WELCOME- CREDIT SEMINAR
Occurrence and Prevention of
Production Related Problems in Dairy
Dr U. Krishnamoorthy PhD
Professor and Head
Department - LPM
Veterinary college Bangalore Biradar Satish Chandra
PhD I st Year
Statistics - Livestock population.
- Milk production.
Status of feed and fodder of country.
Quality of milk.
Milk procurement and processing.
Calf mortality and heifer raising.
Breed and breeding policy.
Production related problems .
2003 2007 2003-2007
R U T R U T R U T
TOTAL MILK PRODUCTION(MT) AND PER
CAPITA AVAILABILITY OF MILK(G)
STATISTICS INFERENCE (MILLION)
Male Total In
Ind 89.23 76.77 166.0
48.04 53:47 .63 1.83 25 1.39
26.21 6.84 33.0 14.4 75:25 6.42 7-8 23 5.17
85.74 19.5 105.3
48.0 78:22 .74 1.84 52 4 L/D
Resource 2005 2012-2013
Available Required % Deficit Available Required % Deficit
Dry fodder 365 412 11 382 422 10
Concentrates 34 47 28 36 56 35
Green fodder 126 193 35 133 199 33
Total 526 652 19 551 676 19
Demand and supply of feed and fodder resources (million tones)
Wide gap between demand and supply
Likely to be wider by 2020 (reduced land for cultivation, dwarf varieties of
crops, breeding varieties for higher grain yield, fodder availability ??)
Hence requires multipronged approach for resource management
(Birthal 2000, IGFRI 2010)
FOOD PRODUCTION VS FODDER PRODUCTION
245 MT food grains
from, milk, meat, vegetable
and fruits. 95% land used.
194 MT food grains
One fifth or more land can be
Land used will further
enhance food production –
5% grains are used for 550
million livestock population.
And less than 5 % land is
used fodder production.
20% land used for fodder
production- Milk prod.
- Food prod.
Wastage can be avoided.
No need to spend money for
Economic Survey 2010.
CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION: CONSTRAINTS
In India – Challenge.
Indian dairy- Small holders - 1-3 animals.
Milk is produced by masses.
Unique production, processing and marketing.
Pricing policy of milk.
CLEAN AND SAFE MILK:
― Milk drawn from the udder of healthy animal,
collected in clean, dry milking pail free from
extraneous material like dirt, dust, flies, hay,
Normal flavor with low bacterial count- Safe for
Raw milk quality – Composition
-- Hygiene(SCC BC)
PACKAGE OF PRACTICES
First few drops stripped each teat- Strip cup test.
Pre milking stimulation- 10-20 sec.
Milk completely else residue milk- Mastitis.
Clean pails, milkers, dress etc.
Feed and fodder should be clear of contaminants
and moulds .
Feeding of Vit E and Se. (Bouwstra et al., 2010)
Assess the feed for quality safety and palatability
Health- Vaccination, Testing separating sick
Country produces 127 MT milk annually.
Domestic consumption- 10%
o Unprocessed milk is still in great demand due to
o Cheap rate
o Sweet marts
Depend upon crop residue- 5-7 MJ/Kg and 3% CP.
Green grass and dry fodder – Vol. intake 2% BW.
Conc. generally not fed.
Suffer from both energy and protein deficiency.
BW – max 150-300 Kg.
MY – 1-2 liter /D.
400g maize+150g GNC+50-100 MM
Maize-12-14 MJ /Kg (5MJ) GNC- 60 g (150 g)
SOLIDS NOT FAT (LOW SNF)
Low SNF is generally due to low protein in the diet.
Supply protein to the diet.
8.5 %-cow(3.5% as fat) and 10% - Buff (5.5%)
Cow weighing 400 Kg—2.5% DM—10 Kg
3.5 Kg-- Green grass (15 Kg)
3.5 Kg-- dry grass
3.0 Kg-- Conc.
- absence of green grass compensated with gram
husk or dry fodder.
Every rise in .1 unit of SNF needs 100g of maize.
Low fat and SNF is also due to Society recording
CALF MORTALITY AND HEIFER AVAILABILITY
Milk allowance--3 m.
One tenth wt of BW—30 Kg –1.5 kg BID.
1m– 100g/d –grains given to stimulate rumen , increase
100g monthly till ASM(14m)—ADWG—500g/D—210 kg
Normally suffer from protein deficiency.
Feed Legumes— dried2-3 kg
or green grass—5-7 kg
Calf starters –2m –20% CP, 70% TDN.
Worm load—10d and three monthly.
Since calf rearing is not given much importance hence
shortage of heifers.
BREED AND BREEDING
Major thrust on MY increase
Upto2000: CB to increase MY and emphasis to improve
indigenous animals was less.
Cant go ahead-Need balance.
50-62.5% exotic inheritance-reaching pure lines—inter
Indigenous animals improved-- Dairy breeds--proper
records and selection 8-10 generations(40-60 years).
Interval method– 15 d once recording—Selection
Coordinated efforts of all development agencies—
KMF, KLDA, Univ, state govt. and farmers to work in
PRODUCTION RELATED PROBLEMS
Transition period- 3weeks prior to 3 weeks after.
Important period ,Hormonal changes occur.
Cow prepares for parturition and lactation.
GH,T4, Progesteron, Estrogen, Glucocorticoides
Immunosupression, plasma insulin.
(Kuntz et al.,1985 Chew et al., 1979)
o Late pregnancy- Decreased DMI-
Fat mobilization (Holtenius2003)
NEFA twice increased (Grum et al.,)
Calving—Changes rumen dynamics.
Starchy diet- Lactate and propionate prod.
Fibrous diet- Cellulytic bacterial.
During dry period- 50 % absorptive surf lost.
(Bacic et al.,2006)
o Sudden grain diet after calving—lactate, pH is
reduced, VFA absorption hampered along with
reduced DMI and decreased immunological status.
(Goff & Horst1997)
o Indian condition – sale of animals at parturition.-
Avoid pen moves, hierarchy and sudden diet
INDICATORS OF EXISTENCE OF PRODUCTION
10-15% of herd.
Increased infection and poor response to
Weak, silent heat and low conception..
Fat and SNF reduced by 0.2 - 0.3%
Off flavored milk.
Decreased milk production or peak lactation.
Balanced ration-CP, soluble intake protein, NDF,
Mineral content especially during dry period.
Avoid concentrates overfeeding. Dry- <30 DM.
Post calving-50-55 %.
o Sod bicarbonate recently calved -20g
o Good quality forages -2weeks before and 6 weeks
after and avoid fermentable CHO during this
o Ca bolus 75g after calving.
o B comp bolus 100g.
o Encourage feed liked by the animal.
Reasons are high energy demand and low energy
intake, fat gets mobilized—Increased NEFA(1000
microeq/L—gets oxidised on liver mitochodria—TG—
Incoplete oxidation of NEFA.
Infection may complicate ketosis.
Avoid obesity and too thin cow especially in dry period.
Maximize DMI good quality roughages.
Niacin is fed orally 6g- 2-4 weeks prior and 12 weeks
after calving. Prevents mobilization.
(Dufvaet al., 1983)
Avoid sudden change of ration. (Agenas et al.,2003)
Once disease occurs-300g of propylene glycol-days.
(Pickett et al.,2003)
Niacin-12 g daily for 1-2 weeks.
Inj-6 mg of Vit B12 and IV Glucose.
6% dairy cattle affected,
9-10 mgdl- normal , < 5 mgdl. (Goff,2000)
Ca needed for Ach release –Can’t get up.
Balance ration throughout dry period, avoid low and
high Ca in dry period.
Concentrates last 4-8 weeks-0.5-0.8 %BW
Vit D 15,000-25,000 IU/D/A
Once disease occurs
Vit D3 i/m 10mill IU
Reduce dietary Na & K—difficult , alpha alpha
Add anion Hcl -- reduce alkalosis, mild acidosis.
40-50g of P /cow/day <25g- DCS > 80g - MF
o 15g of Ca 10 d prior –negative Ca balance—
Stimulate parathyroid– Vit D produced.
o Oral Ca drench at calving.
Excessive accumulation of fluid intercellular space.
High incidence– Pregnant heifers (Erb &Grohn,1988)
Older cows. (Hays & Albright,!966)
o Discomfort to animal, Udder injury and Teat injury.
o Reduces milk yield.
o Prone for mastitis.
o Pregnant heifers 7-8 kg conc/d. -Increase incid Vs no conc.
(Emery et al., 1969)
o Obese cows more prone. (Vigue,1963)
o Excessive intake of Na, K. (Jones et al., 1984)
o Fertilizer app improve alpha alpha. (Sanders & Sanders 1981)
o CaCl and anionic salt with diuretics—First week.
o Adequate Vit E, Cu, Mg, Zn, Mn, Se – diet. (Tucket et
Cows grazing on high N, K and low Mg, Na-
(Littledike et al.,1993)
o Hypocalcaemia— Aggravates
o 10-15 g Mg– Pregnant cow/d
o 30g Mg – Lactating cow/d Prevents
o Mg unpalatable getting into animal is difficult.
o 60 MgO in grain is successful.
Transition period is at risk.
LDA – 85 % cases.
Risk pd.- 3w before 4 weeks
Cows with high BCS and dried off - Risk due to Poor
• Increase grain in diet slowly after calving @.25kg to
• Grains divided in three equal parts.
• Decreased Ca around calving– contractility of
abomasum decreased– DA
RP AND METRITIS
Metritis often associated with RP.
Causes: Dystocia– RP, Metritis –3-4 times.
( Erb et al., 1995)
Twinning Short dry period
Mycotoxins Stress, Hereditary, Milk fever
Immunosupression Toxins, Low PGF2
Def of energy and protein
8% CP in dry period- 50 % RP Vs 15% CP –20%
Cows with milk fever, fat cows- 2 times prone ( Miller , 1993)
Diets Se .12 mg/kg Incidence is lower.
Vit E 1000 IU/cow/d
Indian condition problems different from other countries–
Need to address core issue of bringing more area under
Our problems are decreased availability of
DM, feeds, fodder, greens and concentrates.
This leads to loss of quality and quantity.
BCS, Arched back, Hoof problems.
Non development of indigenous cattle aggravates
High time to think Producing our own parent stock of
Dairy breeds rather importing temperate breeds.
Practical problems- Indian condition.