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Export financing

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  • 1. Some Information on ExportFinancingPresented By Prepared by: Kamalesh Mukherjee, Director, FINTEQ 1
  • 2. Export Financing- Sources p gSources:Commercial banks which are members of the Foreign Exchange Dealer’s Association provide finance at a concessional rate of interest and are refinanced by the Reserve Bank/ Export Import Bank of India. In case they do not wish to avail refinance they India refinance, are entitled for an interest rate subsidy.Export Import Bank of India, in certain cases, participates with commercial bank in extending medium term loans to exporters.Other Related Institutions:Reserve Bank of India, being the central bank of country, lays down the policy frame work and provides guidelines. The RBI functions as refinancing i tit ti for short and medium t fi i institution f h t d di term lloans respectively, provided by commercial banks.Export Credit & Guarantee Corporation (ECGC) also plays an p p ( ) p y important role through various policies and guarantees providing cover for commercial and political risks involved in export trade.
  • 3. Export Financing- FormsForms of Export Credit• Pre-shipment credit• Post-Shipment Post Shipment credit• Factoring• Forfaiting
  • 4. A. Pre-shipment CreditPre Shipment Finance is provided by financial institutions when the Exporter wants the payment of the goods before shipment.The objectives of pre shipment finance is to enable the exporter to: f f Procure raw materials. Carry out manufacturing process. Provide a secure warehouse f goods and raw materials. for Process and pack the goods. Ship the goods to the buyers. Meet th fi M t other financial cost of the business. i l t f th b i Types Packing Credit Advance against Cheques /Draft etc. representing Advance Payments. Forms : Packing Credit in Indian Rupee Packing Credit in Foreign Currency (PCFC)
  • 5. A. Pre-shipment Credit- EligibilityEligibility Issued to exporter who has the export order in his own name. As an exception, i can also b granted to third party manufacturer/ i it l be d hi d f / supplier who do not have export orders in their own name. A ten digit importer exporter code number allotted by DGFT. Exporter should not b i th caution li t of RBI License issued by E t h ld t be in the ti list f RBI. Li i db DGFT if the goods to be exported fall under the restricted category. If the goods to be exported are not under OGL (Open General Licence), the exporter should have the required license /quota permit to export Formal application for releasing the packing credit to the effect that the exporter would ship the goods and submit the relevant shipping documents to the banks within prescribed time limit. Firm order or irrevocable L/C or original cable / fax / telex g message exchange between the exporter and the buyer. The confirmed order received from the overseas buyer should reveal the information about the full name and address of the overseas b buyer, d description quantity and value of goods (FOB or i ti tit d l f d CIF), destination port and the last date of payment.
  • 6. A. Pre-shipment Credit- StagesAppraisal and Sanction of Limits: Banks Check Exporterprofile, Product profile, political and economic details about country, and theexporters license/ permitDisbursement of Packing Credit Advance: normallyallowed when all the documents are properly executed. The quantum offinance depend on the FOB value of contract /LC or the domestic values ofgoods, whichever is found to be lower. Normally insurance and freight d hi h i f dt b l N ll i d f i htcharged are also considered.Follow up of Packing Credit Advance: Exporter needs tosubmit stock statement giving all the necessary information about thestocks. It is then used by the banks as a guarantee for securing the packingcredit in advance.Liquidation of Packing Credit Advance: Packing CreditAdvance needs t b liquidated out of the export proceeds of the relevantAd d to be li id t d t f th t d f th l tshipment, thereby converting pre-shipment credit into post-shipment credit.In case the export does not take place then the entire advance can also berecovered at a certain interest rate.Overdue P kiO d Packing: Bank considers packing credit as an overdue, ifthe borrower fails to liquidate the packing credit on the due date. And, if thecondition persists then the bank takes the necessary step to recover its duesas per normal recovery procedure.
  • 7. A. Pre-shipment Credit in Foreign CurrencyAuthorized dealers are only permittedThe rate of interest on PCFC is linked to LIBOR LIBOR.The exporter has freedom to avail PCFC in convertiblecurrencies like USD, Pound, Sterling, Euro, Yen etc.However, the risk associated with the cross currencytransaction is that of the exporter.Sources of funds for the banks for extending PCFC facilityinclude the Foreign Currency balances available with theBank in Exchange, Earner Foreign Currency Account g g y(EEFC), Resident Foreign Currency Accounts RFC(D)and Foreign Currency (Non Resident) Accounts.
  • 8. A. Pre-shipment Credit –Other issuesPacking Credit Facilities to Deemed ExportsDeemed exports made to multilateral funds aided projects andprograms, under orders secured through global tenders f which d d d h h l b l d for hi hpayments will be made in free foreign exchange, are eligible forconcessional rate of interest both at pre and post supply stages.Packing Credit facilities for Consulting ServicesDo not involve physical movement of goods out of Indian Customsterritory. Pre-shipment finance can be provided to allow the exportert it P hi t fi b id d t ll th tto mobilize resources like technical personnel and training them.Advance against C Cheque/Drafts received as advance / fpayment Where exporters receive direct p y p payments from abroad by means of ycheques/drafts etc. the bank may grant export credit at concessionalrate to the exporters, till the time of realization of the proceeds of thecheques or draft etc. The Banks however, must satisfy themselvesthat the proceeds are against an export orderorder.
  • 9. B. Post-shipment C ed t ost s p e t CreditPurpose : meant to finance export sales receivable after the date ofshipment of goods to the date of realization of exports proceeds. Incases of deemed exports it is extended to finance receivable against exports,supplies made to designated agencies.Basis : provided against evidence of shipment of g p g p goods/supplies ppNature: Can be secured or unsecured. Since the finance is extendedagainst evidence of export shipment and bank obtains the documents of g p ptitle of goods, the finance is normally self liquidating. In case it involvesadvance against un-drawn balance, it is usually unsecured in nature.Quantum : C b extended up t 100% of th iinvoice value Can be t d d to f the i lPeriod : Can be short terms or long term, depending on the paymentterms offered by the exporter to the importer. Six months in case of cash importerexports.Type of Exports covered: Physical exports Deemed export ( exports,provided to the supplier of the goods which are supplied to thedesignated agencies) and for Capital goods and project exports.
  • 10. B. Post-shipment Credit B Post shipment Credit- Types1. Export Bills purchased/discounted.2. Export Bills negotiated3. Advance against export bills sent on collection basis.4. Advance against export on consignment basis5. Advance against un-drawn balance on exports6. Advance against claims of Duty Drawback.
  • 11. Post-shipment C ed t types ost s p e t Credit-types1. Export Bills Purchased/ Discounted : (DP & DA bills) Export bills (Non L/C Bills) is used i t E t bill (N Bill ) i d in terms of sale contract/ order f l t t/ d may be discounted or purchased by the banks. It is used in indisputable export transactions and the proper limit has to be sanctioned to the exporter .2.2 Export Bills Negotiated (Bill under L/C): Because of the security available in this method, banks often become ready to extend the finance against bills under LC. However, this arises two major risk factors for the banks: The risk of nonperformance by the exporter, In which case, the issuing banks do not honor the letter of credit. g Documentary risk where the issuing bank refuses to honor its commitment. So, it is important for the for the negotiating and the lending bank to properly check all documents before submission submission.
  • 12. Post-shipment C ed t ypes ost s p e t Credit-Types3. Advance Against Export Bills Sent on Collection Basis Bills can only be sent on collection basis if the bills drawn under LC have some discrepancies. Banks may allow advance against these collection bills to an exporter with concessional rates depending upon the transit period in case of DP Bills and transit period plus usance period in case of usance bill. Transit period is from the date of acceptance of the export documents for collection by the bank.4. Advance Against Export on Consignments Basis Bank may finance goods exported on consignment basis at the risk of the exporter. In this case bank instructs the overseas bank to deliver the document only against trust receipt /undertaking to deliver the sale proceeds by specified date which should be within the prescribed date.
  • 13. Post-shipment Credit-Types5. Advance against Undrawn Balance g It is a very common practice in export to leave small part undrawn for payment after adjustment due to difference in rates, weight, quality etc. Banks do finance against the undrawn balance, subject to t a maximum of 10 percent of the export value against an i f t f th t l i t undertaking from the exporter6. Advance A i t Cl i6 Ad Against Claims of Duty Drawback fD t D b k This credit is given only if the in house cost of production is higher in relation to export price due to the existing duty structure. Banks grant advances at lower rate of interest for a period of 90 days and only if other types of export finance are extended to the exporter by the same bank. After the shipment the exporters lodge their claims to the relevant government authorities. The bank is authorized to g receive the claim amount directly from the concerned government authorities.
  • 14. ForfaitingForfaiting refers to non-recourse discounting of exportreceivables. The exporter surrenders, without recourse to him, p , ,his rights to claim for payment on goods delivered to animporter.Forfaiter pays exporter in cash and undertakes the riskassociated with the export. i t d ith th tEXIM bank plays intermediary role between exporter and theoverseas forfaiting agency. The exporter approaches EXIMbank for forfaiting transaction. The bank receives bills from the transactionexporter and sends them to the forfaiter for discounting.The bank arranges for the discounted proceeds to be remittedto the Indian exporter. The bank issues appropriate certificatesto enable exporters to remit commitment fees and charges.RBI has allowed Authorised dealers to undertake forfaiting ofmedium term export receivables. pInvolves two cost elements: Commitment fee, payable by theexporter to the forfeiter and Discount fee payable by theexporter for the entire period of credit involved and deductedby th f f it fb the forfaiter from the amount paid to the exporter against the th t id t th t i t thavailed bills of exchange.
  • 15. Forfaiting Forfaiting- BenefitsBenefits to Exporter 100 per cent financing : Without recourse and not occupying exporters credit line t dit li Improved cash flow : Receivables become current cash in flow Reduced administration cost : By using forfeiting the exporter will reduce the relevant management costscosts. Advance tax refund: the exporter can make the verification of export and get tax refund in advance just after financing. Risk reduction : enables the exporter to transfer various risk p resulted from deferred payments, such as interest rate risk, currency risk, credit risk, and political risk to the forfeiting bank. Increased trade opportunity : With forfeiting, the exporter is able to grant credit to his buyers freely and thus be more competitive in freely, thus, the market.Benefits to Banks Banks can offer a novel product range to clients, which enable the client to gain 100% finance, as against 80-85% in case of other discounting Bank i fee based income. B k gain f b di Lower credit administration and credit follow up.
  • 16. FactoringIt is an attractive way of providing export finance to exporters. In this system, factor bearsthe complete credit risk A factor is a special type of agent who depending upon the type risk. who,of agreement, offers a variety of services.These services include coverage of credit risk, collection of export proceeds, maintenanceof accounts receivables and advance of funds.Purchase of receivables of its clients without recourse is the most important service of thefactor. A big advantage to the exporter is that it is without recourse financing. This meansthat the risk of non-payment by the importer is to be borne entirely by the factor.In India, International Export Factoring services on with recourse basis have beenapproved by the RBI. It provides a new dimension to management of export receivables.SBI Factors and Commercial Services Pvt. Ltd., Bombay have been permitted to provideInternational Export Factoring.In this system, the exporter enters into an export factoring agreement with exporter’sfactor. The exporters ship goods to approved foreign buyers. Each invoice is made payableto a specific factor in the importer’s country. Copies of invoices and shipping documentsare sent to the Importer’s factor. Exporter’s factor will make prepayment to the exportagainst approved export receivables.On receipt of payments from the importer on due date of invoice, importer’s factor remitsthe f d t thth fund to the exporter’s factor. The exporter’s factor pays to the exporter after deducting t ’ f t Th t ’ f t t th t ft d d tithe amount of prepayments.
  • 17. FactoringA factor is a special type of agent who depending upon the type of agreementoffers a variety of ser ices These ser ices incl de co erage of credit risk ariet services. services include coverage risk,collection of export proceeds, maintenance of accounts receivables andadvance of funds.The exporter enters into an export factoring agreement with exporter’s factor. g gThe exporters ship goods to approved foreign buyers. Each invoice is madepayable to a specific factor in the importer’s country. Copies of invoices andshipping documents are sent to the Importer’s factor. Exporter’s factor willmake prepayment to the exporter against approved export receivables . p p y p g pp pOn receipt of payments from the importer on due date of invoice, importer’sfactor remits the fund to the exporter’s factor. The exporter’s factor pays to theexporter after deducting the amount of prepayments.Factoring may be disclosed or undisclosedDisclosed factoring is of two types: Recourse factoring: The client collects the money from the customer but in case customer don’t pay the amount on maturity then the client is responsible to pay the amount to the factor. It is offered at a low rate of interest and is in very common use. Nonrecourse factoring: In non recourse factoring, factor undertakes to collect the debts from the customer. Balance amount is paid to client at the end of the credit period or when the customer pays the factor whichever comes first The advantage of first. nonrecourse factoring is that continuous factoring
  • 18. Duty Drawback SchemeIn case of Central Excise, Manufacturerscan avail C il Cenvat credit of d t paid on t dit f duty idinputs and utilise the same for payment ofdutyd t on other goods sold i I di or th th d ld in India, theycan obtain refund. Schemes likemanufacture under bond are also f t d b d lavailable for customs. Manufacturers orprocessors who are unable to avail any ofthese schemes can avail duty drawback.
  • 19. Duty Drawback Scheme (Cont.)Drawback means th rebate of d t chargeable on any iD b k the b t f duty h bl imported materials or excisable t d t i l i blmaterials used in manufacture of processing of goods which are manufactured in Indiaand exported. Duty drawback is equal to • a) cus o s du y pa d o imported inputs S customs duty paid on po ed pu s SAD p us plus • b) excise duty paid on indigenous inputs.Duty paid on packing material is also eligible. However, if inputs are obtained withoutp ypayment of customs/excise duty, no drawback will be paid. y, pIf customs/excise duty is paid on part of inputs or rebate/refund is obtained, only that parton which duty is paid and on which rebate/refund is not obtained will be eligible fordrawback. N dd b k No drawback i available on other t b k is il bl th taxes lik sales t and octroi. like l tax d t i
  • 20. Duty Drawback Scheme (Cont.)Drawback is allowable if any manufacture, process or any operation is manufacturecarried out in India. Thus, drawback is available not only onmanufacture, but also on processing and job work, where goods maynot change its identity and no manufacture has taken placy g y p yconsidering average quantity and value of each class of inputsThe rate is fixed under rule 3 of Drawback Rules by consideringaverage quantity and value of each class of inputs or manufactured inIndia. Average amount of duties paid is considered. These rates arefixed for broad categories of p g products. The rates include drawback onpacking materials.
  • 21. Duty Drawback Scheme (Cont.)The AIR (All Industry Rate) is usually fixed as % of FOB price of exportproducts. However, in respect of many export products, duty drawback cap(ceiling) has been prescribed.The table gives allocation of the drawback allowed under tow heads namely –Customs and Central Excise. The customs portion covers basic customs duty,surcharge and SAD. Excise portion covers basic and special excise duty andCVD. Duty drawback of customs portion can be paid even if exporter hasavailed Cenvat credit as Cenvat credit is only of excise duty and CVD – credit,MF(DR) circular No. 83/2000-Cus dated 16-10-2000
  • 22. Duty Drawback Scheme (Cont.)IndividualI di id l exporter i not required t produce any evidence i respect of actual t is t i d to d id in t f t lduties paid by him on inputsIt is possible to fix All Industry Rate only for some standard products. It cannotbe fixed for special type of products In such cases brand rate is fixed under products. cases,rule 6. The manufacturer has to be submit application with all details toCommissioner, Central Excise. Such application must be made within 60days of export. y p
  • 23. Duty Drawback Scheme (Cont.)All Industry rate is fixed on average basis Thus a particular manufacturer basis. Thus,may find that the actual duty paid on inputs is higher than All Industry Ratesfixed for his product . In such case, he can apply under rule 7 of DrawbackRules for fixation of Special Brand Rate, within 30 days from export. p y p‘Value’ for the purposes of section 76(1)(b) will be value at the time of export p p ( )( ) pand not the original value of import of the goods. If the imported goods areused before re-export, the drawback will be allowed at a reduced percentage.