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Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband
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Ipv6 and lte futuristic technology for wireless broadband

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  • 1. Research Paper IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband Submitting To6th International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies By V.Sasank Chaitanya Kumar B.Tech Network Engineer Reliance Communications Ltd. Under the Guidance of Abhay Kumar Shukla Research Scholar General Manager Reliance Communications Ltd.
  • 2. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband Table of ContentsSr. No. Contents Page No. 1 Abstract 2 Introduction 2 3 3 4 Problem Statement Methodology of the Study 4.1.1 A brief history of the Flow Label 4.2.1 IPV6 Flow Label 4.2.2 The Flow Label and Quality of Service 4.2.3 IPv6 Flow Label Specification 4 4.2.4 IPV6 Flow Label Field description 5-20 4.2.5 End-to-End QoS Mechanism 4.3.1 LTE evolution 4.3.2 LTE Architecture 4.4 IPV6 and LTE: Putting the pieces together 4.5 The Expected graph’s of proposed Flow label Key Findings and Conclusion 5 21 6 Related work and Comparisons 22 7 References 23 1|Page
  • 3. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband 1. AbstractWith the exponential rise in the number of multimedia applications available, the best-effort serviceprovided by the Internet today is insufficient. Researchers have been working on new architectures likethe Next Generation Network (NGN) which, by definition, will ensure Quality of Service (QoS) in an all-IP based network.IPv6 as IP next generation is the successor to IPv4. IPv6 solves the shortcomings problem of IPv4address, Flow label field in IPv6 packet header provides an efficient way for packet marking, flowidentification, and flow state lookup. This paper provides the design for IPv6 Flow Label field it will explain the requirements for IPv6source node labeling flows, IPv6 nodes forwarding labeled packets etc… and this paper further providesto use the power of LTE (Long Term Evolution) as an NSP (Network Service Provider) using IPv6, Itgives basic terminologies, key concepts, short introduction to such definitions / Specifications /standards and Test Setups used to run such complex communication networks.Finally, I provide the estimated results which show the performance of the proposed mechanism ismaintained during network congestion using Flow Label (FL) field of IPV6. 2|Page
  • 4. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband 2. IntroductionThe traditional Internet as designed in the early 1970s was aimed primarily for packet transmission overa switched network. Delay, latency, bandwidth, packet loss and jitter on the networks were factors thatwere not considered to be of much importance when the initial simple networks were built. Due to thecomplexity of present day applications and communication needs, the above factors which influence thequality of communications bear a lot of significance. Various efforts have been made is the past to introduce mechanisms to request, control and provide forthe requested quality of service over the Internet. In the context of this work Quality of Service refers tothe ability of the network provider or the network by itself to provide certain guarantees for thetransmission of the requestors’ traffic. This would eventually change the traditional Internets’ best-effortservice model to a controlled and regulated effort service model. Multimedia applications on the Internet like triple play services( VoIP and Video on Demand ) require guaranteed QoS which the current best-effort service cannot provide . IPv4 (Internet Protocol) has nopolicing or flow control mechanisms.IPv6 has been in the design and testing for many years, now when the Internet designers realized that thecommunity will run out of IP addresses soon under IPv4. IPv6 is a solution as it provides 2128 differentIP addresses which are way more than ever required. Another point to consider is that, in IPv4, featuresto provide labeling of packets have not been implemented. The IPv6 header has two fields, TC and FL,which can be used to make QoS requests and get accurate responses. This results in reduction inprocessing time and routing is also simplified.Seamless connectivity to the Internet with guaranteed QoS is the demand of today. Any user who isfixed or mobile should be able to access the Internet irrespective of speed and location LTE (Long TermEvolution) is a telecommunications technology that provides wireless internet access. It is a packet-based i.e. an end-to-end all-IP technology which ensures that QoS is guaranteed. Keywords: IPV6, Flow Label, End-to-End QoS and LTE. 3|Page
  • 5. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband 3. Problem StatementTraditionally, flow classifiers have been based on the 5-tuple of the source and destination addresses,ports, and the transport protocol type (IPV4). The usage of the 3-tuple of the Flow Label and the Sourceand Destination Address fields enables efficient IPv6 flow classification.Various proposals have been made to the IETF to define the 20 bits of the flow label field in the IPv6header. These proposals have been made in the form of IETF drafts which are reviewed by the IETFIPv6 working group. The IETF IPv6 working group reviews the drafts and if the proposals meet thecriteria, then they are converted to IETF standards. So far none of the proposals have been accepted forstandardization by the IETF.This paper specifies the IPv6 Flow Label field and the requirements for IPv6 nodes labeling flows, IPv6nodes forwarding labeled packets, and flow state establishment methods.There has been a rapid increase in the use of data carried by cellular services, and this increase will onlybecome larger in what has been termed the "data explosion". To cater for this and the increased demandsfor increased data transmission speeds and lower latency, further development of cellular technologyhave been required.The UMTS cellular technology upgrade has been dubbed LTE - Long Term Evolution. The idea is that3G LTE will enable much higher speeds to be achieved along with much lower packet latency (agrowing requirement for many services these days), and that 3GPP LTE will enable cellularcommunications services to move forward to meet the needs for cellular technology.This paper gives short introduction to LTE and discuss its definitions / Specifications / standards, TestSetups and data flow in this communication technology. 4|Page
  • 6. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband 4. Methodology of the Study 4.1.1 A Brief History of the Flow LabelThe original proposal for a flow label has been attributed to Dave Clark [Deering93], who proposed thatit should contain a pseudorandom value. A Flow Label field was included in the packet header duringthe preliminary design of IPv6, which followed an intense period of debate about several competingproposals. The final choice was made in 1994 [RFC1752]. In particular, the IETF rejected aProposal known as the Common Architecture for Next Generation Internet Protocol (CATNIP)[RFC1707], which included so-called ’cache handles’ to identify the next hop in high-performancerouters. Thus, CATNIP introduced the notion of a header field that would be share by all packetsbelonging to a flow, to control packet forwarding on a hop-by-hop basis. We recognize this today as aprecursor of the MPLS label [RFC3031].The IETF decided instead to develop a proposal known as the Simple Internet Protocol plus (SIPP)[RFC1710] into IP version 6. SIPP included "labeling of packets belonging to particular traffic ’flows’for which the sender requests special handling, such as non-default quality of service or ’real-time’service" [RFC1710]. In 1994, this used a 28-bit Flow Label field. In 1995, it was down to 24 bits[RFC1883], and it was finally reduced to 20 bits [RFC2460] to accommodate the IPv6 Traffic Class,which is fully compatible with the IPv4 Type of Service byte.There was considerable debate in the IETF about the very purpose of the flow label. Was it to be ahandle for fast switching, as in CATNIP, or was it to be meaningful to applications and used tospecify quality of service? Must it be set by the sending host, or could it be set by routers? Could it bemodified en route, or must it be delivered with no change?Because of these uncertainties, and more urgent work, the flow label was consistently ignored byimplementers, and today is set to zero in almost every IPv6 packet. In fact, [RFC2460] defined it as 5|Page
  • 7. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband"experimental and subject to change". There was considerable preliminary work, such as [Metzler00],[Conta01a], [Conta01b], and [Hagino01]. The ensuing proposed standard "IPv6 Flow LabelSpecification" (RFC 3697) [RFC3697] intended to clarify this situation by providing precise boundaryconditions for use of the flow label. However, this has not proved successful in promoting use of theflow label in practice, as a result of which 20 bits are unused in every IPv6 packet header.4.2.1 IPv6 Flow Label:The IPv6 header includes a 20 bit field called the Flow Label field which adds flow labeling capabilityfor IPv6. The flow label field enables an IPv6 enabled host to label a sequence of packets for which thehost requests special handling by the IPv6 routers [RFC2460]. This enables the host to request non-default quality of service from the IPv6 network Fig (1): The above figure shows packet header differences between IPV4 packet and IPV6 packet 4.2.2 The Flow Label and Quality of ServiceDevelopments in high-speed switch design, and the success of MPLS, have largely obviatedconsideration of the flow label for high-speed switching. Thus, although various use cases for the flowlabel have been proposed, most of them assume that it should be used principally to support theprovision of quality of service (QoS). For many years, it has been recognized that real-time Internet 6|Page
  • 8. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadbandtraffic requires a different QoS from general data traffic, and this remains true in the era of networkneutrality. Thus, an alternative to uniform best-effort service is needed, requiring packets to beClassified as belonging to a particular class of service or flow. Currently, this leads to a layer violationproblem, since a 5-tuple is often used to classify each packet. The 5-tuple includes source anddestination addresses, port numbers, and the transport protocol type, so when we want to forward orprocess packets, we need to extract information from the layer above IP. This may be impossiblewhen packets are encrypted such that port numbers are hidden, or when packets are fragmented, so thelayer violation is not an academic concern. The flow label, being exempt from IPSec encryption andbeing replicated in packet fragments, avoids this difficulty. It has therefore attracted attention from thedesigners of new approaches to QoS. 4.2.3 IPv6 Flow Label SpecificationStandardized specification for the IPv6 flow label field. A summary of the specification as listed in[RFC3697][RFC 6437] [RFC6294]is as follows :1. The IPv6 20 bit flow label field is used by a source to label packets of a flow2. Packets not belonging to any flow are labeled with a flow label value of zero3. The triplet value of the Flow Label, Source Address, and Destination Address fields is used by thepacket classifiers to identify a particular packets’ flow4. The Flow Label value set by the source MUST be delivered unchanged to the destination node(s).5. The performance of the IPv6 routers should not depend on the distribution of the flow label valuesand no mathematical or other properties should be assumed based on the flow label values6. The flow State lifetime is 120 seconds and packets arriving with the same flow label value after120 seconds should not be treated as belonging to the same old flow unless either the flow state has beenexplicitly refreshed within the lifetime duration or the duration is explicitly specified to be a value otherthan 120 seconds 7|Page
  • 9. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband7. An IPv6 node that is not participating in the flow-specific treatment process must ignore the flowlabel field when receiving or forwarding a packet8. Accidental Flow Label value reuse must be avoided by providing for sequential or pseudo-randomgeneration of new flow values9. In case of multicast sessions the destination may need to specify the Flow Label value to be used bythe sources 4.2.4 IPV6 Flow Label Field descriptionAfter reading all the given specifications in RFC’s Firstly, 20-bit flow label field in the IPv6 packetheader is divided into three parts detailed list as shown in figure 2. The first bit Label Flag (LF) set to 1if flow label used. The 2-bit Label Type (LT) is the type of flow label. The rest of 17-bit Label Number(LN) is randomly generated by source for flow identification. LF(1) LT (2) LN(17) Fig. 2: The proposed flow label field in IPv6 packet header LF (Flow Label), LT (Label Type), LN-(Label number) Table 1: the above table Describes the fields of Flow Label 8|Page
  • 10. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband4.2.5 End-to-End QoS MechanismSome routers supporting flow label and DiffServ function (with Flow-Label-and- DiffServ capable)have assumed according to the network topology show below.Fig (3): The above figure shows proposed E-2-E architecture to explain the functionality of Flow LabelLet us assume there should be a marking table at each and every router In the network to maintain theflow I.E., FLMT (Flow Label Marking Table) records Permit, 3- tuple of the flow label and the sourceand destination address, and TOS data for different kind of flow classification.We will consider one example to explain the operation of Flow Label and its field’s. Let us assume useron PC-0 wants to communicate with the user on PC-3. 9|Page
  • 11. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless BroadbandInitially PC-0 generates a random number (LN), PC-0 generates a random number based onapplication and port number .Now PC-0 will frame a Flow Label for connection request with theremote host as [LF-1, LN-01, LN-RAND] using this fields upper layer protocol stack sends a packetto Edge router(Gate way). Edge router will open IP packet see the destination address, if the routerhas forwarding route, router will consider packet it will open Flow label field refer LN, if LN isunique router will make a record of 3-tuple and TOS in FLMT. If not router will reply host (PC-0)with an ICMP message requesting new LN for request message. Finally Edge router check’s LF,LTand LN of Flow Label field like gate way. Now it will select next hop [with Flow- Label-and-DiffServ capable] from the routing table.When a core router in network receives an IP packet it will create an entry in a FLMT and forwardthe packet finally packet reaches PC-3.Now PC-3 on other side of the network receive a packet and modify the Flow Label sends a permitresponse with LF-1, LT-01 and LN-RAND along the same path to PC-0. It completes theauthentication process.A Data connection establishes after permitting the request from remote end. PC-0 will modify itsFL with LF-1, LT-10 and LN-RAND to deliver the data and insert the related TOS to the trafficclass field of IPV6 header and sends the packet. When an Edge router receives an IP packet, Routerwill open IP packet and make a recursive look up with FLMT, classify the packet and forward thepacket till end.Once the forwarding of data is completed by source, PC-0 will modify its Flow label value to LF-1,LT-11and LN-RAND. And send the packet to Edge router. Now gate way (Edge router) and candelete the matching LN entry respectively.The proposed mechanism presented in this paper improves the end-to-end QOS provision and alsoreduces the load on routers. 10 | P a g e
  • 12. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband 4.3 Long Term Evolution (LTE)4.3.1 LTE evolutionAlthough there are major step changes between LTE and its 3G predecessors, it is nevertheless lookedupon as an evolution of the UMTS / 3GPP 3G standards. Although it uses a different form of radiointerface, using OFDMA / SC-FDMA instead of CDMA, there are many similarities with the earlierforms of 3G architecture and there is scope for much re-use.LTE can be seen for provide a further evolution of functionality, increased speeds and general improvedperformance. Parameters WCDMA HSPA HSPA+ LTE (UMTS) HSDPA / HSUPAMax downlink speed 384 k 14 M 28 M 100MbpsMax uplink speed 128 k 5.7 M 11 M 50 MbpsLatency 150 ms 100 ms 50ms (max) ~10 msround trip timeapprox3GPP releases Rel 99/4 Rel 5 / 6 Rel 7 Rel 8Approx years of initial roll 2003 / 4 2005 / 6 HSDPA 2008 / 9 2009 / 10out 2007 / 8 HSUPAAccess methodology CDMA CDMA CDMA OFDMA / SC-FDMA Table (2) Comparison with previous technologiesIn addition to this, LTE is an all IP based network, supporting both IPv4 and IPv6. There is also no basicprovision for voice, although this can be carried as VoIP. 11 | P a g e
  • 13. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband4.3.2 LTE Architecture Figure (4): the above figure shows LTE generalized architecture LTE Network ElementsLTE network comprises of two main segments.1. LTE EUTRAN2. LTE-SAE Evolved Packet Core. 12 | P a g e
  • 14. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless BroadbandLTE EUTRAN: -EUTRAN consists of eNB.EUTRAN is responsible for complete radio management in LTE. When UE comes up eNB isresponsible for Radio Resource Management, i.e it shall do the radio bearer control, radio admissioncontrol, allocation of uplink and downlink to UE etc. When a packet from UE arrives to eNB, eNB shallcompress the IP header and encrypt the data stream. It is also responsible for adding a GTP-U header tothe payload and sending it to the SGW. Before the data is actually transmitted the control plane has to beestablished. eNB is responsible for choosing a MME using MME selection function.As the eNB is only entity on radio side, the whole QoS is taken care by it. It shall mark the packetsinuplink, i.e Diffserv based on QCI, and also schedule the data. Other functionalities include schedulingand transmission of paging messages, broadcast messages, and bearer level rate enforcements based onUE-AMBR and MBR etc.LTE System Architecture Evolution (SAE) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)LTE EPC comprises of MME, SGW and PGW.MME: - Mobility Management EntityMME is a control entity, which means it’s completely responsible for all the control plane operations.All the NAS signaling originates at UE and terminates in MME. MME does tracking area listmanagement, selection of PGW/SGW and also selection of other MME during handovers.It is the first contact point for the 2G and 3G networks. MME is also responsible for SGSN selectionduring LTE to 2G/3G handovers. 13 | P a g e
  • 15. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless BroadbandThe UE is also authenticated by MME. All signaling traffic flow through MME so the same can lawfullyintercepted. MME is also responsible for bearer management functions including establishment ofdedicated bearers.SGW: - Serving GatewayThe Serving Gateway, SGW, is a data plane element within the LTE SAE. Its main purpose is tomanage the user plane mobility and it also acts as the main border between the Radio Access Network,RAN and the core network. The SGW also maintains the data paths between the eNodeBs and the PDNGateways. In this way the SGW forms a interface for the data packet network at the E-UTRAN.Also when UEs move across areas served by different eNodeBs, the SGW serves as a mobility anchorensuring that the data path is maintained.PGW: - PDN GatewayPGW terminates SGi interface towards the PDN.PGW is responsible for all the IP packet based operations such as deep packet inspection, UE IP addressallocation, Transport level packet marking in uplink and downlink, accounting etc. PGW contacts PCRFto determine the QoS for bearers. It is also responsible for UL and DL rate enforcement based on APN-AMBR. It is synonymous to GGSN of pre release 8 networks.  Policy and Charging Rules Function, PCRF: This is the generic name for the entity within the LTE SAE EPC which detects the service flow, enforces charging policy. For applications that require dynamic policy or charging control, a network element entitled the Applications Function, AF is used.LTE Radio NetworkLTE Physical LayerLTE physical layer is quite complex and consists of mixture of technologies. With OFDMA as accesstechnology, QAM as modulation scheme and multiple antennas we can achieve high speeds. 14 | P a g e
  • 16. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless BroadbandQAM: - Quadrature Amplitude ModulationGoing back to engineering basics, we have a simple modulation scheme called PSK. Phase shift keying,which is analog to digital modulation scheme (transmitter side). In PSK we have 1 bit per symbol .0 and1. Each bit is associated with a Phase shift. With 4 Phase shifts we can transmit 2 bits per symbol. Aswith 64 QAM we shall be able to transmit 6 bits per symbol. If we look at this scheme in the givenbandwidth, by changing the modulation scheme, we are able to transmit more and more bits. This isresulting in increase of data rates.Looking at Shannons theorem:As I said above, changing the modulation scheme gives us more throughputs. However high modulationschemes can be only be used when the signal to noise ratio is high. From above theorem, channelcapacity is bandwidth multiplied by logarithm of SNR. Higher the SNR higher is the channel capacity,which means more throughputs.Second factor that increases channel capacity is bandwidth. Now bandwidth is directly proportional tosymbol rate. Higher the symbol rate then higher is the bandwidth. But again, increasing the symbol ratedoesnt increase the channel efficiency as channel bandwidth is fixed because available spectrum isfinite. So there is a tradeoff between symbol rate and channel throughput. The basic idea is keeping onincreasing the symbol rate (modulation scheme) doesnt always improve the efficiency. So consideringthese factors 64 QAM should be a suitable choice for LTE.OFDM: - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Consider we have X amount of spectrum. This can be divided into channels of each Y amount of bandwidth. Each channel is separated by Guard band to avoid interference. This is basic idea in normal multiplexing schemes. In CDMA we identify each channel by a code. So what is happening is we have equally spaced channels occupying the entire bandwidth. Note that these channels are non-overlapping. Each channel has a subcarrier. 15 | P a g e
  • 17. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband Figure (5): FDMA With OFDM systems, it is possible to increase throughput in a given channel without increasing channel bandwidth or the order of the modulation scheme. This is done using digital signal processing methods that enable a single channel to be created out of a series of orthogonal subcarriers. As below figure illustrates, subcarriers are orthogonal to one another such that the maximum power of each subcarrier corresponds with the minimum power (zero-crossing point) of the adjacent subcarrier. In a typical system, the bit stream for a channel is multiplexed across various subcarriers. These subcarriers are processed with an inverse Fourier transform (IFT) and combined into a single stream. As a result, multiple streams can be transmitted in parallel while preserving the relative phase and frequency relationship between them. Figure (6): OFDMAThis way we can include more number of subcarriers in a given bandwidth thus increasing the overallsystem throughput. 16 | P a g e
  • 18. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless BroadbandMIMO: - Multiple Input Multiple Output The Shannons theorem above is assumed to have 1 transmitter and 1 receiver antenna. If we consider multiple antennas then the theorem could be modified asThus in theory increasing the antennas will effectively increase the channel capacity without any changein available bandwidth. Now what we can do with MIMO is increase SNR by transmitting a unique bitstream using multiple antennas in the same channel. This is called Spatial Multiplexing. With MIMOsystems, the bit stream is multiplexed to multiple transmitters without changing the symbol rate of eachindependent transmitter. Thus, by adding more transmitters, we can increase the throughput of thesystem without affecting the channel bandwidth. Thus the combination of OFDMA, MIMO and QAM will give us more bandwidth and higher data rates in LTE.The main interfaces in LTE are Uu, S1-MME, X2, S1-U, S11 and S5.LTE Uu: -This is the air interface between UE and eNB. LTE layer 1 is dealt with later. RRC is the protocol that isused for communication between UE and eNB. Above RRC there is a NAS layer in UE. This NAS layerterminates at MME and eNB shall silently pass the NAS messages to MME.LTE S1-MME: -eNB and MME communicate using this IP interface. S1-AP is application layer interface. The transportprotocols used here is SCTP. (Stream control transmission protocol)LTE X2: -This interface is used by a eNB to communicate to other eNB. This again is a IP interface with SCTP astransport. X2-AP is the application protocol used by eNB’s to communicate.LTE S11: -An IP interface between MME and SGW! GTPv2 is the protocols used at the application layer. GTPv2runs on UDP transport. This interface must and should run GTPv2. 17 | P a g e
  • 19. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless BroadbandLTE S5: -This is the interface between SGW and PGW. This again is an IP interface and has two variants. S5 canbe a GTP interface or PMIP interface. PMIP variant is used to support non-trusted 3GPP networkaccess.LTE S1-U: -User plane interface between eNB and SGW! GTP-U v1 is the application protocol that encapsulates theUE payload. GTP-U runs on UDP.All the above IP interfaces can be of IPv4 or IPv6. Few interfaces can be of IPv4 and few can be ofIPv6. From the specification side there are no restrictions. 4.4 IPV6 and LTE: Putting the pieces togetherAs we all aware LTE is totally packet switching based technology I.e., E-2-E IP communication.IPv6 asIP next generation is the successor to IPv4. IPv6 solves the shortcomings problem of IPv4 address, sowe can assign an individual IP to each and every UE. This reduces a delay in E2E communication. AsUE no need to request DHCP to give an IP.In LTE technology TFT (Traffic flow template) and bearers are responsible for E-2-E communication.Typically TFT includes the information about the type of traffic. TFT indicates IP header informationsuch as an IP address or TCP/UDP port numbers etc. Instead of creating an individual TFT we can useFLMT which includes information about 3-tuple and Qos which can perform dual functions. 1. To classify the data as mentioned in end to end Qos mechanism which helps for achieving better through put and overall delay. 2. Which helps in achieving dedicated bearer to the UE 18 | P a g e
  • 20. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband4.5 The Expected graph’s of proposed Flow label Fig. 7: The TCP Flow (throughput v.s. time) Fig. 8: The UDP Flow (throughput v.s. time) 19 | P a g e
  • 21. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband4.5.1 LTE (Long term Evolution):If we compare round trip delay of LTE with other technologies latency has decreased. With increasedlevels of interaction being required and much faster responses, the new SAE concepts have been evolvedto ensure that the levels of latency have been reduced to around 10 ms. this will ensure that applications reducedusing 3G LTE will be sufficiently responsive. Figure (9): The above figure shows the comparison of round trip delays of different echnologies. ): Figure (10): The above figure shows the comparison of data rates offered by different technologies ): 20 | P a g e
  • 22. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless Broadband 5 Key Findings and ConclusionIn this paper, my proposal to use the 20 bit Flow Label field in the IPv6 protocol header has beendiscussed. As an outcome, I hope an efficient approach has been proposed which utilizes the 20 bits ofthe Flow Label field to indicate Quality of Service requirements to the network and i gave basics tounderstand about LTE technology. Finally discussed IPV6 and LTE putting the pieces together. 6 RELATED WORK AND COMPARISONS: Other Papers My paper ‘RFC3697’,’RFC6294’ Gives a definite explanation of Flow label By usage with justification IETF- Specifies ways which the flow label can be defined End -to-End Qos Provisioning by Flow Label Provides End -to-End Qos Provisioning by in IPV6 using FLMT and FLFT Flow Label in IPV6 using FLMT only By Chuan-Neng Lin, Pei-Chen Tseng, and Wen- Shyang Hwang. NGN and Wimax : Putting the pieces together My paper says IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic technology for Wireless Broadband By Team ‘NETworthy’- Khaled Abdel Naby (3363685) & Chetan Govind Bhatia (3554260), MITM, UOWD, UAE 21 | P a g e
  • 23. IPV6 and LTE: Futuristic Technology for Wireless BroadbandREFERENCES:[1] S. Deering, R. Hinden, “Internet Protocol, version 6”, IETF Network Working Group RFC 2460, 1998.[2] S. Amante, B. Carpenter, S. Jiang, J. Rajahalme “ IPv6 Flow Label Specification” ”, IETF Network Working Group RFC 6437, 2011.[3] Chuan-Neng Lin, Pei-Chen Tseng, and Wen-Shyang Hwang.” End-to-End QoS Provisioning Flow Label in IPv6”[4] Khaled Abdel Naby & Chetan Govind Bhatia” NGN and WiMAX: Putting the Pieces Together”,2011.[5] Santosh Kumar Dornal “LTE Whitepaper “2009.[6] 4G Americas White Paper New_Wireless_Broadband_Applications_and_Devices May 2012. 22 | P a g e

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