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Welcome  credit seminar ph d lpm Welcome credit seminar ph d lpm Presentation Transcript

  • WELCOME- CREDIT SEMINAR Occurrence and Prevention of Production Related Problems in Dairy Animals Major Advisor Dr U. Krishnamoorthy PhD Professor and Head Department - LPM Veterinary college Bangalore Biradar Satish Chandra PhD I st Year
  • CONTENTS  Statistics - Livestock population. - Milk production.  Status of feed and fodder of country.  Quality of milk.  Milk procurement and processing.  Calf mortality and heifer raising.  Breed and breeding policy.  Production related problems .  Conclusion.
  • THOUSANDS AGR% 2003 2007 2003-2007 R U T R U T R U T
  • STATISTICS INFERENCE (MILLION) Fema le Male Total In milk F:M Ratio AGR milk Fema le % AGR total % Share of milk % AMY Ind 89.23 76.77 166.0 1 48.04 53:47 .63 1.83 25 1.39 L/D Cross breed s 26.21 6.84 33.0 14.4 75:25 6.42 7-8 23 5.17 L/D Buffal oes 85.74 19.5 105.3 4 48.0 78:22 .74 1.84 52 4 L/D
  • Resource 2005 2012-2013 Available Required % Deficit Available Required % Deficit Dry fodder 365 412 11 382 422 10 Concentrates 34 47 28 36 56 35 Green fodder 126 193 35 133 199 33 Total 526 652 19 551 676 19 Demand and supply of feed and fodder resources (million tones) Wide gap between demand and supply Likely to be wider by 2020 (reduced land for cultivation, dwarf varieties of crops, breeding varieties for higher grain yield, fodder availability ??) Hence requires multipronged approach for resource management (Birthal 2000, IGFRI 2010)
  • FOOD PRODUCTION VS FODDER PRODUCTION  245 MT food grains produced, apart from, milk, meat, vegetable and fruits. 95% land used.  194 MT food grains consumed.  One fifth or more land can be spared.  Land used will further enhance food production – quality nutrients.  5% grains are used for 550 million livestock population. And less than 5 % land is used fodder production.  20% land used for fodder production- Milk prod. - Manure - Food prod.  Wastage can be avoided.  No need to spend money for detoxification.  Economic Survey 2010.
  • CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION: CONSTRAINTS  In India – Challenge.  Indian dairy- Small holders - 1-3 animals.  Milk is produced by masses.  Unique production, processing and marketing.  Pricing policy of milk.
  • CLEAN AND SAFE MILK:  ― Milk drawn from the udder of healthy animal, collected in clean, dry milking pail free from extraneous material like dirt, dust, flies, hay, manure etc.  Normal flavor with low bacterial count- Safe for human consumption.  Raw milk quality – Composition  -- Hygiene(SCC BC)
  • PACKAGE OF PRACTICES  First few drops stripped each teat- Strip cup test.  Pre milking stimulation- 10-20 sec.  Milk completely else residue milk- Mastitis.  Clean pails, milkers, dress etc.  Feed and fodder should be clear of contaminants and moulds .  Feeding of Vit E and Se. (Bouwstra et al., 2010)  Assess the feed for quality safety and palatability before using.  Health- Vaccination, Testing separating sick animals.
  • MILK PROCESSING  Country produces 127 MT milk annually.  Processed- 30% Unprocessed- 60% Domestic consumption- 10% o Unprocessed milk is still in great demand due to following reason. o Cheap rate o Availability o Sweet marts
  • LOW YIELDERS  Depend upon crop residue- 5-7 MJ/Kg and 3% CP.  Green grass and dry fodder – Vol. intake 2% BW.  Conc. generally not fed.  Suffer from both energy and protein deficiency.  BW – max 150-300 Kg.  MY – 1-2 liter /D.  Simple suppl.:  400g maize+150g GNC+50-100 MM  Maize-12-14 MJ /Kg (5MJ) GNC- 60 g (150 g)
  • SOLIDS NOT FAT (LOW SNF)  Low SNF is generally due to low protein in the diet.  Supply protein to the diet.  8.5 %-cow(3.5% as fat) and 10% - Buff (5.5%)  Cow weighing 400 Kg—2.5% DM—10 Kg 3.5 Kg-- Green grass (15 Kg) 3.5 Kg-- dry grass 3.0 Kg-- Conc. - absence of green grass compensated with gram husk or dry fodder.  Every rise in .1 unit of SNF needs 100g of maize.  Low fat and SNF is also due to Society recording system.
  • CALF MORTALITY AND HEIFER AVAILABILITY  Colostrum.  Milk allowance--3 m.  One tenth wt of BW—30 Kg –1.5 kg BID.  1m– 100g/d –grains given to stimulate rumen , increase 100g monthly till ASM(14m)—ADWG—500g/D—210 kg BW.  Normally suffer from protein deficiency.  Feed Legumes— dried2-3 kg or green grass—5-7 kg  Calf starters –2m –20% CP, 70% TDN.  Worm load—10d and three monthly.  Since calf rearing is not given much importance hence shortage of heifers.
  • BREED AND BREEDING  1930-40: AI Major thrust on MY increase  Upto2000: CB to increase MY and emphasis to improve indigenous animals was less.  Cant go ahead-Need balance.  50-62.5% exotic inheritance-reaching pure lines—inter se mating.  Indigenous animals improved-- Dairy breeds--proper records and selection 8-10 generations(40-60 years).  Interval method– 15 d once recording—Selection practiced.—Incentives.  Coordinated efforts of all development agencies— KMF, KLDA, Univ, state govt. and farmers to work in cooperative manner.
  • PRODUCTION RELATED PROBLEMS  Transition period- 3weeks prior to 3 weeks after.  Important period ,Hormonal changes occur.  Cow prepares for parturition and lactation.  GH,T4, Progesteron, Estrogen, Glucocorticoides and Prolactin.  Immunosupression, plasma insulin. (Kuntz et al.,1985 Chew et al., 1979) o Late pregnancy- Decreased DMI- Fat mobilization (Holtenius2003) NEFA twice increased (Grum et al.,)
  • All the metabolic disease are interrelated.
  •  Calving—Changes rumen dynamics.  Starchy diet- Lactate and propionate prod.  Fibrous diet- Cellulytic bacterial.  During dry period- 50 % absorptive surf lost. (Bacic et al.,2006) o Sudden grain diet after calving—lactate, pH is reduced, VFA absorption hampered along with reduced DMI and decreased immunological status. (Goff & Horst1997) o Indian condition – sale of animals at parturition.- Avoid pen moves, hierarchy and sudden diet change.
  • INDICATORS OF EXISTENCE OF PRODUCTION PROBLEM:  10-15% of herd.  Increased infection and poor response to vaccination.  Weak, silent heat and low conception..  Fat and SNF reduced by 0.2 - 0.3%  Off flavored milk.  Decreased milk production or peak lactation.  10% BCS.  Depressed DMI.
  • PREVENTION  Balanced ration-CP, soluble intake protein, NDF, Mineral content especially during dry period.  Avoid concentrates overfeeding. Dry- <30 DM. Post calving-50-55 %. o Sod bicarbonate recently calved -20g o Good quality forages -2weeks before and 6 weeks after and avoid fermentable CHO during this period. o Ca bolus 75g after calving. o B comp bolus 100g. o Encourage feed liked by the animal.
  • KETOSIS  Reasons are high energy demand and low energy intake, fat gets mobilized—Increased NEFA(1000 microeq/L—gets oxidised on liver mitochodria—TG— Incoplete oxidation of NEFA.  Infection may complicate ketosis.  Avoid obesity and too thin cow especially in dry period. Maximize DMI good quality roughages.  Niacin is fed orally 6g- 2-4 weeks prior and 12 weeks after calving. Prevents mobilization. (Dufvaet al., 1983)  Avoid sudden change of ration. (Agenas et al.,2003)  Once disease occurs-300g of propylene glycol-days. (Pickett et al.,2003)  Niacin-12 g daily for 1-2 weeks.  Inj-6 mg of Vit B12 and IV Glucose.
  • MILK FEVER  6% dairy cattle affected,  9-10 mgdl- normal , < 5 mgdl. (Goff,2000)  Ca needed for Ach release –Can’t get up.  Balance ration throughout dry period, avoid low and high Ca in dry period.  Concentrates last 4-8 weeks-0.5-0.8 %BW  Vit D 15,000-25,000 IU/D/A  Once disease occurs  Calcium boroglucanate  Calcium boluses  Vit D3 i/m 10mill IU
  • PREVENTION  Reduce dietary Na & K—difficult , alpha alpha  Add anion Hcl -- reduce alkalosis, mild acidosis.  40-50g of P /cow/day <25g- DCS > 80g - MF (Cox,1998) o 15g of Ca 10 d prior –negative Ca balance— Stimulate parathyroid– Vit D produced. o Oral Ca drench at calving.
  • UDDER EDEMA  Excessive accumulation of fluid intercellular space.  High incidence– Pregnant heifers (Erb &Grohn,1988) Older cows. (Hays & Albright,!966) o Discomfort to animal, Udder injury and Teat injury. o Reduces milk yield. o Prone for mastitis. o Pregnant heifers 7-8 kg conc/d. -Increase incid Vs no conc. (Emery et al., 1969) o Obese cows more prone. (Vigue,1963) o Excessive intake of Na, K. (Jones et al., 1984) o Fertilizer app improve alpha alpha. (Sanders & Sanders 1981) o CaCl and anionic salt with diuretics—First week. o Adequate Vit E, Cu, Mg, Zn, Mn, Se – diet. (Tucket et al., 1992)
  • GRASS TETANY  Cows grazing on high N, K and low Mg, Na- (Littledike et al.,1993) o Hypocalcaemia— Aggravates o 10-15 g Mg– Pregnant cow/d o 30g Mg – Lactating cow/d Prevents o Mg unpalatable getting into animal is difficult. o 60 MgO in grain is successful.
  • DISPLACED ABOMASUM  Transition period is at risk.  LDA – 85 % cases.  Risk pd.- 3w before 4 weeks after calving.  Cows with high BCS and dried off - Risk due to Poor DMI (Coppocket al.,1982) • Increase grain in diet slowly after calving @.25kg to peak yield. • Grains divided in three equal parts. • Decreased Ca around calving– contractility of abomasum decreased– DA
  • RP AND METRITIS  12-14 h.  Metritis often associated with RP.  Causes: Dystocia– RP, Metritis –3-4 times. ( Erb et al., 1995)  Twinning Short dry period  Mycotoxins Stress, Hereditary, Milk fever  Immunosupression Toxins, Low PGF2 Nutritional causes: Def of energy and protein 8% CP in dry period- 50 % RP Vs 15% CP –20% (Morrow,1996) Cows with milk fever, fat cows- 2 times prone ( Miller , 1993) Treatment: Diets Se .12 mg/kg Incidence is lower. Vit E 1000 IU/cow/d
  • CONCLUSION:  Indian condition problems different from other countries– Need to address core issue of bringing more area under fodder cultivation.  Our problems are decreased availability of DM, feeds, fodder, greens and concentrates.  This leads to loss of quality and quantity.  BCS, Arched back, Hoof problems.  Non development of indigenous cattle aggravates problem.  High time to think Producing our own parent stock of Dairy breeds rather importing temperate breeds.  Practical problems- Indian condition.
  • Thank You