Sadharanabhogi - a Buddhist Social System as Practised in Asoke Communities

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This paper describes the Sādhāraṇabhogī social system as practiced in the Asoke communities, what it is and how it contributes to the success of the Asoke communities for self-reliance and …

This paper describes the Sādhāraṇabhogī social system as practiced in the Asoke communities, what it is and how it contributes to the success of the Asoke communities for self-reliance and self-sufficiency necessary for sustaining a life conducive to successful spiritual practice.

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  • 1. Sādhāraṇabhogī: A Buddhist Social System as Practiced in Asoke Communities oahbgnaT adnihC tamahkkiS dna ,.L.C gnoB ,.S adiwuS ta detneserp repaP muroF tsihdduB yaL drihT ehT -msihdduB degagnE dna msihdduB yaL- 9002 ,62-22 rebotcO .aeroK htuoS ,luoeS:noitatic detsegguSSuwida, S., C. L. Bong, and Sikkhamat Chinda Tangbhoa, :ī g o h b a ṇ a r ā h d ā S t si h d d u B A in The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum: Lays e iti n u m m o C e k o s A ni d e cit c a r P s a m et s y S l ai c o SBuddhism and Engaged Buddhism, October 22-26, 2009 (Buddhist Chongji Order,South Korea, 2009), 27 38 (for English version) (or pages 39-47 for Korean version).
  • 2. Page 27 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea residing at Sisa Asoke. one time she served as a nuclear laboratory scientist in the Thai government service. She is currently Venerable Sikkhamat Chinda Tangbhao is a ten-precept Sikkhamat nun of Asoke communities. At 3 Thailand. She can be contacted at bongcl@gmail.com Dr. Bong C. L. is a Malaysian, presently a volunteer lecturer at the International Buddhist College in 2 suwida.ss@gmail.com She can be contacted at and engaged Buddhism in Thailand and Asian countries. Dr. Suwida Sangsehanat is a Thai social research scientist active in research on social development 1 e h t e r a Y E N O M g ni v a h d n a g ni k a m s y a d a w o N . e fil g n it a vi tl u c r o f t o n , y e n o m e r o m g ni k a m r o f si Y E N O M . e fi l g n i h si r u o n r o y ti l a u ti ri p s g n i t a vi tl u c r o f t o n , Y E N O M g ni k a m r o f si E M I T . e l p o e p t s o m f o e fil f o st c e p s a l l a et a n i m o d d n a et al u g e r ,l o rt n o c t a ht s ei ti d o m m o c ) el b a ul a v yl n o s e s a c e m o s ni ( r o j a m o wt e ht e r a E MI T d n a Y E N O M , r el l a m s r e v e g ni k ni r h s si e c a p s d n a t s af y r e v s e v o m g ni ht y r e v e e r e h w n oit a zil a b o l g d n a m si l ai r et a m g ni s a e r c n i f o a r e si ht nI noitcudortnI ecitcarp lautirips lufsseccus . rof efil a gniniatsus rof yrassecen ycneiciffus-fles dna ecnailer-fles rof seitinummoc ekosA eht fo sseccus eht ot setubirtnoc ti woh dna si ti tahw ,seitinummoc ekosA eht ni decitcarp sa metsys laicos īgohbaṇarāhdāS eht sebircsed repap sihT Abstract oahbgnaT adnihC tamahkkiS3 dna ,.L.C gnoB2 ,.S adiwuS1 in Asoke Communities Sādhāraṇabhogī: A Buddhist Social System as PracticedSeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 3. Page 28 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea system]. Bangkok: Fah Aphai. P.76. Samana Phothirak. 2007. Sādhāra7abhogī: Setthakit Janit Mai [Sādhāra7abhogī: new economic 4 . e r e ht t u o yt e i c o s r e g r a l e ht f o s r e b m e m r e ht o hti w o sl a t u b s e i ti n u m m o c e h t f o s r e b m e m g n o m a yl n o t o n d e r a h s e b ot htl a e w o t ni d e n r ut n e ht e r a h ci h w e mit d n a s e c r u o s e r s e v a s t a h t e ci t c a r p a o sl a t u b ) c t e , d e e r g ( s t n e m el i f e d l a t n e m r o t n e m h c a t t a f f o t u c o t e ci t c a r p a si yl n o t o n n oit p m u s n o c g ni zi mi ni M . e cit c a r p n i n oi t ati d e m si g ni k r o W . e ut ri v g ni ci t c a r p n o d r a h k r o w y e h T . y a d ot dl r o w e ht f o h c u m g ni t a ni m o d s e e s e n o t a ht m et s y s y r at e n o m d el l o rt n o c - n o it a r o p r o c t si l a ti p a c el b a ni a t s u s n u e ht n i n e e s g ni r e et if o r p d n a y e n o m f o e l o r l a rt n e c e ht hti w yl p r a h s st s a rt n o c si h T . e l o r o n y a l p g ni r e eti f o r p d n a y e n o m h ci h w n i m et s y s ci m o n o c e g ni r a h s d n a g n i r a c yll a u t u m , d e ni a t s u s yl l a n u m m o c a , ī g o h b a ṇ ar ā h d ā S s a n w o n k m et s y s a ni hti w e vil d n a et a r e p o y e h t t r o h s nI . st e s s a e h t f o sr e n w o d er a h s r o sr e d l o h er a h s e ht er a s eit i n u m m o c e h t f o s r e b m e m d n a s e iti n u m m o c e ht y b d e n w o yll a rt n e c e r a st e s s a l l A . s d e e n yl i a d l a r e n e g d n a sl o ot , s d o of e ht yl p p u s s e iti n u m m o c e h T . s et s a w d n a n oi t p m u s n o c e zi mi ni m ot d n a , st e s s a l a n o s r e p g n it a l u m u c c a e c u d e r ot y rt o sl a y e ht , y e n o m et a l u m u c c a t o n y e ht o d yl n o t o N .t s o m t a h t n o m r e p t h a B 0 0 0, 3 d n u o r a si n w a r d y r al a s m u mi x a M . ) st n e r a p yl r e dl e d n a n e r dli h c g n u o y s a h c u s st n e d n e p e d hti w ( yl i m af ri e ht r o f g ni v il f o e c n a n et n i a m ci s a b r of e m o c n i r al u g e r d e e n y e ht s s el n u di a p t e g t o n o d s e iti n u m m o c e h t f o s r e b m e M . s ei ti n u m m o c ri e h t r of 4r a e y r e p t h a B n o il li m f o s d e r d n u h n a ht e r o m ht r o w s d o o g e c u d o r p s ei ti n u m m o c e h T . efil e v i t c u d o r p d n a l a g u rf a d a e l d n a d r a h k r o w y e h T . efi l ni l a o g d n a yti r o i r p ri e ht si s g ni r eff u s m o rf m o d e e rf f o t n e m n i att a l a uti ri p s d n a ; s ei c n e r r u c r i e ht e r a sti r e m d n a e ci v r e s , k r o w , e ul a v f o y c n e r r u c ri e ht t o n si y e n o m , s e iti n u m m o c e s e ht nI . s ei ti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht s a n w o n k e r a s d a e l t i s ei ti n u m m o c e ht d n a t n e m e v o m e k o s A e ht si t n e m e v o m si h T . s g ni r e ff u S m o rf m o d e e r F f o t n e m n i at t A l a u ti ri p S f o t a ht ot k c a b L A O G e ht t e s e r ot e fil l a uti ri p s e cit c a r p ot m o d e e rf e ht ni a g e r o t d n a efi l ri e ht f o l o rt n o c e ht k c a b t s e r w ot m si l a i r et a m r o ’ Y E N O M f o n oi t a n i m o d‘ e ht s r e u q n o c yl s u oi r ot c i v d n a yl s s e l r a e f d n a , yti n a s ni si h t f o t h g u al s n o e ht st si s e r yll uf s s e c c u s d n a yl e vit c a t a ht t n e m e v o m t si h d d u B a si e r e ht , d n al i a h T ni t u B .t n e r effi d o n si d n al i a h T , e r e h w y r e v e e m a s e h t si ’ yti n a s ni ‘ si h T .t s a p e h t ni e b ot d e s u ti s a e cit c a r p l a uti ri p s ni d r a h fl e s e n o g ni vi r d t o n r of ll e h ot n i g ni ll af f o r a ef e ht n a h t r et a e r g si y e n o m ’ h g u o n e‘ g ni v a h t o n f o r a ef si h T . y e n o m e r o m d n a y e n o m g ni k a m t a efi l ri e ht g ni s s e rt s d n a r e d r a h r e v e k r o w o t el p o e p s e h s u p t a ht y e n o m o n g ni v a h f o r a ef e ht si ti , s y a d a w o N . e s o p r u p e ht si t n e m n i att a sti r of g ni vi rt s d n a ) a n ā b bi N , s g n i r eff u s m o rf m o d e e rf ( t n e m n i at t a l a u ti ri p s e b o t d e s u efi l f o L A O G e h T . n a e m ot d e s u r o / d n a d e s o p p u s si ef il t a h w ot d e r a p m o c d n e rt d n a t c af d a s y r e v a , ef il f o s e s o p r u p yl n oSeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 4. Page 29 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an06/an06.012.than.html. Bhikkhu. Access to Insight, June 7, 2009, "Saraniya Sutta: Conducive to Amiability" (AN 6.12), translated from the Pali by Thanissaro 6 235. P.A. Payutto. 1992. Dictionary of Buddhism. 7. Bangkok: Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya. Pp. 233- 5 . yti n u m m o c e h t ni y n o m r a h d n a e c a e p , l e r r a u q - n o n , yti n u d n a y ht a p m e ,t c u d n o c r e p o r p 6,5 ,t c e p s e r g n i r b , s s e nl uf d n i m et a vi tl u c pl e h l li w s n o it c a s u o u t ri v xi s e s e ht g n i cit c a r P . et a vi r p ni d n a yl n e p o , s m e l b o r p e vl o s ot d n a s g n i r eff u s d n e ot , n oi t a r e bi l o t ht a p e ht n o s r e h t o hti w g n o l a e ci t c a r p o t s w e i v t h gi r e ht ht i w d e w o d n e e b o t : āt a ñ ñ a m ā si h ṭṭi D si ht xi s e h T . et a vi r p ni d n a yl n e p o , s w ol l ef s’ e n o h ti w g n ol a t c u d n o c f o s el u r e ht h si m e l b t u o h ti w p e e k ot , o d s e n o s u o u t ri v s a st p e c e r p s’t si h d d u B e cit c a r p ot : āt a ñ ñ a m ā s al ī S si n o it c a s u o ut ri v htfi f e h T . et a vi r p ni d n a yl n e p o , s w ol l ef s u o ut ri v hti w s n i a g l u f w al y n a e r a h s ot :ī g o h b a ṇ a r ā h d ā S si ht r u of e h T . et a vi r p ni d n a yl n e p o , s eli m s h ti w r e h t o n a e n o t e e r g d n a d ni k e b , s r e ht o f o st h g u o ht e vi ti s o p d n a d o o g k ni ht , s e h si w -ll e w ,t h g u o ht ni el b a i m a e b ot : a m m a k o n a m ātt e M si d ri ht e h T . et a vi r p n i d n a yl n e p o , r e ht o e n o r of t c e p s e r hti w yl e til o p , n o it n et n i d o o g hti w e si v d a , s d r o w d ni k k a e p s ot , d r o w n i el b ai m a e b ot : a m m a kī c a v ātt e M si d n o c e s e h T . e t a vi r p ni d n a yl n e p o , r e ht o e n o r of t c e p s e r h ti w yl eti l o p yti n u m m o c e ht f o s s e ni s u b f o d ni k y n a ni k r o w ot g nil li w , d e e d n i el b ai m a e b ot : a m m a k a y ā k ā tt e M si t s rif e h T . r e ht e g o t e cit c a r p d n a e v i l ot ti el b a n e o t yti n u m m o c r o a h g n a s e ht n i y n o m r a h d n a e c a e p g ni t o m o r p r o f t h g u at a h d d u B e ht t a ht ) g ni vi l l a n r et a rf r of s n oi ti d n o c ( a m m a h d a yī ṇ a r ā S r o s n o it c a s u o ut ri v xi s e h t f o e n o si ī g o h b a ṇ a r ā h d ā S . a h g n a s y al e h t g n o m a yl r al u cit r a p , s y a d a w o n l l e w d e cit c a r p s d n if yl e r a r e n o t a ht r e h t o n a e n o r of g ni r a c d n a g ni r a h s f o m et s y s ci m o n o c e d n a l ai c o s t si h d d u B e ht si si h T .r e h t o n a e n o r of s att i m a n a yl a k d n a s r ot c et o r p s a g ni t c a ,t r o p p u s r e ht o h c a e g n i vi g r e ht e g o t d e cit c a r p d na d e vil y ehT . s ei ti n u m m o c ri e ht e di st u o sr e ht o m orf d e vi e c e r ro dah y e ht r e v et a h w d e r a h s s ei ti n u m m o c e ht f o s r e b m e M . s n oi s s e s s o p r o s g ni g n o l e b l a n o s r e p o n r o w ef e v a h ot ,’ y e n o m‘ t u o h ti w e vil o t t n e t n o c s a w e n o y r e v E . e fil l a uti ri p s g n it a vit l u c ni yti n ut r o p p o l a u q e d a h e n o yr e v E . yti l a u q e s a w e r e h T . yti n u m m o c t si h d d u B si ht n i oj ot d e w ol l a s a w s el b a h c u ot n u e ht g ni d ul c ni e n o y r e v E . m et s y s ī g o h b a ṇ a r ā h d ā S e ht s a n w o n k si m et s y s si h T . a h g n a s t si h d d u B e ht r of m et s y s l a i c o s r e ri af a m r of ot m et s y s t a ht d et c ej e r a h d d u B e h T . y a d si ht o t n e v e , y n a m ot sgnireffus fo tol a desuac emit s’ahdduB ni detsixe taht metsys etsac tsujnu ehT metsys laicos tsihdduB eht : gohbaṇarāhdāS : gohbaṇarāhdāS :īīīīgohbaṇarāhdāS .1 : gohbaṇarāhdāSSeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 5. Page 30 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea Hin-pha Fa-Nam in Chaiyaphum, the northeastern region of Thailand; 8) Phu-pha Fa-Nam in Chiangmai, the northern region of Thailand, established in 1995; 7) Rajthani Asoke in Ubon Ratchathanee, the northeastern region of Thailand, established in 1994; 6) Sima Asoke in Nakorn Ratchasima, the northeastern region of Thailand, established in 1990; 5) Pathom Asoke in Nakorn Pathom, the northern part of Bangkok, established in 1980; 4) Santi Asoke in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, established in 1976; 3) Sali Asoke in Nakornsawan, in the central region of Thailand, established in 1976; 2) Sisa Asoke in Srisaket, in the northeastern region of Thailand, established in 1976; 1) The nine main Asoke communities: 9 Praves Vasee. 1995. Suan Moke, Thammakai, Santi Asoke. Bangkok: Mor Chao Ban. 8 Community: Buddhist Utopia]. Bangkok: Dhamma Santi Foundation. Sombat Chantarawongsa. 1988. Chumchon Pathom Asoke: Kaan Suksa Phut Utopia [Pathom Asoke 7 l a g u rf a g n i t o m o r p n i e u qi n u e r a s e iti n u m m o c e h T .9dnaliahT ni secnivorp enin revo daerps ) e k o s A n o h c - m u h c( s ei ti n u m m o c e k o s A 9 n a h t e r o m e d ul c n i ot s r a e y e ht r e v o d e d n a p x e tI . k o k g n a B n i e rt n e C e k o s A it n a S e h t g ni h si l b at s e hti w n a g e b yti n u m m o c e k o s A e h T .r e tt e b e ht r of yt e i c o s g ni m r of s n a rt ni e c r o f e vit a n r etl a n a s a n oit n ett a l a n o it a n r e t n i d n a e m o h t a n oi ti n g o c e r g n i n i a g w o n si m et s y s ci m o n o c e t n ei c i ff u s -fl e s ot e s ol c d n a h c a o r p p a yl d n ei rf - o c e , n oi s e h o c l ai c o s d n a e fil f o e l yt s d e s a b - a m m a h D stI . d n al i a h T ni e c r o f t si m r of e r l ai c o s d n a t si h d d u B e vit i s o p a s a d e zi n g o c e r d n a d et p e c c a yl e di w e r o m , d o ot s r e d n u r e tt e b w o n si t n e m e v o m e h T . yl e vit c e p s e r e e s a V s e v a r P d n a a s g n o w a r at n a h C t a b m o S s a sl a u t c e ll et n i t n e ni m o r p h c u s y b 8 ” yt i n u m m o c l uf e c a e p“ r o 7 ” a i p o t u t si h d d u B “ s a d e bi r c s e d yl s u oi r a v si yti n u m m o c e k o s A e h T . y c n e i ciff u s -fl e s d n a e c n a il e r -fl e s , e c n e d n e p e d ni , e c a e p , yt il a u q e g ni cit c a r p d n a g n i h c a e r p ni , e c n at s ni r of ,r ett e b e ht ro f yt ei c o s eh t mr o f s n art od s g ni h c a et s’ k a ri h t o h P a na maS ̣ t a ht n oit a v r e s b o e ht n o yl ni a m s w o r g t n e m e v o m e k o s A e ht r o f t r o p p u S . st si vit c a l ai c o s d n a sl a ut c e l l e t ni g ni d ul c n i yt e i c o s e ht f o n oit c e s s s o r c a g n o m a t r o p p u s ni s ni a g y d a et s hti w mr o t s e ht d er e ht a e w t n e m e v o m e k o s A e ht r e v e w o H . s r e d r o m a e rt s ni a m e ht m o rf n o iti s o p p o g n o r t s hti w t e m t n e m e v o m t si m r o f e r e h t , s ei t h gi e e ht ni y l r al u cit r a p , g n i n ni g e b e ht nI .t s a el e h t t a st p e c e r P e vi F e h t r o st p e c e r P t h gi E o t e r e h d a ot d et c e p x e e r a s r e b m e m yaL . s k n o m d e n i a d r o yl l u f d n a s e ci v o n ot n oi ti d d a ni ) t a m a h k ki S ( s n u n t p e c e r P - n e T d e n i a d r o yl l a m r of s e d ul c n i p u or g ehT . n ai r at e g e v er a sr e b m e M . ) s e n i l p i c si d fo edo c ci t s a n o m ( a y a ni v dna st p e c er p e ht ot ylt ci rt s s pee k p u or g t si h d d u B t si m r of e r e ko sA ehT . sr e dr o m a e rt s n i a m e ht tf e l e h n e h w s 0 7 9 1 e ht ni s r e w ol l o f si h d n a ) a s k a ri h d o B ( k a ri ht o h P ) a ṇ a m ar Ś( a na m aS ̣ yb d etr at s t ne me vo m t si h d d u B t si m r of e r a si tne me vo m e ko sA ehT seitinummoC ekosA .2Seminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 6. Page 31 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea international newspapers, television news coverage including CNN and BBC. These events were extensively covered in local and international mass media including the local and power street protests” that led to the toppling of the ‘Thaksin’ and ‘Thaksin-backed’ administrations. solidarity and influential role played by the Asoke members in the 2006-2008 “yellow-shirt people’s Critical mass may have been reached and its reformist efficacy demonstrated in the strength of 11 2 Approaches in Southeast Asia, The National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan, November 17-18. p. Province. Paper presented at the International Symposium: Imagining Communities: Ethnographic Kanoksak Kaewthep. 2003. An ‘Imagining’ Community: A Case of Sisa Asoke Community, Srisaket 10 9) Tale Dhamma (Taksin Asoke) in Trang, the southern region of Thailand. . g ni m r of e r d n a e r e ht s s a m l a citi r c sti p u g ni dl i u b yll a u d a r g , e g r al 1 1 ti t a yt ei c o s e h t ot n i e g a ll i v sti m o rf e s u ffi d y h p o s ol i h p d n a s e iti vit c a s ’ e k o s A , y a w si ht nI . yt ei c o s e ht ot ni yti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht f o y r a d n u o b l a ci s y h p e h t d n et x e yti n u m m o c e ht e d i st u o s e m o h n w o ri e ht n i e vi l o h w t u b y h p o s ol i h p st i ot e bi r c s b u s o h w d n a s eit i vit c a d n a g ni h c a et s’ p u o r g ekosA eht troppus ohw srehto dna ,sdneirf dna seilimaf rieht dna setaudarg esehT .ytinummoc etaidemmi eht edistuo snoitacov nwo rieht no krabme dna evael ot eerf era sloohcs hgih eseht morf setaudarg ehT .snoitacilppa sti dna egdelwonk lareneg dna ,ecnailer-fles dna gnivil tnednepedni rof slliks lanoitacov lacitcarp ni meht gnissessa dna gniniart ,gnuoy eht fo ytilarom eht gnissessa dna gnitavitluc ,gnipoleved ot nevig era serocs dna emit fo segatnecrep hgih erehw stneduts eht fo tnemssessa dna mulucirruc ro suballys rieht ni detcelfer si sihT .’ecnailer -fles dna ecnednepedni ,ytilarom reh/sih gnitavitluc ni nosrep elohw a‘ gnipoleved no decalp era ytiroirp dna sisahpme erehw sloohcs ’ahkkiS ammaS‘ llac yeht hcihw sloohcs evitanretla snur dna pu stes osla ytinummoc eht ,retteb eht rof yteicos eht gnimrofer ni evitceffe eb oT .dluow s attimanaylak sa noitavitluc lautirips ni rehtona eno troppus ot srebmem eht rof evicudnoc era snoitidnoc eht nierehw ytinummoc ro egalliv a mrof yeht rehtegoT .snun dna sknom eht rof setisiuqer dna troppus eht edivorp ohw dna meht dnuora evil ohw ahgnas yal tpecerp-evif dna -thgie eht yb detroppus era yehT .ecnadiug lautirips htiw ytinummoc eht edivorp ot stnaicnuner tpecerp-thgie eht dna ,tamahkkiS ro snun tpecerp-net ,secivon ,)uhskihb( suhkkihb eht fo srebmem ahgnas deniadro eht eroc sti ta sah ytinummoc eht ,snoitcnuf dna erutcurts nI .rebmem hcae fo efil detneiro yllautirips a fo evitroppus nrut ni si taht ytinummoc tnailer-fles eht nehtgnerts dna dliub dna erahs ot sesulprus era ereht ,yaw siht nI 01.secruoser n o s g ni v a s d n a , n oit a v o n ni d n a yti vi t c u d o r p ni e s a e r c ni ot s d a el o sl a ti ,t n e m ni att a l a uti ri p s d n a d ni m e ht f o n oit a ci fi r u p s d r a w ot s d a el yl n o t o n e l yt s efil si ht , g n i vil d n a g ni ni a rt o s nI . st n e m el if e d l at n e m r e ht o d n a ’ e ri s e d‘ r o ’ d e e r g‘ e c u d e r ot n o it p m u s n o c g ni si m i ni m ni , s e iti vit c a k r o w yl i a d n i n oi t ati d e m g n i cit c a r p s e d ul c ni si ht , e fi l f o t c e p s a y r e v e ni g ni ni a rt l a uti ri p s n o s e s u c of s u ht el yt s e fi l t si h d d u B e k o s A e h T . r u o v a e d n e si ht f o t r o p p u s ni e r a ef i l yl i a d n i s e iti vi t c a r e h t o ll a d n a l a o g y r a m i r p e ht s a t n e m n i a tt a l a ut i ri p s s d r a w o t d e r a e g el yt s e fi l t si h d d u B e vit c u d o r p d n aSeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 7. Page 32 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea 30. Develop Thai Society. Doctoral dissertation. Integrated Sciences Program, Thammasat University. P. Suwida Sangsehanat. 2006. Integrated Wisdom on Buddhist Philosophy: An Alternative Strategy to 13 by Kuan Kor-eng. Bangkok: Fah Apai. P.88. Patibat Khong Santi Asoke [Buddhism with Open Eyes: Belief and Practice of Santi Asoke], translated Heikkila-Horn, Marja-Leena. 1998. Mong Puttha Sasana Duay Song Ta Pued: Kyam Sher Lae Kaan 12 ot d et n u o m a yl b a b o r p yti n u m m o c e k o s A e h t f o htl a e w d e r a h s n o m m o c e ht si t c e ff e n i t a h w r o ti u rf si h T . e cit c a r p f o ti u rf e ht s a ī g o h b a ṇ ar ā h d ā S d e bi r c s e d k a ri ht o h P a n a m a S ̣ .” m s a cr a s e r u d n e ot , e r et s u a r o r o o p yl l a i r et a m e b ot e r a d , e vit a iti ni e v a h ot ,t n e gi li d e b ot “ ott o m e ht e cit c a r p d n a e vil y e h T . s eit i n u t r o p p o l a uti ri p s ni h ci r e b ot ’ s n oi s s e s s o p l ai r et a m n i r o o p ‘ e b ot e r a d s u ht el p o e p e k o s A e h T .l a o g e ht s a t n e m ni att a l a ut i ri p s r of efil yli a d ni n oi t a vi tl u c l a uti ri p s r of a m mah D hti w d e t ar e p o d na d et a vi t o m m et s y s n a i r at il a g e yl u rt a si si h T . d e zi mi ni m er a d et u bi rt s i d si h tl a e w e ht woh dna t ah w e vah dl u o h s oh w no s e t u p si d dna st ci lf n o c r of s e s u a c , y a w si h t ni yti n u m m o c e h t ni l l a r o f g ni r a h s d n a ytil a u q e g n i cit c a r p nI . n o it a vi tl u c l a uti ri p s r of efi l n i a t ni a m o t yti n u m m o C e k o s A e h t ni e n o y r e v e ot ī g o h b a ṇ a r ā h d ā S m o rf d e t a c ol l a e r a s d e e n ci s a b r u o F . a n a d , g ni vi g n o si s a h p m e h ti w fl e s - n o n n o d e s a b si e cit c a r p si h T . ī g o h b a ṇ a r ā h d ā S s a n w o n k st e s s a yt i n u m m o c ri e ht p u s dl i u b yti n u m m o C t si h d d u B e k o s A e ht , yti n u m m o c e ht ot s e s u l p r u s g nit a n o d d n a el tti l g ni s u f o y a w si h t nI . yti n u m m o c e l o h w e ht f o d o o g e ht r of yt r e p o r p l a n u m m o c s a d e g a n a m e b ot e rt n e c yti n u m m o c e h t ot s e s u l p r u s e ht e t a n o d d n a , e r o m e c u d o r p ot d r a h k r o w , ) sl ai r e t a m , e mit ( s et s a w el c y c e r d n a t u o t u c r o e c u d e r , n o i t p m u s n o c e zi m i n i m s r e b m e m , yti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht ni yl r al i m i S . y t r e p o r p l a n u m m o c s a yl l a r t n e c d e g a n a m e b o t y ti n u m m o c e h t o t d e t a n o d e r a s e s ul p r u s y n a , a m m a h D f o e ci t c a r p e h t r o f efi l ni a t s u s ot s et i si u q e r ci s a b r u of e ht d e di v o r p er a s k n o m e h T . a h g n a S d e n i a d r o e ht f o t a ht n o d el l e d o m si yti n u m m o c e k o s A e h T seitinummoC ekosA eht ni decitcarp sa gohbaṇarāhdāS īīgohbaṇarāhdāS .3 .) 9 0 0 2 , 6 3 1. o N( l a nr u o j e k o s A na , a y ko D n i n e vi g s d r o c e r e ht n o d e s a b e r e w s et a m it s e e s e h T . 0 0 0 , 0 2 d n u o r a r e b m u n y a m s e m o h n w o ri e ht ni y a t s o h w s e vi t a l e r a m m a h D r o ” a m m a h d i tt a Y“ e h T . er o m r o 0 0 8, 1 d n u o r a d e r e b m u n s e g a ll i v e k o s A e ht ni g n i vil el p o e p y al e ht d n a , s e e n i a rt r o st n a i c n u n e r dna , snun , s e ci v o n , s kno m e ht g ni d ul c n i ahg na s d e n i a dr o e ko sA e ht ,) 6 0 0 2( 31adiwuS y b s et a mit s e d n a ) 8 9 9 1 ( 21nroH-alikkieH a n e e L - aj r a M y b g ni p u o r g e h t ot g ni d r o c c ASeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 8. Page 33 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea Samana Phothirak. 2007. ibid. p. 77. 15 Samana Phothirak. 2007. ibid. p. 117. 14 y r a t n ul o v a n o t u o d ei r r a c e r a s ei ti vit c a l l A . ” s r e ht o ot s ul p r u s e ht et u b i rt si d ; e c u d o r p /t n al p e w t a h t g ni ht y r e v e e s u /t a e d n a ; e s u /t a e e w t a h t g n i ht y r e v e e c u d o r p/t n a l p “ , n a g o l s e h t n o d e s a b ll a , s ei ti vi t c a 0 3 n a ht e r o m y b d e ni at s u s si yti n u m m o c h c a e f o y c n ei ci ff u s -fl e s e h T . s ei r e n i h c a m l a r utl u ci r g a g n i d li u b s a h c u s s e si r p r et n e r e ht o d n a g n i m r af ci n a g r o n o k r a b m e ot e kil dl u o w o h w e l p o e p ot y g ol o n h c et r ef s n a rt ot s d n a m e d n o ro yl r al u g e r s e s r u o c g ni n i a rt s n u r yti n u m m o c e ht ,t c af nI .ti e ri u q c a r o n r a el ot e kil d l u o w o h w e n o y n a ot y m o n o c e t n ei ciff u s -f l e s d n a t n ai l e r -fl e s a g n i n i at s u s n o y g o l o n h c et d n a e sit r e p x e sti e r a h s d n a d n e t x e dl u o w d n a n e p o si r e v e w o h yti n u m m o c e h T . yti r e p s o r p d n a l a vi v r u s sti r of s r e h t o n o d n e p e d t o n s e o d d n a g ni ni at s u s -fl e s d n a t n a il e r -f l e s si yti n u m m o c e ko sA ehT . s n oi t a n o d e ht m orf tif e n e b sr e ht o dna st n e i pi c e r e ht dna sr o n o d e ht ht o b t a ht o s dl o fi n a m d ei l p itl u m e b ot stif e n e b e ht ,l l e w d e zi li t u e b ot e r a s n oi t a n o d , yti n u m m o c e ko sA e ht oT . y h p o s ol i h p e ko sA eht d n at sr e d n u oh w sr o n o d m orf s e s o pr u p cifi c e p s r of d et p e c c a yl n o e r a s n oi t a n o D . s r o n o d n w o n k n u m o rf n oi t a n o d t p e c c a t o n s e o d yti n u m m o c e k o s A e h T . s ml a n o e vil ot d l r o w e ht g n i c n u o n e r t o n , s g n i g n ol e b l a n o s r e p r o s n oi s s e s s o p el ttil hti w efi l e r et s u a ,l a g u rf a e vi l ot s ei ti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht n i oj el p o e p e k o s A . a r e a h d d u B e ht ni sa ) s i n u h s ki h b ( si n u h k ki h b d n a s u h k ki h b e ht g n o m a t s u j t o n , s r e b m e m y al d n a s n u n , s k n o m e ht g n o m a yl l a u q e d e r a h s e r a st e s s a yti n u m m o c , s ei ti n u m m o c e k o s A nI . a r e a h d d u B e ht f o t a ht d n a s e iti n u m m o c e k o s A f o ī g o h b a ṇ a r ā h d ā S n e e wt e b s e c n e r effi d e m o s e r a e r e h T ycneiciffuS-fleS dna īgohbaṇarāhdāS .4 . h c e e p s d n a st h g u o ht , s eit i vit c a yl i a d ni d e t a r g et n i e b ot e ci t c a r p a d n a e fil n i yti r o i r p p o t a , e ci t c a r p l a uti ri p s ni t n e m ni att a t n at r o p mi na sa d ni m d e ifi r u p st e gr a t t a ht yti n u m m o c a si yti n u m m o c e ko sA ehT . d ni m d ei fi r u p a m o rf m o o l b t a h t s m o s s ol b e h t m o rf e m o c st i u rf e s e ht f o l l A . s r e ht o r of st h g u o ht e vi ti s o p d n a ll i w d o o g g nit a r e n e g f o e cit c a r p e ht f o r e d ni m e r d n a s s e nl uf d n i m t n at s n o c el bi s s o p e k a m t a h t g ni r a h s d n a k r o w yti n u m m o c d n a g n i vil l a n u m m o c s u oi n o m r a h et o m o r p n r ut n i h ci h w ) n oi s s a p m o c ( ā ur a k 7 d n a ) s s e n d ni k - g n i v ol ( ī rt i a m ro ā tt e m f o n o i t a vi tl u c e ht r of e vi c u d n o c e r of er e ht e ra yti n u m m o c e ht ni s n o i ti d n o C . t h g u o ht d oog dn a dr o w d oog , dee d doog et a vi tl u c ot s e iti n ut r o p p o e r o m e r a e r e h t d n a t n e m h c att a s s el s i e r e h t , st n e m e li f e d l a t n e m g ni c u d e r n I . el p o e p e k o s A e h t f o ) s t n e m eli f e d l a t n e m ( a ś el k r o a s eli k f o n oi t a ci d a r e e ht m o rf stiurf eht era stessa esehT 51.retneC e k o s A it n a S ni s g ni dli u b w e n o wt g n i d d a ni d n a , r et n e C e k o s A m o h t a P ni l ati p s o h a g n i dl i u b n i , k o k g n a B r a e n t c ej o r p g n i m r af ci n a g r o w e n ni t s e v ni ot elba era yehT 41.seitinummoC e k o s A ll a f o st e s s a d e n i b m o c f o ht r o w s’ t h a B f o s n o il li bSeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 9. Page 34 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea . yti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht ni d e cit c a r p s a m et s y s ī g o h b a ṇ ar ā h d ā S fo s se c cu s e ht ot s et u bi rt n o c ti ri p s dna ya w t h g ir eh t ni m si h d d u B g ni ci t c a r p e fil a g ni vi L .’ sti r e m‘ f o p u g ni d li u b d n a s e c r u o s e r f o n oi t a v r e s n o c d n a , t n e m h c at t a - n o n n o e cit c a r p a si el yt s ef il l a g u rf d n a e r et s u a e ht ; e c it c a r p l a uti ri p s n o tl i u b si d n a , n ai r at il a g e si yti n u m m o c e k o s A e h T .’ s s al c et il e g n il u r‘ a t n e s e r p si s y a wl a e r e ht r of yti l a u q e l a ut c a o n si e r e ht el i h w yt r e v o p g ni r a h s ot ni d e c r e o c e r a el p o e p ;t r e s e d l a uti ri p s si e r e ht , m si n u m m o c d n a m si l ai c o s nI . m si n u m m o c r o m sil ai c o s f o t a h t ot m et s y s yti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht n e kil y a m e m o S .ti si v y e ht n e h w e m o h ll a c n a c y e ht h ci h w s r et n e c s u oi r a v ni g ni s u o h d n a s r a c g ni d ul c n i s eit r e p o r p yt i n u m m o c e s u ot d e t n et n o c e r a o h w s r e b m e m e k o s A hti w e s a c e h t t o n si h c u S . s n oi s s e s s o p l a n o s r e p ot d e v al s n e e m o c e b y e h t d n a el ci h e v l a n o s r e p a n w o o t e v a r c ll i w sl a u di vi d ni , d l r o w e di st u o e ht n I . e l di t f el t o n e r a s g ni ht d n a m e ht d e e n y e ht n e h w s e it r e p o r p l a n u m m o c ot s s e c c a e v a h y e ht t a ht n i ’ r e h ci r e m o c e b s r e b m e m yti n u m m o c e ht , g ni r a h s n i‘ t a ht el pi c ni r p e ht s e t a rt s ull i yti n u m m o c e ko sA ehT . sr a c l a n o sr e p r o f d e e n o n e v a h sr e b m e M . d n al d n a s e l ci h e v e d ul c ni t a ht st e s s a l a n u m m o c ll a f o e r a h s l a u q e e v a h s r e b m e M . st e s s a l a n u m m o c e r a s e it r e p o r p ll A . st e s s a d n a htl a e w s’ yti n u m m o c e ht f o ht w o r g e ht l e uf st c u d o r p d n a e c u d o r p f o s e s u l p r u s d n a e mit , s e c r u o s e r n o s g ni v a S . s et s a w g nil c y c e r d n a s et s a w d n a n o it p m u s n o c g ni zi mi ni m , n o it c u d o r p g n i s a e r c ni t a k r o w y e h T . st n e m e lif e d l at n e m f o g ni si r a e ht r of s ei ti n ut r o p p o e ht g ni c u d e r ni d n a s d e e d e m o s el o h w n i t n e p s r ett e b ef il a d a el y e ht , y a w si ht nI . st h g u o h t d n a h c e e p s , s eit i vit c a el di r of t f el e mit o n r o e lttil si e r e ht t a ht o s k r o w e vit c u d o r p ni e m it ri e ht ll a d n e p s ot e vi rt s s r e b m e m e k o s A e ht e r of e r e h T . yl s s e l m i a e mit y a w a el i h w o t t o n d n a yti vit c a k r o w yl i a d ni e c n e gi li d h g u o r ht a m m a h D g ni ci t c a r p n i e v ei l e b yti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht f o s r e b m e M ytinummoC ekosA eht ni decitcarp yllufsseccus si īgohbaṇarāhdāS woH .5 . s ei ti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht y b d e t a r e p o m et s y s g ni d a rt m siti r e m r o m o y -i n - n u b e h t ni d e cit c a r p n et f o si si h T . d e t a r e n e g e r a ’ sti r e m‘ ,t s o c w o l e b r o e e r f d e t u bi r t si d e r a s t c u d o r p n e h W . y ti n u m m o c e k o s A e h t e di s t u o el p o e p o t s ti f o r p t u o h ti w r o hti w ,t s o c w ol e b r o t a s e ci r p el bi s s o p t s e w o l e ht t a dl o s r o d e r a h s e r a st c u d o r p ci n a g r o r o s b r e h d n a s el b a t e g e v f o s e s ul p r u S . n oit p m u s n o c r of d e d e e n n a h t d e c u d o r p si e r o m , el yt s ef il ni l a g u rf d n a g ni k r o w d r a h g ni e B .l a r e n e g ni yt e i c o s i a h T e ht d n a e k o s A e h t r of e c n ail e r -fl e s fo n oit a d n u of e ht sa e c it c a r p e r utl u ci r g a ci n a g r o s dr a g er p u or g e ko sA ehT .t n e m n o ri v n e e ht d n a s r e m u s n o c e ht , s r e m r af e ht f o r e h t e g ot g ni k r o w s u oi n o m r a h a , s r e ht o r o fl e s e n o g ni m r a h t o n f o t p e c e r p t si h d d u B t s ri f e ht hti w d r o c c a ni e t a r e p o s r e b m e m e ht , g ni m r af e r ut l u ci r g a ci n a g r o nI . s t c ej o r p ” e r u t l u ci r g A ci n a g r O “ ri e h t h ti w s s e c c u s ri e h t n o d e d n u of t s rif s a w y m o n o c e g ni ni at s u s -fl e s s’ yti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht f o s s e c c u s e h T . si s a bSeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 10. Page 35 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea ni d e di v o r p yti r u c e s si e r e ht s a e l at a k at a J a k a n aj a h a M e ht ni n r o d n a s s e V e c n i r P e ki l anad s a g ni ht y r e v e y a w a e vi g n a c y e h T .’ y e n o m‘ r of d e e n r o f o e c n e ulf n i e h t t u o ht i w t s e u q l a uti ri p s ri e h t n i yl s u oi n o m r a h r e h t o n a e n o t r o p p u s d n a e vil e l p o e p y al d n a s n u n , s k n o m , ht l a e w nommoc derahs fo metsys siht nI .metsys ī g o h b a ṇ ar ā h d ā S d e ri p s ni - a m m a h D e ht g ni cit c a r p yb y c ar c ot ar o pr o c d na n o it a zi l a b ol g e vi t ati ol p x e dna m si l ai r et a m fo t h g u al s n o e vit a g e n e h t t si s e r yll uf s s e c c u s s e it i n u m m o c e k o s A . n oi t a vit l u c l a u ti ri p s e t o m o r p d n a ot e vi c u d n o c s n oi ti d n o c et a e r c t a ht ) e si w r e h t o d n a ci m o n o c e ( s e iti vit c a n o s r e t n e c efi l yli a d n i e sl e ll a d n a l a o g e ht s a ā n a b bi N f o t n e m ni att a h t i w e fil a g ni d a e l n o s g ni h c a e t s’ a h d d u B n o n oit ci v n o c g n o r t s h g u o r h t d e ni a t s u s d n a p u t li u b si m et s y s e h t , yti n u m m o c e ko sA e ht ni d e cit c a r p sA .t s uj d n a ri af si t a ht m et s y s ci m o n o c e d n a l ai c o s t si h d d u B a si ī g o h b a ṇ ar ā h d ā S noisulcnoC .7 . s e ci v o n r o s t a m a h k ki s n e ht , st n ai c n u n e r n e ht , s e e ni a rt s a yl l a m r of d etti m d a e b dl u o c y e ht e r of e b a h g n a S e k o s A e ht y b e l b a ti u s d e m e e d d n a g n i n i a rt et a u q e d a o g r e d n u o t e vah ne m o w d na ne M . ht l a e w l a c i s y h p r o r e d n e g f o s s el d r a g e r , yt i n u m m o c e k o s A e ht n i e c n e t e p m o c d n a e cit c a r p l a uti ri p s r o f d r a g e r h gi h si e r e h T . d e ni a d r o e b o t s el a m e f e ht ot n e vi g yt i n ut r o p p o s s el si e r e h T . 0 0 1 s d e e c x e s k n o m f o r e b m u n e ht n e h w 3 ot 1 o t d e v o r p mi d n a 4 ot 1 t a t p e k si s k n o m ot s n u n f o o it a r e h T . a h g n a S e k o s A e ht n i s i n u h k ki h b on te y s a er a er e h T . s ei ti vit c a s u oi r a v ni s r e d a el f o s el o r e ht e m u s s a d n a st n e d ut s h c a et , a m m a h D h c a et s t a m a h k ki S e ht , s k n o m e ht e ki L . yti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht n i a h g n a S e ht f o s r e b m e m d e ni a d r o s a d et c e p s e r d n a yl h gi h d e d r a g e r e r a , t a m a h k ki S , s n u n t p e c er p- n et e h T . el a m ef r o e l a m , s r e b m e m y a l d n a s e e ni a r t , s t n ai c n u n e r , s n u n , s k n o m , s r e b m e m s ti ll a g n o m a yll a u q e d e r a h s e r a s e iti n u m m o c e k o s A e ht f o s e it r e p o r p e ht r o s eit r e p o r p l a n u m m o C . n oi t p e c ni sti e c ni s n a m o w a y b d el si ) h t r a E d n a n e v a e H r o F ( E A H F , y t r a p l a ci ti l o p s’ e k o s A ,t c af n I . s ei ti vit c a r o s p u o r g r al u cit r a p f o s r e d a el d e t c el e e r a r o e m o c e b o h w n e m o w el b a p a c e r a e r e h T . e g a r o r e d n e g f o e vit c e p s e r ri yt i vit c a r a l u ci t r a p t a h t ni pi h s r e d a e l e m u s s a n a c yti vit c a n a n i lli k s d n a yt il i b a y r a s s e c e n e ht s a h o h w e n o y n A . s r e nt r a p l a u q e s a l li fl u f y e h t h ci h w s ei t u d l ai c e p s e v a h n e r dl i h c d n a n e m , n e m o W . n e r dl i h c e ht r et f a s k o ol yti n u m m o c e l o h w e h t s a s ei r r o w t u o hti w k r o w st n e r a P . r a e f t u o h ti w e s u o h y n a ot d a o r e ht n o yl e e rf n u r n e r dl i h C . s e vit al e r s a r e ht o h c a e d r a g e r d n a t c e p s e r s r e b m e M . yli m af g i b a e ki l e r a s ei ti n u m m o c e ko sA e hT . e r utl u c l a n oi ti d a r t ia hT hti w el b it a p m o c si m et s y s ī g o h b a ṇ ar ā h d ā S metsyS metsyS metsyS metsyS gohbaṇarāhdāS n nemoW fo e oR .6 īīīīgohbaṇarāhdāS niiii nemoW fo elllloR .6 gohbaṇarāhdāS n nemoW fo e oR .6 gohbaṇarāhdāS n nemoW fo e oR .6Seminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 11. Page 36 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea . ylt c e r r o c d e ci t c a r p d n a d e c a r b m e si a m m a h d a yī ṇ a r ā S no g n i h c a et e ht n eh w yti n u m m o c eh t d na l a u di vi d ni e ht r of l a uti ri p s eb na c e fil yl i a D . d o o g n o m m o c r of s e vi r ht t a ht d n a d o o g n o m m o c r of d e d n u o f yti n u m m o c l u f e c a e p d n a e m o s el o h w , g n i n i at s u s -fl e s yl l a ci m o n o c e n a f o g n i h si r u olf d n a t n e m h sil b at s e e ht ot d a el n a c ylt c e r r o c d ei l p p a n e h w s g ni h c a et s’ a h d d u B t a ht f o o r p g ni vil a si yt i n u m m o c e k o s A e h T . yti n u m m o c sti d n a t n e m e v o m e k o s A e ht f o h t w o r g y h tl a e h e ht sl e u f m et s y s ī g o h b a ṇ ar ā h d ā S . st c e j or p tn e m po le ved dna s e si r p r e t n e e s e ht r of sr et n e c g n i n i art d na yti n u m m o c st c u d o r p ci n a g r o , yti n u m m o c t n ai l e r -fl e s , y m o n o c e y c n ei ci ff u s -fl e s , yti n u m m o c l a r o m g n o rt s a g ni dl i u b r o f d n ali a h T ni sl e d o m t s e b e ht f o e m o s e m o c e b e v a h s y a d a w o n s ei ti n u m m o c e k o s A . r e ht o n a e n o t r o p p u s d n a y n o m r a h d n a e c a e p ni k r o w y e h T .t n ail e r -fl e s e r a y e h T . ) s d n e i rf l a u ti ri p s ( atti m a n a yl a k r o yti n u m m o c e ht f o t r o p p u s e ht h ti w n oi t a r e b il f o l a o g e ht g ni ni a t t a n o k r o w o t e f il l a u t i ri p s ri e h t e t a vi tl u c n a c y e h t , s e s ul p r u s g ni r a h s d n a g ni t a e r c , d e e r g e c u d e r ot n o it p m u s n o c g ni zi m i ni m e kil , s ei ti vit c a r o k r o w r o ef il yli a d ni a m m a h D g nit a r o p r o c ni r o g ni cit c a r p ni e c n e gi li d hti w t a ht w o h s o sl a y e h T . ) yti a l el a m e f ( ā ki s ā p u d n a , ) yt i al el a m ( a k a s ā p u , ) e k o s A n i s n u n t a m a h k ki S r o ( i n u h k ki h b , u h k ki h b , s ei l b m e s s a r u o f e ht e v a h d l u o h s yti n u m m o c t s i h d d u B l uf s s e c c u s a t a ht w o h s s eit i n u m m o c e k o s A . m et s y s ī g o h b a ṇ ar ā h d ā S e htSeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 12. Page 37 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea . n o it a d n u o F i t n a S a m m a h D : k o k g n a B .] ai p o t U t si h d d u B : yt i n u m m o C e k o s A m o h t a P[ a i p ot U t u h P a s k u S n a a K : e k o s A m o h t a P n o h c m u h C . 8 8 9 1 . a s g n o w ar at n a h C t a b m o S . 6 7. P .i a h p A h a F : k o k g n a B . ] m et s y s ci m o n o c e wen :īgohbaṇarāhdāS[ iaM tinaJ tikahtteS :īgohbaṇarāhdāS .7002 .karihtohP ạnamaS .naB oah C ro M : ko kg naB . e k o s A it n a S , i a k a m m a h T , e k o M n a u S . 5 9 9 1 . e e s a V s e v ar P . a y al a y di v aj a r n r o k g n o l a l u h c a h a M : ko k g naB .7 . m si h d d u B fo y r a n oit ci D . . . 299 1 . . ott u y a P . A. P .i a p A h a F : k o k g n a B . g n e - r o K n a u K y b d et al s n a rt ,] e k o s A i t n a S f o e cit c a r P d n a f ei l e B : s e y E n e p O h ti w m si h d u B [ e k o s A i t n a S g n o h K t a bi t a P n a a K e a L r e h S m a y K : d e u P a T g n o S y a u D a n a s a S a htt u P g n o M . 8 9 9 1 . a n e e L - a j r a M , n r o H - a li k ki e H : iahT :secnerefeR iahT .) 1( III L X d n a ) 4( II L X . w ei v e R B F W , ” n oi t a sil a b o l G ni st n e m e v o M l ai c o S ia hT : yti n u m m o C t si h d d u B “ .6002 . __ _ __ _ _ _ .f d p. 4 0 0 2 A A S A - A - a di w u S / 4 0 0 2 / e c n e r ef n o c -l ai n n e i b/ A A S A /j o r Pl ai c e p S/ u a. u d e. u n a. s b m o o c//: ptt h ni el b a li a v A .] e n il n O[ . a il a rt s u A , a rr e b n a C ,AA S A e ht f o e c n e r ef n o C l ai n n ei B h t 5 1 e ht f o s g ni d e e c o r P : d e n i m a x E a i s A . yti n u m m o C t si h d d u B e k o s A e h T : d n al i a h T ni t n e m p ol e v e D l a i c o S e vit a n r etl A n A . 4 0 0 2 . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .f d p. y ti n u m m o C 0 2 % e k o s A 0 2 % e h T 0 2 % d n a 0 2 % s ci m o n o c E 0 2 %t si h d d u B / S B J C/ ht. c a . al u h c. st r a. ct s. w w w //: ptt h : n i e l b a li a v A .] e n il n O[ . 5 8 2- 1 7 2 :) 2( 3 . s ei d ut S t si h d d u B f o l a n r u o J n r o k g n ol al u h C e h T , ” yti n u m m o C t si h d d u B e ko sA e ht dna s c i m on o cE t si h d d u B “ .400 2 .t a n a h e s g n a S a di w u S http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an06/an06.012.than.html. , 9 0 0 2 , 7 e n u J ,t h g i s nI ot s s e c c A . u h k ki h B o r a s si n a h T yb i l aP e ht m orf d e t al s n a rt ,) 2 1. 6 N A( . yti li b a i m A ot e vi c u d n o C : a tt u S a yi n a r a S . 8 1 - 7 1 r e b m e v o N , n a p a J , a k a s O , y g ol o n ht E f o m u e s u M l a n o it a N e h T , ai s A t s a e h t u o S ni s e h c a o r p p A ci h p a r g o n ht E : s ei ti n u m m o C g ni n i g a mI : m ui s o p m y S l a n oit a n r et nI e ht ta d et n e s er p re pa P . e c ni v o r P t e k a si r S , yti n u m m o C e k o s A a si S f o e s a C A : yti n u m m o C ’ g n i ni g a mI‘ n A . 3 0 0 2 . p e ht w e a K k a s k o n a K :secnerefeR hsilgnE :secnerefeR hsilgnE :secnerefeR hsilgnE :secnerefeR hsilgnESeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism
  • 13. Page 38 The 3rd Lay Buddhist Forum. October 22-26, 2009. Seoul, South Korea of n i. e k o s a . w w w //: ptt h :etisbeW . yti s r e vi n U t a s a m m a h T , m a r g o r P s e c n ei c S d e t a r g et nI . n o it at r e s si d l a r ot c o D . yt ei c o S i a h T p ol e v e D ot y g e t a rt S e vi t a n r e tl A n A : y h p o s ol i h P t si h d d u B n o m o d si W d et a r g et n I . 6 0 0 2 .t a n a h e s g n a S a di w u SSeminar 1-The Theoretical Basis of Engaged Buddhism