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TLE lessons

  1. 1. TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION GRADE 8
  2. 2. HOME MANAGEMENT AND CHILD CARE
  3. 3. LESSON 1: TheYouth: Their Relationship with Family , Friends and Members of Opposite Gender
  4. 4. With whom do you spend most of your free time; with FRIENDS or with FAMILY? Why?
  5. 5. FAMILY - Family is the basic unit of society. It is composed individuals living together harmoniously through the bonds of marriage, blood or adoption. - Our family were the closest people to us. It is the good relationship among the members that makes up our HOME.
  6. 6. YOU CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THE SUCCESS OF YOUR FAMILY IF YOU WILL CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING: 1. Be considerate to your parents. Appreciate the good deeds your parents are doing for you. Understand why they have to say “no” sometimes to your demands. 2. Be considerate to your younger brothers and sisters. You must take care of them and not to let them feel helpless.
  7. 7. YOU CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THE SUCCESS OF YOUR FAMILY IF YOU WILL CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING: 3. Be willing to help. You can motivate your younger brothers and sisters if they see you working. 4. Learn to give and take. The best way to live harmoniously with the members of the family is to learn to give and take.
  8. 8. FRIENDSHIP -Friendship is showing love, admiration and respect to the person close to you. It is important to include boys and girls among your friends. -This will give you opportunity to develop your personality, understand the opposite gender and prepare you in selecting the right mate in the future.
  9. 9. To develop good relationship with the family, friends and members of the opposite gender we must learn to love, cooperate and be considerate to them.
  10. 10. ACTIVITY: COMPLETE THE GIVEN STATEMENT 1. If there is no love in the home, we cannot call it as home because … 2. My circle of friends must include both boys and girls because…. 3. If my parents disapprove of my friends I will … 4. If my brother or sister who shares room with me used the things I treasure I will …
  11. 11. LESSON 2:
  12. 12. A healthy relationship with the opposite gender will help you build self-confidence and feeling of belonging.
  13. 13. POINTERS TO CONSIDER IN ORDER TO GET ALONG WITH FRIENDS 1. Be pleasant. 2. Show interest in other people. 3. Be considerate. 4. Be loyal. 5. Be sincere.
  14. 14. You must remember that when you want to go out with your friends, you must ask permission from your parents first and inform them ahead about your plans.
  15. 15. LESSON 3 DATING, COURTSHIP AND ENGAGEMENT
  16. 16. When you hear the word “date”, what comes onto your mind? Do you consider it as good or bad?
  17. 17. COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE Courtship  All forms of behavior by which one seeks to win the consent of another for marriage  Activities of men and women who are eligible for marriage, especially aimed at developing an affectionate heterosexual relationship.
  18. 18. STAGES OF COURTSHIP 1. Dating  It is an activity that provides opportunity for friendly relationship with the opposite sex.  It is the basis for selection of future companion in marriage. Kinds of Dating  Group Dating (outing, party)  Exclusive for Two (going to movies, parks, restaurant)
  19. 19. STAGES OF COURTSHIP 2. Going Steady  It is a period of exploration between two persons who like each other.  It is a period of testing  It is a period of discovering 3. Private understanding  It is a situation between couple where the man openly expresses his affection, i.e. love and the desire to be in her company; the woman likewise accepts the proposal of the man.
  20. 20. STAGES OF COURTSHIP 4. Engagement  It is the stage where the couple thinks of marriage and lives with each other permanently. 5. Marriage  A special contract of permanent union between a man and a woman entered into in accordance with the law for the establishment of conjugal and family life.
  21. 21. SOME RECOMMENDED ETIQUETTES WHILE DATING 1. Inform your parents about your date. Tell them what time you must be home. 2. If your date will pick you up at home, introduce him to your parents. 3. Plan your date well that both should agree on what you’re going to do. 4. Just be your self. 5. The man should pay for your expenses. 6. Appreciate your date. Thank him for his company. 7. Be home on time. 8. If you want to refuse an invitation, do it politely.
  22. 22. Dating must be a wholesome experience. One must behave and act accordingly during dates.
  23. 23. LESSON 4 FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSINGA LIFETIME PARTNER
  24. 24. SOME FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING YOUR MATE: 1. Age of marriage 2. Social background 3. Childhood happiness 4. Attitudes toward sex 5. Determination to succeed
  25. 25. Marriage is a lifetime commitment that requires planning and preparation. To ensure its success, the couples must be financially, emotionally, p hysically and socially
  26. 26. HOUSING AND FAMILY ECONOMICS
  27. 27. OBJECTIVES: At the end of the chapter, the students should be able to: 1. Appreciate the importance of decision-making in home management; 2. Explain the factors that influence home management; 3. Describe the factors that affect the use of time, energy and effort; 4. Learn the wise use of time, energy and effort; 5. Prepare a personal time and activity plan; 6. Enumerate the components or elements of a family budget; 7. Discuss the importance of family budget; 8. Prepare a personal and family expenditure according to one’s budget.
  28. 28. LESSON 1 KNOWING ABOUT HOME MANAGEMENT
  29. 29. FAMILY - The smallest unit of society. - The family live in a home, which serves as the family’s dwelling place. - Families are also organization by itself.
  30. 30. HOME MANAGEMENT 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Controlling 4. Evaluating the use of resources 5. Time management
  31. 31. IMPORTANCE OF GOALS - Goals is the ultimate fulfillment of your dreams. - It is what you want to be and what you want to do in the future. - Goal setting gives families long-term vision and short-term motivation.
  32. 32. BY SETTING GOALS, FAMILIES CAN: Increase motivation to achieve; Concentrate on what is important at the moment; Suffer less from stress and anxiety; and Take pride in the achievement of each step.
  33. 33. FORMULATING GOALS: 1. Express goal in a positive manner. 2. Be precise. 3. Set priorities.
  34. 34. MAKING GOALS AND THE FAMILY GOAL STATEMENT - Family should have a family goal statement. - Set your long –and-short term goals. - Vision and values that direct your lives.
  35. 35. - Like all families, your family needs to have a clear understanding of where you are going. When you follow a plan, each day will be in harmony with the vision you have of your life. -As a family, you should define your goal. As a family, decide together what you really want to accomplish.
  36. 36. CREATING THE FAMILY GOAL STATEMENT - In creating a Family Goal Statement, it is important that all family members participate. Every one should think of things they would like to include.
  37. 37. IMPORTANCE OF DECISION MAKING IN HOME MANAGEMENT Steps: 1. Recognize the problem or opportunity. 2. Analyze the situation. 3. Consider your goals. 4. Look for alternatives. 5. Consider the consequences. 6. Select the best alternatives. 7. Act upon the decision. 8. Accept the responsibility.
  38. 38. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE HOME MANAGEMENT 1. Parental Values. 2. Family Activities. 3. Household Budget. 4. Family Priorities. 5. Resources and Facilities Available. 6. External Conditions.
  39. 39. LESSON 2 Managing One’s Time and Energy
  40. 40. It is important to family members of the family to use time, effort, and energy efficiently. Several factors influence the productive use of time and energy, which people should be made aware of so as accomplish the goal of the family effectively.
  41. 41. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE USE OF TIME, EFFORT, AND ENERGY: 1. Resources Available 2. Nature of Tasks 3. Size of the Family 4. Age and Composition of Family
  42. 42. Families should carefully plan their use of time, effort, and energy taking into consideration of various factors that affect their use of it. To make sure that the family manages time and energy well, it has to prepare a time and activity plan.
  43. 43. SOME GUIDE QUESTIONS TO DETERMINE IF YOU ARE USING THE TIME AND ENERGY EFFICIENTLY AND CAN BE USE AS A BASIS FOR THE TIME PLAN: 1. How do you spend your time in a day? 2. What are my priorities? Am I spending too much time in one activity to the neglect of other important tasks? 3. Are my schedules for different activities balanced? 4. Do the members of the family share responsibilities? 5. Do we have some leisure activities for us to relax?
  44. 44. COMPLETE THE TABLE BY INDICATING HOW MANY HOURS OR MINUTES SHOULD BE ALLOTTED PER DAY FOR THE GIVEN ACTIVITY ACTIVITY HOURS/MINS TO BE ALLOTED MAKING ASSIGNMENTS READING A BOOK SLEEPING ORGANIZING THINGS WASHING DISHES IRONING CLOTHES WRITING SOMETHING TAKING WITH PARENTS PLAYING USING YOUR COMPUTER
  45. 45. LESSON 3 Personal and Family Budget
  46. 46. THE FAMILY BUDGET One other important components of household is the family budget. This income is used by the family for the various expenses needed for living such as the food, clothing, shelter, repairs, education, health care, emergency expenses and others.
  47. 47. IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY BUDGET A budget is a plan for allocating resources. It is a plan or strategy on how the family income should be spent. Families should earn more than they spent. This is important so that the family will not be financially bankrupt and so that the family can save for future necessities.
  48. 48. A FAMILY BUDGET IS MUCH DIFFERENT FROM A PERSONAL BUDGET IN SEVERAL WAYS:  You are managing the money for two or more persons.  Additional expenses must be accounted for.  The mismanagement of funds affects not only one person but an entire household.  A greater degree of communication and coordination is required to track spending from multiple resources.
  49. 49. TIPS FOR BUDGETING FOR THE FAMILY 1. Set your family priorities. 2. List down your goals. 3. Work towards your goals 4. Evaluate your family’s goals and budget
  50. 50. THE COMPONENTS OF A FAMILY BUDGET  Food  Clothing  Car and Transportation Expenses  Shelter Expenses  Education Expenses  Medical and Dental Expenses  Savings  Installment payments  Pocket money  Recreation  Donations  Insurance  Taxes
  51. 51. LESSON 4 Preparing Budgets
  52. 52. Making an effective family budget is critical in balancing the needs of the family with available resources. It is good idea to re-evaluate how effective that system is and look for ways to improve your current situation.
  53. 53. PREPARING A PERSONAL AND FAMILY EXPENDITURE ACCORDING TO ONE’S BUDGET Determine your true income. Determine what must be paid. Paying off debts. Stop spending needlessly.
  54. 54. By having a family budget, one can know where it is spending more or less, and plan the next budget based on the previous one. You make daily, weekly, or monthly depending on the day/s the income is received or earned.
  55. 55. NUTRITION
  56. 56. NUTRIENTS AND MEAL PREPARATION
  57. 57. In preparing meal, it is best to know what nutrients they provide. This ensures that each member of the family gets the nutrients they need according to their Recommended Daily Allowance.
  58. 58. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PLANNING MEALS 1. Get in all vitamins and minerals you need each and every day. 2. You spend less time in the grocery store. 3. Map all things out ahead of time.
  59. 59. PLANNING DISHES FOR LUNCH/DINNER AND SPECIAL OCCASIONS
  60. 60. Meal planning can relieve a lot of stress, especially when you are in the grocery store shopping. You will have everything you all planned out, so you will know exact what you need to get the meals you have planned.
  61. 61. In the old days, people prepared their meals well. They made sure that a nutritious and delicious meal will be served. Presently, meal preparation is beginning to be a lost art. Because of the fast pace of our modern world, people are also into fast eating.
  62. 62. IMPORTANCE OF MEAL PREPARATION 1. They make sure that adequate nutrition is provided to the members of the family; 2. They make sure that the resources such as food, money, supplies, fuel, and even time and energy are maximized; and 3. They make sure that a variety of meals are served.
  63. 63. ASSIGNMENT Prepare meals for one week meal plan.
  64. 64. UNIT II AGRICULTURE AND FISHERY ARTS
  65. 65. PLANT PRODUCTION
  66. 66. Fruit Tree Production
  67. 67. IMPORTANCE OF FRUIT TREE PRODUCTION - Our country is abundant with plants and fruit trees. Young people should learn how to propagate plants and trees so as to contribute on their own on the continuation of these wealth that are very necessary for our living. - Production of fruit trees is not very difficult, However, you must have knowledge of the process, as well as dedication, hard work, and patience to be successful in this work.
  68. 68. FRUIT TREES THAT ARE PRODUCTIVELY GROWN IN THE LOCALITY  Mango  Citrus  Durian  Guyabano  Lanzones  Jackfruit  Guava  Mangosteen  Cashew  Banana  Pineapple  Papaya
  69. 69. IMPORTANCE OF WATER, SOIL, AND CLIMATE TO PLANT GROWTH -Water is important for plants just it is important for all living creatures on the planet. Plants can make virtually everything they need from water and air with a few nutrients that those roots absorb from the soil. The plant uses sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The plants uses the hydrogen to make sugar from carbon dioxide in the air. Both plants and people use oxygen in the air to burn sugar and make energy to live.
  70. 70. -Soil is the primary source of water and nutrients from the plants. Soil also provides the physical anchor so that plants can stand upright. Roots of plants absorbs phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, and other nutrients form the soil.
  71. 71. -Climate also has a crucial role in the development of plants. Trees and plants grow in different climatic conditions such as high temperature, low temperature, sunshine, rainfall, humidity and wind.
  72. 72. PROPER GERMINATION OF SEEDS The following are common ways of germinating seeds: 1. Stratification – This is done by placing the seeds between layers of moist sand. 2. Freezing – This method is used for fruits with many seeds such as kaimito, and mabolo. 3. Use of seedbeds – To form the seedbed, cultivate a mound of soil and use a stick to furrows for the seed. Sprinkle with water before covering the sowed seeds. 4. Use of plastic cans – This is done by puncturing holes at the bottom of cans to be used.
  73. 73. WAYS OF PREVENTING AND CONTROLLING PEST AND DISEASES  Before fruit trees are planted, home fruit growers should be aware of the time and work they entail and must be willing to care them properly.  Sanitation includes pruning and cleaning up twigs and branches and fruit that drops to the ground unused.  Proper irrigation and fertilization maintain tree health and reduce stress.  Good weed control beneath fruit trees reduces habitat fro cutworms and other pest.
  74. 74. COMMON PLANTS AND TREES PESTS:  Moths – Adults moths first emerge in May by a second generation and occasionally a third as the summer progress. After mating, the female moth lays eggs on the developing fruit.  Aphids – These soft- bodied insects infest the fruit by sucking the plant sap. Because of this, the leaves curl, further weakening the plant.  Fruit Fly – Ripe fruits on tress are the ones infested by this pest. It lays its eggs on the fruit, and thus damages them.
  75. 75.  Beetles – They usually attack injured or weakened woody plants.  Mites – small and eight- legged pest that attacks various trees and crops and give a lot of damage.  Scale Insects – These insects attach themselves to plant and tree surface, creating a form that looks like scales.
  76. 76. PLANT DISEASES:  Cercospora leaf spot – All kind os crops are risk with this disease. If plants are affected, they will display circular, yellowish brown lesions.  Root rot – Caused by nematodes.  Branch felt Disease – This is a common disease during periods of warm and moist climate, especially affecting mango trees.
  77. 77. TO PREVENT AND CONTROL THESE PEST AND DISEASES: 1. Clean your garden regularly. 2. Do crop Rotation. 3. Use disease-resistant varieties. 4. Use natural insecticides
  78. 78. TO PERFORM PROPER HARVESTING: 1. Wear proper clothing and a hat. 2. Adjust the bucket to the size that will accommodate a large number of fruits. 3. Check all ladders before using them 4. Carefully set ladders at the proper angle. 5. Keep your body centered on the ladder. 6. Handle fruits like eggs. 7. Get your hands in the buckets to prevent bruising them. 8. Pick a tree from the bottom up. 9. Release the fruit carefully and slowly into the bulk bin. 10. Report all accidents and problems to the grower.
  79. 79. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
  80. 80. -Many people are finding ways to earn money in many ways. One of the ways they can do this to raise animals. Pigs are one of the best animals to raise. They grow fast and feed on left over foods. However, some hard work and sacrifice that need to be made for this endeavor.
  81. 81. SELECTING PIG SOWS 1. The gilt should have well-developed udder with a minimum of six pairs of properly spaced function teats. 2. A long body is more desirable in sows because it provides more space for udder development. 3. The body should uniform width from front to rear. 4. Good development of the ham, and shoulder is required of a breeding animal. 5. Must have sound and well-placed feet and legs. 6. Make it a point to select the biggest animals within a litter.
  82. 82. SELECTING PIG SOWS 7. Female breeders should come from a litter of eight or more good-sized piglets with high survivability. 8. Do not keep gilts that come from sows in which agalacita has been removed. 9. Select vigorous and hardy pigs from a healty litter in a herd raised under good swine sanitation.
  83. 83. SELECTION OF A BOAR 1. Masculinity, both in appearance and in action. 2. The primary sex organ should be clearly visible and be well- developed. 3. Select a boar which has been proven and tested for the boars with traits that can overcome the defects of the herd.

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