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Concepts in Nursing Research

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  • is helpful to students wishing to do a valid research..thank you very much
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  • This presentation is a basic overview of research as it applies for Masters and PhD students. While the exact requirements between the two degrees is somewhat different, the basic concepts and approaches to research are not.
  • This presentation is only an overview of research. The only way to get better at research is to do it.
  • While both of these are tools used during research, they are not sufficient for research.
  • These don’t represent some kind of linear plan, but are rather common characteristics shared by almost all legitimate research regardless of the venue by which that research was conducted.
  • The concept of “important” questions is subjective and will depend on who you ask as well as the purpose of the research. For instance, PhD students have a different “bar” than Masters students owing to the requirement that their research be “original and significant.”
  • The first case is really an exercise in data gathering and doesn’t contribute new knowledge. The same argument holds for the second case. The third case is a mathematical statement but doesn’t address the reasons for the correlation (which might lead to new knowledge). A similar argument applies to the fourth case.
  • If other researchers can’t confirm your results, you may be faced with having studied an anomaly. Similarly, without a solid plan, you might have inadvertently introduced errors into the experimental design which immediately calls your results into question.
  • There are very few “perfect” research designs where some flaws aren’t present. That’s normal. However, these flaws must be documented as well as their possible impact on the outcome. While this won’t stop reviewers from criticizing the work, it makes it clear that you are aware of the problems and their impact upon your work.
  • Many of us have professional experience which can lead to possible research. Always be careful to differentiate between research and self-enlightenment.
    A lot of computer literature, particularly research journals such as IEEE or ACM, show good research problems and possible sources of future work. Such future work can provide a good starting point for research projects.
    The same groups also host professional conferences. DePaul has a student chapter of the ACM that might provide a good source of inspiration for research.
    Many of the faculty here at DePaul have all kinds of problems that they’re trying to solve.
  • When documenting the proposed research, you should be as precise as you can. You’ll probably find yourself editing and revising many times to attain the necessary level of precision and clarity.
  • Documenting the delimitations is just as important as documenting the intended research. In essence, the problem and delimitations describe the scope of the project.
    Keep the delimitations in mind as you move forward. Current delimitations might provide avenues for valuable future work.
  • The accurate and consistent measurement of some phenomenon is called validity and reliability respectively.
  • Many times the ability of a researcher to justify the importance of their research topic is directly proportional to their ability to receive funding. This basically requires good salesmanship.
  • There are some basic variations on this theme, but all of these areas will be covered. This format serves to crystalize your thought process and to help ensure that no critical elements of your research have been neglected.
  • Some journals include IEEE and ACM. Be careful of trade journals; they’re often not peer reviewed which can call the content into question in terms of its reliability and quality.
    The bibliography could be a Word document, Excel spreadsheet, or bibliographic database. Even if the article doesn’t directly pertain to your current project, it might provide you with ideas.
  • We’ll try to give some guidelines as to how to choose starting and stopping points during your research work.
    Please keep in mind that the following steps don’t have to be slavishly followed in the sequence in which they are presented.
  • The literature review is often a good source for additional ideas. This is also a good place to go in conjunction with the prior step; there’s no point in wasting good brain cells coming up with hypotheses that solve a problem that has already been adequately addressed.
  • Keep in mind that just because you didn’t find a solution today, doesn’t mean that one won’t show up tomorrow. This is one of the reasons that researchers are always reading and trying to keep up to date with current trends.
  • A statement of causality is very difficult to demonstrate because there often many other confounding factors. For an example of this, do a quick bit of reading on the hoops researchers had to go through while trying to show a causal link between smoking and certain kinds of cancer.
  • The choice of methodology might be governed by the kind of research being conducted. For example, the hard sciences tend to favor quantitative methodologies whereas the social sciences often gravitate toward qualitative approaches.
    It’s quite common for both methodologies to be used during the course of a single research project.
  • These are some the differences in the intent and approaches between quantitative and qualitative research. There are other significant differences in approach as well, but these are some of the highlights. Keep in mind that research design is not a simple task.
  • The first site is the IEEE website and the second is main website for the Association of Computing Machinery. Both of these professional organizations have their own digital libraries containing conference proceedings and journal articles across all of their topics.
  • Research

    1. 1. Research Concepts SathiSh Rajamani m.Sc (n) 09688115454
    2. 2. Agenda Research Basics What research is and is not Where research comes from Research deliverables Methodologies Research process Quantitative versus qualitative research Questions
    3. 3. Research Basics What research is and isn’t Research characteristics Research projects and pitfalls Sources of research projects Elements of research proposals Literature reviews
    4. 4. What Research Is Not Research isn’t information gathering: Gathering information from resources such books or magazines isn’t research. No contribution to new knowledge. Research isn’t the transportation of facts: Merely transporting facts from one resource to another doesn’t constitute research. No contribution to new knowledge although this might make existing knowledge more accessible.
    5. 5. What Research Is Research is: “…the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.”1
    6. 6. Research Characteristics 1. Originates with a question or problem. 2. Requires clear articulation of a goal. 3. Follows a specific plan or procedure. 4. Often divides main problem into subproblems. 5. Guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis. 6. Accepts certain critical assumptions. 7. Requires collection and interpretation of data. 8. Cyclical (helical) in nature.
    7. 7. Research Projects Research begins with a problem. This problem need not be Earth-shaking. Identifying this problem can actually be the hardest part of research. In general, good research projects should: Address an important question. Advance knowledge.
    8. 8. Research Project Pitfalls The following kinds of projects usually don’t make for good research: Self-enlightenment. Comparing data sets. Correlating data sets. Problems with yes / no answers.
    9. 9. High-Quality Research (1 of 2) Good research requires: The scope and limitations of the work to be clearly defined. The process to be clearly explained so that it can be reproduced and verified by other researchers. A thoroughly planned design that is as objective as possible.
    10. 10. High-Quality Research (2 of 2) Good research requires: Highly ethical standards be applied. All limitations be documented. Data be adequately analyzed and explained. All findings be presented unambiguously and all conclusions be justified by sufficient evidence.
    11. 11. Sources of Research Problems Observation. Literature reviews. Professional conferences. Experts.
    12. 12. Stating the Research Problem Once you’ve identified a research problem: State that problem clearly and completely. Determine the feasibility of the research. Identify subproblems: Completely researchable units. Small in number. Add up to the total problem. Must be clearly tied to the interpretation of the data.
    13. 13. Hypotheses Hypotheses are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the solution of the problem. There is often a 1-1 correspondence between a subproblem and a hypothesis. Hypotheses can direct later research activities since they can help determine the nature of the research and methods applied.
    14. 14. Delimitations All research has limitations and thus certain work that will not be performed. The work that will not be undertaken is described as the delimitations of the research.
    15. 15. Definitions Define each technical term as it is used in relation to your research project. This helps remove significant ambiguity from the research itself by ensuring that reviewers, while they may not agree with your definitions, at least know what you’re talking about.
    16. 16. Assumptions Assumptions are those things that the researcher is taking for granted. For example: a given test instrument accurately and consistently measures the phenomenon in question. As a general rule you’re better off documenting an assumption than ignoring it. Overlooked assumptions provide a prime source of debate about a research project’s results.
    17. 17. Importance of the Study Many research problems have a kind of theoretical feel about them. Such projects often need to be justified: What is the research project’s practical value? Without this justification, it will prove difficult to convince others that the problem in question is worth study.
    18. 18. Research Proposals Research proposals are documents that describe the intended research including: Problem and subproblems. Hypotheses. Delimitations. Definitions. Assumptions. Importance. Literature review.
    19. 19. Literature Review A literature review is a necessity. Without this step, you won’t know if your problem has been solved or what related research is already underway. When performing the review: Start searching professional journals. Begin with the most recent articles you can find. Keep track of relevant articles in a bibliography. Don’t be discouraged if work on the topic is already underway.
    20. 20. Literature Review Pitfalls (1 of 2) Be very careful to check your sources when doing your literature review. Many trade magazines are not peer reviewed. Professional conferences and journals often have each article reviewed by multiple people before it is even recommended for publication. The IEEE and ACM digital libraries are good places to start looking for legitimate research.
    21. 21. Literature Review Pitfalls (2 of 2) The Internet can be a good source of information. It is also full of pseudo-science and poor research. Make sure you verify the claims of any documentation that has not been peer reviewed by other professionals in the computing industry.
    22. 22. Processes & Methodologies Research Process. Common Methodologies. Methodology Comparison.
    23. 23. Research Process Research is an extremely cyclic process. Later stages might necessitate a review of earlier work. This isn’t a weakness of the process but is part of the built-in error correction machinery. Because of the cyclic nature of research, it can be difficult to determine where to start and when to stop.
    24. 24. Step 1: A Question Is Raised A question occurs to or is posed to the researcher for which that researcher has no answer. This doesn’t mean that someone else doesn’t already have an answer. The question needs to be converted to an appropriate problem statement like that documented in a research proposal.
    25. 25. Step 2: Suggest Hypotheses The researcher generates intermediate hypotheses to describe a solution to the problem. This is at best a temporary solution since there is as yet no evidence to support either the acceptance or rejection of these hypotheses.
    26. 26. Step 3: Literature Review The available literature is reviewed to determine if there is already a solution to the problem. Existing solutions do not always explain new observations. The existing solution might require some revision or even be discarded.
    27. 27. Step 4: Literature Evaluation It’s possible that the literature review has yielded a solution to the proposed problem. This means that you haven’t really done research. On the other hand, if the literature review turns up nothing, then additional research activities are justified.
    28. 28. Step 5: Acquire Data The researcher now begins to gather data relating to the research problem. The means of data acquisition will often change based on the type of the research problem. This might entail only data gathering, but it could also require the creation of new measurement instruments.
    29. 29. Step 6: Data Analysis The data that were gathered in the previous step are analyzed as a first step in ascertaining their meaning. As before, the analysis of the data does not constitute research. This is basic number crunching.
    30. 30. Step 7: Data Interpretation The researcher interprets the newly analyzed data and suggests a conclusion. This can be difficult. Keep in mind that data analysis that suggests a correlation between two variables can’t automatically be interpreted as suggesting causality between those variables.
    31. 31. Step 8: Hypothesis Support The data will either support the hypotheses or they won’t. This may lead the researcher to cycle back to an earlier step in the process and begin again with a new hypothesis. This is one of the self-correcting mechanisms associated with the scientific method.
    32. 32. Common Methodologies Methodologies are high-level approaches to conducting research. The individual steps within the methodology might vary based on the research being performed. Two commonly used research methodologies: Quantitative. Qualitative.
    33. 33. Methodology Comparison Quantitative Explanation, prediction Test theories Known variables Large sample Standardized instruments Deductive Qualitative Explanation, description Build theories Unknown variables Small sample Observations, interviews Inductive
    34. 34. References 1. Leedy P. D. and Ormrod J. E., Practical Research: Planning and Design, 7th Edition. 2001.
    35. 35. Useful Websites
    36. 36. Questions?