Livestock & greenhouse gas emission [autosaved]

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Livestock's contribution for global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions especially on methane and nitrous oxide emissions. This presentation is a basic approach for a discussion about livestock related greenhouse gas emissions. Hope you would be able to get a brief but precise idea.

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Livestock & greenhouse gas emission [autosaved]

  1. 1. Story so far…  Past 37 years were warmer than the 20th century average  warmest years –1998- 2012  2012 was hottest  average surface temperature has increased more than 1°F since the late 1800s
  2. 2. Reason behind? 2 Livestock sector has a substantial GHG “hoofprint” causing global warming
  3. 3. I.W.A.S. Sujani Livestock& Greenhouse Gas Emission
  4. 4. Global Livestock Scenario….. -30 % total land area - 40 % global agriculture output -$ 1.4 trillion worth (Steinfield et al., 2006) 17 % energy 33 % protein (Herrero & Thornton, 2009). 4
  5. 5. Livelihood…… 1.3 billion people 600 million smallholder farmers (Thornton et al., 2009) 5
  6. 6. Livestock spp. Livestock population (Millions) 2007 2008 2009 Cattle 1357.8 1372.4 1382.2 Sheep 1105.6 1086.3 1071.3 Goat 836.9 864.4 868 Pig 921.9 938.0 941.2 Chicken 17878.6 18139.1 18554.8 Source : FAO (2010) World Livestock Statistics 6 29.1 % L. America 28.6 % Asia 18.6 % Africa Asia 52.9 % Asia 33.3 % Africa
  7. 7. Sri Lankan Livestock Industry: in a glance.. 7
  8. 8. Greenhouse Effect & GHG CO2 N2O CH4 O3 8
  9. 9. 9 Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Source Global Sri Lanka From Agric. Emissions 30 % from Livestock Ranasinghe, 2010
  10. 10. Present to future? 6.8 billions 9.15 billions Increase of demand for milk ~ 58 % and for meat ~ 73 % by 2050 (FAO, 2011c) 10 (Source: United Nations Population Division and Population Reference Bureau, 1993)
  11. 11. Livestock & GHG Emissions: Interesting Facts……….. 11
  12. 12. Livestock & GHG emissions 12Source: Steinfield et al., 2006
  13. 13. CO2 Deforestation CH4 N2O GHG 13
  14. 14. CO2 - 27 % N2O N2O - 29 % CH4 - 44 % 14 From total livestock related GHG emissions…. Source: IPCC 2007
  15. 15. Carbon Dioxide – CO2 CO2  CO2 level increment by 70% over 200 years  Major anthropogenic GHG – 2.7 billion tones  Produce through, - Livestock production processing - Transportation - Deforestation for pasture cultivation - Soil disturbance by over-grazing 15
  16. 16. 16 CH4
  17. 17. Ruminants or non-ruminants? Methane emissions per animal per year Source: Nasa’s Goddard Institute for Space Science 17
  18. 18. More on CH4 emissions 18 Region Milk and Meat energy share (%) CH4 emission (%) Eastern and Western Europe, North America, and the non-EU 46.3% 25.5 Asia, Africa, Latin America 47.1 69 O’Mara, F.P., 2011, Anim. Feed Sci. & Technol.
  19. 19. N2O  Manure management  Fertilizer application in pasture production  Livestock – 75% of Agric. N2O emissions  65 % anthropogenic N2O  GWP – 300 times as CO2 19
  20. 20. CH4 & N2O emission by livestock category and source in 2009 20
  21. 21. Emissions by species 21 65 %
  22. 22. Chicken egg & meat 0.6 GT Pig meat 0.7 GT Cattle milk & beef 4.3 GT 22 Buffalo milk & meat 0.6 GT Small ruminant milk & meat 0.4 GT Gerber et al., 2013
  23. 23. 23 To eat meat OR not to eat?
  24. 24. Mitigation Strategies 24
  25. 25. 25 On going projects and research…… International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Coordinated Research Project on ‘The use of enzymes and nuclear technologies to improve the utilization of fibrous feeds and reduce greenhouse gas emission from livestock’. The Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change - Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada group at Lethbridge Research Centre (Alberta)  International Livestock Research Institute Livestock Emissions and Abatement Research Network (LEARN) – Rumen microbial genomics network, Animal Selection, Genetics and Genomics Network, Feed and Nutrition Network and Database, Manure Management Network World Universities, Research Institutes, etc……………
  26. 26. Concluding remarks…..  Globally increasing demand for livestock products  Switching of livestock production systems to more intensive phase  Increasing emissions of GHG (CH4, CO2 and N2O)  Livestock shares larger proportion from agriculture emissions  Ruminant are more responsible than monogastrics  Mitigation strategies to be practiced Emissions can be cut-off by 30 % 26
  27. 27. References • Census and Statistics, 2012, Department of census and statistics, Sri Lanka. Retrieved on 25th April 2014 from http://www.statistics.gov.lk/agriculture/Livestock/LivestockStatistics.html • FAOSTAT, 2010, FAO Statistical Database, Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy, Retrieved on 23rd April 2014 from www.faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx. • Gerber, P.J., Steinfield, H., Henderson, B., Mottiet, A., Opio, C., Dijkman, J., Falcucci, A., & Tempio, G. 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock- A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. • IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007, Climate Change: Synthesis Report; Summary for Policymakers. Retrieved on 25th April 2014 from: http:// www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf. • O’Mara, F.P., 2011, ‘The significance of livestock as a contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions today and in the near future’, Anim. Feed Sci. & Technol., 166-167:7-15 • Ranasinghe, D.M.H.S.K., 2010, ‘Climate change mitigation – Sri Lanka’s perspective’, Proceedings of the 15th International Forestry and Environment Symposium, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. • Steinfeld, H., P. Gerber, T. Wassenaar, V. Castel, M. Rosales and C. de Haan, 2006, Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. • Thornton, P. K., Van de Steeg, J., Notenbaert, A., Herrero, M. 2009, ‘The impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: a review of what we know and what we need to know’, Agric. Syst. 101, 113–127. 27
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  29. 29. Life Cycle Assesment • Greenhouse gas emission from the different livestock categories can also be evaluated based on “Life Cycle Assessment” (LCA). This involves not only the farm-gate emissions but also an inventory of the material and energy inputs and the emissions associated with each stage of production. The LCA looks at the “cradle to grave” energy use (Guinee et al., 2001). This assessment could include; fertilizer production and transportation, crop production and transportation, feed additive manufacturing and transportation, animal production facilities, transportation to processing plants, processing, distribution to retail markets, consumer use of the product and disposal of packaging (Guinee et al., 2001). This can be a very complex process and researchers have used different boundaries when approaching the LCA for different livestock. 29
  30. 30. CO2 Equivalent • Carbon dioxide equivalent is a measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential. For example, the global warming potential for methane over 100 years is 21. This means that emissions of one million metric tons of methane is equivalent to emissions of 21 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. • Global Warming Potential- A measure of the total energy that a gas absorbs over a particular period of time (usually 100 years), compared to carbon dioxide. 30
  31. 31. Plant material (Cellulose, Hemicellulose) Glucose Acetate Butyrate Propionate Hydrogen poolHydrogen pool Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide Methane Bacterial Digestion + 2 + 4 - 2 Methanogenic Bacteria Action Others 31 Rumen CH4 Production Little amount in hind gut
  32. 32. 32 2 1 3 4 5 6

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