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Speech communities
 

Speech communities

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    Speech communities Speech communities Presentation Transcript

    • SpeechCommunities
      Presentators: Gabriela, Tatiana, Sascha
      Mei-6 Sociolinguistics
    • Language is both an individual possession and social possession.
      Speech community is hard to define it because there is not a true definition of it.
      The kind of group that sociolinguists attempt to study is called Speech Community.
      Speech Communities
    • Definitions
      Sociolinguistics: it is the study of language used within or among of speakers.
      Group: It must have at least 2 members
      There are different purposes that they get together.
      Social
      Religious
      Political
      Cultural
      Stereotype: to draw conclusions about people on the basis of what we observe.
    • Speech communities
      Characteristics
      Group differentiation from, other speakers. Examples: social, cultural, ethnic.
      Communities are defined with the relationship with other communities.
    • Each person speaks their own “typical” way according to its place of origin or specific speech community.
      Rosen claims that cities cannot be thought of as a linguistic patchwork maps, ghetto after ghetto because: 1. languages and dialects have no simple geographical distribution and 2. because interaction between them blurs whatever boundaries might be drawn .
       
      IntersectingCommunities
    • Dialects and languages are beginning to influence each other.
      London community in some sences but not in others. Neither a single speech community even though it has 300 languages or more . it{s too big and fragmented .
      It is to difficult to relate the concept of speech community directly to language or languages spoken. 
      Each residential community has its unique multilingual mix and no language equates in distribution to a specific residential community.
    • The concept of SC is less useful than what is expected and we should be instead referring to group as any set of individuals united for a common end.
      A person can belong to many different groups at any given time depending on the particular ends in view. 
      The book gives an illustration to this approach, I’ll explain it with the case of my sister.
      Laura is a tica living in GotemborgSweden . married to a Swedish man she and Per speak mostly English and Swedish switching and mixing both from time to time. My sister had to learn Swedish with an intense course in Sweden. She is an inmigrant from Costa Rica. I guess she has an accent, she doesn’t speak Swedish that well. She uses Swedish in the hospital, as well as English switching from time to time and from one group to another.
    • Each member of a community has a repertoire of social identities that are each one in a given context is associated with a number of nonverbal and verbal forms of expression.
      Speakers participate in various communities of practice an aggregate of people who come together around mutual engagements in some common endeavor. It is also its members and what they are doing to make them a community. Ex workers in a factory, extended family, a classroom.
      There is not a clear way on how to define how individuals can classify themselves and speakers are creating and recreating social identities. So, it is impossible to predict the group or community he or she will consider itself to belong in a particular moment. This group will change according to situation .
    • Each individual is a member of many different groups. People get interested to be identified with one groups members today and with others the next. They may or not overlap. One of the consequences is linguistic variation: people don’t speak alike.
      Neither in the same way on every occasion. People have a need to be seen as the same as certain other people on some occasions and as different from them on others.
    • Intensity of variousrelationships
      frequency/interactions
      Dense network: peopleyouknow and interactwithalsoknow and interactwithoneanother
      Multiplex: tiedtogether in a network
      Strong social cohesion
      Feelings of solidarity
      Encouragementtoidentifywithothers
      Networking and Repertiors
    • Network Relationships
      A
      A
      B
      E
      E
      B
      C
      D
      C
      D
      A
      B
      E
      C
      D
    • Linguisticbehavior
      Muchlinguisticbehaviorseems explicable in terms of networkstructure.
      (Importantwithinthenetworkstructure: youwillfeeltheneedtogiveopinions and communicate ideas.)
      Linguisticchoices and social bonding: particular sound, wordsorexpressions
      OPEN and CLOSEDnetworks
      Itslinguisticeffectisintimatelyrelatedtothetype of community(smalltownorlargecity, SouthernorNorthern)
    • open network: A network which provides open access to its users. Information is often new and of importance, a (serious) blogger and visitors of blog.
      closed network: mostly strong ties. Information that flows in those networks tends to be redundant and inefficient. Facebook.
      Open and Closed
      Networks
    • SpeechRepertoires
      Verbal repertoire
      Thetotality of linguisticformsemployed in a sociallysignificantinteraction.(vocabulary, grammar)
      Speechrepertoire
      Linguisticvarietiesusedby a speechcommunity
    • It is important to remember that group is a relative concept with respect to speech community. Also that an individual belongs to various speech communities, at the same time, but he/she will identify with only one of them.
      There are manydefinitionsforspeechcommunitywhich are alldifferent: too simple ortocomplex.
      Conclusions
    • Thankyou!