Borrelia

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Borrelia

  1. 1. BORRELIA G.HARIPRASAD M.Sc.,(Med micro),M.phil., Lecturer in Microbiology Department of Microbiology Thoothukudi Govt. Medical College Thoothukudi
  2. 2. Spirochaete with wide-opened coils Stain easily with ordinary stains i.e. Gram stain Gram negative spiral rods Some borrelia occur as mouth commensals
  3. 3. Species of medical concern <ul><li>Borrelia recurrentis </li></ul><ul><li>Causes Relapsing fever </li></ul><ul><li>Borrelia vincentii </li></ul><ul><li>Causes Vincent’s angina </li></ul><ul><li>Borrelia burgdorferi </li></ul><ul><li>Causes Lyme disease </li></ul>
  4. 4. Relapsing fever <ul><li>Arthropod-borne infection </li></ul><ul><li>Implicated arthropod </li></ul><ul><li>Body Louse </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks </li></ul>TICK BODY LOUSE
  5. 5. Pathogenesis <ul><li>Infection occur when infected arthropod bites </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation period – 2-10 days </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent fever (relapses) – due to antigenic variation </li></ul><ul><li>3-10 relapses can occur </li></ul><ul><li>Spleenomegaly common </li></ul>
  6. 6. Laboratory diagnosis <ul><li>Blood can be examined for borrelia by the following methods </li></ul><ul><li>Dark ground microscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Giemsa or Leishman stain </li></ul><ul><li>Culture & serology </li></ul><ul><li>Animal inoculation </li></ul>
  7. 7. TREATMENT <ul><li>Tetracyclin </li></ul><ul><li>Chloramphenicol </li></ul><ul><li>Pencillin </li></ul><ul><li>Erythromycin </li></ul>Prophylaxis Control of vectors ( louse and tick) Maintenance of good personal hygiene
  8. 8. Vincent’s angina <ul><li>Borrelia vincentii cause Vincent’s angina in association with fusiform bacilli (fusobacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>This symbiotic relationship called fusospirochaetosis </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposing factor </li></ul><ul><li>Poor oral hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Immunosuppression </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lab diagnosis <ul><li>Exudate from gingival lesions </li></ul><ul><li>Direct demonstration: </li></ul><ul><li>Dark ground microscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Gram stain – shows </li></ul><ul><li>Spirochaetes </li></ul><ul><li>fusiform bacilli(Gram -ve rods) </li></ul>Fusiform rods
  10. 10. CULTURE <ul><li>Serum enriched media </li></ul><ul><li>Incubated in anaerobic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>Metronidazole </li></ul>
  11. 11. LYME DISEASE <ul><li>Causative agent: </li></ul><ul><li>Borrelia burgdorferi </li></ul>First case identified in Lyme, USA – hence the name “Lyme disease”
  12. 12. DEER - RESERVOIR IXODID TICK Tick gets borrelia when feed deer’s blood BORRELIA
  13. 13. PATHOGENICITY
  14. 14. Erythema migrans – forms where tick bites TICK FEEDING ON HUMAN
  15. 15. DISSEMINATED INFECTION <ul><li>Enters blood to cause symptoms like </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Myalgia </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphadenopathy </li></ul>
  16. 16. PERSISTENT INFECTION <ul><li>Develops if infection persist for years </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms like </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Polyneuropathy </li></ul><ul><li>Encephalopathy </li></ul>
  17. 17. CLINICAL MANIFESTATION
  18. 18. Laboratory diagnosis BLOOD SMEAR EXAMINATION AFTER GIEMSA STAINING DARK FIELD MICROSCOPY
  19. 19. FONTANA’S STAIN
  20. 20. Fluorescent microscopy Borrelia-specific antibody tagged with fluorescent dyes are added If borrelia binds with such antibodies, they can fluoresce like this!!!!!!!!!
  21. 21. CULTURE <ul><li>Barbour-stoenner Kelly’s (BSK) medium </li></ul><ul><li>Microaerophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation for two weeks or more. </li></ul>
  22. 22. TREATMENT <ul><li>Tetracycline </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>Erythromycin </li></ul>NO VACCINES !!!!!!!!!!!!

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