spread. The optimal temperature fordevelopment of rose downy mildew is 64 F and snapdragon downy mildew develops best with
    • P a g e | 112temperatures between 40 and 60 F. Temperature optima for other ornamental downy mildew fungi are notknown at this time. A few of those known for non-ornamental crops include: crucifers (45-60 F), lettuce (50-70 F), and soybean (50-80 F). Thus, although the temperatures are close, they are not identical and eachdisease must be studied to determine the optimal range for that spores on plants in the trash pile. Placeplants in plastic trash bags as they are collected from the growing area to keep spores from beingdislodged and spread in air currents.MANAGEMENTSanitation requirements for downy mildew diseases are stringent. Infected plant tissues such as leaves,stems and flowers may drop to the ground where the spores can remain viable for various periods of time.Remove all infected plants and discard well away from your production area. If you collect debris in a pileclose to production you may continue to experience new infections starting with formation of spores onplants in the trash pile. Place plants in plastic trash bags as they are collected from the growing area tokeep spores from being dislodged and spread in air currents.USE OF FUNGICIDESThe most important thing about using a fungicide for downy mildew control is to recognize therelationship between these fungi and other plant pathogens. The fungicides which are effective for watermolds have the best activity against the downy mildew fungi as well. Fungicides have been tested forcontrol of downy mildew on roses throughout the world. In general, dithiocarbamates (such as Dithane andsulfur dusts, and sometimes copper products have been recommended.TIPS - SPECIAL PLANTING INSTRUCTIONSBalled and Bur lapped1. Check the material of the Burlap. If it is natural burlap, it may remain on theroot ball to decompose.2. If it is plastic or non-biodegradable, then the burlap should be removed verycarefully prior to planting.3. Do not allow the root ball to dry out before planting.4. When planting, loosen the top of the burlap and fold it into the soil to avoid theroot ball from drying in the sun.Bare Root1. Do not allow roots to dry out - keep moist at all times, from purchase toplanting.2. Prepare planting site by digging wide, not deep, and lightly amending heavy clayor sandy soils.3. Spread roots out evenly so they dont go in one direction.4. Take care to plant at the same depth as the plant was growing in the nursery asevidenced by coloration in the stem above roots.Biodegradable Containers1. Prepare soil as for other container grown plants.2. While planting, tear off the exposed rim of the pot to prevent it from becoming a"wick" (exposed to the sun that can draw moisture from roots)Cuttings4. Prepare garden soil or pots of potting soil, and moisten before planting.5. Stick rooted or uprooted cuttings into the moist soil. Cover the soil surface withmulch to keep soil moist and cool6. Keep moist, not wet, for several weeks until cuttings root into new soil.NOTE: Some annual cuttings root readily from stem cuttingsstuck in moist potting soil.Some annuals, including coleus and tomatoes, rootreadily from stem cuttings in water.
    • P a g e | 113COMMON GARDENING MISTAKESToday we will look at the top seven mistakes committed byinexperienced or uninformed organic gardeners. Be not makingthese simple mistakes you are already putting yourself ahead ofthe pack.1. The most common mistake made is planting a garden in anarea that doesnt receive sufficient sunlight. Most vegetableplants need at least 8 hours of direct sunlight every day.Therefore you need to choose an area that gets both morning andafternoon sun. If you have trees nearby, it may be a good idea toremove them or prune them back if they are blocking yourgarden.2. Planting your crops too close together. When seeds are sown,or transplants are planted everything is small, and there is a lotof open space. It is common to try to plant closer than therecommended spacing to get more output per a limited space. Infact you may decrease your output, as plants that cant getproper air circulation are more susceptible to disease. Additionallylarger plants will grow taller than smaller plants and shade themout.3. Purchasing cheap transplants. While you might save a fewpennies buying transplants at a discount store, you are better offbuying at a reputable nursery. Sick plants will struggle all season.It is best to get started on the right foot.4. Not watering properly. Both over watering and under wateringare a problem. If you let the plants get too wet it is a recipe fordisease. If they get too dry they will wilt. The key is frequentconsistent watering. In the beginning of the season a lightwatering will due. But as the season progresses, deep watering isrequired to encourage deep root growth. Plants with deep rootswill survive a dry spell much easier than plants with a shallowroot system.
    • P a g e | 1145. Planting varieties of vegetables or fruits that arent a goodmatch for your climate. Not all vegetables and plants growvigorously in all climates. The best way to select the varieties thatwill thrive in your area is to contact your local extension agency.They will have a listing of recommended varieties. Most reputablenurseries will also only sell varieties that will thrive in the localclimate. While I would love to grow citrus plants, our cool climatewill not allow for this.6. Over fertilizing. While fertilizer is a good thing, too much of itcan be a bad thing. Over fertilizing will lead to foliage growth butat the same time not increase produce output. So you will havetall stringy plants that cant support the vegetables that aregrowing on them. A well composted garden at the beginning ofthe season will surely reduce your need for fertilizers during theseason.7. Dont plant more than you can care for. If you dont have thetime to pick your vegetables, water the garden, and fertilize thegarden, dont get carried away. Start small and only grow whatyou need. Vegetables that arent picked when they are ripe willrot and be a magnet for insects and disease. This goes back tothe saying "one bad apple spoils the whole bunch".TIPS – Potted Plants In To Garden Soil1. Planting Container-grown Plant into Garden Soil.2. Prepare soil by digging deep and adding any amendments (if needed).3. Make holes in prepared soil large enough to set the plant roots into.4. Remove plants from pots, holding by soil or leaves, not plant stems.5. Gently squeeze the root ball to loosen roots on the bottom and edges sothey can start growing outward.6. Set plants so the tops of their roots are level with soil around them.7. Lightly pack prepared soil around roots.8. Cover the area with mulch to protect from sun and packing rain.9. Water slowly and deeply every few days to get roots established withoutrotting.
    • P a g e | 115COMPOST THE IDEAL PLANT FOODWhy is compost special?Building and maintaining a compost pile is the surest, easiest wayto become a better gardener. Not only will you be producing thebest possible food for your garden, but by watching leaves,eggshells, orange rinds, and grass clippings become transformedinto rich compost filled with earthworms and other soil creatures,youll be learning what healthy soil is all about.Compost is a rich and crumbly blend of partially decomposedorganic material that does wonderful things for your garden.Compost improves soil structure. Most gardeners do not startwith great soil. Whether yours is hard and compacted, sandy,stony, heavy, or wet, adding compost will improve its texture,water-holding capacity, and fertility. Your soil will graduallybecome fluffy and brown, the ideal home for healthy plants.Compost provides a balanced source of plant nutrients.Even if you are lucky enough to have great soil, you can notexpect that soil to remain rich and productive withoutreplenishing the nutrients that are consumed each growingseason. No commercial fertilizer, even one that is totally organic,provides the full spectrum of nutrients that you get with compost.The nutrients are available gradually, as your plants need them,over a period of months or years. The microorganisms in thecompost will also help your plants absorb nutrients from fertilizersmore efficiently.Compost stimulates beneficial organisms. Compost isteeming with all kinds of microorganisms and soil fauna that helpconvert soil nutrients into a form that can be readily absorbed byyour plants. The microorganisms, enzymes, vitamins and naturalantibiotics that are present in compost actually help preventmany soil pathogens from harming your plants. Earthworms,millipedes, and other macro-organisms tunnel through your soil,
    • P a g e | 116opening up passageways for air and water to reach your plantsroots.Compost is garden insurance. Even very experiencedgardeners often have soil that is less than perfect. Addingcompost moderates pH and fertility problems, so you canconcentrate on the pleasures of gardening, not the science ofyour soil’s chemical composition. Unlike organic or inorganicfertilizers, which need to be applied at the right time and in theright amount, compost can be applied at any time and in anyamount. You can not really over-apply it. Plants use exactly whatthey need, when they need it.Can a gardener ever have enough compost? Its doubtful.Compost is the perfect thing to spread around when you arecreating a new garden, seeding a new lawn area, or planting anew tree. Compost can be sprinkled around plants during thegrowing season or used as mulch in your perennial gardens. Youcan addHow compost is made - Organic matter is transformed intocompost through the work of microorganisms, soil fauna,enzymes and fungi. When making compost, your job is to providethe best possible environment for these beneficial organisms todo their work. If you do so, the decomposition process works veryrapidly, sometimes in as little as two weeks! If you don notprovide the optimum environment, decomposition will stillhappen, but it may take from several months to several years.The trick to making an abundance of compost in a short time is tobalance the following four things:Carbon. Carbon-rich materials are the energy food formicroorganisms. You can identify high-carbon plant materialsbecause they are dry, tough, or fibrous, and tan or brown incolor. Examples are dry leaves, straw, rotted hay, sawdust,shredded paper, and cornstalks.
    • P a g e | 117Nitrogen. High-nitrogen materials provide the protein-richcomponents that microorganisms require to grow and multiply.Freshly pulled weeds, fresh grass clippings, over-ripe fruits andvegetables, kitchen scraps and other moist green matter are thesorts of nitrogen-rich materials youll probably have on hand.Other high-protein organic matter includes kelp meal, seaweed,manure and animal by-products like blood or bone meal.Water. Moisture is very important for the composting process.But too much moisture will drown the microorganisms, and toolittle will dehydrate them. A general rule of thumb is to keep thematerial in your compost pile as moist as a well-wrung sponge. Ifyou need to add water (un-chlorinated is best), insert yourgarden hose into the middle of the pile in several places, orsprinkle the pile with water next time you turn it. Using anenclosed container or covering your pile with a tarp will make iteasier to maintain the right moisture level.Oxygen. To do their work most efficiently, microorganismsrequire a lot of oxygen. When your pile is first assembled, therewill probably be plenty of air between the layers of materials. Butas the microorganisms begin to work, they will start consumingoxygen. Unless you turn or in some way aerate your compostpile, they will run out of oxygen and become sluggish.Do I Need a Recipe?Microorganisms and other soil fauna work most efficiently whenthe ratio of carbon-rich to nitrogen-rich materials in your compostpile is approximately 25:1. In practical terms, if you want to havean active compost pile, you should include lots of high-carbon"brown" materials (such as straw, wood chips, or dry leaves) anda lesser amount of high-nitrogen "green" materials (such as grassclippings, freshly pulled weeds, or kitchen scraps).If you have an excess of carbon-rich materials and not enoughnitrogen-rich materials, your pile may take years to decompose(there is not enough protein for those microbes!). If your pile hastoo much nitrogen and not enough carbon, your pile will also
    • P a g e | 118decompose very slowly (not enough for the microbes to eat!),and it will probably be soggy and smelly along the way.But dont worry about determining the exact carbon content of amaterial or achieving a precise 25:1 ratio. Composting does notneed to be a competitive, goal-oriented task. All organic matterbreaks down eventually, no matter what you do. If you simplyuse about 3 times as much "brown" materials as "green"materials, youll be off to a great start. Take a look at the samplerecipes and check the chart of common compost materials. Withexperience, youll get a sense for what works best.Compost gets hotHeat is a by-product of intense microbial activity. It indicates thatthe microorganisms are munching on organic matter andconverting it into finished compost. The temperature of yourcompost pile does not in itself affect the speed or efficiency of thedecomposition process. But temperature does determine whattypes of microbes are active.There are primarily three types of microbes that work to digestthe materials in a compost pile. They each work best in aparticular temperature range:The Psychrophiles work in cool temperatures, even as low as 10degrees C. As they begin to digest some of the carbon-richmaterials, they give off heat, which causes the temperature in thepile to rise. When the pile warms to 30 to 40 degrees C,Mesophilic bacteria take over. They are responsible for themajority of the decomposition work. If the Mesophiles haveenough carbon, nitrogen, air, and water, they work so hard thatthey raise the temperature in the pile to about 50 degrees C. Atthis point, Thermophilic bacteria become active. It is thesebacteria that can raise the temperature high enough to sterilizethe compost and kill disease-causing organisms and weed seeds.Three to five days of 75 degrees C. is enough for theThermophiles to do their best work.
    • P a g e | 119Getting your compost pile "hot" (70 to 80 degrees C.) is notcritical, but it does mean that your compost will be finished andusable within a month or so. These high temperatures also killmost weed seeds, as well as harmful pathogens that can causedisease problems. Most people dont bother charting thetemperature curve in their compost pile. They just try to get agood ratio of carbon to nitrogen, keep the pile moist and wellaerated, and wait until everything looks pretty well broken down.If you want to get a little more scientific about it, buy a compostthermometer.To Turn or Not to TurnUnless speed is a priority, frequent turning is not necessary.Many people never turn their compost piles. The purpose ofturning is to increase oxygen flow for the microorganisms, and toblend un-decomposed materials into the center of the pile. If youare managing a hot pile, youll probably want to turn yourcompost every 3 to 5 days, or when the interior temperature dipsbelow about 50 degrees C.After turning, the pile should heat up again, as long as there isstill un-decomposed material to be broken down. When thetemperature stays pretty constant no matter how much you turnthe pile, your compost is probably ready. Though turning canspeed the composting process, it also releases heat into the air,so you should turn your pile less frequently in cold weather.There are several ways to help keep your pile well aerated,without the hassle of turning:Build your pile on a raised wood platform or on a pile of branches.Make sure there are air vents in the sides of your compost bin.Put one or two perforated 4-inch plastic pipes in the center ofyour pile.Worm CompostingEmploying worms to make compost is called vermiculture.Manure worms, red worms, and branding worms (the small ones
    • P a g e | 120usually sold by commercial breeders) are dynamos when it comesto decomposing organic matter, especially kitchen scraps. Theproblem is that these worms cannot tolerate high temperatures.Add a handful of them to an active compost pile and they will bedead in an hour. Field worms and night crawlers (common gardenworms with one big band) are killed at even lower temperatures.To maintain a separate worm bin for composting food scraps, youneed a watertight container that can be kept somewhere that thetemperature will remain between 50 and 80 degrees F. all year-round. Ready-made worm bins are available, but you can alsomake your own. Red worms are available by mail.Smelly compost. If your pile smells like ammonia, it maycontain too much nitrogen. Add carbon materials such as straw,leaves, or hay to correct the balance.Soggy compost. Dense or water-logged compost piles dontcontain enough oxygen for the microorganisms to survive. Oftenthese piles give off an unpleasant odor. The solution is to aeratethe pile and add more dry materials.Finished product is too rough. Some materials like eggshellsand corncobs take a very long time to break down. If you wantmore finely textured compost, shred or chop up the materialsbefore putting them into the bin. You can also sift out thesecrumbs and throw them back into the next pile.Make your own compost binTo convert a plastic trash can into a composter, cut off thebottom with a saw. Drill about 24 quarter-inch holes in the sidesof the can for good aeration. Bury the bottom of the can fromseveral inches to a foot or more below the soil surface and pressthe loosened soil around the sides to secure it. Partially buryingthe composter will make it easier for microorganisms to enter thepile.
    • P a g e | 121CONVERSION CHART1 foot = 0.3048 meter 1 meter = 3.28 feet1 Mile = 1760 yards = 1.6093 kilometer1 sq. foot = 0.0929 sq. meter 1 sq. meter = 10.76 sq. feet1 acre = 40 bigas 1 hectare = 100 bigas1 acre =43560 sq. feet =4840 sq. yards = 4404 sq. meters =0.405 hectare1 hectare = 107600 sq. feet = 11955 sq. yard = 10000 sq. meter= 2.471 acre1 cu. foot = 1728 cu. inch = 0.028137 cu. meter1 cu. Yard = 27 cu. feet = 0.764553 cu. meter1 cu. meter = 1.30795 cu. yards = 35.31475 cu. feet1 brass = 100 cu. feet = 3.7037 cu. cu. yard = 2.835 cu. meter1 cu. meter = 0.354 brass 1 litre water = 1 kilogram1 litre = 1000 m.l. (c.c.) 1 pint = 0.568 litre1 litre = 0.22 gallon = 1.76 pints 1 liquid ounce = 38 m.l.1 gallon = 4.546 litre 1 pound = 0.454 kilogram
    • P a g e | 1221 kilogram = 1000 grams = 2.202 pounds 1 quintal = 100kilograms1 gram = 1000 milligram 1 metric ton = 1000 kilograms1 ounce by weight = 28.35 gramsTo make 1 p.p.m. solution add 1 milligram of chemical in 1 litreof waterTo make 1 persent solution add 10 grams p.p.m.= percent x 10000(10000 milligrams) of chemical in 1 litre of waterpercent = p.p.m. ÷ 1000Formula to convert Fahrenheit to Centigrade :Area of a square or a rectangle = length x widthArea of a triangle = ½ base x heightArea of a circle = 3.14 x square of radiusVolume of a square or rectangular pit = length x width x heightVolume of a round pit = Square of radius x 3.14 x depthTo estimate the number of trees which can be acommodated peracre / hectare use the following formula
    • P a g e | 123Area of the plot ÷ [Distance between two trees x Distancebetween two rows] = Number of treesExample : In 1 acre plot how many trees can be planted if thedistance between 2 trees is 3 meters & the distance between 2rows is 4 meters?.:. 1 acre = 4404 sq. meters.:. 4404 ÷ [3 x 4] = 367 trees
    • P a g e | 124NPK CONTENTS OF VARIOUS MANURES AND FERTLIZERSORGANIC MANURESType of manure / fertilizer Nitrogen % Phosphorus %Farmyard manure 0.3 to 0.4 0.1 to 0.2Sheep/goat droppings 0.5 to 0.7 0.4 to 0.6Poultry litter 1.0 to 1.8 1.4 to 1.8Cattle urine 0.9 to 1.2 ---Bone meal 3.5 22Fish meal 4 3.9Sesbania aculeata 0.62 0.15Sunn hemp 0.75 0.12Castor cake 4 2Neem cake 5.2 1SIMPLE CHEMICAL FERTLIZERSAmmonium sulphate 20 ---Ammonium chloride 25 ---Ammonium nitrate 18 ---Potassium nitrate 15 ---Urea 46 ---Single super phosphate --- 16Triple super phosphate --- 45Muriate of potash --- ---Potassium sulphate --- ---COMPOUND CHEMICAL FERTILIZERSDiammonium phosphate (DAP) 18 46Ammonium phosphate 11 48Potassium ammonium chloride 13 ---NPK 15:15:15 (Suphala) 15 15Method of finding the required quantity of NPK : If a tree needs 250 grams ofnitrogen, 100 grams of phosphorus and 100 grams of potassium, quantity of each chemicalcan be worked out as follows : 543 grams of urea (46% nitrogen) will give 250 grams of nitrogen (250 x 100 ÷ 46= 543) 625 grams of single super phospahte (16% phosphorus) will give 100 grams ofphosphorus (100 x 100 ÷ 16 = 625) 166 grams of muriate of potash (60% potassium) will give 100 grams of potash (100x 100 ÷ 60 = 166)
    • P a g e | 125Know Your Soil - Jar Test for Telling Soil Type• Half fill a large jar with a sample of your soil.• Make up to almost full with clean water.• Put on a tight fitting lid and shake the jar until you havebroken up any soil clods and lumps into suspension.• Leave it undisturbed to settle for 24 hours or so then comeback and check it out.The different soil particle types – silt, sand and clay – willhave settled out into distinct layers. You will gain anexcellent indication of your soil type and its propertiessimply by noting the relative proportion of each type ofparticle in your soil!Properties of each soil typeSANDSoils high in sand content are described as “light” soils.Sand has:• Poor ability to store nutrients• Excellent water infiltration so is usually well drained,unless it is water repellent or compacted• Poor water holding capacity so requires more frequentwatering
    • P a g e | 126• Good aeration (lots of large air spaces around the sandgranules) unless compactedLOAM• Good ability to store nutrients• Good water infiltration unless compacted• Good water holding capacity• Good aeration unless compacted CLAYSoils high in clay content are described as “heavy” or “tight”soils. Clay soils have:• Excellent ability to store nutrients.• Poor water infiltration – water will tend to pool and take along time to drain away. Poor drainage suffocatessusceptible plants because the water stops air frompenetrating the soil. Clay makes good dam building materialthough!• Excellent water holding capacity, but water is so tightlyheld it is not easily accessed by plants• Poor aerationSoil StructureIt is due to the action of soil life that structure develops in asoil. Soil structure is the clumping together of soil particlesinto aggregates by humus. The clumps hold nutrients andretain moisture, while the space around the clumps allow airand water to percolate through the soil.A well structured soil will be fertile with good drainage, andwill have a crumb-like texture.Poor soil structure occurs commonly in low organic mattersands - the soil pores around the sand particles are large solose water and do not hold nutrients.
    • P a g e | 127It also occurs in non-structure clays where the soil poresaround the tiny clay particles are so tight that it is hard forwater or air to penetrate them.Both can be improved by the addition of organic matter (e.g.compost or mulch) forked into the top 30 cm.Living soil will convert this organic matter into humus whichwill then allow aggregates to form, and good soil structure tobe developed.Sustainable soil structure management similarly depends offeeding and looking after soil life so that it can do its job ofbuilding good soil structure and fertility.Gardening PoemBy Aquila TyndallYour hands are in the earth,Earths strength is shared with you,Your strength is shared with the earth.Green plants are growing,They are because of you,You are becauses of them.You and they are connected, interlinked.It is a circle, a holy circle.All elements,Earth, Water, Sun, and Air,Are working with you.All work for one purpose:Life.You are partners in the dance of life.Sacred life flows through you,Through the earth,Through everything.Everything is dancing the dance of life.Everything is dancing with you.
    • P a g e | 128Liquid Organic FertiliserLiquid organic manure is regarded as the best of all liquidfertilizers.Organic composts and other solid manures are great but theyhave one drawback over conventional soluble fertilizers – theytake a while to break down in the soil and become available toplants.So, for the successful growing of heavy feeding crops thejudicious use of compost tea and other liquid manures do havehas a role to play.This is particularly so in soils that has only recently been broughtunder cultivation, and where a preparatory green manure crophas not been grown.COMPOST TEACompost tea organic farming is a popular traditional way to boostplant productivity. Compost tea is easy and simple to make, andbenefits your garden in as mentioned below:• As a liquid fertilizer, its high nutrient value and rapid availabilitymakes it a great tonic for plants.• Because it is rich in the microorganisms that recycle organicmatter, compost tea also boosts the plant and soil enhancingactivity of soil life. These work on soil material to make nutrientsmore available to plants, resulting in a stronger, healthier garden.How to Make Compost TeaCompost tea is commonly made using well rotten compost.
    • P a g e | 129However, you could also use well decayed and pulverized cowmanure.Method:• First almost fill a large bucket or tub with water (if using tapwater allows it to stand overnight to rid it of chlorine which willotherwise kill the soil biota in the compost). It is best if thecontainer used has a close fitting lid to exclude mosquitoes andlimit odor. A plastic rubbish bin or 100/200 liter drum with lid isgood options.• Then make up a compost “tea-bag” using a Hessian sack, onionbag or square of shade cloth. Inside the tea-bag place an amountof compost or cow manure that is roughly one-tenth of thevolume of your water. So for a 25 liter bucket you should useabout 2.5 liters of compost. Tie the “tea-bag” securely closed andimmerse it in the water.• The mixture needs to steep for one to three weeks before it’sready to use. The tea will be greatly improved by giving the tea-bag a good daily dunking. Liquid fertilizer aeration by frequent
    • P a g e | 130agitation of the mix as this speeds the process and produces abetter result.To use Compost Tea:Just dilute the Tea at the rate of about one part concentrate to 4parts water. Strain it to remove any stray bits, and apply directlyto your plants with a watering can. It is best used frequently as adilute solution the color of weak conventional tea rather than as astronger solution less often.Weed Broths compost tea organicMany weeds and herbs have a superior ability to extract specificminerals from the soil, being “dynamic accumulators” of suchmineral nutrients. These weed cuttings should be placed in a20/40 liter drum and kept covered for 30 days. Weekly mixing isa must. After 30 days the liquid fertilizers is ready for use. Take 1liter of this and mix it with 4 liters of water and apply to the soil.The table below gives an idea of what you get from some of theweeds:Dynamic accumulatorPLANT I Fl B Si S N Mg Ca K P Mn Fe CuBorage X XChamomile X X XChickweed X X XClover X XDandelion X X X X X X X XFennelKelp X X X X XNettle Stinging X X X X X XParsley X X X XPeppermint X XWatercress X X X X X XYarrow X X X XI-Iodine Fi-Fluorine B-Boron Si-Silicone S-Sulphur N-Nitrogen Mg-Magnesium Ca-Calcium K-Potassium P-PhosphateMn-Manganese Fe-Iron Cu-Copper
    • P a g e | 131The plant tissues of dynamic accumulator weeds and herbsbecome a rich source of mineral elements whose potential can beunlocked by making teas from them. Just follow the same methodused for making compost tea, as described above.PROPER APPLICATION OF LIQUID FERTILIZERLiquid fertilizer, diluted to the color of “weak tea”, can be appliedat the rate of 20 liters (5 gallons) a week to every 6 meters (6yards) of row. It will be particularly valuable applied during thepeak leaf growth, flowering and fruiting stages of your plants.Ensure the ground is damp before applying, and avoid spraying iton your plants as a foliar fertilizer during hot periods as it couldburn the foliage.Adequately filtered teas can also be pumped through irrigationsystems for broad scale application in organic farming andgardening.SpringtimeOh, spring came to my gardenAnd caught it unawareWearing just a few old leavesAnd a dejected air.But when spring left my garden,Its work so deftly done,Many, many DaffodilsWere dancing in the sun.-Velma D. BATES.
    • P a g e | 132DOON GARDENING SOCIETYINTRODUCTIONThe Doon Gardening Society was founded by the Late Mr.D.D.Suri in1959.The aim was to give the amateur Gardener a chance to share withothers the love of the earth. To experience the satisfaction of planting,caring for and harvesting flowers, fresh tasty fruits and vegetables. As wellas the beautiful Flowers that grows all around Dehra Dun.In no time all Garden Lovers in and around Dehra Dun desired to become itsmembers. It was, however, decided to limit the membership to 20 members.With these members the society grew and the members contributed ideasand garden knowledge to each other.The society has now completed 54 years of its existence.Society bye laws:Article I – NameDoon Gardening SocietyArticle II – ObjectivesThe purpose of this club is to educate members in home gardening and toencourage an interest in all its phases and to promote conservation,preservation and civic beautification of our community. It shall be organizedon a not-for-profit basis.Article III – Society BoardThe society executive will consist of:OfficersThe elected officers of this organization shall be Secretary, and Treasurer.All elected officers shall serve a term of 2 years. An officer shall not succeedhimself/herself.The election of all officers shall be held at the November meeting and thenew officers will be installed at that time and immediately assume theirduties.
    • P a g e | 1331. Secretary Emeritus (Ex-Secretary to be made Secretary emeritus forLife Time). This post is for life time. The Secretary Emeritus shall as faras possible attend all meetings. He/She shall be a figurehead and will notpreside on the meeting. In the present case Mr.P.N.Suri.2. Secretary – To be elected every two years and will maintain notes of thesociety’s meetings and will be responsible for club generalcorrespondence send out all notices of society’s activities. Shall keep themembership list in order by consulting with the Treasurer.3. Treasurer – To be elected every year and will be responsible forcollecting membership dues and maintaining accounts.4. A presiding officer i.e. a President will be nominated for each meeting andwill preside on that meeting only.ARTICLE IV - DUTIES OF THE OFFICERSSecretary1. Direct all activities of the society2. Be responsible for mailing notices to members regarding meeting3. Preside at all meetings4. Maintain the attendance record in a register and an accurate record ofsociety minutes of the meetings5. Keep a record of all members and update the same6. Prepare an agenda for each meeting7. In the absence of the Secretary, appoint a temporary Secretary for themeetingTreasurer1. Be responsible for the finances of the society2. To collect membership duesArticle V – MembershipThe membership of this Club shall be limited to 20 members.All members must pay annual dues by 30thApril.Membership is open to both men and women. Either the Wife or thehusband can become a member. The spouse willautomatically become a member. In case where thehusband is the member, the Host shall invite the wife tothe meet. The spouse will automatically become a
    • P a g e | 134member. Voting rights, however, will be only with themember (who has paid the annual fee) and not the spouse.Active StatusAn active member shall be anyone who is interested in the purposes of thesociety and be willing to participate in the various club activities.An active member if required must serve on a committee. At present thereare no committees.Guests are welcome to attend 2 meetings, after which they must submit anapplication for membership.Associate StatusAn associate membership shall be open to one who has been an activemember for at least 5 years and is no longer in a position to fulfill therequirements for active membership.Associate membership must be requested in writing and approved by theExecutive Board.On approval of the Executive of the society eminent Botanists and otherpersons who are connected with floriculture may be nominated as anAssociate member.Associate membership shall be limited to a total of 5 members.Article VI – DuesThe dues for active and associate members shall be recommended by theBoard and voted on by the full membership at the April meeting.The amount of dues will be listed in the Standing Rules. At present it isRs.100.00 per annum.Dues are to be paid by March 30th for the following year.If a member has not paid their dues by April 15th, two notices will be sentby post and thereafter it shall be considered a resignation from the societymembership.Article VII – MeetingsThe meetings will be held at the residence of the members are per therooster to be made every year in the month of March. The rooster will bemade in the alphabetical order (First Name of the member). The societyshall meet on the 2nd Saturday evening (Time to be intimated) of themonth, unless otherwise designated. There shall be a total of 10 meetings a
    • P a g e | 135year. Due to intense cold in Dehra Dun no meeting is proposed for themonth of December and January.Since it is a busy world, members are required to be in attendance in timefor the meetings with a grace period of 10 minutes. Late comers will be finedRs.50.In case the member is not in a position to hold a meeting as per his/her duedate, it becomes his/her duty to request the member next on the list toarrange for the same. This change must be informed to the President andthe Secretary at least 15 days prior to the meeting date.Article VIII – Snacks to be served at the meetingThe host for the meet will arrange necessary items to be served at themeeting. In no case these should be more than two salty and onesweet dish.Article IX – New members guide lines:New members have to be introduced by an existing member and shallfulfill the following conditions:1. What will the prospective candidate contribute to the society?2. Will they be willing to serve on the various committees of the society?3. Do they have a garden suitable for hosting a visit and meeting? Boththe size of the garden and the location may be considered. While theirgarden may not have sufficient interest at this time does it have thepotential to make a worthwhile visit?4. Will they be able to attend a minimum of 75% of the meetings? As themembership of the society is restricted, it is no good having a memberwho is unable to attend meetings as they effectively prevent anotherperson from joining and benefiting from the society.5. Do they bring some other attribute to the society which would bewelcomed by the executive and members?6. Does the prospective member show a genuine interest and desire toengage in gardening and to learn about plants and plant culturegenerally?7. The new member shall attend 2 meeting of the society as a guest.Thereafter if approved by the Board he/she shall become the member.As a general practice he/she shall arrange the next meeting at theirresidence.
    • P a g e | 136MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION FORMDOON GARDENING SOCIETYPhotographName:Date of Birth:Name of the spouse:Date of Birth:Date of Wedding Anniversary:Address:Land Line/Mobile No:Email:Hobbies besides gardening:I have read and understood the Doon Gardening Society ByeLaws and agree to abide by them.Date: SignatureRecommended/Accepted:Date: Signature