Power failure presentation


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Why are the grids failing time and again?

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Power failure presentation

  2. 2. Electric grid  The power generating stations are hooked onto an interconnected network of transmission lines and substations.  These generating stations supply electricity through these transmission lines.  The companies responsible for distribution take the power coming through these lines and forward it to the consumers.
  3. 3. Power market operations – divided into five regions  The Indian power system is divided into five regions  National Load Dispatch Centre (NLDC)   Western Southern NorthEastern Eastern Scheduling and despatch of electricity over interregional links  Coordination with RLDCs for the energy accounting of inter-regional exchange of power  Northern Supervision over the RLDCs Co-ordination for trans-national exchange of Powers  Regional Load Dispatch Centre (RLDC)  Schedule day ahead by matching supply to demand from states  State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC)  Serve as control areas balancing supply-demand within the state in real time  Wholesale market effectively operates at the state level
  4. 4. Power market – operational framework National Load Dispatch Centre Inter-Regional Network Regional Load Dispatch Centers State Load Dispatch Centers Eastern North Eastern Northern Western Central Sector Generation Units States State Generation Units Southern Regional Network Power Traders State Network State Utilities /Independent power producers / Captive
  5. 5. Current day to day information flow and dispatch mechanism ■ ■ ■ ■ Inter-state open access Customers (Power Exchange/ Bilateral Contracts) Availability information Drawl schedules Drawl requirements Import/export to other regions ■ ■ Currently State Electricity Boards (SEBs) operate as SLDCs SLDC 1 SLDC compares load requirement with own generation and comes up with drawl requirement from central plants ■ RLDC compares all drawl requirements with available generation, and determines drawl schedule for all SLDCs ■ Central Generating Stations (CGS) State generation units give their availability to SLDCs one day in advance ■ RLDC CGS provide RLDC their availability one day in advance SLDCs/SEBs plan load shedding etc., plants dispatched on merit order basis (purely variable cost) SLDC 2 Load curves Load curves State Generation Stations Independent Power Producers State Generation Stations In case forced outages all drawl schedules gets reduced on pro-rate basis.
  6. 6. Demand: High electricity demand with average growth rate of ~7% over last five years 9% 700 8% 7% 600 6% 500 5% 400 4% 300 3% 200 2% 100 1% 0 0% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Energy Demand (TWh) 2007-08 Growth Rate (%) 2008-09 Demand Growth (%) 10% 800 Electricity Demand (TWh) 900
  7. 7. Demand growth expected to remain high    Electricity demand has grown annually on an average by ~ 7% over the last five years Demand growth has been robust across the regions and the largest states have posted the biggest increase Key drivers of electricity demand growth      GDP growth and rising income Improved electricity access Rural electrification Demand growth is expected to remain at 7-9% annually for the next decade Limited risk to decline in electricity demand growth because of significant existing latent demand
  8. 8. Supply: Consistent failure to add enough new capacity through last 3 five year plans – major cause of increasing deficits 90,000 80,000 70,000 Nuclear 50,000 Thermal 40,000 Hydro 30,000 20,000 52% 47% 54% 10,000 8th Plan (1992-1997) Acheivement* Target Acheivement Target Acheivement Target Acheivement 0 Target MW 60,000 9th Plan (1997-2002) 10th Plan (2002-2007) 11th Plan (2007-2012) Source: CEA
  9. 9. Growing demand + constrained supply = persistent shortages 2011-12 2011-12 Energy Requirement 350 Energy Availability Peak Met 40 300 35 250 30 200 25 GW Billion kwh Peak Demand 45 150 20 15 100 10 50 5 0 0 Northern Western Southern Eastern Northern North-East Western All India 18.00% 16.00% Energy Deficit Peak Deficit 14.00% 12.00% 10.00% 8.00% 6.00% 4.00% 2.00% 0.00% 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 Southern Eastern North-East
  10. 10. Whole host of factors for increasing deficits  Capacity additions bottlenecks • Equipment supply of Main Plant and Balance of Plant • Project Finance • Statuary Clearances/Approvals • Land acquisition • Skilled Manpower • Natural calamities in case of Hydro Projects  Fuel supply constraints • CIL failing to meet its production targets • Delay in captive block developments • Limited gas availability • Shortage of Nuclear fuel • Erratic hydro generation  Infrastructure constraints • Old inefficient technology use • High Technical and Commercial Losses • Inadequate gas pipeline infrastructure • Inadequate coal handling infrastructure (washeries / ports / railways)  Market structure • • • • • Poor financial health of SEBs Political interference Market in transition phase Lack of competition Lack of Private Participation
  11. 11. A stable electric grid      The stability of the grids depends on a delicate equilibrium of demand-supply, as per the drawal schedule The amount of load is directly proportional to the amount of power generated According to the Indian Electricity Code, 49.5 Hz to 50.2 Hz is the permissible band for grid operations in India When the equilibrium between power generated and consumed gets disturbed and the load becomes more, it leads to tripping of the line It is the duty of the power distributors to maintain the equilibrium intact so as not to trigger a grid failure
  12. 12. Reasons of a grid collapse    Grids collapse due to two basic reasons:  One is the failure of the equipment, like it happened a decade ago in 2002 when the northern grid collapsed  The second trigger is power suppliers drawing excessive power from the grid which results in the balance of power generation and supply goes haywire with a cascading effect There are various reasons why an excessive withdrawal of power happens:  Weather phenomenon and change in sudden climate is one reason  Unreliable demand forecasting, etc. Northern states of India, like Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Jammu Kashmir, have been found to be habitual violators  Presence of heavy industries and fast growing cities has necessitated the need for more power. But the production has not been able to cope up with the required distribution.
  13. 13. Northern Grid Fails (30th July 2012)
  14. 14. Northern-Eastern Grid Fails (31 st July 2012 )
  15. 15. Results of power grid failure       The power failure affected all major services, like rail, water and emergency services at hospitals all across the states Thousands of train passengers were stranded at railway stations all across the country. More than 300 trains came to a standstill Water services too were affected across the states and supply was low all across the cities Around 200 miners got trapped in the mines in West Bengal The Railways network was the worst hit services, as trains, other than those running on diesel engine, stopped midway. Industry suffered heavy losses.
  16. 16. Thank you