P a g e | 1Edited by: ASFIChttp://www.doongardeningsociety.yolasite.com
P a g e | 2Ser No Subject Page1 Climate Data of Dun Valley 3GARDEN ACTIVITIES2 January 43 February 94 March 135 April 166 May 197 June 218 July 239 August 2510 September 2811 October 3312 November 3513 December 3814 Lawns - fertiliser application 3915 Plant propagation methods 4316 Chrysanthemums for the Home Garden 5017 Climbers and creepers 6618 Roses – The Queen of Flowers 7419 Insects pests diseases and control 8620 Common gardening mistakes 11321 Compost the ideal plant food 11522 Conversion chart 12123 NPK contents of various manures andfertlisers12424 Know your soil – Jar Test 12525 Liquid Organic Fertiliser 12826 Doon gardening society – By Laws 13227 Doon Gardening Society MembershipApplication Form136
P a g e | 3Climate Data of Dun Valley for all the months is as under on the basis of mean oflast 25 years.Month RainfallRelativeHumidityTemperature(mm) (%) Max Min Ave.January 46.9 91 19.3 3.6 10.9February 54.9 83 22.4 5.6 13.3March 52.4 69 26.2 9.1 17.5April 21.2 53 32 13.3 22.7May 54.2 49 35.3 16.8 25.4June 230.2 65 34.4 29.4 27.1July 630.7 86 30.5 22.6 25.1August 627.4 89 29.7 22.3 25.3TIPE - WHEN PLANTING FOR THE FIRST TIME1. Dig holes or beds wide, not deep2. Lightly amend heavy clay or sandy soils with organic matter.3. Gently remove plants from containers, keeping the root ball intact.4. Loosen potting soil and roots around the bottom and edges of theroot ball.5. Plant level with surrounding soil, spreading roots outward.6. Fill the lightly amended native soil around roots.7. Apply water to settle the soil around the roots.8. Cover the area with leaf or bark mulch 2-4 cm thick. Ensure tokeep the plant’s stem/trunk uncovered.9. Water sufficiently.
P a g e | 4GARDEN ACTIVITIESJANUARYFRUITS: A month of frosts and chilly weather. Great care has tobe taken for the protection of young saplings of fruit trees likelitchi, mango, papya, chikoo, custard apple etc. by covering themwith a thick thatch of hay and their basins should be watered.Pruning of peach, plum, pear trees and grape vine should bedone.After pruning the plants should be sprayed with Rogor,Fenvelrate, Cyphermitherin or CCP 20 as applicable to protectthem from hibernating insects.Cuttings of deciduous fruit plants (plants which shed their leavesin winter) should be placed in prepared small beds in sunny placeand kept moist with frequent watering.GRAPES: Both plants and cutting can be planted.MANGO: The treatment for mealy-bug should be undertaken. Thelower trunk of the trees should be sprayed with CPP (1:20) orPhorate and then covered with a PVC film and tied firmly at thetop and the bottom. This PVC films width should be 3 to 4 feetand should be buried at-least 6 to 7 inches in the earth. SprayDevicol or Nuvan as soon as you notice any mealy-bug activity.Cut all branches or twigs which are touching the building.
P a g e | 5VEGETABLES: Seedlings of Spring Onions should be transplantedin well prepared beds in rows 6-9 inches apart at a distance of 4-6 inches from plant to plant and irrigation withheld for one weekat-least for better root formation.Seedlings of Chilies, Capsicum and Tomatoes sown in Octobershould be transplanted. Spring Potatoes should be sown in wellmanure beds. Cut pieces of large size potatoes bearing 1 to 2buds should be used.BORIC ACID AS – PEST CONTROLBoric (Boric Acid) the innocent white powder comes in an odorless colorless powder form,which can be dissolved in water. It is used in the household as an antiseptic.It is also an excellent product for the control of pests like cockroaches, and small ants.When an insect consumes boric acid, it poisons the stomach and affects the insect’smetabolism. The powder is also abrasive, further affecting the exoskeleton of the insect.How to use it:To make your own boric acid ant traps, mix about 1 teaspoon boric acid, with 10 teaspoonssugar and 2 cups of water. Next, spread the mixture on cardboard or dip cotton balls in it tillthey absorb the liquid. Place these near the source from where the ants and cockroachesenter your house. The ants and the cockroaches will take it to their hives/resting place.Here the others ants and cockroaches will also eat it. The whole colony will be destroyed inabout a week’s time.Place these regularly for a week or two and you will observe that they no longer return toyour home.
P a g e | 6Winter vegetables like Radish, Turnip, Carrot, Beat Root, Brinjals,Dwarf Beans, Peas, Spinach, Soya, Salad etc. should be sown tomaintain supplies till April.Apply manure to all fruit trees, ornamental plants and the winterannuals already planted.TIPS - Rhizomes1. Plant rhizomes shallow.2. Tops of iris rhizomes should remain partlyshowing above the soil, with no mulch.
P a g e | 7FLOWERS ROSES: If roses are pruned in September the flush offlowers will last till end December.Thereafter, two maintenance feeds of 25 gm of fertiliser (rosemixture) should be applied one each in the first week of January.CHRYSANTHEMUMS: After the plants have flowered in October toDecember/January, the branches of the plants should be cutdown to 6 to 9 inches. These plants are called Stools (MotherPlants) and should be allowed to rest for about two months tillmid February, when suckers start emerging from the motherplants.INDOOR PLANTS: These plants must be exposed to the sun andmanure applied.SHRUBS: Plant cuttings of various shrubs like Chandni,Bougainvillea and Rat Ki Rani etc.HEDGES: Old damaged hedges should be repaired by plantingcuttings of these hedge plants in gaps 6 inches apart crosswiseand watered regularly.LAWNS: Sprinkle water on the grass early in the morning as thisprevents the dew or frost to damage the grass. In the third week
P a g e | 8of January apply Urea or CAN and flood the same immediately.During the last week of January mow the lawn.FOOD PRESERVATION: Sarson, Amla, Guva, Turnip, Cauliflower,Carrot, Kenew, Gulgul, Orange, Mausaumi and Peas are availableat the cheapest rates and in abundance. These can all bepreserved now.TIPS - Hanging Basket1. Fill basket with prepared potting soil.2. Leave a small amount of space at the top to allow for easierwatering.3. Make holes in potting soil for new plants.4. Prepare plants by loosening any tangled roots.5. Plant in potting soil, allowing cascading plants to hang over potrim.6. Tuck plants into sides of hanging baskets made of sphagnummoss.7. If slow-release plant food is used, sprinkle a small amount overthe top of potting soil.8. Water to settle soil around plant roots.NOTE: Soil-moistening crystals may be included in the potting mix toretain moisture for longer periods between watering.Happiness Garden"Count the garden by the flowers, never by theleaves that fall. Count your life with smiles andnot the tears that roll."
P a g e | 9FEBRUARYFRUITS: Young seedlings of Litchi, Mango, Chikoo, Papaya etcshould be kept covered with rough thatches keeping south westside open to allow sun and air to protect them from frost and coldwinds.On frosty nights light irrigation may be given to the young fruitsaplings.Manure should be applied to all fruit trees according to the ageand size of the plants followed by watering.All fruit plants specially those of Peach, Plum, Pear and all Citrusfruit trees should be planted in the previously dug pits beforeflowering sets in. In case of evergreen plants protect them fromfrost by covering with a thatch.GRAPES: Grape vines should be pruned by cutting back lastyears shoots, leaving 2-3 buds for new growth of fruit bearingshoots. Soil around the roots of the vine should be dug 9-10inches deep and left exposed to weather for a week or more andall fibrous hair-like roots should be removed, after which compostmixed with CAN should be applied and covered with the soil,followed by light irrigation.VEGETABLES: Seedlings of Chilies, Capsicum, Tomato andBrinjals sown in October should be transplanted in beds if notdone in January.
P a g e | 10Well manure beds should be made for sowing early crop ofsummer vegetables like Khira, Kerala, Chapan Kadu, Loki, andKakri etc. at the end of the month for early supply of thesevegetables.Hoeing should be done to the crop of Potato and Spring Onion.FLOWERS ROSES: Same as in January.TIPS - Cuttings1. Prepare garden soil or pots of potting soil, andmoisten before planting.2. Stick rooted or uprooted cuttings into the moistsoil. Cover the soil surface with mulch to keepsoil moist and cool3. Keep moist, not wet, for several weeks untilcuttings root into new soil.NOTE: Some annual cuttings root readily from stemcuttings stuck in moist potting soil. Some annuals,including coleus and tomatoes, root readily fromstem cuttings in water.
P a g e | 11SUMMER SEASON FLOWERS: Seeds of early summer floweringannuals may be sown in the last week of this month to raiseseedlings of Portulaca, Amaranthus, Coleus, Kochia, Celosia,Zinnia, Gallardia, Golden-rod etc. Bulbs of Football Lilly,Caladium, and Amaryllis may be planted.FOLIAGE PLANTS: There is little growth in foliage plants.Watering should be done with a gap of 7-8 days and excesswatering should be avoided. Varieties of foliage plants likeCrotons, Money Plant, and Philodendron should be protected fromfrost and cold winds.INDOOR PLANTS: Transplanting can be done from the last weekof February. Liquid manure may be given to all the plantsincluding palms.
P a g e | 12SHRUBS: Cuttings of ornamental shrubs, Bougainvillea, Climbersand Hedge Plants may be planted if not done already, withoutany delay in well manure beds and kept moist with frequent lightirrigation.HEDGES: Old damaged hedges should be renovated by plantingcuttings of these very hedges in the gaps 6 inches apart cross-wise and irrigated frequently.LAWNS: Since the nights are still cool, give another dose of Ureaor CAN to the lawn preferably in the first week of this month.Keep on mowing the lawn as soon as it is thick and tall enough.Patchy lawns should be renovated by digging them up andmanure added before planting fresh runners in the last week ofthe month and frequently watered.FOOD PRESERVATION: Sarson, Alma, Guava, Turnip, Carrot,Cauliflower, Kinnow, Orange, Gulgul, Mausamui, Peas, Lemon,China Orange are available and can be all preserved.Watering1. Once established, these plants are usually droughthardy and rarely need heavy watering.2. Too much water can cause foliage problems or rootdiseases.3. Water only occasionally, when they have begun todry out.4. Water slowly and deeply, not frequently.5. When possible, water in the morning to keep foliagefrom remaining wet for too long.
P a g e | 13MARCHFRUITS: With the change of weather all thatch covers over theyoung plants must be removed. Land around them should be dugup after adding manure and irrigated after making deep basins.Lime washing of lower 3 feet of the main trunks of the Litchi andMango trees should be done to protect them from sunburn, attackof insects and fungal pests.Mango trees on flowering should be sprayed with Malathion tocontrol the mango hopper pests. Peach and almond tress shouldbe sprayed with Roger or CPP 20 or Fenvelrate and Nicotinesulphate or Malathion as soon as the fruit have set and are of peagrain size.VEGETABLES Small beds and shallow pits should be made andmanure added in the soil for sowing seeds of summer vegetableslike Bhindi, Beans, Khera, Louki, Pumpkins etc. Bhimdi, Chilies,Capsicum, tomato, brinjal and beans may be sown in flat bedsand the rest in shallow pits.Spring Onions and Garlic beds should be hoed after spreadingmanure and irrigated immediately.
P a g e | 14Ginger, Haldi, Arbi and Zimikind, should be covered with thicklayer of dry leaves about 6 inches deep to protect the tubers fromheat and to preserve moisture air in the soil.FLOWERSROSES: No change.Portulaca, Amaranthus, Coleus, Kochia, Celosia, Zinnia,Gamphorena, Gallardia, Golden-rod etc. should be planted if notalready done.Bulbs of Football Lilly, Caladium, Amartllis may be planted.CHRYASANTHEMUMS: A small sucker is planted in 3 inch pot inthe first week of March or it is planted in rich soil in 9 inch to 10inch pot or in a well-manure bed at a distance of 18 inches.LAWN: Give sterameal to grass, 1 kg sterameal for a lawn of12x12 feet size. Again be on the lookout for weeds. Digging barepatches, adding manure and planting fresh runners of the grass
P a g e | 15should be undertaken to renovate the patchy lawn. These shouldbe kept wet by frequent watering.INDOOR PLANTS: Manure and put them in shady place. Giveliquid manure in the first week of March.FOOD PRESERVATION Cauliflower, Tomato, Turnip, Carrot, Peas,Oranges, Papaya, Ginger and Lemon are all available and can bepreserved.GENERAL Planting of new trees, climbers, shrubs and hedges maybe completed in the first fortnight. Seeds of the hedges and treescan be sown now. Seed collection of flowering annuals may bedone. Care should be taken that seeds are properly dried andlabeled.Seeds of the summer glowering annuals should be sown in thenursery during the second fortnight of the month.FertilisationMost plants need a regular "diet" of all-purpose plant food, eitherspecialty (labeled for your specific plant type) or a generic N-P-K(nitrogen - phosphorus – potassium).1. Fertilise early in the plants growing cycle - spring forsummer plants, fall for winter plants.2. For leafy plants, use a fertilizer with a higher nitrogencontent (first number).3. For flowering or fruiting plants, use a fertiliser higher inphosphorous content (middle number).
P a g e | 16APRILFRUITS: All litchis, mango and other fruit trees should beprovided with deep basins for irrigation during the hot summers.These basins should be filled with dry leaves after leaving amound of soil around the trunk of the trees. Lime washing of thetrunk up-to three feet from the ground should be applied to allthe fruit trees to protect them from sunburn and attack of insectsand fungal pests.Mango trees in flowers should be sprayed with Malathion tocontrol mango hopper pests.Seeds from selected papaya fruits should be sown in small 4 inchpots after rubbing them with dry ashes to remove the mucilage toinduce quicker germination. Seedlings would be ready fortransplantation in August-September and will start fruiting in thecoming winter.VEGETABLES: Clear the winter vegetable beds and prepare themfor the next season.Seedling of Chilies, Capsicum, Brinjal and tomato should betransplanted in small manageable beds if not already done.Ginger and Haldi should be sown on ridges 2-3 inches dependcovered with 9-8 inches deep layer of dry leaves to protect themfrom the heat and preserve moisture in the soil.
P a g e | 17Seeds of all summer vegetables like Bhindi, Beans, Khera, Louki,Torai should be sown in small manageable plots with adequateand assured water supply.Spring crop of Onions should be hoed after irrigation and greenstems trampled down with feet to induce larger bulbs.FLOWERS: Winter season flowers which have stopped floweringshould be cleaned and the beds should be prepared for summerseason.Seedlings of summer flowers like Portulaca, Amaranthus, Dahlia,Sunflowe, Cineria, Gompherena etc. should be transplanted. Thisis the best time for flowering Cannas.
P a g e | 18Seed collection of the late winter flowers can be done. Damagedareas in the Shrubs can be filled up.CHRYASANTHEMUMS: The plants should be transplanted from the3 inch pots to the 9 or 10 inch pots.FOLIAGE PLANTS: In the foliage plants the growth will beresumed. Therefore, these should be kept in the shade to avoiddirect sun. Propagation by seed, division, and cutting can be donein the first fortnight.LAWNS: Give another dose of sterameal with neemkhali. For alawn 12x12 feet one kg each should be applied.SEED COLLECTION: Continue seed collection as in March.INDOOR PLANTS: Save them from direct sun.FOOD PRESERVATION: China Orange, Mangoes, Jackfruit andPumpkins are available and can be preserved.
P a g e | 19MAYFRUITS: Deep basins dug around Litchi and Mango trees shouldbe watered and covered with dry leaves to make mulch. Limewashing applied to the lower part of the trunk up-to 3 feet toavoid splitting of the trunk bark by sunburn and safeguard themagainst insect and fungal attack.VEGETABLES: Transplanting of seedlings of Chilies, Capsicum,Brinjals, Tomatoes, Ginger, Turmeric, Arvi and Zimikund shouldbe planted and covered with 4-6 inches of thick layer of dryleaves to conserve moisture and protect them from the heat.Land should be prepared for sowing Soya Bean in June andmanure applied to the soil.Prepare land for sowing rainy season vegetables like Pusa SawniBhindi, Karela, Louki, Cowpeas, Beans and Chachinda etc. Earlysummer vegetables like Karela, Khira, Louki and Torai etc. shouldbe trained on wooden supports.Garlic sown in October should be dug out, tied with strings andhung. Spring Onion crop should be irrigated, hoed and trampledupon by feet to retard excessive leafy growth and to induce largeand firm bulbs on onions.
P a g e | 20FLOWERS SUMMER FLOWERING ANNUALS: Transplanting ofPortulaca, Amaranthus, Coleus, Kochia, Gompherena andSunflower etc. should be done early.Seeds of Balsam, Zinnia, Petunia, Carnation etc. may be sown inflower pots to raise seedlings of these rainy season flowers.CHRYASANTHEMUMS:Suckers planted in beds or 9-10 inch pots, should be now about6-8 inch tall, their top 1 inch should be cut off with a pair ofscissors.BULBS: Tuberose, Lilly and Cannas bulbs should be planted now.LAWNS: Regular watering is must. In case you wish to have anew lawn, than start digging the lawn up to one foot deep duringthe last week of the month.INDOOR PLANTS: Save them from direct sun. Mulching with grassor dry leaves or moss-grass can be done to retain moisture.
P a g e | 21JUNEFRUITS: Pits of 3 X 3 feet should be dug for planting fruit trees ofLitchi, Mango, and Citrus etc. next month. These pits should befilled up with farmyard manure mixed with top 9" of the soil fromthese very pits.VEGETABLES: Land should be prepared for sowing seeds of SoyaBeans with the advent pre-monsoon showers. Planting of Ginger,Haldi, Arvi etc. should be completed without any further delay ifnot done already. Seeds of rainy season vegetables should besown taking advantage of the pre-monsoon showers. Maize isalso planted during this month.Supports should be provided to the creepers already growing inyour garden. Transplanting of seedlings of Chilies, Capsicum,Brinjals etc. should be done if not done so far.FLOWERS Seedlings of rainy flowers should be planted as theseedlings are ready.CHRYASANTHEMUMS:Cut the tip ends again. If stakes are required use bamboo slits toenable the plants stand upright.PREPERATION OF SOIL MIXTURE FOR POTS: Prepare mixture of 2parts garden soil, 2 parts well rotten cow dung manure and 1 partsand. Take 10 pots of above soil mixture; add ten teaspoons of
P a g e | 22slaked lime/marble powder and ten teaspoons of charcoalgranules.Mix well and fill your pots, after covering properly the bottomhole of the pot with crocks i.e. broken pieces of pots. This willensure good drainage and prevent water logging.Now to each pot add one level teaspoon of Agromin and onetablespoon of Single Superphosphate. Mix well and water andturn the soil. The pots are now ready to receive the plants inJuly/August.LAWNS: The soil which was dug up in the last week of May shouldbe turned inside and outside 2-3 times so that the roots of weedsand any other ant-holes etc. are exposed to the sun anddestroyed by the heat. Keep the earth exposed for about two tothree weeks. Then sprinkle some sand on the topsoil along withsome slaked lime. Let the earth dry out and then level the groundfor planting of the grass.FOOD PRESERVATION: Mangoes, Peaches, Bael, Litchi, Phalsa,Plum, Cherry, Karonda, Jackfruit and Petha are available and canbe preserved.TIPS - Transplanting to Another PotMost tropical or other "indoors" or patio plants kept in potsneed transplanting from time to time.1. When their roots get too tight ("potbound").2. When they get top heavy and need larger pots.3. When spreading plants get too thick and need dividing.4. Remove old, faded, diseased, or cluttered leaves andstems.5. Carefully remove from container.6. Loosen old potting soil and tangled roots.7. Plant in slightly larger pot (if needed) with a little extraspace for mulch and water.8. Lightly fertilise.9. Mulch surface of potting soil to prevent crusting afterwatering.
P a g e | 23JULYFRUITS: Top priority should be to drain off the rainwater duringthe rainy season to avoid water logging.Dry leaves ad turfs of Litchi trees after plucking of the fruit shouldbe filled in the basins around the trees and covered with a thicklayer of earth (2-3 feet).For planting of Litchi, Mango, Guava, Citrus and other fruitsaplings, the previously dug pits should be utilised and afterplanting raised basins should be made.VEGETABLES: Sowing of rainy season vegetables like Bhindi,Kerala, Khira, Louki, Prtha, Pumpkins, Cowpea, Soya, Lobia andAsparagus bean should be sown if not already done.Ginger, Haldi, Arvi etc. should be earthed up as soon as theyoung shoots come up and are 6-8 inches high. Hoeing, weedingand general cleaning of vegetable beds should be done at regularintervals.FLOWERS: Rainy season flowers like Zinnia, Balsam, Coleus,Kochia, Dahlia, Sunflower, etc. should be transplantedimmediately. Cutting of hedge plants, ornamental bushes andcreepers may be planted after the rains set in fully.
P a g e | 24CHRYASANTHEMUMS: In the first week of July 4 inch long tipcuttings should be taken from the top branches of stock plantsand planted in previously sterlised sand.LAWNS: New lawns may be laid out after digging and leveling andrunners of the grass of your choice should be planted closely.SUCCULENTS AND CACTUS: Keep them away from the rains.FOOD PRESERVATION: Mangoes, Peaches, Bael, Litchi, Phalsa,Plum, Cherry, Karonda, Jackfruit and Beat are available and canbe preserved.TIPS - Flats with Dividers1. Prepare soil by digging deeply and adding organicamendments as needed.2. Carefully remove individual plant containers from the flat, orseparate plants whose roots have grown together; cut as fewas possible to separate.3. Gently remove plants from containers; tear or cut side whereroots grow out of drainage holes. Plant in prepared soil levelwith the soil around the plan4. Cover the soil with mulch to protect from sun and packingrain.5. Water deeply to settle soil around roots.
P a g e | 25AUGUSTFRUITS: Top priority should be to drain off the rainwater duringthe rainy season to avoid water logging. Sapling of Litchi, Mango,Guava, Citrus and other fruit saplings, should in their permanentsites in the previously dug pits and filled with manures and topsoil from the pits.A little Phorate should be added to eradicate attack of white antsand other pests.VEGETABLES: Ginger, Haldi, Arvi etc. should be earthed up afterremoving weeds growing in these. Sweet potato are grown fromsprouts produced from the tubers and from cuttings and shouldbe planted on high ridges. Celery is sown in July/August. It ishighly nutritive.
P a g e | 26FLOWERS: Early sowing of flower seeds like Salvia, Aster, Phlox,Petunia and Marigold can be done. Early variety of Gladiola maybe put in beds. Hoeing, weeding and general cleaning can bedone of all the flower beds regularly.CHRYASANTHEMUMS: Each rooted cutting can be potted straightinto 9 or 10 inches pots in the first week of August. Keep the potin full shade for 7 days and then in partial shade for another 7days.Thereafter keep it in a sunny location. Protect these from heavyrains.SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING: Dissolve two teaspoons each of Ureaand Potash in 10 Liters of water. Add two cups of this to each Pot.Thereafter water the plant. This application should be continuedtill end of September, once in 15 days.PEST PROTECTION: Spray either of the following mixture till theflowers bloom every fortnight. To WATER 10 Liters add 10 LitersMETACID and10 ml NUVAN OR10 ml METASYSTOX and10 LitersDIMECRON .POINTS FOR SMALL FLOWERED PLANTS: When the plant is 5-6inches tall pinch the top 1/2 inch to encourage branches. Whenthe branches are about 3 inch long again pinch. Continue theprocess till end of September to obtain a large head of flowers. Acage of three to four split bamboo canes should be provided tillthe middle of August.SPECIAL POINTS FOR LARGE FLOWERED PLANTS: These typesare grown to take 1-4 flowers per plant. By middle of August,provide 2-3 feet long split bamboo stakes as it grows.
P a g e | 27In the beginning of September lateral branches will appear in leafaxils, remove them as soon as hand able by turning to one side.It is easy because the branch is brittle in the beginning. At theend of each branch, 3 flower buds will appear. Keep the healthyone and remove the others when easy to handle.INDOOR PLANTS: Put out all the indoor plants in the rain (waterlogging should be avoided).HEDGES: Cutting of hedge plants, climbers and other ornamentalplant should be planted, also seeds of quick growing hedges likeJainter, Aliar or Inga Dulcis, may be sown for making hedges.LAWNS: New lawns may be laid out after digging and leveling andrunners of the grass of your choice should be planted closely.FOOD PRESERVATION: Jamun, Plum, Karonda, Apple, Mangoes,Lemon,Grapes and Peaches.Cuttings1. Prepare garden soil or pots of potting soil, and moisten beforeplanting.2. Stick rooted or uprooted cuttings into the moist soil. Cover thesoil surface with mulch to keep soil moist and cool3. Keep moist, not wet, for several weeks until cuttings root intonew soil.
P a g e | 28SEPTEMBERFRUITS: Sapling of Litchi, Mango, Guava, Citrus and other fruitsaplings, should be planted in their permanent sites immediatelyif not done so.Basins around the Litchi and Mango trees, filled up earlier, shouldbe made by digging in the decayed leaves etc. and a mixture ofchemical manure (NPK) should be added in the still lightly moistsoil and mixed properly. All the dead, dry, damaged or out ofplace and diseased branches of all the fruit trees should beremoved and to give proper shape and ventilation and sunlight tothem.VEGETABLES: Land should be prepared after adding manure forsowing whole tubers of potatoes for early winter crop. Ginger,Haldi, Arvi etc. should be earthed up after removing weedsgrowing in these.
P a g e | 29Seeds of early dwarf Peas, French Beans, Radish, Turnip, BeetRoot, Methi, Palak, Dhania and bulbs of Onion and Garlicsegments may be sown towards the end of the month for earlysupply of these.Seedlings of Cauliflower, Cabbage, Tomato, Brinjals and Lettuceshould be transplanted for early supply. Celery is sown inJuly/August. It is highly nutritive. Sprouting Broccoli, Brusselssprouts, Parsley and Leak should be sown by end September.These vegetables are a rich source of Vitamin A, B1, B2 and C.
P a g e | 30FLOWERS: Aster, Antirrhinum, Carnation, Phlox, Dahlia, Gerbera,Holy Hock, Larkspur,Linaria, Lupines, Marigold, Pansy, Poppy,
P a g e | 31Salvia, Stock, Sweet Peas, Cosmos, Sweet William and Verbenashould be sown in small beds for raising their seedlings.CHRYASANTHEMUMS: Same as in August.ROSES: It has been observed that in Northern India, new growthbegins by middle of September. At that time sap begins to rise.Therefore, the right time for pruning is third week of September.PRUNING HINTS: The following steps should be the guiding factorfor a good prune: 1. Remove all dead and dry stems and dryportion of partly healthy stems. 2. Cut off weak thin twigs. 3. Cutof branches growing inwards, i.e. towards the centre of the bush.The center will open up. 4. Select five to six healthy canes forretention and remove all the others. 5. Shorten the remainingcanes to 15-18 inches above the scion. While pruning the canes,the cut should be made 1/2 inch above the outward looking eye.6.After pruning, the practice of drenching all branches and cutends with spray of mixture of a contact and systemic insecticidein the following proportion should be undertaken: To 10 LitersWATER add 10 Liters METACID and 10 ml NUVAN , OR 10 mlMETASYSTOX and10 Liters DIMECRON. The effect lasts for 2-3weeks after spraying.After the pruning an application of cow-dung 50 gm, NPK mixture2 heaped tablespoons and Agromin 1 heaped tablespoon shouldbe given to each plant.HEDGES: Cutting of hedge plants, climbers and other ornamentalplant should be immediately planted, if not done so.LAWNS: New lawns may be laid out immediately without anyfurther delay. Weeding should be carried out effectively.
P a g e | 32FOOD PRESERVATION: Jamun, Plum, Karonda, Apple, Mangoes,Lemon, Grapes and Peaches are available.Seeds1. Prepare seedbed, adding any amendments (ifneeded), or fill pots or flats with potting soil.2. Sow small seed directly onto soil surface, and rakelightly to make sure seed are in direct contact withsoil.3. Large seed should be buried two or three times theirdiameter.4. Lightly cover the seeded area with mulch to reducesoil compaction in sun and rain.5. Water shallow seed lightly and frequently until theysprout.6. Water deeper seeds slowly and deeply, but do notkeep wet or they can rot.7. When seeds sprout, encourage deep roots bygradually reducing watering frequency and increasingthe amount, to get it down deep around and belowroots while letting soil surface dry between soakings.NOTE: Most seeds require warm (room temperature orhigher) temperatures to germinate.When seedlings emerge, thin extras to allow full light aroundseedlings; some may be transplanted to larger pots or thegarden. When transplanting, hold small plants by leaves toavoid damage to tender stems.
P a g e | 33OCTOBERFRUITS: Manure mixture of NPK in the ratio of 1:2:1 should beapplied and dug in the basins when the soil is moist. Basinsaround Litchi and Mango trees should be remade and manureshould be applied in adequate quantity.All dead, dry and out of place branches of Litchi, Mango andGuava trees should be removed to allow full sunshine and air togive proper shape to these.VEGETABLES: After cleaning up the garden of all weeds andgrasses, land should be dug and exposed to the sun for 2-3 days.Manure applied to the beds for sowing winter vegetables viz.Peas, Beans, Radish, Turnip, Beet Root, Methi, Palak,Dhania,Brinjals, Cabbage, Cauliflowers, Knol Kol, and Lettuce etc.Bulbs of Onion and Garlic Cloves should be planted preferably onwell manure ridges. Seedlings of Cauliflower, Cabbage, KnollKole, Brinjala, and Tomato should be transplanted in well manurebeds or ridges.Seeds of Chilies, Capsicum and Tomato may also be sown to betransplanted in January for fruiting in April.Ginger and Turmeric ridges should be earthed up heavily afterremoving weeds etc. Whole potato tubers 1/2 inch diameterapproximately should be planted preferably on well manureridges.
P a g e | 34FLOWERS: Transplant all the ready seedlings. For late floweringsow Aster, Antirrhinum, Carnation, Phlox, Dahlia, Gerbera, HolyHock, Larkspur, Linaria, Lupines, Marigold, Pansy, Poppy, Salvia,Stock, Sweet Peas, Cosmos, Sweet William and Verbena.Seeds of Sweet Peas should be sown in well manure and deeplydug trenches or beds and young seedlings on sprouting may becovered with wire netting or thorny bushes to protect them fromdamage by birds.Put in the Hedges and the Evergreen Dahlia Cuttings. Multicoloured Gladiolus, Narcissus and Iris bulbs can be planted.ROSES: Roses dug out of ground with earth ball should beplanted after mid October.LAWNS: Give Urea or CAN to grass and immediately flood it.
P a g e | 35NOVEMBERFRUITS: Young fruit saplings of Litchi, Mango, Papaya, Chikoo etcshould be protected from frost and cold by covering these withrough thatches keeping the south-west side open to allow air andsunshine.Pruning of Peach, Plum and Pear trees should be done as soon asall their leaves shed.Manure should be applied to all the fruit trees after making widebasins.A mixture of NPK in the ratio of 1:2:1 should be applied as perthe age chart followed by watering.After pruning, these trees should be sprayed with Malathion toprotect them from the hibernating of pests.VEGETABLES: Winter vegetables viz. Peas, Beans, Radish, Turnip,Beet Root, Methi, Palak, Dhania, Brinjals, Cabbage, Cauliflowers,Knoll Kole, and Lettuce etc. should be sown in small beds atintervals of 15 days to ensure uninterrupted supply of these.Transplanting of seedlings sown earlier can be done. Bulbs ofOnion and Garlic Cloves should be planted without further delay.Seeds of Onion should be sown in small raised beds in thenursery to raise seedlings of main spring crop of dry bulbs.
P a g e | 36Ginger and Turmeric may be dug out after their leaves have driedup.These should then be washed and dried up for storing in a wellaired store. Seedling of late Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knoll Kole andLettuce should be transplanted on well-manure ridges or flatbeds.FLOWERS: Seedling can be transplanted. Narcissus and Gladiolusbulbs can be grown in this month.Transplant all the ready seedlings. For late flowering sow Aster,Antirrhinum, Carnation, Phlox, Dahlia, Gerbera, Holy Hock,Larkspur, Linaria, Lupines, Marigold, Pansy, Poppy, Salvia, Stock,Sweet Peas, Cosmos, Sweet William and Verbena.Sweet Peas and plants already planted should be given supportafter pinching their upper parts to induce side shoots and preventtheir growing too tall.ROSES: Roses dug out of ground with earth ball should beplanted from the first week of November to end January. Whileplanting a rose the bud should be kept 3-4 inches above theground level and the un-sprouted side of the bud should be keptpointed towards the east/south.Roses do well in any type of garden soil, sandy or clay, but notchalky provided it is well drained. There should not be any waterlogging in rose beds.An ideal pit for planting roses should be 1.5 feet in diameter and1.5 feet deep. The soil dug out of the pit for planting roses should
P a g e | 37be mixed with a tasla of well rotten cow-dung manure and 250gm of bone meal.About 50 Gm of 10 % Phorate should also be added to the soil.After mixing, the pit should be filled with the mixture and theremaining soil should be piled up on the pit.Then after making a circular ridge the pit should be watered. Thedepression caused by sinking of soil should be filled up. If this isdone 2-3 times, it will ensure that the soil will not sink any more.The pit is then ready to receive the plant.Planting Distance:H.T. AND F.B. ROSES 3 - 3.5 feetMiniature and Polyantha roses 2.5 feet Climbers and shrub roses6 feetContainer grow roses can be planted anytime of the year. Eventhen, the 2 very hot months of May and June should be avoided.LAWNS: Give stearmeal to your lawn.FOOD PRESERVATION: Cauliflower, Tomato, Turnip, Carrots,Sarson, Amla, Gauva, Ginger and Apple are available.
P a g e | 38DECEMBERFRUITS: This is the hibernating month and the trees should notbe disturbed.VEGETABLES: Seeds of Onion, Lettuce and Tomato should betransplanted.FLOWERS CHRYASANTHEMUMS: Cut off the stem after floweringand set aside the plants. Protect them from water logging andfrost.INDOOR PLANTS: No manure and transplanting required.LAWNS: Give Urea mixed with Neem Cake and water it.FOOD PRESERVATION: Peas, Oranges, Mosumai, Sarson, Amla,Gauva and Ginger are available.
P a g e | 39LAWNS - FERTILISER APPLICATION:Early fall is the most important time of year to fertilize your lawn.Early in the morning when the dew is heavy. The dew meansyoull leave tracks walking across the lawn and itll be easier tosee where youve been. Also, there is less wind and the fertilizeris less likely to blow around.Early fall is the most important time of year to fertilize your lawn.Think of the early fall lawn feeding as the big dinner. Spring isbreakfast for the lawn and late spring is a light mid-morningsnack. Lunch is usually eaten in late summer.N-P-KNitrogen: (N) Boosts growth and green color of turfPhosphorous: (P) Feeds grass seedlings and turf rootdevelopmentPotassium: (K) Strengthens a lawns resistance to drought anddiseaseN (nitrogen): Nitrogen produces "green and growth" in your lawn.This is the major ingredient in most grass fertilizers, but applyingto much nitrogen can burn your lawn. Fertilizers containing slow-release nitrogen can prevent this hazard, but your lawn will takemore time to "green up."
P a g e | 40P (phosphorous/phosphate): This chemical builds strong rootsand promotes disease resistance. This is helpful for lawnssusceptible to diseases.K (potassium/potash): Potassium promotes overall plant strengthand promotes drought resistance.The rates are based on a 3-1-2 (N-P-K) maintenance ratio.The recommended rate is 2.25 kg of actual nitrogen per 1,000square feet for the growing season. Let’s suppose you wanted touse urea (46 percent strength nitrogen) as the fertilizer material.It is easy to calculate the amount of urea needed to supply a totalof 2.25 kg of actual nitrogen by using the formula:(2.25 ÷ 46) x 100 = 4.89 kg (5 kg rounded off) urea.The recommended rate is 1 kg of actual phosphate per 1,000square feet for the growing season. Let’s suppose you wanted touse SSP (16 percent strength P2O5) as the fertilizer material. Itis easy to calculate the amount of urea needed to supply a totalof 1 kg of actual phosphate by using the formula:(1 ÷ 16) x 100 = 6.25 kg (7 kg rounded off) SSP.The recommended rate is 2 kg of actual potash per 1,000 squarefeet for the growing season. Let’s suppose you wanted to useK2O (60 percent strength K2O) as the fertilizer material. It iseasy to calculate the amount of urea needed to supply a total of 2kg of actual phosphate by using the formula:(2 ÷ 60) x 100 = 3.33 kg (4 kg rounded off) K2O.
P a g e | 41Therefore, nearly 5 kg urea (46 percent strength nitrogen), 7 kgSuperphosphate (16 percent P2O5) and 4 kg Potash (60 percentK2O) will be needed to supply the required per 1,000 square feetof lawn area for the entire growing season.This 5 +7+4 = 16 kg of total fertilizer should be split into sixequal applications as suggested below:Apr. 1, May 1, June 1, July 1, Aug. 1 and Sept. 1Note: Per application you will need:Urea – 800 gmSuperhhosphate – 1000 gmPotash – 700 gmNote: After the application spray water on the grass as thiswill help the soil absorb the nutrients. Watering in thefertilizer washes the nutrients into the soil where lawnroots can use them and where they won’t be washed awayby a heavy rain. Watering also gets the fertilizer off theleaves which may cause burning. A dry lawn is more likelyto burn than a wet one.Fertiliser application method:Applying dry fertilizers evenly by hand is a bit difficult. The bestway is to use a fertilizer broadcasting drum or spreader. If youhave no other option, apply the fertilizer very carefully and onlyon small lawns. Wear gloves and walk backwards across the lawnas you throw the fertilizer as evenly as possible with a sweepingmotion.Sweep up any fertilizer that spills.Spread fertilizer over the edges of the lawn first.
P a g e | 42Move at your normal walking speed. Then move back and forthbetween the edges. To avoid missing strips, make sure to overlapthe path of the wheels when using a drop spreader. You shouldhave a little overlap at the edges of broadcast spreaders.Then broadcast the fertilizers while walking up and down the lawnas shown in the following figures:Sod/LawnsSod can be laid nearly any time the soil is workable.1. Purchase healthy sod, timing delivery for when it is time to plant(avoid leaving stacked in hot sun).2. Prepare soil by removing stones, sticks, and other obstructions.3. Lightly rake or till soil surface.4. Lay sod.5. Solid sod should be laid in alternating rows to reduce long seamsbetween rows.6. "Checkerboard" pieces of sod should be planted, not simply laid ontop of the ground; or fill between with fresh soil.7. Roll freshly-laid sod with a rented roller, or walk on it, to ensure solidcontact with soil underneath.8. Water deeply, and keep moist, not wet, until sod begins to root intosoil underneath.
P a g e | 43PLANT PROPAGATION METHODSPlants can be propagated by two methods, namely - sexual andasexual.Sexual Propagation: Seed formation takes place only afterpollination. After fertilization, seeds are formed. Seeds whensown give rise to new plants. Some bisexual flowers are selfsterile, that is, pollens from a flower, when deposited on thefemale part of the same flower will fail to fertilize it. In somebisexual flowers like Salvia, pollens and female parts from thesame flower mature at different time to prevent self- pollination.For artificial pollination for cross breeding purpose pollens from amature flower are collected and deposited on the receptivestigma (female organ) of another flower. This process can giverise to hybrid plants.Asexual Propagation: This process is also called as vegetativepropagation. Stem cuttings, root cuttings, leaf cuttings, rootdivision, layering, grafting and budding are all vegetativemethods of propagation.
P a g e | 44Stem Cuttings: Herbaceous stem cuttings of plants like Dahlia,Mint, Portulaca etc. easily root. They do not need any specialtreatment. In herbaeceous plants tender, growing and leafysections make better plants. Semi-hard cuttings like Schefflera,Aralia, Philodendrons, Hibiscus can be easily rooted. Hardwoodcuttings of Bougainvillea, Ixora etc. can be rooted with goodamount of success if root promoting hormones are used. Thesehormones - normally available in powder form - are applied onthe lower end of the cutting.Roots are formed in greater number on nodes. So, when plantinga stem cutting, at least two to three nodes should be inserted inthe planting medium. In hardwood cuttings particularly, to reducedrying through transpiration, some of the leaves should beremoved. In semi-hard and hardwood cuttings survival rate willbe much higher if cuttings are taken with a heel.Cuttings will strike roots faster in a porous and well aeratedmedium, which drains out water quickly but retains moisture forlonger periods. Sand, brick / charcoal pieces, rice husk, peatmoss or vermiculite can be used to make soil porous. Newlyplanted cutting must not be kept in complete shade. If kept insemi-shady locations, warmth of sunlight will encourages faster
P a g e | 45rooting. Watering should be done with a sprinkler attached to ahose or to a watering can.Root Cuttings: Some plants like Breadfruit, Curry patta, WhitePoinsettia and some Jasmines and Ixora can be propagated withroot cuttings. Roots of such plants if cut at the plant end and thecut tip of the root if exposed to air will start growing in to a newplant.Leaf Cuttings : Entire leaves removed from many succulentsand kept in moist sandy medium will sprout plantlets. Echeveria,Kalanchoe, and Sedum are such plants. Herbaceous plants likeAfrican violets, Begonia Rex, Peperomia also can be propagatedthrough leaf cutting. Sansevieria, Gasteria and Drimiopsis alsocan be propagated through entire leaf or by planting leafsections.
P a g e | 46Root Division: Bamboo, Asparagus and Gerbera plants grow inclumps. These clumps can be divided into sections, with eachsection having some roots. The sections are then planted asseparate plants.Air Layering: Plants which can not be propagated with any ofthe above mentioned methods may respond to layering. Layeringactually is a type of stem cutting only. But the difference betweenthe two is that in normal stem cutting the stems are cut awayfrom the mother plant and then they are forced to root. Inlayering, first the roots are formed on a stem of a mother plantand only after that the stem is cut off and is planted as a newplant. Plants grown from layering will fruit earlier than the onesgrown from seeds. Mature or semi-mature branches are selectedfor layering, depending upon the species. A ring of bark, about 1to 2 cm wide is taken out just below a node. For faster andprofuse rooting to take place, rooting hormones may be applied
P a g e | 47on the place from where the bark has been removed. Wetsphagnum moss in a shape of a ball is applied all around the cutand its upper portion. The ball of moss is then is covered with apiece of transparent polythene sheet. Using a string, the poly-sheet is tied firmly on to the moss ball. Keep the strings a littleloose on the upper end to facilitate occasional watering, to keepthe moss wet all the time. When a large number of roots areformed, the rooted branch is cut away from the plant. Afterremoval of the poly-sheet, the branch is planted in soil. Placesuch newly planted branches in semi-shaded place. If the rootedbranch has fewer roots, then it is advisable to cut the branchgradually from the main plant to prevent the shock.Stooping: Stooping is a type of air layering only. In this methodthe branch from which the ring of bark has been removed, is bentdown and the portion of the stem from where the bark wasremoved is inserted in the ground. A stone is kept on the soil toprevent the branch from springing out of soil. After the roots areformed, the branch is cut off from the plant end. The newlyrooted branch then is replanted.
P a g e | 48Grafting: Mango, Chikoo and Golden Champa are availablemostly as grafted plants. These days even Cashew, Jackfruit andJamun plants are being successfully being grafted. Decorativeplants such as hybrid red Mussaenda and catus plants too areavailable as grafts. "Stock" is a rooted plant upon which a branchof a desired variety of the plant is grafted. The branch, which isbeing grafted, is called as "scion". Grafting is done on a stockplant, which has a very strong root system. Chikoo plant isalways grafted on a sapling of Rayan (also called as Khirni) tree.Following are some important methods of grafting: Wedge grafting Side grafting Veneer grafting Approach grafting (inarching Butt grafting (used for grafting cacti plants)
P a g e | 49Budding: Budding, actually, is a type of grafting only. However,in budding, the scion is in a section of shield-shaped skin alongwith an eye (lateral auxiliary bud, not a flower bud). On the stocka "T" shaped cut is given. The skin is opened and the bud isinserted inside the skin. After this, the cut is covered by windinga strip of polythene sheet, keeping only the bud exposed. Thegrowing tip of the stock then is severed. Growth of the graftedbud starts within 15 days. Rose, Bougainvillea, limes and othercitrus plants, Hibiscus, Beer can be budded.
P a g e | 50Chrysanthemums for the Home GardenChrysanthemums or “mums” are one of the most popular fallperennials for the garden. Numerous varieties are available todayand can be selected to bloom from late summer through theentire fall. The genus Chrysanthemum belongs to the daisy familyand consist of over 200 species including annuals, perennials andsmall shrubs. Native to the Far East, chrysanthemums became apart of India’s floriculture in the late 1800 when they were firstintroduced. By the early 1900, hardier varieties were being grownand with the introduction of the Korean hybrids, mums becamequite popular as a garden plant. These Korean hybrids becamethe breeding stock for most all hardy chrysanthemum presenttoday.Garden mums are vigorous clump-type plants with strong,upright or sprawling stems which can often become woody; theleaves are slightly aromatic. Many new varieties ofchrysanthemums are being developed each year which differgreatly from their common ancestors in color, size and form. Mostare quite easy to grow in the garden, however, some are hardyonly in mild climates and freeze out when planted beyond theirzone of winter tolerance.In general, chrysanthemums are short-day plants meaning thatthe flowering response is triggered by the shortening days of latesummer. The requirement for short days to induce flowering caneither occur naturally outdoors in late summer or can becontrolled in a greenhouse by excluding light for 9 to 13 hourseach day and for an extended period of 8 to 12 or more weeksdepending upon the variety or mum type. This technique allowsgrowers to produce flowering mums and make them available anytime of year.
P a g e | 51There are many places where hardy chrysanthemums can beenjoyed in the garden. Because of their shallow rooting habit,plants can be dug with a spading fork and easily moved to newlocations. This has a particular advantage because mums can begrown for most of the season in a sunny location, then after theyhave developed flower buds, moved to partially shaded borderareas where they will come into full bloom. In cooler locations likethis, the flowers are more apt to last for a longer periodcompared to full sun areas.In the fall, garden centers are selling potted mums which can betransplanted to the garden to fill in bare spots in the flower bed.Mums also lend themselves well to containers and hangingbaskets. This is one of the most popular ways to enjoy mumssince these containers and basket can be moved to any sunnylocation around the landscape.Although slightly more intensive in care, cascade mums presentthe opportunity to create a spectacular floral display. Cascadesmake up a group of mums which have a weeping or trailing habit.These plants can be trained to grow over wire supports, up ordown fences or walls and generate a tremendous number of
P a g e | 52blooms from a single plant.Planting LocationChrysanthemums require well-drained soil and full sunlight togrow and successfully bloom. This means generally 6 hours ofsunlight or more each day during the summer period. Plantsgrown with less light will become weak, spindly and produce fewflowers. Avoid locations which are exposed to street or porchlights as this will interfere with the flowering light response toshortened days. The best location is a southern or southeasternexposure preferably against a foundation or wall where additionalprotection is given from frost. Improve the drainage beforeplanting by elevating the bed with a good mix of garden loam andcompost.Soil Preparation and PlantingAny garden soil which is good for growing vegetables will besatisfactory for growing mums. If particularly high in clay,additions of organic matter including peat, composted leaves,rotted manure or straw will improve the drainage and aeration.While working the planting bed, collect enough soil for a soil testand follow the recommendation for amounts of fertilizer to beadded. Containerized plants should be planted at the same depthat which they were grown. Do not bury the root ball. This willpromote a lack of root aeration and root rot caused by fungalpathogens. Chrysanthemums are shallow rooted and do best ifplanted high. This means that frequent watering may benecessary during times of high heat and little rainfall. Spaceplants generally about 18 inches apart. Spreading varieties mayrequire larger spacing.
P a g e | 53PinchingTo generate a plant full of flowers and control growth,chrysanthemum require some pinching of the tips. Thisencourages branching and more compact growth. It also willstimulate more flowers to be produced. Pinching is done byremoval of about an inch of the tip of each branch or shoot. Thisis snapped out with the thumb and index finger. The first pinchshould be done when the plant is 6 to 8 inches tall and repeatedwhen new branches become 6 inches tall. A third pinch may benecessary on fast-growing varieties. If plant are not properlypinched, they will become tall, leggy, easily blown over by windsand have few flowers.The most important thing to keep in mind when pinching thegrowth back is the timing of the last pinch. For early floweringvarieties which bloom in mid-September, the last pinch should bearound the middle of June. Varieties which flower in the early partof October should be given a last pinch on July 1. Later floweringvarieties should be pinched for the last time no later than July 15.Overall, about 3 months is required between the last pinch andbloom. This is a general rule which can guide you in controllingthe growth and stimulating more bloom production.FertilizationMost mums will require fertilization several time during the springand summer to stimulate good growth, produce thick stems andmaintain a healthy green color. Chrysanthemums are not heavyfeeders like vegetables so, it is best to use a dilute fertilizerapplied several times prior to bud set. Nitrogen has the greatesteffect on flower production and general growth. If too much isapplied, vegetative growth will be hard to control, fewer flowerswill be produced and overall, flowering will occur later in the
P a g e | 54season. Before planting a bed in the spring, about 4 pounds of 5-10-5 per 100 square feet can be worked into the soil to a depthof 6 inches. This gives about one-quarter pound of nitrogen per100 square feet and should be enough fertilizer for the season ifabundant organic matter is present. A second application aroundAugust 1 may be beneficial especially on poorer soils. Apply about2 tablespoons of 10-6-4 or 4 tablespoons of 5-10-5 fertilizerspread over a 2 foot circle at the base of individual plants.Alternatively, broadcast about 2 pounds of 5-10-5 per 100 squarefeet. No more than about a tenth of a pound of nitrogen shouldbe applied at this time.General Care and MaintenanceDuring the early part of the summer, a layer of mulch materialshould be applied to the soil after it has warmed up as this hasdefinite advantages to conserving and regulating moisture tothese shallow-rooted plants. Besides the benefits of watercontrol, mulch protects the bed from erosion, compaction andretards weed seed germination. Use a 2 to 3-inch layer of coarsepeat, leaf mold, compost, nut hulls or lawn clippings mixed withleaves. Mulches composed of chipped wood, sawdust and strawmay consume nitrogen fertilizer and rob the root system. If youuse these materials as mulch, double the fertilizer applied to thebed.If you cannot control the growth of the plants to the point thatthey have become tall and begin to drop over, then some supportmay be necessary in the form of wire frames or upright stakes.Wire peony or tomato frames work well and should be put inplace before they are needed, otherwise these will be moredifficult to position without damaging the plant.
P a g e | 55After the plants have flowered, the stems should be cut off closeto the ground. Leaf, flower and stem debris should be collectedand composted provided they are not disease or insect infested.If that is the case, the materials should be composted separatelyand not used for mulching or soil improvement around the plants.Disease or insect infested materials can be buried and left out ofthe garden.Often chrysanthemums listed in catalogs are noted as beingwinter hardy meaning that the plants will over winter and growthe following season. The term “hardy” has been used sometimesinappropriately and gardeners should be cautious about believingthat all mums are winter hardy when stated so. The fact is thatmany mums are not reliably hardy depending upon the climateconditions presented and even the most hardy varieties may notmake it through a severe winter of subzero temperatures.Many mum selections will survive the winter if the plantsgradually become frozen and remain that way until spring. Deepsnow cover will assist this and protect the frozen soil if it remainsintact throughout the winter. Unfortunately, that is notcharacteristic of the conditions in the St. Louis area and plantsmust be able to stand the freezing/thawing fluctuations whichtypify our climate.The best defense against adverse weather conditions is to providegood drainage so that water does not accumulate around theplants and promote ice formation. After the first frost, mound afew shovels of soil forming an 8-inch layer around the base ofeach plant. Cut the branches back to 10 inches above the soil lineand apply a 2 to 4-inch mulch layer as soon as the soil surfacefreezes. This means loosely layering evergreen branches, straw,or other lofty materials around the plants. Avoid using materials
P a g e | 56like leaves or peat moss which will pack down and retardemergence of leafy shoots in the spring. After the last danger offrost has past, this mulch and soil can be removed. If leafygrowth has already started and the possibility of frost is stillpresent, apply another layer of loose mulch to protect the growth.As an alternative to over wintering plants in the bed, they can bedug and placed into cold frames to better ensure survival. Thismean a little more work, but for those varieties which are moretender, it is often the only way to keep plants from one year toanother.Of the numerous cultivars available for home gardeners, a selectgroup of garden mums can be recommended having withstoodthe test of time at gardens in Chandigarh, Dehra Dun andBanglore.Cultivar Color TypeDebonair intense lavender decorativeStargazer dark lavender daisyTinkerbell intense purple pompomPatriot white pompomMinngopher intense red decorativeAllure yellow daisyRuby Mound crimson red pompomTriumphdark brown center,golden petalsdecorativeRoll Call orange bronze decorativeWhite Stardom pure white daisyPancho orange bronze pompomWest Point yellow pompomJohnny Appleseed orange bronze pompomFlaming Sun orange bronze decorative
P a g e | 58Some types of mums and their description is appended below:Type Description1. Irregular Incurve Largest of mum varieties. Rather loose,informal appearance, with lower petalsdrooping. Needs to be staked. Largeblooms. Mid season - Oct.2. Reflex Large durable flower. Needs to bestaked. Large to medium-large blooms.Early season - Sept., Oct.3. Regular Incurve Football mum, a compact flower with 3-5flowers/plant. Needs to be staked. Largeto medium-large blooms. Mid season -Oct.4. Decorative A flattened full bloom. A good cut flowerand garden mum. May need support.Large to medium-large blooms. Early andmid season - Sept., Oct.5. Intermediate Incurve Incurving but loose flower form, mayneed support. Large to medium-largeblooms. Early and mid season - Sept.,Oct.6. Pompon Mass of small blooms. Small miniaturebutton to large ball shaped flower. Goodfor cut flowers. Medium-large to smallblooms. Mid season - Oct.7. Single Daisy-like spray, small flower or a fewlarger blooms. Mid season - Oct.8. Anemone Single-like but more pronounced center.May need support. Large blooms or smallflowers. Mid season - Oct.9. Spoon A daisy-like flower with spoon-like endsto florets. Interesting form. Large bloomsor small flowers. Mid season - Oct.10. Quill Tubular florets like spoon but notflattened on the ends. Large blooms orsmall flowers. Mid season - Oct.11. Spider Fuji mum - the most exotic, with thinthread-like florets, tubular ends arecoiled. Large blooms. Mid season - Oct.12. Brush or Thistle Unusual, broom-shaped flower. Does notopen flat, excellent filler forarrangements. Medium-large blooms.Mid season - Oct .
P a g e | 59PropagationThere are several way to increase the number of plants that youare growing without buying new ones; division of whole plants,stem cuttings and planting seed.DivisionTypically, mums grown for two years can be divided by splittingthe root system of an old plant into two or more separate plants.This is best done in the spring after the new growth is about 6 to8 inches tall. Simply dig up the plant and examine the rootsystem identifying the new underground shoots that come off theold plant. Remove each rosette consisting of the leafy growth anda root system. Plant these back into the garden taking care not tobury the division too far down into the soil.CuttingsPerhaps the best way to propagate new plants is by taking stemcuttings. These are preferred to divisions because they often willgrow more vigorously and have less diseases. In the spring, whenplants have reached a height of 8 to 10 inches, make stemcuttings by removing leafy tips that are 3 to 4 inches long.Remove the basal leaves to give about 1 to 2 inches of clear stemand plant this into a soil mix of one part peat moss and one partsand, perlite or vermiculite. This can be done directly in thegarden or in a suitable container with good drainage. The cuttingshould become rooted in about 2 to 3 weeks. The most criticalfactor is moisture control. While these cutting are forming roots,they need to be watered daily. It is often helpful to make a coverout of plastic to prevent complete wilting. Plants should not beplaced in intense sunlight, however, should receive some suneach day, preferably in the early morning. If a plastic cover isused, care should be taken that the inside temperature does notreach more than 75 degrees.
P a g e | 60SeedsSeed is rarely used to propagate new mum plants. This isbecause few mum varieties will actually set seed and the seedthat is produced generates plants inferior to named varietiesotherwise propagated by cuttings or divisions. On the other hand,seed produced by hand-pollination is an important method ofobtaining new varieties. Primarily, because is much easier togenerate new plants from cuttings, seed propagation offers noreal advantage to the average home gardener.Selected CultivarsThere are hundreds of excellent chrysanthemum varieties and theprocess of selection can be challenging. Often you will hear thewords “garden mum” or “florist mum”. These terms are used totalk about hardiness. Generally, garden mums are hardy in theareas sold. However, florist mums are not and are produced foruse as a flowering indoor pot plant. Without extra protection,they will be difficult to over winter outdoors. If you want to give aflowering mum and want to plant it outside when the flowers arepast, then choose a garden mum.How to Grow a Cascade MumCascade mums are a type of chrysanthemum which trails outwardor lays over as it grows. These plants are typically grown with theuse of some kind of support like wire or fence to keep the plantsgrowing in a certain direction. To grow a cascade mum you musttake some special care in order to maximize the bloomproduction; the results can be spectacular and very creative.The first step in growing a cascade mum is to propagate stemcuttings taken from container stock plants which have beengrown indoors under constant light through the fall and winter.The light need only be a 60 watt bulb, however, this will keep
P a g e | 61these stock plants from initiating flower buds. It is important tokeep the plant in a vegetative state so that good stem cuttingscan be collected.Around the first part of February, snip off 3 to 4-inch long tips ofthe stems from the stock plants and insert 1 to 2 inches of thestem into a rooting soil mix of 50 percent sand and 50 percentpeat. Keep the cutting continuously moist for about 2 to 3 weeksuntil the rooting has completed. A plastic cover over the rootingcontainer may prevent the cutting from drying out. Transfer therooted cuttings to 4-inch pots and hold under continuous light for6 more weeks and fertilize on a regular schedule with a solublehousehold fertilizer. At this time the cuttings should be about 10to 14 inches tall. Transplant 2 or 3 cuttings to a 10-inch finishingpot with a good houseplant mix of peat and perlite.Immediately give a soft pinch by removing 2 inches of theterminal growth. Keep under light until about the 15th of April.This is the point in the season that the days are long enough tokeep the plants from setting bud.As one suggestion, construct a wire frame 5 feet long andposition the mum containers close to the base. Begin to fastenthe terminal growth to the wire by securing loosely with twistties. As the plants grow and for every 4 inches of growthproduced, pinch the terminal buds by removing about 2 inches ofthe stem. Repeat this at intervals where new growth has reached4 inches and reestablish the terminal shoot by selecting and tyingup laterals to the frame.When the frame has become filled, begin to shear the plants byremoving all terminal growth and leaving 2 to 3 leaf nodes oneach terminal. Stop shearing around July 15th so that the plant
P a g e | 62will begin to set buds. It takes about 90 more days until theplants will begin to bloom. This means approximately mid-October depending upon the cultivar selection.Bud set is controlled by day length. As the days become shorterin the later part of the summer, the flower buds will be initiated.Any light source like street lamps or porch lights will interferewith this flowering response so plants must be kept isolated fromthese and any other light source during the night.Once the flowers have been produced, plants can be transplantedinto the garden or cut back to be held as stock plants for the nextyear. Most cascade mums are hardy and can withstand averagelow temperature in our area.Some of the best cascade mums to grow include:Bronze Charm - bronze single typeYellow, White or Pink Daphne - single typeFirechief - red single typeMegumi - bright yellow anemone typeDiseasesA number of diseases plague chrysanthemums. Avoidingovercrowded and shaded conditions will help in reducing theincidence of disease because under such conditions, moisture islikely to remain on the leaves providing good conditions fordiseases to get started.Septoria Leaf SpotThis leaf spot disease is caused by a fungus which attacks leavesand produces brown to black spots. The disease will begin on thelower leaves and move its way upward until perhaps half of theleaves become brown and wilted. The fungus overwinters in
P a g e | 63debris on the soil surface. Spores produced from infested debrissplash onto new foliage in the spring and initiate new infections.The best way to control the disease is to avoid the initialinfections by cleaning up infested debris from around the base ofthe plant. If the disease shows up on the leaves, a fungicide canbe used to avoid continued infections. Fungicides labelled for leafspot control include benomyl (Benlate), chlorothalonil (Daconil),zineb, maneb or mancozeb. No cultivars are resistant to thisdisease.Powdery MildewThe same fungus which causes powdery mildew on roses, phloxand zinnias can become established on cluysanthemums. Thebest conditions for powdery mildew development are moderate tocool temperatures and high relative humidity, but not freemoisture on leaves. Typically this disease is more prevalentduring the early to late fall when air temperatures at night arerelatively cool. The only way to control powdery mildew is to usea fungicide sprayed every 7 to 10 days. Sulfur, benomyl(Benlate), dinitro phenyl crotonate (Karathane), triademefon(Bayleton) or triflorine (Funginex) are labelled for control ofpowdery mildew of chrysanthemum.Virus DiseasesVirus diseases like mosaic and stunt or virus-like diseases such asaster yellows are occasionally a problem on chrysanthemums.These diseases are typically transmitted by insects and vary intheir occurrence each year according to the insect survival rateafter winter. They may cause plants to be severely stunted withdistorted leaves or have mottled and yellowed leaves with noapparent reduction in growth. Aster yellows is caused by anorganism called a mycoplasma which resembles bacteria, butbehaves much like a virus in symptom development. There is
P a g e | 64little you can do to prevent these diseases and other virusdisease in the garden. The best approach to this is to rogue outinfected plants as soon as they are discovered and control insectswhich transmit the viruses; particularly aphids and leafhoppers.InsectsAphidsThese are soft-bodied insects that range in color from green toblack and about one-eighth inch long at the largest. Aphids feedby sucking out plant juices from cells. Most feeding activity willtake place from the underside of the leaves and buds. Undersevere infestations, aphid feeding will cause tissues to becomeyellowed. The only way to effectively control aphids is withinsecticides. Suitable materials include malathion, diazinon andinsecticidal soap which when use properly and sprayed to provideuniform coverage can be quite effective.CaterpillarsA couple different types of caterpillars may chew holes in theleaves or feed on the buds. Generally, these pests will cause littlelasting damage and therefore should be tolerated unless the plantshows more than 50% loss of tissue. Caterpillars can otherwisebe controlled by using an insecticide like those mentioned foraphid control. In addition, carbaryl (Sevin) should be added tothe list as well as one biological insecticide called Bacillusthuringinesis (Dipel, Thuricide, Bactur). Insecticidal soaps are noteffective against caterpillars.LeafhoppersThese small, wedge-shaped insects are always found on theunderside of leaves where they feed by sucking plant juices out ofcells. Typically, they are green in color and fly or run sidewayswhen disturbed. Heavy feeding will cause leaves to become
P a g e | 65mottled, curled and withered. The same insecticides as thoserecommended for aphids plus carbaryl (Sevin) will controlleathoppers.LeafminersLeafminers spend most of their pest life inside leaves burrowingbetween the upper and lower cell layers. Light-colored,serpentine mines can be easily distinguished. Heavily infestedleaves may curl and wither. Insecticides sprayed over the surfaceare not likely to control the feeding of leafminers in the leaves,however, malathion and diazinon can be used to control egg-laying adults.Plant BugsPlant bugs do not typically cause real problem onchrysanthemums, but can be found feeding on sap by puncturingtissues with their mouth parts. These insects are about one-quarter of an inch long, brown or green in color with some blackmarking on the back. If necessary, plant bugs can be controlledby use of malathion, diazinon or carbaryl.Spider MitesWhen conditions become hot and dry, spider mites can be apersistent problem on chrysanthemums. These are related, butnot true insects which feed on the underside of leaves by raspingand rupturing cells with their mouth parts. The plant sap whichleaks out is then lapped up. Heavy feeding will cause the leavesto become bronzed and dry looking. They are difficult to observewith the naked eye and therefore, often avoid detection until thedamage is already done. Insecticidal soaps as well as thosepesticides which control aphids can be effective against spidermites. Carbaryl (Sevin) will not control mites.
P a g e | 66Climbers and creepersBotanically, plants, which have special structure to climb onsupports, are defined as climber. Climbers are very importantornamental plants and the beauty of any garden can be greatlyincreased by carefully selecting and planting them in a suitableplace.The growth habit and mass of colour give charming appearance.Climbers are very commonly used on arches and pergolas but incities their utility enhanced for the purpose of screening thepremises from adjacent houses and maintaining privacy.Bare walls can be most effectively decorated by growing colourfulclimbers on it. Fences and trellis also provide scope for thebeautiful climbers to grow and display. It is often felt that amongthe various types of ornamental plants least interest is taken onclimbers and only few species or varieties are found growing in alocality.Even a good amateur gardener seldom knows more than a dozenclimbers as information regarding a large number of these plantsis not readily available. Attempts have been made to includedescription of plants of horticultural interest and their utility andpractical hits on cultivation of a large number of climbers suitablefor tropical gardens.Another type of climbing plants grows spirally around anotherplant or support and do not possess tendrils, rootlets, shoots or
P a g e | 67thorn. These are known as twiners e.g., Echites, Chonemorpha,Clerodendron.Creepers cannot grow vertically on their own e.g., Morning Glory.All these types of plants are commonly known as climbers. Mostof the flowering climbers require full sun for growth andflowering; few climbers, however, grow well in shade and flowere.g., Thunbergia grandiflora, Clerodendron splendens,Jacquemontia violacea, Asparagus racemosus, Scindapsus,Philodendrons, Monstera deliciosa, Syngonium, Cissus discolorare grown for beautiful foliage in shade or partial shade.Scindapsus (Pothos) are the most popular climber in shade andwhen grown on tree trunk, the leaves grow large with veryattractive shades of green and yellow. Philodendrons are alsogrown on tree trunks in shady places. Ficus repens (Indian ivy) is
P a g e | 68the most popular and widely grown plant for covering bare wallsor pedestrals. No support is needed as the roots from the nodegrip the walls.Climbers which grow quickly and cover the space thickly aremostly used for this purpose. Railway creeper (Ipomoeapalmata), Antigonon and Vernonia are commonly selected.Vermonia has neat growth but the flowers are not showy. Someheavy climbers with colourful bloom can be recommended. Theseare Clerodendron splendens, Derris scandens, Thumbergia,Adenocalymna calycina, Passiflora, Bignonia gracilis,Rhyncospermum, Bougainvillea, Ficus stipulata is also an idealclimber for screening shady place.
P a g e | 69Ideal climbers for pergolaQuisqualis, Banisteria laurifolia, Derris scandens, Clerodendronsplendens, Petrea volubilis, Pyrostegia venusta, Bougainvillea.Annual climberImportant annual climbers are sweet pea and heavenly bluemorning glory (Ipomoea coerulea), Mina lobata with yellow andorange red spikes and Quamoclit vulgaris with white, pink andred flowers are also popular annual climbers.Climbers for pot cultureFor growing climbers in pots, light climbers or those withbushy growth should be selected. Climbers should be planted inlarge pots (20-30cm) and given suitable support to allow theplant to grow. Among the perennial climbers Clematis flammula,Bignonia purpurea, should be selected for pot cultivation.Bougainvilleas in pots are usually treated as shrubs.
P a g e | 70SoilLoamy soil with good drainage suits well to most of the climbers.Decayed cow or stable manure or leaf mould should beincorporated in the soil of the pit about 50cm in depth anddiameter in case of large and heavy climbers. For light climber,the pit may be 30cm deep and 25 cm in diameter. Bone meal andleaf mould show very good result if cow-manure is not available.Distance of planting depends on the species or variety and thepurpose for which the climbers are used.Quick growing heavy climbers are planted at a distance of 3m forscreening, while light climbers for the same purpose may begrown at 1m. To cover fences or walls closer planting isrecommended. Vernonia and ficus repens are planted at adistance of 15-30cm.As the climbers do not grow erect without support, main stemand the branches should be tied up with the support. This helpsto grow and cover the space quickly. Like other perennial plantsplanting of climbers can be done any time of the year earlymonsoon is the best. Manuring encourages growth and floweringof climbers. Bone meal or hoof and horn once or twice in themonsoon will be beneficial to the plants.Selection of ClimbersThere are different situations in the garden like sunny, partialshade and different structures according to which suitable typecan be selected from an available wide choice. The climbers fordifferent situation are as follows:For sunny situation:Phyrostegia venusta, Quisqualis indica, Antigonon leptopus,Adenocalymma alliaceum, Bougainvillea sp., Campsis grandifloraetc.
P a g e | 71For Partial shade:Clerodendron splendens, Petrea volubilis, Lonicera japonica,Trachalospermum jasminoides.Heavy climbers:These climbers produce luxuriant vegetative growth and growvery vigorously. They cover large area and are suitable forcovering bigger area e.g. Antigonon leptopus, Bignonia magnifica,Beaumontia grandiflora, Bougainvillea sp., Hiptage benghalensis,Quisqualis indica, Wisteria sinensis Pyrostegia venusta,Clerodendron splendens.Light climbers:These climbers make sparse vegetative growth and remain lightin spread. These climbers are suitable for limited spaces e.g.Lonicera japonica, Trachelospermum jasmenoides, Clitoriaternatea.Climbers for fragrant flowers:Jasminum grandiflorum, L. officinale, Trachelospermumjasminoides, hiptage benghalensis, Clematic penniculata.Climbers for pots:Bougainvillea, Clitoria ternatea.Climbers for hedge:Clerodendron inerme and Bougaivillea.Climbers for indoor decoration:Shade loving climbers like Pothos, Monstera deliciosa,Philodendron sp., Asparagus sp., etc can be grown in pots andcan be kept indoor also.Climbers for screening:Vernonia elegnaefolia, Pyrostegia venusta.
P a g e | 72Annual climbers:There are climbers, which are seasonal in nature and can begrown temporarily. E.g. sweet pea, trailing nasturtium. There arewoody climbers, which can also be grown as annual like Ipomeaslobata, Clitoria ternatea.Clematis flammula (Ranunculaceae)A slender low-growing climber. Leaves usually bipinnate darkgreen, often trifoliate; leaflets narrowly lanceolate entire,glabrous 1.3 to 3.2 cm long. Flowers very fragrant, small 1.9 to2.5 cm across pure white in loose panicle up to 20-30cm long,Sepals 4-linear oblong.Clematis flammula has less growth but flowers heavily on largepanicles in the early rains. It is ideal for small gardens on lowwalls or wire nettings. It likes porous soil and partial shade.Propagation by layering.Ipomoea palmata, Railway creeperA perennial vigorous climber. Leaves 5.0 to 7.6cm in diameter,cut nearly to the base 5 to 7 lobes, entire, elliptic or lanceolate.Flowers purple, 5.0 to 6.3cm across often 3 flowered cyme.Corolla campanulate, colour deeper in the throat.Ipomoea purpurea, Common morning gloryIt is also a quick-growing climber. Leaves entire, ovatecordate,7.6 to 12.7cm long pubsecent on both surfaces. Flowers largefunnel shaped few on auxiliary peduncles, about 6.3 to 7.6cmacross, white, pale blue or purple.Passiflora coerulea (Passifloraceae)A vigorous climber. Stipule leafy, cordate, toothed. Leavesdivided nearly to the petiole into 5 lanceolate or lance-ellipticsegments 10.2 to 16.2cm across. Flowers solitary, large 7.6cmacross, auxiliary. Bracts large ovate-cordate about 2.5cm inlength. Petals 5 oblong-obtuse, pale pink in colour. Corona 5.0cm
P a g e | 73across, outer filaments blue at top, white in the middle andpurple at base.Passiflora deulisWoody, strong and spreading climber. Stem angular slightlydowny or glabrous. Tendrils auxiliary, long simple. Leavesalternate large. 10.2 to 12.7cm long and wide deeply 3 lobed.Lobes ovate, glandular, toothed. Flowers solitary terminal orauxiliary, 3 leafy bracts, 5 lobed greenish with short crown. Petals5 about 2cm long, oblong white often tinted with purple. Coronain several rows white in the upper half violet or purple below.Fruit globular, oblong, thickly purple dotted.Pyrostegia purpureaAn evergreen climber. Leaves compound, leaflets 3 ovate toovate-oblong about 5.0 to 7.6cm long mostly toothed brightgreen above paler beneath. Flowers 4 to 10 rosy purple inauxiliary cyme. Corolla funnel shaped about 5.0cm long, lobes 5spreading about 6cm across.This ideal climber produces flowers in large bunches 6 to 8 timesa year in the summer and rains and rains and should be grown ontrellis or low walls. Propagated from layers.Thunbergia laurifoliaA shrubby climber. Stem terets, smooth except when young.Leaves opposite, ovate, oblong – lanceolate rounded at the base,entire or slightly toothed 15 cm long about 6.3cm wide. Flowersborne in auxiliary or terminal raceme. Corolla tube cylindrical,swelling above, cuneal-shaped with spreading large 5 lobed limbabout 6.3cm across pale blue, white or yellow in the throat.
P a g e | 74Roses – The Queen of FlowersThe Rose, belong to the shrub family and is called the queen offlowers and is known for their beauty and fragrance. Thisflowering shrub is mainly valued for their beautiful colour flowersand fragrance. It has about 150 species. Many thousands ofcultivars have been developed from these species through crossbreeding, selection and hybridization and they vary widely fromminiatures under 30 cm tall to climbing types that climb up to 15meter high.Many writers, artists, and composers have always praised therose and have rightly called it the flowers of love. It was theGreek poet Sappho who coined the title Queen to the flower over2500 years ago. In the early Roman culture, Roses were a part ofupper class life. The decorations for parties, weddings, funerals,festivals and on statues and monuments, chariots and shieldswere adorned with roses. People would bathe in rose water, wearrose garlands, make confections and wine with rose petals. Evenmedications were prepared from rose petals, fruits (hips) andseeds.The cultivars are mainly covered under the heading of Old Gardenroses and the Modern roses. In a garden, roses can be planted asborders, hedges, backgrounds, and specimen plants. They can beplanted not only in the open ground but in pots and raised bedson your verandah, terrace or balcony.PlantingRoses grow best in soil with a pH 6.5 (slightly acidic) and 7.0.The soil structure should be such that it remains moist for mostpart of the day and at the same time it should be well-drained.Avoid planting the rose shrub in excessively sandy or clayey soils.Sand should be added if the soil is extremely moist/ clayey. Add
P a g e | 75peat moss, dead leaves or some other organic sources to the soilbefore planting the rose. The soil should be prepared atleast a month in advance of the planting.The best time to plant bare root roses is in January or Februaryup to March. October end. November planting can also besuccessful if your area does not have severe winters. Potted rosesthat it can be planted at almost any time. Before planting, pottedplants can be placed outdoors and watered for some time tomake the roots and canes moist. Potted roses need to be prunedwhen planted. In order to restore the bare root plant, it should beplaced in a bucket of water for 1 2-24 hours before planting.LocationRoses flower best in sunny locations. Most types need at least 6hours of direct sunshine daily, preferably in the morning forflowering and growth. Try to select a planting location that is notshaded by buildings, trees etc.Dig a trench of 40 cm deep and 50 cm wide with one sideslanted. Soak the area where you intend plant the rose to makethe soil more manageable. Small roses need a hole not muchmore than 40 cm across. Shrub roses need holes about 90to 100cm across. Climbers planted along a wall may need holes whichare a little bigger than this. Before planting a bare root plant trimoff any long or damaged roots. Place the juncture of roots andstem just below the soil surface. If there is a bud union, it shouldbe about 2.5 cm above the soil. Fill the hole with soil and press itfirmly down. Water thoroughly after planting.If using a granulated fertiliser:Scatter a small amount of all-purpose fertilizer lightly underplants from the stem to beyond the outer spread of branchesor foliage.Water slowly and deeply.NOTE: Never over fertilise if you see lots of weak, leafygrowth and few flowers.
P a g e | 76PropagationPropagation can be done from cuttings, by budding.BuddingMake a 2.5 cm long T shaped cut in bark of under stock, an inchor two above soil level. For bud wood, choose a stem that hasjust flowered. Slice under bud to get a 2.5 cm bark with bud in it.Peel back under stock bark at T cut, insert bud shield. Bud shouldbe at least 0.5 cm below top of T. Firmly tie bud in place withsoft cotton thread (used by the plumbers).Strip wrapping bothabove and below it but leaving bud exposed. When bud sends outa strong new shoot the next spring, cut of under stock growthabout 1 inch above the shoot. If the bud is plump and green,your new rose bush is born.Cuttingsyou can start cuttings after the first bloom. Cuttings should be 15to 20 cmLong. Cut a newly flowered stem below a leaf, remove lowerleaves and plant in sandy potting mix. Remember that thecuttings should not be allowed to dry out. Keep it moist/humid bycovering it with a plastic bag. The bag should be removed oncethe new growth emerges.Caring for the rosesPruningPruning involves removing any damaged, diseased or dead woodof a rose bush to improve the appearance, stimulate growth andcontrol pests and diseases. Improper/heavy pruning can affectblooming. The how and when of pruning roses is determined bythe type of rose. Here we are given few basic steps to prune yourrose plant.
P a g e | 77Plants are ready to be pruned, when the bush becomes leafless orwith a few leaves during the dormant season. Use a sharp knifeor pruning shears and remember one thing to cut approximately1 cm above an outward facing bud. Remove all old, damaged anddiseased canes. Take out stems that cross through the centre andthin out the center of the plant. Where canes cross and rubagainst each other prune out the less healthy cane. Shorten theremaining healthy growth by 1/3rd of its length. Apply a borduixmixture paste to the cuts in order to avoid damage by insects anddiseases.FertilistionAlthough some roses may flourish without fertilization, they neednutrients for peak performance. So it is usually necessary toapply fertilizer.The three basic nutrients for healthy growth are Nitrogen,Phosphorous, and Potassium. Do not fertilize newly planted rosesuntil after the first bloom. If you want to avoid using chemicalfertilisers you can try these organic alternatives: bone meal,compost, fish emulsion, manure, and seaweed or soybean meal.Apply fertiliserhen you see new emerging growth. Fertiliseasecond time when the first flower buds set in. Apply a finalfertilizer after two months.WateringThe amount and frequency of application will depend on soil type,bush size, and the rainfall in your area. When watering roses, besure to soak the soil well; they need more than just light spraysof water. Washing the leaves every week or so will make theplants healthy. This will also wash away some insect pests. Someother tips include watering in the morning, avoid letting the watercome into contact with the leaves and blooms, and providingmulch so that the soil retains its moisture. The uses of mulch
P a g e | 78around roses help to retain soil moisture and help retard weedgrowth.Diseases and Pest ControlThe rose plants are mainly affected by three types of diseases -Black-spot, Powdery and Rust. For black spot you shouldthoroughly clean up debris at pruning time, then apply theBorduixmixture to the cuts. Resistance varies from one rosevariety to the next for powdery mildew. Garden sanitation is bestfor rust and can be controlled with foliage sprays.The pests that usually attack the roses are - Aphids, Thrips,Beetles, Borers, Rose midge, caterpillars, Worms and Mites.
P a g e | 79Natural enemies like lady bugs help keep aphids in check. Theyeffect growth and can deform leaves. Hand picking is the safestcontrol for Beetles, Caterpillars and worms and Borers. To controlmites spraying water is the simplest remedial measure. Use anozzle that produces fine spray, thoroughly wash off theundersides of the leaves. Repeat this method at least three times.Thrips deform flower petals. To control thrips use chemical sprayplants always from above, making certain to cover all the leaves.Types of RosesHybridHybrid roses dominate modern rose gardens and have long,pointed buds. They grow up to 100 to 150 cmtall and producesemi double to double flowers, repeatedly during the season.Examples are Paradise, Peace, Polarstern, Pristine etc.Climbing RosesTall plants generally grow from 2 to 6 meter high. They aregrown on walls & fences, trellises. Climber flowers are large withonly a few per cluster. They require very little pruning, and nearlyall are repeat bloomers viz Blaze, Don Juan, Dortmund, ClimbingIceberg etcMiniature RosesThese rose plants grow up to 60 cmor less in height with smallblooms. Colour range includes all the shades found in modernhybrid teas, in flowers that range from informal to hybrid teastyle. Miniatures are grown on their own root. Some of theMiniatures are Rainbows End, Red Beauty, Rise N Shine. Thereare certain types of climbing miniatures derived from crosses ofminiatures with climbing roses.
P a g e | 80Shrub RoseShrub roses are hardy, have a tolerance to less than optimumgrowing conditions, and needs only low maintenance. Flower sizevaries from small to large, can be single or double. This plantmay be 2to 3 meter tall and bloom all season long. You can usethem as borders, hedges etc. Some of the common varieties are -Bonica,Frau Dogmar Hartopp, Abraham Darby, Golden Wings etc.FloribundasFloribundas are bushy plants that grow from 60 to 120 cm high.Individual flowers may be single or double and are borne inclusters. Good for borders or containers, floribundas provide analmost constant show of color - Impatient, Angel Face, IvoryFashionGrandiflorasThese are tall elegant plants 5 to 8 feet high. Grandiflorars bloomrepeatedly during the season. This type has been derived fromcrosses between Hybrid and Floribundas. Medium to large flowersusually comes in small clusters - Aquarius, Gold Medal, PinkParfait etc.Standard or Tree RosesTree roses or standard roses are small plants from 60o 90 cmhigh. This is a bush rose budded on to a under stock stem toproduce a rose tree. The standard tree rose has full-sized flowers.Many popular rose varieties are available in tree form.
P a g e | 81Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionStandard or Tree RosesRosa Blaze Climber Blaze, FlamingFuryRed An everlasting freeflowering plant.Grows from12 to 15 feet. Doubleflowers with 25 petals.Light fragrance. Shinyleathery dark green leaves.Rosa RoyalSunsetClimber Royal Sunset Deepapricot,yellowpinkblend,orangeblendPlant grows from 8 to 10feet. Dark glossy greenleaves. Strong fragrance.Rosa Macha Climber Handel,HaendelCreamywhite androse-pinkTall plant grows from 12 to15 feet. Flowers with 25petals. Colour is creamypink, with petal borderedin bright rose pink. Doubleblooms. Light fragrance.Dark bronzed greenleaves.Miniature RosesMiniature-pinkCupcake FrostingpinkLong lasting, freeflowering, bushy plant.Well-shaped blooms withsweet fragrance. Glossyleaves.Rosa BeautySecretMiniature-redBeauty Secret Cherry redbudsBushy habit plant. Lovelysmall flowers with 20petals. Long pointed budsopen to semi doubleblossoms. Strong fruityfragrance. Dark greenfoliage.Rosa Yellow Doll Miniature-yellowYellow Doll LightYellowSpreading habit flowerwith 50 petals. Double,fairly large blooms.Flowers are moderatelyfragrant.
P a g e | 82Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionMulticolour RosesRosa Burway Hybrid Tea Broadway PinkYellowblendTall upright habit plantgrows from 4 feet. Darkgreen leathery leaves.Large double blooms with35 petals of pink andyellow, with pink tonesintense at edges. Spicyfragrance.Rosa Peace Hybrid /ClimberPeace, Beke,Fredsrosen,Gioia, Mme AMeilland, MmeAntoine MeillandYellow andPink blendBushy habit plant ofmedium height grows from5 to 6 feet. Large doubleblossoms with pink rimmedyellow petals. Dark greenglossy leaves. Diseaseresistant and makes goodcut flowers.Rosa Aromiclea Hybrid Tea Voodoo Orange,Yellow andPink blendTall, bushy upright plantwith plenty of dark bronzegreen, glossy foliage.Richly fragrant blossomsthat soften to yellow andpeach shades, then finallyfade to pink. Good cutflower.Red RosesRosa Macdub Bright red Dublin Bay,Grand HotelBright Red A bright red climbing Rosewith small clusters of 25petals. Semi double cutflowers grows from 8 to 12feet. Good diseaseresistant foliage, needs fullsun. Flowers aremoderately fragrant.Rosa Jacdew Floribunda Impatient OrangeRedUpright bushy plant withsemi double blooms incluster. 25 petals with lightfragrance. Good cutflowers, grows to 4 feetand has good diseaseresistance.Rosa Oklahoma Hybrid Tea/ClimberOklahoma,Almost BlackRed/Black,Red/PurpleVery large, long lastingflower with 48 petals.Intensely fragrant rose.Plant is a vigorous grower.Grows to 4 feet.
P a g e | 83Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionPink RosesRosa Bridal Pink Hybrid Tea Rosa BridalPinkPinkblendedwithcreamBridal pink, the uprightbushy fragrant rose flowerlooks like a painters brushspattered darker pink onthe bloom. It needs verylittle care. Bridal pinkis long lasting andgenerally grows from 3 to5 feet high.RosaMeldomonacShrub roses Bonica, RedBonicaSoft pink Bonica, an ever blooming,dense, spreading habitflower. It is an easy togrow shrub which coverthemselves with largeclusters of smallish fullydouble flowers having alight fragrance. This bushyplant grows from 3 to 5feet.Rosa Bucbi ShrubRosesCarefree beauty StrongPinkAn upright, bushy shrubwith rich pink flowershaving light scent. Itgenerally grows from 2 to5 feet. Long buds in smallclusters which open intosemi double blooms. Itblooms repeatedly all yearlong. Glossy, dark greenfoliage. This delight yourgarden throughout thegrowing season .White RosesRosa Jacare Floribunda Class Act, FirstClass, WhiteMagicWhite tocreamMedium height plant growsfrom 2 to 2.5 feet. Gooddisease resistance. Darkgreen leaves. Moderatelydouble flowers with fruityfragrance.Rosa Jacven Floribunda Evening Star PureWhiteMedium size, lightlyfragrant flowers comes insmall clusters. Flower.Plant grows from 2.5 feetto 4. Good diseaseresistance. Healthy foliage.
P a g e | 84Scientific Name Type CommonnamesColour DescriptionRosa Lenip Hybrid Tea Pascali, BlanchePascaWarmwhiteTall upright bushy plantwith dark green foliage.Vigorous, good resistancegrows up to 3 to 4 feet.Large flowers with 30petals. Long lasting cutflower.Orange RosesRosa Harroony Floribunda Amber Queen,HarmonyGoldenyellowLarge, semi-gloss, fullydouble magnificentflowers. Good as cutflowers, they have a strongspicy sweet fragrance.The plant is bushy andneeds full sun. Generallygrows from 3 to 3.5 feet,spreading habit, has gooddisease resistance anddark green bronze tintedfoliage.Rosa Korgane Hybrid Tea Las Vegas Orange-gold blendUpright bushy habit plantgrows medium height of3.5 feet. Medium sizedflowers with 26 petals withgolden yellow petal backs.Shapely pointed buds,strong fragrance andglossy foliage.Rosa Arocad Hybrid Tea Brandy Bronze-apricotLarge broad 28 petalflower with mild fragrance.Semi glossy, dark greenfoliage. Plant is mediumtall, vigorous bush. Gooddisease resistance needsgood soil.Yellow RosesSummer Love Hybrid tea/climberSummerSunshineDeepYellowUpright spreading plantreaches height from 3 to3.5 feet. Very large flowerswith 25 petals. Lightlyfragrant. Glossy greenleaves have a bronzy tintRosa Tanolg Hybrid Tea Oregold MissHarp, SilhouetteSaffron-yellowUpright medium bushyplant grows from 3 to 4feet. Lightly scented largeoval flowers with 40 petals.Dark glossy leaves.