Women & work rev

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Women & work rev

  1. 1. Women & Work
  2. 2. Brief history of women’s labor  Pre-industrial revolution, work is inside the home, self-sustaining  Industrial revolution (1800’s), private/public sphere  Middle-upper class: Cult of True Womanhood  Middle-lower class: “Second Shifts”
  3. 3. History Continued…  World War II—unprecedented labor participation
  4. 4. Women’s Labor Force Participation  ¾ of women work full time  Women constitute 46.8% of labor force  Gender Wage Gap  Occupational Segregation by Gender  Horizontal segregation  “Pink-Collar” jobs  Vertical segregation
  5. 5. Glass Ceiling  In 2006, 10 Fortune 500 companies (2 %) had women CEOs or presidents
  6. 6. Globalization & the economy  Globalization:  New technologies  Shift from manufacturing to service-sector work  Transnational Organizations (e.g., World Bank, International Monetary Fund)  “military-industrial complex”
  7. 7. Household Labor  Marxist analysis of women’s work in the home  Capitalism 101: workers (proletariat), surplus value, accumulated wealth  “reproduce the labor power”  “wages for housework”
  8. 8. Legalities  Equal Pay Act 1963  Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964  Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (early 1970s)  Court interpretations  Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act 2009
  9. 9. Legalities: Sexual Harassment  1986 Supreme Court: Sexual Harassment is form of sex discrimination  Quid Pro Quo  Hostile Work Environment
  10. 10. Legalities  Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1968)  Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990
  11. 11. Affirmative Action  When applicants have equal merits/assets, affirmative action policies encourage the hiring of women and people of color  Myth of meritocracy  Benefits of Affirmative Action
  12. 12. Welfare  Image of the “welfare queen”  The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996  Temporary Assistance to Needy Families  5 year limit on assistance  Work required
  13. 13. Welfare  Child care  Domestic violence  Disability  Feminization of poverty  Living wage  Education  Health insurance

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